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2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 31: e20210334, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357480

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to map, in the scientific literature, the use of audiovisual aids as an educational strategy during the preoperative period of cardiac surgery. Method: a scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria in the search by the audiovisual aid, cardiac surgery and preoperative care variables, including those that answered the research question. Results: final sample of nine studies, where the most used audiovisual aids were videos followed by apps, used because they are easily accessible and democratic. Such tools in health education optimize the team's time and promote patient education, improving the postoperative period, in addition to reducing risks and improving adherence to the treatment. Conclusion: it was possible to map the audiovisual aids used in the health education of surgical patients, such as videos, apps and information systems. These tools facilitate Nursing guidelines in the preoperative period of cardiac surgeries, increasing the patient's knowledge about the surgery.


RESUMEN Objetivo: mapear en la literatura científica el uso de recursos audiovisuales como estrategia educativa durante el período preoperatorio de cirugías cardíacas. Método: revisión de alcance que siguió la metodología del Instituto Joanna Briggs. Dos revisores independientes analizaron los estados, aplicando los criterios de exclusión e inclusión en la búsqueda por medio de las siguientes variables: recurso audiovisual, cirugía cardíaca y cuidados preoperatorios, incluyéndose los que respondían a la pregunta de la investigación. Resultados: la muestra final estuvo compuesta por nueve estudios, en los que los recursos audiovisuales más utilizados fueron los vídeos seguidos de aplicaciones, usados por ser de fácil acceso y democráticos. Estas herramientas de educación en salud optimizan el tiempo del equipo y promueven la educación del paciente, mejorando así el período postoperatorio, además de reducir riesgos y mejorar la adhesión al tratamiento. Conclusión: fue posible mapear los recursos audiovisuales utilizados en la educación en salud de los pacientes quirúrgicos, como ser vídeos, aplicaciones y sistemas de información. Estas herramientas facilitan las pautas orientadoras de la Enfermería en el período preoperatorio de cirugías cardíacas, incrementando así el conocimiento de los pacientes sobre las cirugías.


RESUMO Objetivo: mapear na literatura científica a utilização de recurso audiovisual como estratégia educativa durante o pré-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Método: revisão de escopo seguindo a metodologia do Instituto Joanna Briggs. Dois revisores independentes analisaram os estudos, aplicando os critérios de exclusão e inclusão na busca pelas variáveis recurso audiovisual, cirurgia cardíaca e cuidados pré-operatórios, tendo sido incluídos aqueles que respondiam à questão de pesquisa. Resultados: amostra final de nove estudos, nos quais os recursos audiovisuais mais utilizados foram os vídeos seguidos de aplicativos, usados por serem de fácil acesso e democráticos. Essas ferramentas na educação em saúde otimizam o tempo da equipe e promovem a educação do paciente, melhorando o pós-operatório. Além de reduzir riscos e melhorar a adesão ao tratamento. Conclusão: foi possível mapear os recursos audiovisuais utilizados na educação em saúde dos pacientes cirúrgicos, como vídeos, aplicativos e sistemas de informações. Essas ferramentas são facilitadoras das orientações de enfermagem no pré-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, aumentando o conhecimento do paciente sobre a cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiovisual Aids , Thoracic Surgery , Preoperative Care , Educational Technology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Period
4.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 5-17, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1348665

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: en cirugía cardiovascular, el EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II y STS score son herramientas que brindan pronóstico e información para la toma de decisiones. Es imperativo evaluar el valor predictivo real de los mismos en nuestro medio. Objetivo: evaluar el valor predictivo de los citados scores en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca en el área de cardiología del Hospital Nacional. Metodología: estudio de cohortes, retrospectivo, con muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. La población estuvo constituida por pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2020 a julio 2021. Fueron evaluadas 60 historias clínicas, excluidas 6, quedando finalmente 54 expedientes. Resultado: predominó el sexo masculino 57,14 %, la edad media fue de 60 ± 12 años (rango 26 - 82 años). El EuroSCORE II presentó un riesgo relativo de 10 (IC 95 % 1,3 ­ 90), p=0,004, sensibilidad 80 %, especificidad 78,43 %, VPP 26,67 % (IC 95 % 0,95 a 52,38) y VPN 97,56 % (IC 95 % 91,62 a 100 %). El EuroSCORE I presentó riesgo relativo de 1,6 (IC 95 % 0,2 ­ 10,9) p=0,50, sensibilidad 60 %, especificidad 52,94 %, VPP 11,11 % (IC 95 % 0,00 a 24,82) y VPN 93,10 % (IC 95 % 82,16 a 100 %). El STS score arrojó un riesgo relativo de 3,5 (IC 95 % 0,07 ­ 35), p=0,10, sensibilidad del 20 %, especificidad 93,33 %, valor predictivo positivo del 25 % (IC 95 % 0,00 a 79,93) y valor predictivo negativo 91,30 % (IC 95 % 82,07 a 100 %). La mortalidad global fue 8,93 % y morbilidad 93 %. Conclusión: se demostró un alto valor predictivo negativo en los scores, lo que determinó que pacientes con riesgo bajo e intermedio tuvieran una mortalidad baja.


