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Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRC6367, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364787


ABSTRACT Cemiplimab is a novel programmed death-1 inhibitor recently approved for advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Immune-related adverse events derived from cemiplimab are similar to other anti-PD-1 drugs, including gastrointestinal and cutaneous toxicities. Oral immune-related adverse events were not reported with cemiplimab in previous studies; thus this case report warns of the fact that the oral cavity may be a site of immune-related adverse events during programmed death-1 block therapy and that this can lead to significant limitations when not properly treated. The present report describes the case of a patient with locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes who developed dysphagia due to large and painful oral ulcers after a single dose of cemiplimab. The patient also exhibited a sarcoid-like reaction in mediastinal lymph nodes. No immune-related adverse events were found in any other organs. The oral lesions showed significant improvement after topical and short-course systemic corticosteroids, and low-level laser therapy was also performed in the oral lesions. The patient achieved a near-complete response and treatment was discontinued. This article discusses in detail the clinical outcomes and oral toxicity management of cemiplimab therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Oral Ulcer , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Lymph Nodes
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0018, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288632


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe ocular surface findings in impression cytology obtained from healthy rabbit conjunctiva treated with interferon alpha-2b eyedrop, and compare them to findings after use of mitomycin C 0.02%. Methods: An experimental study using a rabbit model was performed between September 2013 and October 2014 at the Faculdade de Medicina de Marília, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Clínica de Olhos Moacir Cunha. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 6 groups and received interferon alpha-2b or mitomycin C 0.02%. Impression cytology (IC) was performed prior to topical applications and at15, 30 and 60 days of use. The following variables were analyzed in impression cytology: goblet cells, cellularity, cell-to-cell adhesion, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, nuclear chromatin, inflammatory cells keratinization, and cytomegaly. Results: The major findings in impression cytology after us of interferon alpha-2b included loss of goblet cells (50.8%), reduced cell-to-cell adhesion (26.2%), abnormal nucleus/cytoplasm ratio (20%) and reduced cellularity (15.4%). After use of mitomycin C 0.02%, the most common changes included loss of goblet cells (46.2%), abnormal nucleus/cytoplasm ratio (25.6%), less cell-to-cell adhesion (23.1%), and reduced cellularity (20.5%). There were no significant differences in any variable when comparing impression cytology after interferon alpha-2b and after mitomycin C 0.02%. Goblet cell loss was more pronounced at days 30 and 60, as compared to impression cytology at day 15 for both drugs. Conclusion: The loss of goblet cells, reduced cell-to-cell adhesion and cellularity, along with abnormal nucleus/cytoplasm ratio were the most common findings in impression cytology after use of interferon alpha-2b. These findings are similar to those described for use of mitomycin C 0.02%. ..

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os achados em citologia de impressão de conjuntiva sadia de coelho submetida ao uso de colírio de interferon alfa-2b e compará-los ao que foi encontrado após uso da mitomicina C 0,02%. Métodos: Estudo experimental realizado em modelo animal no período entre setembro de 2013 e outubro de 2014 nas dependências da Faculdade de Medicina de Marília, da Universidade Federal de São Paulo e da Clínica de Olhos Moacir Cunha. Trinta coelhos albinos da raça Nova Zelândia foram divididos em seis grupos e receberam interferon alfa-2b ou mitomicina C. A citologia de impressão foi realizada antes do início dos colírios e após 15, 30, 60 dias de seu uso. As seguintes variáveis foram analisadas na citologia de impressão: células caliciformes, celularidade, adesão intercelular, razão núcleo/citoplasma, cromatina, células inflamatórias, queratinização e citomegalia. Resultados: Os principais achados na citologia de impressão após o uso do interferon alfa-2b foram a redução de células caliciformes (50,8%), a diminuição da adesão intercelular (26,2%), a alteração da razão N/C (20%) e a redução da celularidade (15,4%). Após o uso da mitomicina C 0,02%, foram mais frequentes a redução das células caliciformes (46,2%), a alteração da razão N/C (25,6%), a adesão intercelular (23,1%) e a redução da celularidade (20,5%). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para nenhuma das variáveis estudas quando se compararam as citologias de impressão após interferon alfa-2b com as citologias de impressão após mitomicina C 0,02%. Independentemente da substância utilizada, as citologias colhidas 30 e 60 dias após início das drogas apresentaram maior redução de células caliciformes quando comparadas com as citologias de impressão colhidas após 15 dias. Conclusão: A redução das células caliciformes, a diminuição da adesão intercelular, a alteração da razão N/C e a diminuição da celularidade foram as alterações mais frequentes na citologia de impressão colhida após o uso de interferon alfa-2b. Os achados em citologias de impressão após o uso de interferon alfa-2b são semelhantes àqueles encontrados após o uso da mitomicina C 0,02%.

