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1.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 5-17, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1348665

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: en cirugía cardiovascular, el EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II y STS score son herramientas que brindan pronóstico e información para la toma de decisiones. Es imperativo evaluar el valor predictivo real de los mismos en nuestro medio. Objetivo: evaluar el valor predictivo de los citados scores en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca en el área de cardiología del Hospital Nacional. Metodología: estudio de cohortes, retrospectivo, con muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. La población estuvo constituida por pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2020 a julio 2021. Fueron evaluadas 60 historias clínicas, excluidas 6, quedando finalmente 54 expedientes. Resultado: predominó el sexo masculino 57,14 %, la edad media fue de 60 ± 12 años (rango 26 - 82 años). El EuroSCORE II presentó un riesgo relativo de 10 (IC 95 % 1,3 ­ 90), p=0,004, sensibilidad 80 %, especificidad 78,43 %, VPP 26,67 % (IC 95 % 0,95 a 52,38) y VPN 97,56 % (IC 95 % 91,62 a 100 %). El EuroSCORE I presentó riesgo relativo de 1,6 (IC 95 % 0,2 ­ 10,9) p=0,50, sensibilidad 60 %, especificidad 52,94 %, VPP 11,11 % (IC 95 % 0,00 a 24,82) y VPN 93,10 % (IC 95 % 82,16 a 100 %). El STS score arrojó un riesgo relativo de 3,5 (IC 95 % 0,07 ­ 35), p=0,10, sensibilidad del 20 %, especificidad 93,33 %, valor predictivo positivo del 25 % (IC 95 % 0,00 a 79,93) y valor predictivo negativo 91,30 % (IC 95 % 82,07 a 100 %). La mortalidad global fue 8,93 % y morbilidad 93 %. Conclusión: se demostró un alto valor predictivo negativo en los scores, lo que determinó que pacientes con riesgo bajo e intermedio tuvieran una mortalidad baja.


ABSTRACT Introduction: in cardiovascular surgery, the EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II and STS score are tools that provide prognosis and information for decision making. It is imperative to evaluate their real predictive value in our environment. Objective: to evaluate the predictive value of the aforementioned scores in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the Hospital Nacional cardiology area. Methodology: retrospective cohort study, with non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. The population consisted of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the period from January 2020 to July 2021. 60 medical records were evaluated, 6 excluded, finally leaving 54 records. Result: male sex predominated 57,14 %, the mean age was 60 ± 12 years (range 26 - 82 years old). The EuroSCORE II presented a relative risk of 10 (95 % CI 1.3 - 90), p = 0.004, sensitivity 80 %, specificity 78,43 %, PPV 26,67 % (95 % CI 0,95 to 52,38) and NPV 97,56 % (95 % CI 91,62 to 100 %). The EuroSCORE I presented a relative risk of 1.6 (95 % CI 0.2 - 10.9) p = 0.50, sensitivity 60 %, specificity 52,94 %, PPV 11,11 % (95 % CI 0.00 a 24,82) and NPV 93,10 % (95 % CI 82.16 to 100 %). The STS score yielded a relative risk of 3,5 (95 % CI 0.07 - 35), p = 0.10, sensitivity of 20 %, specificity 93,33 %, positive predictive value of 25 % (CI 95 % 0 .00 to 79.93) and negative predictive value 91,30 % (95 % CI 82.07 to 100 %). Overall mortality was 8,93 % and morbidity 93 %. Conclusion: a high negative predictive value was demonstrated in the scores, which determined that patients with low and intermediate risk had a low mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 469-476, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347303

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Desde a instituição da circulação extracorpórea, há cinco décadas, a lesão cerebral decorrente desse procedimento durante cirurgias cardiovasculares tem sido uma complicação frequente. Não existe uma causa única de lesão cerebral pelo uso de circulação extracorpórea, porém se sabe que acomete cerca de 70% dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento. A avaliação da pressão intracraniana é um dos métodos que podem orientar os cuidados com os pacientes submetidos a procedimentos associados com distúrbios neurológicos. Este artigo descreve dois casos de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardiovascular com circulação extracorpórea, para os quais os procedimentos de neuroproteção na fase pós-operatória foram guiados pelos achados relacionados ao formato das ondas de pressão intracraniana, obtidos por meio de um método não invasivo de monitoramento.