ABSTRACT Introduction: in cardiovascular surgery, the EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II and STS score are tools that provide prognosis and information for decision making. It is imperative to evaluate their real predictive value in our environment. Objective: to evaluate the predictive value of the aforementioned scores in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the Hospital Nacional cardiology area. Methodology: retrospective cohort study, with non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. The population consisted of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the period from January 2020 to July 2021. 60 medical records were evaluated, 6 excluded, finally leaving 54 records. Result: male sex predominated 57,14 %, the mean age was 60 ± 12 years (range 26 - 82 years old). The EuroSCORE II presented a relative risk of 10 (95 % CI 1.3 - 90), p = 0.004, sensitivity 80 %, specificity 78,43 %, PPV 26,67 % (95 % CI 0,95 to 52,38) and NPV 97,56 % (95 % CI 91,62 to 100 %). The EuroSCORE I presented a relative risk of 1.6 (95 % CI 0.2 - 10.9) p = 0.50, sensitivity 60 %, specificity 52,94 %, PPV 11,11 % (95 % CI 0.00 a 24,82) and NPV 93,10 % (95 % CI 82.16 to 100 %). The STS score yielded a relative risk of 3,5 (95 % CI 0.07 - 35), p = 0.10, sensitivity of 20 %, specificity 93,33 %, positive predictive value of 25 % (CI 95 % 0 .00 to 79.93) and negative predictive value 91,30 % (95 % CI 82.07 to 100 %). Overall mortality was 8,93 % and morbidity 93 %. Conclusion: a high negative predictive value was demonstrated in the scores, which determined that patients with low and intermediate risk had a low mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 469-476, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347303

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Desde a instituição da circulação extracorpórea, há cinco décadas, a lesão cerebral decorrente desse procedimento durante cirurgias cardiovasculares tem sido uma complicação frequente. Não existe uma causa única de lesão cerebral pelo uso de circulação extracorpórea, porém se sabe que acomete cerca de 70% dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento. A avaliação da pressão intracraniana é um dos métodos que podem orientar os cuidados com os pacientes submetidos a procedimentos associados com distúrbios neurológicos. Este artigo descreve dois casos de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardiovascular com circulação extracorpórea, para os quais os procedimentos de neuroproteção na fase pós-operatória foram guiados pelos achados relacionados ao formato das ondas de pressão intracraniana, obtidos por meio de um método não invasivo de monitoramento.


ABSTRACT Brain injury caused by extracorporeal circulation during cardiovascular surgical procedures has been a recurring complication since the implementation of extracorporeal circulation five decades ago. There is no unique cause of brain injury due to the use of extracorporeal circulation, but it is known that brain injury affects about 70% of patients who undergo this procedure. Intracranial pressure assessment is one method that can guide the management of patients undergoing procedures associated with neurological disturbances. This study describes two cases of patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with extracorporeal circulation in whom clinical protocols for neuroprotection in the postoperative phase were guided by intracranial pressure waveform findings obtained with a novel noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation , Neuroprotection , Intensive Care Units
7.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248118

ABSTRACT

Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.


Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.


Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 73-83, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152863

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: El conducto arterioso permeable (CAP) es un defecto cardiaco congénito y se considera un problema de salud pública. Se presenta en un alto porcentaje de recién nacidos y en algunos mayores de 1 mes. El cierre farmacológico es el tratamiento inicial preferido, ya que ha tenido excelentes resultados; sin embargo, en aquellos casos en los que no es posible, está indicado el cierre quirúrgico. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad del cierre quirúrgico del CAP por cirujanos pediatras sin especialidad en cirugía cardiovascular. Método: Ensayo clínico realizado en pacientes del Hospital General de Occidente, centro hospitalario público de segundo nivel, con diagnóstico de CAP, que requirieron corrección quirúrgica. Se revisaron en forma retrospectiva los expedientes de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2018. Resultados: Se incluyeron 224 pacientes divididos en dos grupos: grupo I, con 184 (82%) recién nacidos, y grupo II, con 40 (18%) niños grandes de 2 meses a 8 años de edad. A todos se les realizó cierre quirúrgico: 3 por toracoscopía y 221 por toracotomía posterolateral izquierda. Presentaron complicaciones 36 pacientes, lo que representa el 16% del total; solo el 5.3% fueron complicaciones mayores. Fallecieron 24 pacientes en el posoperatorio, lo que representa una mortalidad del 10.7%; ninguno falleció por complicaciones transquirúrgicas. El CAP es un defecto cardíaco congénito que se presenta en alto porcentaje en pacientes prematuros. El cierre farmacológico es el principal tratamiento por tener excelentes resultados en recién nacidos; sin embargo, en aquellos casos en los que no sea posible está indicado el cierre quirúrgico. Todos los pacientes fueron operados por cirujanos pediatras generales, con una sobrevida global del 92%. Conclusiones: En los hospitales donde no hay cirujano cardiovascular pediátrico ni cardiólogo intervencionista, la corrección quirúrgica del CAP puede ser llevada a cabo por un cirujano pediatra. La técnica es reproducible, fácil de realizar y con mínimas complicaciones.


Abstract Background: The Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is congenital heart defect and is considered a public health problem. It occurs in a high percentage of newborns and in some older than 1 month. Pharmacological closure is the preferred initial treatment, as it has had excellent results; however, in those cases where it is not possible, surgical closure is indicated. Objective: The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the surgical closure of the patent PDA when it is carried out by pediatric surgeons without specialization in cardiovascular surgery. Methods: This study was conducted at the West General Hospital, a 2nd level public hospital, with the diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus that required surgical correction. For the collection of the information, the files from January 2001 to December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: 224 patients were included; divided into two groups: Group I: 184 (82%) "newborns" and Group II: 40 (18%) "big children" with ages from 2 months to 8 years. All had a surgical closure; 3 by thoracoscopy and 221 by left posterolateral thoracotomy. 36 patients presented complications representing 16% of the total of patients, only 5.3% were major complications. 24 patients died in the postoperative period, representing a mortality of 10.7%, none died due to trans-surgical complications. PDA is a congenital heart defect that occurs in a high percentage of premature patients. The pharmacological closure is the principal treatment because it has had excellent results in newborns; however, in those cases where it is not possible, surgical closure it´s indicated. All patients were operated by general pediatric surgeons, with a global survival of 92%. Conclusions: We conclude that in hospitals where there is no pediatric cardiovascular surgeon or interventional cardiologist, the surgical correction of the PDA can be carried out by a general pediatric surgeon. The technique is reproducible, easy to perform and with minimal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pediatrics , General Surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 34-41, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152858

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The real burden of (congenital heart defects [CHD]) and the improvement after surgical correction or palliation is both reflected in the quality of life (QoL). There are few studies in Latin-America that evaluate QoL in the CHD population. The purpose of this study was to measure the QoL after corrective or palliative surgery for CHD. Materials and methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and comparative study was carried out at the Miguel Hidalgo Centennial Hospital. Patients from 8 to 18 years old who underwent surgery for CHD were included during a period of 8 months. A total of 40 patients were included, together with a group of 80 healthy controls. From all participants, a KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was taken. A comparative analysis of the results was performed. Results: Overall, patients with cardiac surgery had better QoL indexes than healthy controls (p < 0.0001). The difference was greatest in moods and emotions, autonomy, and parent relations. Conclusions: Self-perception of QoL in post-operative patients for congenital heart disease is similar and in certain dimensions higher than the healthy population, possibly due to socioeconomic differences, parental care, and styles of coping with their disease. Higher complexity studies that include psychosocial variables and parental perception are required, and a better understanding of the QoL determinants will improve the attention provided to the patient and their families.