Animals , Rabbits , Mitomycin/pharmacology , Conjunctiva/cytology , Cornea/cytology , Interferon alpha-2/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Cellulose , Cytological Techniques , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Conjunctiva/drug effects , Conjunctiva/ultrastructure , Conjunctival Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Culture Techniques , Cornea/drug effects , Cornea/ultrastructure , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Micropore Filters
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e063, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249369


Abstract: FITOPROT, which contains curcuminoids and Bidens pilosa L. extract, is an innovative mucoadhesive formulation indicated for the topical treatment of chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients with advanced and visible oral squamous cell carcinoma. The formulation is used as a mouthwash directly on tumor tissue of patients with advanced neoplasms, without triggering cancer cell proliferation or tumor invasiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of FITOPROT on an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC-4). The viability of SCC-4 cells was assessed after exposure to FITOPROT using MTT reduction assay. The effects of the mucoadhesive formulation on cell cycle progression and cell death parameters were evaluated using flow cytometry. In addition, the inflammatory profile of the tumor cells was evaluated using the cytometric bead array (CBA) assay. FITOPROT promoted a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial membrane potential was also altered after exposure to the formulation (p < 0.05), in parallel with a reduction in VEGF and IL-8 production (p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). In summary, the results indicate that FITOPROT reduces SCC-4 cell viability, promotes cell cycle arrest, modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, and exhibits antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, thus indicating its potential for topical use in patients with OM and visible tumors in the mouth.

Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Bidens , Cell Line , Apoptosis , Diarylheptanoids , Cell Proliferation
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 584-591, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002262


Following the success of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, the potential of multidrug combination regimen for the management of cancer is intensely researched. The anticancer effects of curcumin on some human cell lines have been documented. Lopinavir is a FDA approved protease inhibitor with known apoptotic activities. Dysregulated apoptosis is important for the initiation of cancer while angiogenesis is required for cancer growth and development, this study therefore investigated the effects of the combination of lopinavir and curcumin on cell viability, apoptosis and the mRNA expression levels of key apoptotic and angiogenic genes; BAX, BCL2 and VEGF165b in two human cervical cell lines; human squamous cell carcinoma cells - uterine cervix (HCS-2) and transformed normal human cervical cells (NCE16IIA). The two human cervical cell lines were treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of the agents for 120 h following which BAX, BCL2 and VEGF165b mRNA expression were determined by Real Time qPCR. The Acridine Orange staining for the morphological evaluation of apoptotic cells was also performed. The combination of lopinavir and curcumin up-regulated pro-apoptotic BAX and antiangiogenic VEGF165b but down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 mRNA in the human squamous cell carcinoma (HCS-2) cells only. The fold changes were statistically significant. Micrographs from Acridine Orange staining showed characteristic evidence of apoptosis in the human squamous cell carcinoma (HCS-2) cells only. The findings reported here suggest that the combination of curcumin and the FDA approved drug-lopinavir modulate the apoptotic and angiogenic pathway towards the inhibition of cervical cancer.

Tras el éxito de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa, se investiga intensamente el potencial del régimen de combinación de múltiples fármacos para el tratamiento del cáncer. Se han documentado los efectos anticancerígenos de la curcumina en algunas líneas celulares humanas. Lopinavir es un inhibidor de proteasa aprobado por la FDA con actividades apoptóticas conocidas. La apoptosis disrregulada es importante para el inicio del cáncer, mientras que la angiogénesis es necesaria para el crecimiento y desarrollo del cáncer. Por lo tanto, este estudio investigó los efectos de la combinación de lopinavir y curcumina sobre la viabilidad celular, la apoptosis y los niveles de expresión del ARNm de genes apoptóticos y angiogénicos clave: BAX, BCL2 y VEGF165b en dos líneas celulares cervicales humanas; células de carcinoma de células escamosas humanas: cérvix uterino (HCS-2) y células cervicales humanas transformadas (NCE16IIA). Las dos líneas celulares cervicales humanas se trataron con concentraciones fisiológicamente relevantes de los agentes durante 120 horas, después de lo cual la expresión de ARNm de BAX, BCL2 y VEGF165b se determinó mediante qPCR en tiempo real. También se realizó la tinción con naranja de acridina para la evaluación morfológica de células apoptóticas. La combinación de lopinavir y curcumina reguló incrementando BAX proapoptósicos y VEGF165b antiangiogénicos, pero reguló a la baja los niveles de ARNm del BCL2 antiapoptótico en células de carcinoma de células escamosas humanas (HCS-2) únicamente. Los cambios en el pliegue fueron estadísticamente significativos. Las micrografías de la tinción con naranja de acridina mostraron evidencia característica de apoptosis solo en las células del carcinoma de células escamosas humanas (HCS-2). Los hallazgos reportados aquí sugieren que la combinación de curcumina y el fármaco aprobado por la FDA lopinavir modulan la vía apoptótica y angiogénica hacia la inhibición del cáncer cervical.

Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/drug effects , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Biol. Res ; 52: 1, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011405


BACKGROUND: Ethnomedicinally, the family Polygonaceae is famous for the management of cancer. Various species of this family have been reported with anticancer potentials. This study was designed to isolate anticancer compounds from ethnomedicinally important species Polygonum barbatum. METHODS: The column chromatography was used for the isolation of compounds from the solvent fraction of P. barbatum. The characterization of isolated compounds was performed by various spectroscopic techniques like UV, IR, mass spectrometry and 1D-2D NMR spectroscopy. Keeping in view the ethnomedicinal importance of the family, genus and species of P barbatum, the isolated compounds (1-3) were screened for anticancer potentials against oral cancer (CAL-27) and lungs cancer (NCI H460) cell lines using MTT assay. Active compound was further investigated for apoptosis by using morphological changes and flow cytometry analysis. In vivo anti-angiogenic study of the isolated compounds was also carried using chorioallantoic membrane assay. Docking studies were carried out to explore the mechanism of anticancer activity. RESULTS: Three dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (1-3) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of P. barbatum. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated as methyl (2S,3S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-((E)-3-ethoxy-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo-furan-3-carboxylate (1), (E)-3-((2S,3S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-3-(methoxy carbonyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acrylic acid (2) and (2S,3 S)-4-((E)-2-carboxyvinyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid (3). The compound 1 was found to be more potent with IC50 of 48.52 ± 0.95 and 53.24 ± 1.49 against oral cancer cells as compared to standard drug (IC50 = 97.76 ± 3.44 µM). Both compound also inhibited lung cancer cells but at higher concentrations. Morphological and flow cytometry analysis further confirms that compound 1 induces apoptosis after 24 to 48 h treatment. In antiangiogenesis assay, compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited IC50 values of 8.2 ± 1.1,13.4 ± 1.1 and 57.7 ± 0.3 µM respectively. The docking studies revealed that the compounds under study have the potential to target the DNA and thymidylate synthase (TS). CONCLUSION: Based on its overwhelming potency against the tested cell lines and in angiogenesis assay, compound 1 can be further evaluated mechanistically and can be developed as anticancer drug candidate.

Humans , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Polygonum/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Benzofurans/chemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Polygonum/classification , Cell Line, Tumor , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(1): e2077, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990368


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a expressão do Fator de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular (VEGF), seu receptor (VEGFR-2), idade e tipo histológico de carcinomas avançados de colo uterino com relação à resposta clínica à quimioterapia neoadjuvante. Métodos: foram incluídas 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma de colo uterino (IB2 e IVA), com biópsias prévias ao tratamento. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas à quimioterapia neoadjuvante e avaliadas quanto à resposta clínica e à expressão do VEGF. Considerou-se boa resposta clínica uma regressão tumoral total ou maior do que 50%. Resultados: em relação à resposta à quimioterapia, 18 pacientes (45%) apresentaram boa resposta e 22 (55%), má resposta. Quanto à expressão do VEGF, em 16 pacientes foi considerada positiva e em 24, negativa. Quando os casos foram analisados separadamente em relação à resposta à quimioterapia, somente a expressão positiva de VEGF foi associada à boa resposta clínica (p=0,0157). Conclusão: a expressão de VEGF mostrou ser isoladamente, um importante marcador de boa resposta ao tratamento quimioterápico neoadjuvante das pacientes com carcinoma avançado de colo uterino.

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), its receptor (VEGFR-2), age and histological type of advanced cervical carcinomas with respect to the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: we studied 40 patients with cervical carcinoma (IB2 and IVA) diagnosed by biopsies prior to treatment. All patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and evaluation for clinical response and expression of VEGF. We considered a tumor regression greater than 50% as a good clinical response. Results: eighteen patients (45%) had good response to chemotherapy, and 22 (55%), poor response. VEGF expression was positive in 16 patients and negative in 24. When analyzed separately for response to chemotherapy, only the positive expression of VEGF was associated with good clinical response (p=0.0157). Conclusion: VEGF expression alone was an important marker of good response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced carcinoma of the cervix.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Cervix Uteri , Prospective Studies , Cisplatin , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/surgery , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Clinics ; 73: e433, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974931


OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study performed a comprehensive analysis of the usage of intra-arterial chemotherapy (iaCh) for locally recurrent UICC stage IV oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) over two decades at the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery at the University Hospital Vienna to assess the utility of its future use. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2014, iaCh was indicated in 48 OSCC cases. In these, the two most frequent iaCh schemes, cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (Cis/5-FU) and methotrexate/bleomycin (MTX/Bleo), were chosen for further analysis. The effect on survival of two distinct intra-arterial protocols and their covariates were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 29.91 months. The two intra-arterial chemotherapy groups did not differ significantly in sample size, demographic data or therapeutic covariates. The Cis/5-FU iaCh regimen was associated with significantly better overall survival (median OS 2.6 years vs. 1.3 years; p=0.002) and had a beneficial effect on survival (HR=3.62, p=0.015). Side effects occurred at a frequency similar to that described in the literature for intravenous chemotherapy (ivCh). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a preference for administering Cis/5-FU for iaCh. Nevertheless, due to economic considerations in healthcare expenditures, there is no future for iaCh in the treatment of head and neck carcinomas because ivCh is known to be equivalent.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Bleomycin/administration & dosage , Infusions, Intra-Arterial , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 131-136, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838789


ABSTRACT In this systematic review, we evaluated studies involving adjuvant and primary topical treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). The findings were: (i) adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) reduces the risk of relapse after surgical excision with mild side effects [level Ib, grade of recommendation (GR) A]. (ii) Primary topical mitomycin (MMC) produces a high rate of complete response, low recurrence rate, and mild side effects (level Ib, GR A). (iii) Primary chemotherapy versus adjuvant chemotherapy produce similar rates of recurrence, with no significant difference (level IIb, GR B). (iv) Adjuvant 5-FU versus MMC showed no significant differences, with mild side effects in both groups and a better toxicity profile for MMC (level III, GR C). (v) Primary topical 5-FU versus MMC versus interferon (IFN) showed similar rates of tumor recurrence, mild side effects for all drugs, and more severe side effects in the 5-FU arm, followed successively by MMC and IFN (level III, GR C).

RESUMO Revisão sistemática envolvendo estudos sobre o tratamento adjuvante e tratamento tópico primário para a neoplasia escamosa da superfície ocular. Os resultados foram: (i) 5-fluorouracil adjuvante reduziu o risco de recidiva após a excisão cirúrgica com efeitos colaterais leves (nível Ib, Grau de recomendação (GR) A). (ii) Mitomicina tópica primária produziu uma alta taxa de resposta completa, baixa taxa de recorrência e efeitos colaterais leves (nível Ib, GR A). (iii) Quimioterapia primária versus adjuvante produz taxas semelhantes de recorrência (nível IIb, GR B). (iv) 5- 5-FU versus mitomicina adjuvante não mostrou diferenças significativas nas taxas de recorrencia, com efeitos coalterais leves em ambos os grupos e melhor perfil de toxicidade para mitomicina (nível III, GR C). (v) 5- 5-FU tópico primário versus mitomicina ou interferon (INF) apresentam taxa similar de recorrência, com efeito colateral leve, mas com maior incidencia no braço 5- 5-FU, seguido pela Mitomicina e IFN (nível III, GR C).

Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Corneal Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Administration, Topical , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Conjunctival Neoplasms/drug therapy , Conjunctival Neoplasms/therapy , Corneal Diseases/therapy , Eye Neoplasms/therapy , Interferon alpha-2 , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e105, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952121


Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (QOL) of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) according to tumor location. The sample consisted of 27 patients with primary SCC in the oral cavity (n = 15), pharynx (n = 7), and larynx (n = 5) who were undergoing cancer treatment at the Cancer Hospital of Londrina, regardless of age, sex, clinical stage, and type of antineoplastic treatment. Health-related QOL was evaluated using the 30-item Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), the 35-item Head and Neck Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-HN35), and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL). These questionnaires were administered individually to each patient before ambulatory care. Sociodemographic data (age and sex) and clinical data (T stage, tumor location, and type of antineoplastic treatment) were collected from the patients' medical records. Scores were compared according to tumor location using the chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). No score differed significantly according to tumor location. It can be concluded that the health-related QOL of patients with SCC was not influenced by tumor location.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality of Life , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Pharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Pharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Journal of Dentistry-Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 18 (3): 219-226
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188522


Statement of the Problem: Evidence shows thiabendazole has the potential to inhibit angiogenesis in melanoma and fibrosarcoma; however, its effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma has not been previously studied

Purpose: This study sought to assess the cytotoxic effects of thiabendazole on HN5 head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line