ABSTRACT Brain injury caused by extracorporeal circulation during cardiovascular surgical procedures has been a recurring complication since the implementation of extracorporeal circulation five decades ago. There is no unique cause of brain injury due to the use of extracorporeal circulation, but it is known that brain injury affects about 70% of patients who undergo this procedure. Intracranial pressure assessment is one method that can guide the management of patients undergoing procedures associated with neurological disturbances. This study describes two cases of patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with extracorporeal circulation in whom clinical protocols for neuroprotection in the postoperative phase were guided by intracranial pressure waveform findings obtained with a novel noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation , Neuroprotection , Intensive Care Units
3.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248118

ABSTRACT

Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.


Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.


Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
4.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 73-83, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152863

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: El conducto arterioso permeable (CAP) es un defecto cardiaco congénito y se considera un problema de salud pública. Se presenta en un alto porcentaje de recién nacidos y en algunos mayores de 1 mes. El cierre farmacológico es el tratamiento inicial preferido, ya que ha tenido excelentes resultados; sin embargo, en aquellos casos en los que no es posible, está indicado el cierre quirúrgico. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad del cierre quirúrgico del CAP por cirujanos pediatras sin especialidad en cirugía cardiovascular. Método: Ensayo clínico realizado en pacientes del Hospital General de Occidente, centro hospitalario público de segundo nivel, con diagnóstico de CAP, que requirieron corrección quirúrgica. Se revisaron en forma retrospectiva los expedientes de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2018. Resultados: Se incluyeron 224 pacientes divididos en dos grupos: grupo I, con 184 (82%) recién nacidos, y grupo II, con 40 (18%) niños grandes de 2 meses a 8 años de edad. A todos se les realizó cierre quirúrgico: 3 por toracoscopía y 221 por toracotomía posterolateral izquierda. Presentaron complicaciones 36 pacientes, lo que representa el 16% del total; solo el 5.3% fueron complicaciones mayores. Fallecieron 24 pacientes en el posoperatorio, lo que representa una mortalidad del 10.7%; ninguno falleció por complicaciones transquirúrgicas. El CAP es un defecto cardíaco congénito que se presenta en alto porcentaje en pacientes prematuros. El cierre farmacológico es el principal tratamiento por tener excelentes resultados en recién nacidos; sin embargo, en aquellos casos en los que no sea posible está indicado el cierre quirúrgico. Todos los pacientes fueron operados por cirujanos pediatras generales, con una sobrevida global del 92%. Conclusiones: En los hospitales donde no hay cirujano cardiovascular pediátrico ni cardiólogo intervencionista, la corrección quirúrgica del CAP puede ser llevada a cabo por un cirujano pediatra. La técnica es reproducible, fácil de realizar y con mínimas complicaciones.


Abstract Background: The Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is congenital heart defect and is considered a public health problem. It occurs in a high percentage of newborns and in some older than 1 month. Pharmacological closure is the preferred initial treatment, as it has had excellent results; however, in those cases where it is not possible, surgical closure is indicated. Objective: The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the surgical closure of the patent PDA when it is carried out by pediatric surgeons without specialization in cardiovascular surgery. Methods: This study was conducted at the West General Hospital, a 2nd level public hospital, with the diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus that required surgical correction. For the collection of the information, the files from January 2001 to December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: 224 patients were included; divided into two groups: Group I: 184 (82%) "newborns" and Group II: 40 (18%) "big children" with ages from 2 months to 8 years. All had a surgical closure; 3 by thoracoscopy and 221 by left posterolateral thoracotomy. 36 patients presented complications representing 16% of the total of patients, only 5.3% were major complications. 24 patients died in the postoperative period, representing a mortality of 10.7%, none died due to trans-surgical complications. PDA is a congenital heart defect that occurs in a high percentage of premature patients. The pharmacological closure is the principal treatment because it has had excellent results in newborns; however, in those cases where it is not possible, surgical closure it´s indicated. All patients were operated by general pediatric surgeons, with a global survival of 92%. Conclusions: We conclude that in hospitals where there is no pediatric cardiovascular surgeon or interventional cardiologist, the surgical correction of the PDA can be carried out by a general pediatric surgeon. The technique is reproducible, easy to perform and with minimal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pediatrics , General Surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 1-9, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155799