Resumen Objetivo: Los efectos de las cardiopatías congénitas en los pacientes, así como la mejoría después de la paliación o la corrección quirúrgica, se reflejan en la calidad de vida (CV). Hay pocos estudios en Latinoamérica que evalúen la CV en esta población. El objetivo de este artículo es notificar la CV posterior a la operación paliativa o correctiva para defectos cardíacos congénitos. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo en el Centenario Hospital Miguel Hidalgo. Durante un período de ocho meses se incluyó a pacientes de 8 a 18 años sometidos a una intervención para cardiopatías congénitas. Se reunió a dos grupos de 40 pacientes y 80 controles sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. A cada participante se le aplicó el cuestionario KIDSCREEN-52 y se realizó un análisis comparativo de los resultados. Resultados: Los pacientes sometidos a operación cardíaca tuvieron mejores índices de CV que los controles sanos (p < 0.0001). La mayor diferencia se obtuvo en los aspectos de estado de ánimo y emociones, autonomía y relación con los padres. Conclusiones: La autopercepción de la CV después de una intervención para cardiopatías congénitas es similar y, en ciertas dimensiones, mejor que la de la población sana, tal vez por diferencias socioeconómicas, atención de los padres y modelos de adaptación a la enfermedad. Se requieren estudios más extensos que incluyan variables psicosociales y percepción parental. Una mayor comprensión de los determinantes de la CV podría mejorar la atención ofrecida al paciente y su familia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Mexico
10.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(274): 5433-5442, mar.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1223469

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar as ações de enfermagem no controle e prevenção do delirium em pacientes pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca apresentados na literatura. Método: Estudo de revisão integrativa da literatura. A busca e seleção dos artigos foi realizada através das bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE, BDENF, IBECS, MEDCARIB, CUMED, Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de São Paulo e coleciona SUS. A amostra foi composta por nove estudos. Resultados: Identificamos entre as ações para o controle e prevenção do delirium a visita familiar estruturada, a comunicação, importância de realizar a orientação verbal sobre o tempo e espaço, reconhecer o delirium precocemente e utilizar escalas para o diagnóstico, sendo a CAM-ICU a mais recomendada e de melhor aplicação. Conclusão: A enfermagem é essencial para realizar ações preventivas e reconhecer o delirium, muitas ações de prevenção são realizadas e, a comunicação e a presença da família é fundamental para se prevenir essa patologia.(AU)


Objective: To analyze nursing actions in the control and prevention of delirium in patients in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery presented in the literature. Method: Study of integrative literature review. The search and selection of articles was carried out through the LILACS, MEDLINE, BDENF, IBECS, MEDCARIB, CUMED, São Paulo State Health Secretariat and SUS collections. The sample consisted of nine studies. Results: We identified among the actions for the control and prevention of delirium the structured family visit, communication, the importance of carrying out verbal orientations in time and space, recognizing the delirium early and using diagnostic scales, CAM-ICU being the most recommended and best application. Conclusion: Nursing is essential to carry out preventive actions and to recognize delirium, many preventive actions are carried out and communication and the presence of the family are essential to prevent this pathology.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar las acciones de enfermería en el control y prevención del delirio en pacientes en el postoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca presentadas en la literatura. Método: estudio de revisión integradora de la literatura. La búsqueda de los artículos se realizó a través de las bases de datos LILACS, MEDLINE, BDENF, IBECS, MEDCARIB, CUMED, Secretaría de Salud del Estado de São Paulo y recolecta SUS, la muestra estuvo compuesta por nueve estudios. Resultados: Entre las acciones para el control y prevención del delirio, identificamos la visita familiar estructurada, la comunicación, la importancia de realizar una guía verbal en tiempo y espacio, el reconocimiento temprano del delirio y el uso de escalas diagnósticas, siendo Se recomienda CAM-UCI y se aplica mejor. Conclusión: Enfermería es fundamental para realizar acciones preventivas y para reconocer el delirio, se realizan muchas acciones preventivas y la comunicación y la presencia de la familia son fundamentales para prevenir esta patología.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Care/nursing , Thoracic Surgery , Delirium/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Nursing , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/nursing
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 305-312, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152996