Materials and Method: HN5 cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of thiabendazole [prepared from 99% pure powder] for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell viability was assessed by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay, and IC50 of thiabendazole was calculated. Cells were also exposed to different concentrations of thiabendazole for 48 hours to determine its effect on expression and transcription of vascular endo-thelial growth factor gene. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The vascular endothelial growth factor release was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test

Results: In all concentrations of thiabendazole except for 200 and 550uM, cell viability was significantly different at different time points [p< 0.05]. At 48 and 72 hours, cell viability at all concentrations of thiabendazole [100-65OuM] significantly decreased compared to the control group [zero concentration]

In addition, cell viability significantly decreased with an increase in thiabendazole concentration. At 48 hours, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was significantly lower in presence of 500uM thiabendazole compared to the control group [p< 0.001] and release of vascular endothelial growth factor was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner

Conclusion: Thiabendazole inhibited the proliferation of HN5 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. It also inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor gene

Humans , Male , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Thiabendazole , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Fibrosarcoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/drug therapy , Endothelial Growth Factors
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(5): 355-362, oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-797352


Objetivo: Reportar resultados de nuestro protocolo de radioquimioterapia concomitante exclusiva en el cáncer de orofaringe avanzado. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que incluyó 87 pacientes. Se realizó radioterapia concomitante con cisplatino semanal. Se aceptó la realización de fraccionamiento convencional (FC), hiperfraccionamiento (Hfx) o fraccionamiento acelerado tipo boost concomitante (FABC). Se revisó la sobrevida global (SG), sobrevida libre de enfermedad (SLE), sobrevida libre de recidiva local (SLRL) y regional (SLRR) según subsitio y fraccionamiento. Resultados: Ingresaron 87 pacientes. Mediana de seguimiento: 120 meses. El 53, 30 y 17% recibieron FC, FABC y Hfx respectivamente. La SG a 2, 5 y 10 años fue de un 73, 61 y 43% respectivamente. La SG a 5 años según subsitio anatómico fue: amígdala 74%, paladar blando 33%, base de lengua 33%, y pared faríngea posterior 33%. Al comparar la SG de amígdala versus otros subsitios se alcanza una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,001). La mediana de SG para amígdala no fue alcanzada, mientras que en otros subsitios fue de 22 meses. La SLE fue diferente en los distintos subsitios, superior en amígdala y diferente entre los distintos fraccionamientos, a favor de Hfx, alcanzando diferencias significativas. Las mismas tendencias se demostraron en SLRL y SLRR. Observamos un 23% de segundos primarios, siendo el pulmón el sitio más frecuente. Conclusión: La radioterapia concomitante con cisplatino semanal es un tratamiento adecuado para el cáncer de orofaringe. Ofrece excelentes resultados en cáncer de amígdala, especialmente con fraccionamiento modificado. Para los otros subsitios nos parece recomendable explorar nuevas estrategias de tratamiento.

Objective: To report results of our concomitant radiochemotherapy protocol for advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Materials and methods: Retrospective study. Concomitant radiochemotherapy was performed with weekly cisplatin. Conventional fractionation (CF), hyperfractionation (Hfx) or accelerated fractionation with concomitant boost (FABC) were accepted. Overall survival (OS), Disease-free survival (RFS), Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and Regional relapse-free survival (RRFS) were calculated, according subsite and radiotherapy fractionation. Results: We found 87 patients. Median follow-up: 120 months. 53%, 30% and 17% received FC, FABC, Hfx respectively. OS at 2, 5 and 10 years was 73%, 61% and 43% respectively. The 5-year OS was, by anatomic subsite: Tonsillar 74%, 33% soft palate, base of tongue 33%, and 33% for posterior pharyngeal wall. By comparing the OS in tonsil versus other subsites we found statistically significant difference in favor of tonsillar cancer (P < .001). Median OS for tonsillar cancer was not achieved, while in other subsites was 22 months. DFS was different in different subsites, better for amygdala and different among different fractionations, better for Hfx, reaching significant differences. The same trends were demonstrated in LRFS and RRFS. We observed a 23% of second cancers, being lung the most common site. Conclusion: Concomitant radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin is an appropriate treatment for oropharyngeal cancer. It provides excellent outcomes in tonsillar cancer, especially with modified fractionation and Hfx type. For other subsites it seems advisable to explore a new treatment approach.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 42-44, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837922


Abstract We report a 33-year-old male patient diagnosed with erythroplasia of Queyrat. The patient had an erythematous and eroded lesion affecting more than 50% of the glans associated with bleeding and local pain. Despite previous indication of penectomy, he was successfully treated with topical 5-fluorouracil.