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Postoperative acute kidney injury contributes to longer hospital stays and increased costs related to cardiac surgery in the elderly. We analyse the influence of the patient's age on risk factors for acute kidney injury after cardiac valve surgery. Methods: We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors for acute kidney injury in 939 consecutive patients undergoing valve surgery, between 2013 and 2018. Results: The prevalence of acute kidney injury was 19.5%. Hypertension (P=0.017); RR (95% CI): 1.74 (1.10-3.48), age ≥70 years (P=0.006); RR (95% CI): 1.79 (1.17-2.72), preoperative haematocrit <33% (P=0.009); RR (95% CI): 2.04 (1.19-3.48), glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (P<0.0001); RR (95%) CI: 2.36 (1.54-3.62) and cardiac catheterization <8 days before surgery (P=0.021); RR (95% CI): 2.15 (1.12-4.11) were identified as independent risk factors. In patients older than 70 years, with no kidney disease diagnosed preoperatively, glomerular filtration rate <70 ml/min/1.73 m2, male gender, cardiopulmonary bypass time, preoperative haematocrit <36% and preoperative therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were risk factors for acute kidney injury after valve surgery. Conclusions: In elderly patients, postoperative acute kidney injury develops with higher values of preoperative glomerular filtration rate than those observed in a younger population. Preoperative correction of anaemia, discontinuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and surgical techniques reducing cardiopulmonary bypass time would be considered to reduce the prevalence of renal failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heart Valves
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2447-2456, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is one of the most common infections following heart valve surgery (HVS) and is associated with a significant increase in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. This study aimed to identify the major risk factors associated with the occurrence of POP following HVS and to derive and validate a clinical risk score.@*METHODS@#Adults undergoing open HVS between January 2016 and December 2019 at a single institution were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the derivation and validation sets at 1:1 ratio. A prediction model was developed with multivariable logistic regression analysis in the derivation set. Points were assigned to independent risk factors based on their regression coefficients.@*RESULTS@#POP occurred in 316 of the 3853 patients (8.2%). Multivariable analysis identified ten significant predictors for POP in the derivation set, including older age, smoking history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, poor cardiac function, heart surgery history, longer cardiopulmonary bypass, blood transfusion, and concomitant coronary and/or aortic surgery. A 22-point risk score based on the multivariable model was then generated, demonstrating good discrimination (C-statistic: 0.81), and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 8.234, P = 0.312). The prediction rule also showed adequate discriminative power (C-statistic: 0.83) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 5.606, P = 0.691) in the validation set. Three risk intervals were defined as low-, medium-, and high-risk groups.@*CONCLUSION@#We derived and validated a 22-point risk score for POP following HVS, which may be useful in preventive interventions and risk management.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chictr.org, ChiCTR1900028127; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=46932.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Heart Valves , Humans , Pneumonia , Risk Factors
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 398-405, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152813

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes y objetivos: El sistema de calificación APACHE II permite predecir la mortalidad intrahospitalaria en terapia intensiva. Sin embargo, no está validado para cirugía cardíaca, ya que no posee buena capacidad diferenciadora. El objetivo es determinar el valor pronóstico de APACHE II en el postoperatorio de procedimientos cardíacos. Materiales y métodos: Se analizó en forma retrospectiva la base de cirugía cardíaca. Se incluyó a pacientes intervenidos entre 2017 y 2018, de los cuales se calculó la puntuación APACHE II. Se utilizó curva ROC para determinar el mejor valor de corte. El punto final primario fue mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Como puntos finales secundarios se evaluó la incidencia de bajo gasto cardíaco (BGC), accidente cerebrovascular (ACV), sangrado quirúrgico y necesidad de diálisis. Se realizó un modelo de regresión logístico multivariado para ajustar a las variables de interés. Resultados: Se analizó a 559 pacientes. La media del sistema de calificación APACHE II fue de 9.9 (DE 4). La prevalencia de mortalidad intrahospitalaria global fue de 6.1%. El mejor valor de corte de la calificación para predecir mortalidad fue de 12, con un área bajo la curva ROC de 0.92. Los pacientes con APACHE II ≥ 12 tuvieron significativamente mayor mortalidad, incidencia de BGC, ACV, sangrado quirúrgico y necesidad de diálisis. En un modelo multivariado, el sistema APACHE II se relacionó de modo independiente con mayor tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria (OR, 1.14; IC95%, 1.08-1.21; p < 0.0001). Conclusiones: El sistema de clasificación APACHE II demostró ser un predictor independiente de mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes que cursan el postoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca.