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Dados sobre o uso de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) em crianças no Brasil são escassos. Objetivos Buscamos oferecer informações sobre as práticas atuais de RMC pediátricas no Brasil. Métodos Um questionário foi enviado a médicos solicitantes de RMC de todo o país, cobrindo informações sobre si próprios, sobre seus serviços de RMC, contexto clínico dos pacientes e sobre os obstáculos para a realização de RMC em crianças. Para a análise estatística, um p < 0,05 bilateral foi considerado significativo. Resultados A pesquisa obteve 142 respostas. Foi relatado que a RMC está disponível para 79% dos respondentes, dos quais 52% raramente ou nunca a utilizam. As indicações mais comuns são cardiomiopatias (84%), pós-operatório de correção de tetralogia de Fallot (81%) e malformações do arco aórtico (53%). A complexidade do exame se correlacionou à relação RMC/cirurgia (Rho = 0,48, IC 95% = 0,32-0,62, p < 0,0001) e ao número de exames de RMC (Rho = 0,52, IC 95% = 0,38-0,64, p < 0,0001). A complexidade da RMC esteve associada à sua realização por cardiologistas pediátricos (RC 2,04, IC 95% 1,2-3,89, p < 0,01). Os principais obstáculos ao uso mais frequente de RMC foram o alto custo (65%), a necessidade de sedação (60%) e o número insuficiente de profissionais qualificados (55%). Conclusão A RMC pediátrica não é usada frequentemente no Brasil. A presença de um cardiologista pediátrico a frente dos exames esteve associado ao uso de RMC em pacientes mais complexos. O treinamento de especialistas em RMC pediátrica e a educação dos médicos solicitantes são passos importantes na direção de um uso mais abrangente de RMC no Brasil. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):305-312)


Abstract Background Data on the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) on children in Brazil is lacking. Objectives This study sought to provide information on current pediatric CMR practices in Brazil. Methods A questionnaire was sent out to referring physicians around the country. It covered information on the respondents, their CMR practices, the clinical context of the patients, and barriers to CMR use among children. For statistical analysis, two-sided p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The survey received 142 replies. CMR was reported to be available to 79% of the respondents, of whom, 52% rarely or never use CMR. The most common indications were found to be cardiomyopathies (84%), status of post-tetralogy of Fallot repair (81%), and aortic arch malformations (53%). Exam complexity correlated with CMR-to-surgery ratio (Rho = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.32-0.62, p < 0.0001) and with the number of CMR exams (Rho = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.38-0.64, p < 0.0001). Further, a high CMR complexity score was associated with pediatric cardiologists conducting the exams (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.2-3.89, p < 0.01). The main barriers to a more frequent use of CMR were its high cost (65%), the need for sedation (60%), and an insufficient number of qualified professionals (55%). Conclusion Pediatric CMR is not used frequently in Brazil. The presence of a pediatric cardiologist who can perform CMR exams is associated with CMR use on more complex patients. Training pediatric CMR specialists and educating referring providers are important steps toward a broader use of CMR in Brazil. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):305-312)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Brazil , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiomyopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Heart
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 32-38, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The delayed extubation of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (CS) is associated with mortality. The adoption of spinal anesthesia (SA) combined with general anesthesia in CS influences the orotracheal intubation time (OIT). This study aims to verify if the adoption of SA reduces the time of MV after CS, compared to general anesthesia (GA) alone. Methods: Two hundred and seventeen CS patients were divided into two groups. The GA group included 108 patients (age: 56±1 years, 66 males) and the SA group included 109 patients (age: 60±13 years, 55 males). Patients were weaned from MV and, after clinical evaluation, extubated. Results: In the SA group, considering a 13-month period, 24% of the patients were extubated in the operating room (OR), compared to 10% in the GA group (P=0.00). The OIT was lower in the SA group than in the GA group (SA: 4.4±5.9 hours vs. GA: 6.0±5.6 hours, P=0.04). In July/2017, where all surgeries were performed in the GA regimen, only 7.1% of the patients were extubated in the OR. In July/2018, 94% of the surgeries were performed under SA, and 64.7% of the patients were extubated in the OR (P=0.00). The OIT on arrival at the intensive care unit to extubation, comparing July/2017 to July/2018, was 5.3±5.3 hours in the GA group vs. 1.7±3.9 hours in the SA group (P=0.04). Conclusion: The adoption of SA in CS increased the frequency of extubations in the OR and decreased OIT and MV time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia, Spinal , Operating Rooms , Respiration, Artificial , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Airway Extubation
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 1-9, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155799