Humans , Male , Adult , Penile Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma in Situ/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Erythroplasia/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Penis/pathology , Time Factors , Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Erythroplasia/pathology
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 36(2): 53-58, jun. 2016. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147222


El pabellón auricular y el conducto auditivo externo constituyen una región anatómica que puede ser asiento de múltiples patologías, entre ellas procesos inflamatorios, infecciosos y neoplásicos, tanto benignos como malignos. Con respecto a los tumores, los diversos tipos suelen presentarse con síntomas y signos similares y en general es difícil inferir la variedad histológica del tumor a través del examen físico, por lo cual es necesario el estudio histopatológico para determinar el diagnóstico. La mayoría de los tumores del oído externo son carcinomas; entre ellos se destacan el carcinoma basocelular, el más frecuente, y el carcinoma espinocelular. Menos frecuentemente se encuentran otros tipos de tumores como los melanomas, adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de glándulas ceruminosas, carcinomas mucoepidermoides, sarcomas, procesos linfoproliferativos, etc. Suelen ocurrir en la edad media y avanzada (50-70 años) y con mayor periodicidad en el sexo masculino. En el presente trabajo se describe un caso clínico de carcinoma espinocelular del oído externo, tratado exitosamente mediante cirugía y radioterapia, así como también se describen las características clínicas de esta enfermedad, con especial atención al compromiso del oído externo por ella.

The pinna and the ear canal are an anatomical region that can be affected by many diseases, including inflammatory, infectious and benign and malignant neoplastic processes. With regard to tumors, various types usually present with similar symptoms and usually is very difficult to know the histological type through physical examination, so histopathological examination is necessary in order to determine the diagnosis. Most tumors are carcinomas; they can be basal cell carcinoma (more frequently), or squamous carcinoma. Less frequently are other types of tumors such as melanomas, adenocarcinomas, ceruminous glands carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphoproliferative disorders, etc. They usually present in middle and advanced age people (50-70 years) and are more frequently in men. In this article we present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the external ear with extention to parotid gland, successfully treated with surgery and radiotherapy, as well as we describe the clinical characteristics of this disease, with special attention to the compromise of the external ear. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ear Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Ear, External/pathology , Ear Neoplasms/surgery , Ear Neoplasms/classification , Ear Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ear Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/history , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 297-302, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787562


A eletroquimioterapia compreende a utilização conjunta de fármacos antineoplásicos e aplicação regional de pulsos elétricos (eletroporação), maximizando a concentração intracelular destes fármacos, assim propiciando maior ação citotóxica. A bleomicina, fármaco antimicrobiano dotado de propriedade antineoplásica, apresenta restrita penetrabilidade na membrana celular, dada a sua hidrossolubilidade. Todavia, uma vez administrada via intralesional ou intravenosa associada à eletroporação, demonstra citotoxicidade potencializada. Foram utilizados 21 felinos acometidos por carcinoma de células escamosas tegumentar. Padronizou-se o protocolo eletroquimioterápico empregando-se sulfato de bleomicina, pela via intravenosa, na dose de 15U/m2 de superfície corpórea. A eletroporação foi perfilada com eletrodo composto por agulhas, pulsos elétricos com tensão de 1000 V, em onda quadrada unipolar, com duração de 100 microsegundos, totalizando oito ciclos. Verificou-se remissão neoplásica integral em 21 felinos inclusos no estudo (100%). Inexistiram complicações e/ou efeitos adversos decorrentes do procedimento. O protocolo avaliado neste trabalho revelou-se exequível, eficaz e seguro na terapêutica antineoplásica de carcinoma de células escamosas tegumentar felino.

Electrochemotherapy is characterized as a protocol which combines the use of antineoplastic agents and localized application of electric pulses (electroporation) to improve the intracellular concentration of these agents, increasing its cytotoxic action. Bleomycin, an antibiotic agent with antineoplastic properties, is a hydrophilic molecule, having a restricted transport through the cellular membrane. However, when it is administered intralesionally or intravenously and associated to electroporation, its cytotoxicity is maximized. There were utilized 21 cats affected by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The electrochemotherapy protocol was standardized using intravenous bleomycin sulfate at a dose of 15U/m2 body surface area. Electroporation was performed using an electrode composed of needles and electric pulses with 1000 V voltage, in unipolar square wave and 100 microseconds duration, totalizing eight cycles. There was complete neoplastic remission in 21 cats (100%). There were no complications or side effects associated with the procedure. The protocol studied in this work showed to be feasible, effective and safe for antineoplastic therapy in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

Animals , Cats , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/veterinary , Electroporation/veterinary , Electrochemotherapy , Electrochemotherapy/veterinary , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/veterinary
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100612


OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective study aimed at clarifying the details of recurrence patterns and sites in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: Data were analyzed from consecutive patients, admitted to the University of Tokyo Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between 2001 and 2013, who had received definitive RT, with or without chemotherapy, for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB-IVA cervical cancer. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven patients formed the patient cohort. The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 57.0 months. A complete response was achieved in 121 patients (88%). Of these, 36 (30%) developed a cancer recurrence during follow-up. The first sites of recurrence were located in intra-RT fields in nine, outside RT fields in 20, and both in seven patients. In the intra-RT field group, all patients showed a local recurrence, while no one experienced an isolated pelvic lymph node (PLN) recurrence. In the outside RT field group, the most frequent site of recurrence was lung (60%), and three-quarters of patients were free from intra-RT field recurrence until the last follow-up. Of the entire cohort, including 48 PLN-positive patients, only seven patients (5.1%) developed PLN persistence or recurrence, all in the common iliac, internal iliac, and/or obturator nodes, and all with another synchronous relapse. CONCLUSION: Local disease was a major type of intra-RT field recurrence, while PLN control was favorable even in initially PLN-positive patients. The predominance of outside RT field recurrence alone highlights issues concerning distant control, including the intensity enhancement of systematic therapy.

Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Brachytherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Pelvis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 81(5): 498-504, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766292


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCO) provides good results for locoregional disease control, with high rates of complete clinical and pathologic responses, mainly in the neck. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether complete pathologic response after chemoradiotherapy is related to the prognosis of patients with SCCO. METHODS: Data were prospectively extracted from clinical records of N2 and N3 SCCO patients submitted to a planned neck dissection after chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were evaluated. Half of patients obtained complete pathologic response in the neck. Distant or locoregional recurrence occurred in approximately 42% of patients, and 26% died. Statistical analysis showed an association between complete pathologic response and lower disease recurrence rate (77.8% vs. 20.8%; p = 0.017) and greater overall survival (88.9% vs. 23.3%;p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: The presence of a complete pathologic response after chemoradiotherapy positively influences the prognosis of patients with SCCO.

RESUMO Introdução: O tratamento baseado em quimirradioterapia do Carcinoma Espinocelular de Orofaringe (CECOF) apresenta bons resultados no controle locorregional da doença com boas taxas de resposta clínica e patológica completas especialmente no pescoço. Objetivo: Determinar se a resposta patológica completa após quimiorradioterapia estárelacionada aos prognósticos dos pacientes com CECOF. Método: Os dados foram obtidos de maneira prospectiva da revisão de prontuários de pacientes com CECOF N2 e N3 submetidos a esvaziamento cervical planejado após quimiorradioterapia. Resultados: Um total de 19 pacientes foram avaliados. Metade dos indivíduos apresentou resposta patológica completa no pescoço. Recidiva à distância ou locorregional ocorreu em aproximadamente 42% dos pacientes e 26% deles morreram. A análise estatística demonstrou uma associação entre resposta patológica completa e menor taxa de recidiva (77,8% vs.20,8%; p = 0,017) e maior sobrevivência global (88,9% vs.23,3%; p = 0,049). Conclusão: A presença de resposta patológica completa após quimiorradioterapia influencia positivamente no prognóstico de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de orofaringe.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/mortality , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39278


OBJECTIVE: The concept of platinum sensitivity and cross-resistance among platinum agents are widely known in the management of recurrent ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate two hypotheses regarding the validity of the concept of platinum sensitivity and non-cross-resistance of cisplatin analogue with cisplatin in recurrent cervical cancer. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical data of patients with recurrent cervical cancer, who had a history of receiving cisplatin based chemotherapy (including concurrent chemoradiotherapy [CCRT] with cisplatin) and who received second-line chemotherapy at the time of recurrence between April 2004 and July 2012 were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 49 patients-34 squamous cell carcinomas (69.4%) and 15 non-squamous cell carcinomas (30.6%)-were enrolled. The median age was 53 years (range, 26 to 79 years). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that a platinum free interval (PFI) of 12 months has a strong relationship with the response rate to second-line chemotherapy. Upon multivariate analysis of survival after second-line platinum-based chemotherapy, a PFI of 12 months significantly influenced both progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.349; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.140 to 0.871; p=0.024) and overall survival (HR, 0.322; 95% CI, 0.123 to 0.842; p=0.021). In patients with a PFI of less than 6 months, the difference of progression-free survival between patients with re-administration of cisplatin (3.0 months) and administration of cisplatin analogue (7.2 months) as second-line chemotherapy was statistically significant (p=0.049, log-rank test). CONCLUSION: The concept of platinum sensitivity could be applied to recurrent cervical cancer and there is a possibility of noncross-resistance of cisplatin analogue with cisplatin.

Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carboplatin/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Organoplatinum Compounds/administration & dosage , Retreatment , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34113


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a neoadjuvant paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed locally advanced cervical carcinoma, aged > or =18 years, were treated with intravenous ifosfamide 5,000 mg/m2 and mesna 5,000 mg/m2, on day 1; intravenous paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2, on day 2; every 3 weeks for three cycles. Following chemotherapy, operable patients underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and, if necessary, adjuvant radiotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients with median age 53 years (range, 24 to 79 years), FIGO stage IIB in 126 (89%), were treated with chemotherapy for median 3 cycles (range, 1 to 3). Treatment was delayed or withdrawn in 23 patients (15%). One hundred thirty-nine patients (91%) underwent surgery. Postchemotherapy pathological complete response rate was 18% (25 patients). Postoperative radiotherapy was administered in 100 patients (72%). The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 87.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.5 to 90.3) and 76.4% (95% CI, 73.5 to 79.5), respectively. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy was feasible and effective in the treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma patients with older age and more advanced disease stage than reported in previous studies. Hematological and renal toxicity could be carefully prevented.

Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Disease Progression , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Ifosfamide/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Young Adult
Bauru; s.n; 2015. 133 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867421


Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi o de identificar compostos seletivamente tóxicos ao carcinoma espinocelular de boca in vitro por meio do reposicionamento de fármacos. Material e Métodos: Por meio de um escaneamento baseado na viabilidade celular de 1.280 fármacos, nós selecionamos três princípios ativos (luteolin, metixene hydrochloride e nitazoxanide) letais às células de câncer de boca SCC-25 e pouco tóxicos às células de queratinócitos cutâneos imortalizados HaCaT. Os fármacos candidatos foram investigados quanto à sua dose- e tempo-resposta bem como comparados e combinados à agentes quimioterápicos padrão por meio do ensaio por colorimetria com brometo de tiazolil azul de tetrazolio (MTT). O impacto dos fármacos na motilidade do SCC-25 e do HaCaT foi verificado pelo ensaio de migração celular e seus mecanismos de ação também foram explorados por meio da verificação dos níveis das proteínas fosforiladas pelo western blotting. Todos os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata e, pelo menos, três vezes independentes. O teste t de student foi utilizado para confrontar as variáveis e nível de significância de 5% foi estabelecido para todos os testes. Resultados: O flavonoide natural luteolin exerceu citotoxicidade potente contra as células de câncer de boca in vitro, apresentando baixa toxicidade ao HaCaT e alta eficiência quando comparado a quimioterápicos como a cisplatina e o AG1478. Do ponto de vista molecular, a luteolin ativou a via de sinalização do dano do DNA e, combinada com um inibidor do Chk, apresentou efeitos potencializados. Além disso, nós demonstramos que a nitazoxanide e o metixene hydrochloride são capazes de destruir células SCC-25 porém não as HaCaT de maneira proporcional à dose e ao tempo de tratamento. As combinações entre os três fármacos hit e com a cisplatina ou o AG1478 potencializaram seus efeitos contra as células malignas. Conclusões: O presente estudo traz a luteolin, o metixene hydrochloride e a nitazoxanide como...

Objectives: Here we aimed at identifying and reposition approved drugs that could be selectively toxic towards oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: Through a cell-based drug screening of 1,280 chemical molecules, we selected 3 compounds (luteolin, metixene hydrochloride, and nitazoxanide) lethal to oral cancer SCC-25 cells, while sparing immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The drugs were then further challenged for their time- and dose-responses, as well as their comparison and combination to standard chemotherapeutic agents by colorimetric assay 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan, Thiazolyl blue formazan (MTT). The impact on SCC-25 and HaCaT motility as well as the mode of action of the drugs was then further explored by scratching assay and western blotting, respectively. All the experiments were performed in triplicated and, at least, three independent times. Students t test was performed to verify the differences among the variables and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The natural flavonoid luteolin was a potent cytotoxic agent against oral cancer cells in vitro, presenting low toxicity against HaCaT cells and high efficiency as compared to standard-of-care, such as cisplatin and AG1478. From a molecular standpoint, luteolin coopted the DNA-damage pathway and could be efficiently combined with Chk pharmacological inhibitor. Moreover, we demonstrated that nitazoxanide and metixene hydrochloride kill the SCC-25 but not the HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent. The combinations among the three drugs hit and with cisplatin and AG1478 improved their effect against the malignant cells. Conclusions: Luteolin, metixene hydrochloride, and nitazoxanide emerge as strong cytotoxic and/or adjuvant therapy in oral cancer, as these compounds present higher efficiency and lower toxicity against oral cancer cells in vitro than conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Thioxanthenes/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Feasibility Studies , Luteolin/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Cell Survival , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Thioxanthenes/pharmacology