Abstract Background and objectives: The APACHE II score allows predicting in-hospital mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. However, it is not validated for patients undergoing cardiac surgery, since it does not have a good discriminatory capacity in this clinical scenario. The aim of this study is to determine prognostic value of APACHE II score in postoperative of cardiac surgery. Materials and methods: The study was performed using the cardiac surgery database. Patients undergoing surgery between 2017 and 2018, with APACHE II score calculated at the admission, were included. The ROC curve was used to determine a cut-off value The primary endpoint was in-hospital death. Secondary endpoints included low cardiac output (LCO), stroke, surgical bleeding, and dialysis requirement. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to adjust to various variables of interest. Results: The study evaluated 559 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The mean of APACHE II Score was 9.9 (SD 4). The prevalence of in-hospital death was 6.1%. The best prognostic cut-off value for the primary endpoint was 12, with a ROC curve of 0.92. Patients with an APACHE II score greater than or equal to 12 had significantly higher mortality, higher incidence of LCO, stroke, surgical bleeding and dialysis requirement. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the APACHE II score was independently associated with higher in-hospital death (OR, 1.14; 95CI%, 1.08-1.21; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The APACHE II Score proved to be an independent predictor of in-hospital death in patients undergoing postoperative cardiac surgery, with a high capacity for discrimination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Prognosis , Cardiac Output, Low/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , APACHE , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 373-378, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152810

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Bleeding as a complication is associated with poorer results in cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that the use of blood products is an independent factor of increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Dyke et al. established the universal definition of perioperative bleeding (UDPB). This classification is more precise defining mortality in relation to the degree of bleeding. Methods: A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of a database of patients underwent cardiac surgery from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2017, was performed. The primary objective of the study was to look at mortality associated with the degree of bleeding using the UDPB. Results: A total of 918 patients who went to cardiac surgery were obtained. Most of the population was classified as insignificant bleeding class (n = 666, 72.9%), and for massive bleeding the lowest proportion (n = 25, 2.7%). For the primary outcome of 30-day mortality, a significant difference was found between the groups, observing that it increased to a higher degree of bleeding. This was corroborated by multivariate logistic regression analysis that was adjusted to EuroScore II and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, finding an independent association of the bleeding class with 30-day mortality (OR, 95%, 5.82 [2.22-15.26], p = 0.0001). Conclusions: We found that the higher the degree in UDPB was associated with higher mortality independently to EuroScore II and CPB duration for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Resumen Antecedentes: El sangrado como complicación está asociado a peores resultados en cirugía cardiaca. Existe una evidencia cada vez mayor que la transfusión de productos sanguíneos por si solo es un factor independiente de incremento en la morbilidad, mortalidad, y costos hospitalarios. Dyke y colaboradores establecieron la definición universal de sangrado perioperatorio. Esta clasificación es más precisa en definir mortalidad en relación con el grado de sangrado. Material y métodos: Se realizo un estudio descriptivo y analítico de tipo retrospectivo de una base de datos de pacientes que fueron a cirugía cardiaca del 1 enero del 2016 al 31 de diciembre del 2017. El objetivo primario del estudio fue observar la mortalidad asociada con el grado de sangrado utilizando la definición universal de sangrado perioperatorio. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 918 pacientes que fueron a cirugía cardiaca. La mayor parte de la población fue clasificada como clase de sangrado insignificante (n = 666, 72.9%), y para sangrado masivo la menor proporción (n = 25, 2.7%). En el desenlace primario de mortalidad a 30 días se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los grupos, observando que aumentada a mayor clase de sangrado. Esto fue corroborado mediante un análisis multivariado regresión logística que fue ajustado a con EuroScore II y el tiempo de bomba de circulación extracorpórea, encontrando una asociación independiente de la clase de sangrado con mortalidad a 30 días (OR, 95%, 5.82 [2.22-15.26], p = 0.0001). Conclusiones: Encontramos que cuanto mayor era el grado en la UDPB se asociaba con una mayor mortalidad independientemente de EuroScore II y la duración del bypass cardiopulmonar para pacientes adultos sometidos a cirugía cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Postoperative Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Postoperative Hemorrhage/classification , Critical Care , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Mexico , Terminology as Topic
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 927-933, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143998