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Postoperative acute kidney injury contributes to longer hospital stays and increased costs related to cardiac surgery in the elderly. We analyse the influence of the patient's age on risk factors for acute kidney injury after cardiac valve surgery. Methods: We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors for acute kidney injury in 939 consecutive patients undergoing valve surgery, between 2013 and 2018. Results: The prevalence of acute kidney injury was 19.5%. Hypertension (P=0.017); RR (95% CI): 1.74 (1.10-3.48), age ≥70 years (P=0.006); RR (95% CI): 1.79 (1.17-2.72), preoperative haematocrit <33% (P=0.009); RR (95% CI): 2.04 (1.19-3.48), glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (P<0.0001); RR (95%) CI: 2.36 (1.54-3.62) and cardiac catheterization <8 days before surgery (P=0.021); RR (95% CI): 2.15 (1.12-4.11) were identified as independent risk factors. In patients older than 70 years, with no kidney disease diagnosed preoperatively, glomerular filtration rate <70 ml/min/1.73 m2, male gender, cardiopulmonary bypass time, preoperative haematocrit <36% and preoperative therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were risk factors for acute kidney injury after valve surgery. Conclusions: In elderly patients, postoperative acute kidney injury develops with higher values of preoperative glomerular filtration rate than those observed in a younger population. Preoperative correction of anaemia, discontinuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and surgical techniques reducing cardiopulmonary bypass time would be considered to reduce the prevalence of renal failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heart Valves
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 39-47, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155795

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract during primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot often requires the placement of a transannular patch which results in pulmonary regurgitation (PR). We compared the short-term outcomes of bicuspid polytetrafluoroethylene membrane valve versus transannular pericardial patch reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients undergoing primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot were randomly allocated to two groups - polytetrafluoroethylene valve (PTFEV) group (n=15) and transannular pericardial patch (TAP) group (n=15). The two groups had similar preoperative demographic characteristics. We compared the short-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes between these groups. The transthoracic echocardiographic follow-up was performed at one week, one month and six months after surgery. Results: The PTFEV group had significantly lower central venous pressure in the immediate postoperative period compared to the TAP group (7.60±2.06 vs. 10.13±1.73, P=0.002). Extubation time was significantly shorter in the PTFEV group compared to the TAP group (12.93±7.55 hrs vs. 22.23±15.11 hrs, P=0.04). PR in the PTFEV group was absent in five patients at 24 hours post-surgery. At the study endpoint, PR was absent in six, trivial in one and mild in eight patients in the PTFEV group compared to TAP group, where all 15 patients had severe PR. Conclusion: The bicuspid polytetrafluoroethylene membrane valves significantly decrease the central venous pressure in the immediate postoperative period, facilitate early extubation and, thus, prevent ventilator-related comorbidities. They achieve a high degree of pulmonary competence and do not increase the right ventricular outflow tract gradient in short-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Pulmonary Valve/surgery , Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency , Tetralogy of Fallot/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Treatment Outcome
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 137-139, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155791

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infective endocarditis is a rather uncommon disease, but it has significant mortality rates in the pediatric population (5% to 10%). We report a case of an infant patient with multiple vegetation in the tricuspid valve secondary to infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. A tricuspid valvuloplasty was performed with a fenestrated autologous pericardium patch, providing satisfactory outcomes. This technique is simple, innovative, effective, and it could be applied in similar cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Endocarditis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Pericardium/surgery , Pericardium/transplantation , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Tricuspid Valve/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 64-70, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155785

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We aimed to analyze the early and long-term results of open-heart surgery in Turkish patients aged 80 years or older who were operated on at our center. Methods: All patients aged 80 years or older who underwent surgery between January 2000 and December 2013 at a high-level heart center were included in the study. The in-hospital data of study patients were obtained from the electronic database and from the hospital files. Survival data were analyzed as a long-term outcome. Results: A total of 245 patients aged 80-93 years were evaluated in the study. The patients were followed up 5.4±3.7 years after open-heart surgery. In-hospital mortality rates were 10% in elective cases and 15.1% overall. Age ≥85 years, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and emergency surgery were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The median survival time was found to be 4.4±0.3 years for all participants. The long-term survival of patients who underwent emergency cardiac surgery was significantly lower than that of elective patients (log-rank <0.001). Conclusion: Octogenarians have satisfactory long-term outcomes after open-heart surgery when operated electively. On the other hand, patients operated under emergency conditions have worse in-hospital outcomes and long-term follow-up results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures
18.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e75, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1343262

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar complicações ocorridas nas 72 horas iniciais do pós-operatório de cirurgias cardíacas e sua associação com características clínicas e demográficas. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com a análise de prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgias cardíacas entre janeiro de 2018 a dezembro de 2019 em hospital de grande porte. Resultados: dos 252 prontuários avaliados, houve prevalência de homens, idosos, atendidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, com comorbidades e que utilizavam medicamentos contínuos. O tipo de cirurgia prevalente foi de trocas valvares unitárias e 75,8% dos pacientes apresentaram complicações, sendo as mais frequentes de origem cardíaca. Foram observadas associações entre a presença destas com mediana de idade maior, comorbidades e maior tempo de circulação extracorpórea, além de complicações categóricas com reintervenção e mortalidade em 72 horas e geral. Conclusão: foram identificadas complicações cardíacas, renais, hidroeletrolíticas, pulmonares, hematológicas e neurológicas, estando estas, em alguns casos, associadas a aspectos de maior gravidade.


Objective: to identify complications in the initial 72 hours after cardiac surgery and their association with clinical and demographic characteristics. Method: this is a cross-sectional study, performed with the analysis of medical records of patients undergoing cardiac surgery between January 2018 and December 2019 in a large hospital. Results: of the 252 medical records evaluated, elderly men were prevalent, assisted by the Unified Health System, with comorbidities, and who used continuous medication. The prevalent type of surgery was single valve replacement and 75.8% of the patients had complications. The most frequent complication was of cardiac origin. Associations were observed between their presence and higher median age, comorbidities, and longer cardiopulmonary bypass, in addition to categorical complications with reintervention and 72-hour mortality and overall. Conclusion: cardiac, renal, electrolyte, pulmonary, hematological and neurological complications were identified, which in some cases are associated with more serious aspects.


Objetivo: identificar las complicaciones en las primeras 72 horas posteriores a la cirugía cardíaca y su asociación con las características clínicas y demográficas. Método: estudio transversal, realizado con el análisis de historias clínicas de pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca entre enero de 2018 y diciembre de 2019 en un hospital de grande porte. Resultados: de las 252 historias clínicas evaluadas, hubo prevalencia de hombres mayores de edad, atendidos por el Sistema Único de Salud, con comorbilidades y que usaban medicación continua. El tipo de cirugía prevalente fue el reemplazo valvular único y el 75,8% de los pacientes presentó complicaciones, siendo las más frecuentes de origen cardíaco. Se observaron asociaciones entre su presencia y mayor mediana de edad, comorbilidades y circulación extracorpórea más prolongada, además de complicaciones categóricas con reintervención y mortalidad a las 72 horas y global. Conclusión: se identificaron complicaciones cardíacas, renales, electrolíticas, pulmonares, hematológicas y neurológicas, que en algunos casos se asocian a aspectos más graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Prevalence , Nursing , Critical Care , Cardiac Surgical Procedures
19.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 25: e1354, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1287714

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: observando a diferença de perfil dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio daqueles submetidos à correção cirúrgica de valvopatias, considera-se importante a avaliação do estado emocional de acordo com a cirurgia a ser realizada. Objetivo: comparar os sintomas de ansiedade, depressão e ansiedade cardíaca de pacientes no pré-operatório, segundo o tipo de cirurgia cardíaca a ser realizada: revascularização do miocárdio ou cirurgia de correção de valvopatias. Método: estudo observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, realizado nas enfermarias de cirurgia de um hospital universitário do interior paulista. Uma amostra consecutiva e não probabilística foi constituída pelos pacientes maiores de idade que vieram de casa para a internação e cujo agendamento para a realização da cirurgia foi eletivo. Para a avaliação dos sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, foi utilizado o instrumento Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; já para a avaliação da ansiedade cardíaca, foi utilizado o "Questionário de Ansiedade Cardíaca". Para a comparação das medidas dos sintomas, segundo o tipo de cirurgia, foi realizado o teste de Mann-Whitney para amostras independentes, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: os grupos foram homogêneos entre si, quanto à caracterização sociodemográfica, exceto para idade. Pacientes em pré-operatório de correção de valvopatias apresentaram escore maior para os sintomas de ansiedade cardíaca quando comparados com pacientes em pré-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio, e a diferença encontrada foi estatisticamente significativa (p=0,020). Conclusão: pacientes em pré-operatório de correção de valvopatias apresentaram mais sintomas de ansiedade cardíaca quando comparados com pacientes em pré-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio.


RESUMEN Introducción: al observar la diferencia en el perfil de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía de revascularización miocárdica respecto a los sometidos a corrección quirúrgica de valvulopatías, se considera importante evaluar el estado emocional de acuerdo con la cirugía a realizar. Objetivo: comparar los síntomas de ansiedad, depresión y ansiedad cardíaca de los pacientes en el período preoperatorio, según el tipo de cirugía cardíaca a realizar: revascularización miocárdica o cirugía de corrección de valvulopatías. Método: estudio observacional, analítico, transversal, realizado en las salas de recuperación de cirugía de un hospital universitario del interior de São Paulo. Una muestra consecutiva y no probabilística estuvo conformada por pacientes mayores que acudieron a su domicilio para ser hospitalizados y cuya cita para la cirugía fue electiva. Para evaluar los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión se utilizó el instrumento Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión; para la evaluación de la ansiedad cardíaca se utilizó el "Cuestionario de Ansiedad Cardíaca". Para comparar las medidas de síntomas, según el tipo de cirugía, se realizó la prueba de Mann-Whitney para muestras independientes, con un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: los grupos fueron homogéneos entre sí, encuanto a caracterización sociodemográfica, excepto por edad. Los pacientes en el período preoperatorio para la corrección de valvulopatías tuvieron una puntuación más alta para los síntomas de ansiedad cardíaca en comparación con los pacientes en el período preoperatorio de revascularización miocárdica, y la diferencia encontrada fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,020). Conclusión: los pacientes en período preoperatorio de corrección de valvulopatías presentaron más síntomas de ansiedad cardíaca en comparación con los pacientes en el período preoperatorio de revascularización miocárdica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: observing the difference in profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery from those undergoing surgical correction of valvular heart disease, it is considered important to assess the emotional state according to the surgery to be performed. Objective: to compare the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and cardiac anxiety of patients in the preoperative period, according to the type of cardiac surgery to be performed: myocardial revascularization or surgery to correct valvular heart diseases. Method: observational, analytical, cross-sectional study carried out in the surgery wards of a university hospital in the countryside of São Paulo. A consecutive and non-probabilistic sample was made up of older patients who came home for hospitalization and whose appointment for the surgery was elective. To evaluate the symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale instrument was used; for the assessment of cardiac anxiety, the "Heart Anxiety Questionnaire" was used. To compare the measures of symptoms, according to the type of surgery, the Mann-Whitney test was performed for independent samples, with a significance level of 5%. Results: the groups were homogeneous among themselves, in terms of sociodemographic characterization, except for age. Patients in the preoperative period for correction of valvular heart disease had a higher score for the symptoms of cardiac anxiety when compared with patients in the preoperative period of myocardial revascularization, and the difference found was statistically significant (p=0.020). Conclusion: patients in the preoperative period for correction of valvular heart disease presented more symptoms of cardiac anxiety when compared with patients in the preoperative period of myocardial revascularization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Myocardial Revascularization , Cardiovascular Nursing , Myocardium
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2447-2456, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is one of the most common infections following heart valve surgery (HVS) and is associated with a significant increase in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. This study aimed to identify the major risk factors associated with the occurrence of POP following HVS and to derive and validate a clinical risk score.@*METHODS@#Adults undergoing open HVS between January 2016 and December 2019 at a single institution were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the derivation and validation sets at 1:1 ratio. A prediction model was developed with multivariable logistic regression analysis in the derivation set. Points were assigned to independent risk factors based on their regression coefficients.@*RESULTS@#POP occurred in 316 of the 3853 patients (8.2%). Multivariable analysis identified ten significant predictors for POP in the derivation set, including older age, smoking history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, poor cardiac function, heart surgery history, longer cardiopulmonary bypass, blood transfusion, and concomitant coronary and/or aortic surgery. A 22-point risk score based on the multivariable model was then generated, demonstrating good discrimination (C-statistic: 0.81), and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 8.234, P = 0.312). The prediction rule also showed adequate discriminative power (C-statistic: 0.83) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 5.606, P = 0.691) in the validation set. Three risk intervals were defined as low-, medium-, and high-risk groups.@*CONCLUSION@#We derived and validated a 22-point risk score for POP following HVS, which may be useful in preventive interventions and risk management.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chictr.org, ChiCTR1900028127; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=46932.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Heart Valves , Humans , Pneumonia , Risk Factors
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