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the safety and cost-effectiveness of preoperative cannulation and conventional approach techniques. Methods: Sixty-one patients who underwent redo open cardiac procedures between September 2015 and November 2018 were divided into two groups - Group A (n: 30), patients who underwent conventional cannulation after sternotomy, and Group B (n: 31), those who underwent cannulation before sternotomy. Patients were evaluated retrospectively for general complication rates and total hospital costs. Results: Mortality occurred in four patients from Group A and in one patient from Group B. Four patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in Group A, whereas two required ECMO in Group B. Duration of total operation, cardiopulmonary bypass, and cross-clamp times were longer in the conventional surgery group than in the pre-sternotomy cannulation group (420.29±188.84 vs. 314.77±187.38, P=0.036; 171.87±85.59 vs. 141.7±82.47, P=0.089; and 102.94±70.67 vs. 60.97±52.81, P=0.009; respectively). Total blood and blood product usage were higher in Group A than in Group B. Postoperative intensive care unit stay was 62.77±145.3 hours vs. 25.13±73.11 hours, ventilation time was 5.16±5.09 hours vs. 3.03±2.78 hours, duration of ward stay was 5.23±2.52 days vs. 5.57±2.16 days, and duration of hospital stay was 9.58±5.85 days vs. 9.8±5.31 days in conventional sternotomy and pre-sternotomy cannulation groups, respectively. Total hospital costs were calculated 35863.52±20803.99 Turkish Liras (TL) in Group A and 25744.74±16472.03 TL in Group B (P=0,042). Conclusion: Venous and arterial cannulations before sternotomy decreased myocardial injury and complication rates, blood and blood product usage, hospital stay, and, consequently, hospital costs in our modest cohort.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Catheterization , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Preoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Sternotomy/adverse effects
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 614-618, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137351

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The study aimed to determine the incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and their sites in a cardiac surgery service, as well as to determine if gender and age were risk factors for infection and to quantify mortality and increase in the hospital length of stay (LOS) due to HAI. Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2012 to January 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Data on age, gender, mortality, occurrence of HAI during hospitalization, and LOS were collected. Continuous variables were analyzed using Student's t-test, while categorical variables were compared using Fisher's exact test or chi-square test. Results: Among the 195 patients available, the HAI rate in our service was 22.6%, with female gender being a risk factor for infections (odds ratio [OR]=2.23; P=0.015). Age was also a significant risk factor for infections, with a difference in the mean age between the group with and without infection (P=0.02). The occurrence of an infectious process increased the LOS in 14 days (P<0.001) and resulted in higher mortality rates (P=0.112). A patient who has HAI was approximately 19 times more likely to remain hospitalized for more than nine days (P<0.001). Conclusion: Age and gender were risk factors for the development of HAI and the occurrence of an infectious process during hospitalization significantly increases the LOS. These findings may guide future actions aimed at reducing the impact of HAI on the health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Length of Stay
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 722-731, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To provide a new interpretation of the effect of intraoperative hemodynamic data on postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) development and to determine the accuracy of some biomarkers which are thought to be the early markers of renal injury. Methods: One hundred adult patients who were connected to the heart-lung pump during open-heart surgery were included in this study. Hemodynamic data, oxygen delivery, and transfusions were recorded intraoperatively, and the preoperative and 3. postoperative hour cystatin C, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) parameters were measured for early detection of kidney damage. In the analysis, 95% significance level was used to determine the difference. Results: According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criterion, AKI developed in 24 patients, 18 of whom were stage 1, two were stage 2, and four were stage 3. AKI (+) patients had more transfusions in the intraoperative period and AKI development was a risk factor for postoperative complications. NGAL and IL-18 levels were found to be approximately two-fold in the postoperative period in AKI (+) patients, whereas cystatin C was not sensitive in AKI detection. Conclusion: AKI development increases the risk of postoperative complications. NGAL and IL-18 were successful in detecting AKI in the early postoperative period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Biomarkers/blood , Cystatin C
14.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 231-235, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115547

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La disección de la aurícula izquierda es una complicación infrecuente, pero potencialmente fatal de la cirugía cardíaca. Es frecuentemente asociada a cirugías de la válvula mitral, tanto su reparación el reemplazo, con una incidencia de 0,16%. Sin embargo, otros procedimientos como intervenciones percutáneas también presentan este riesgo. Objetivos: Presentar la resolución quirúrgica de un caso de disección de aurícula izquierda y aportar a la casuística nacional. Materiales y Método: Registro clínico, imagenológico y fotográfico del episodio clínico. Resultados: Una paciente que fue sometida a ablación por radiofrecuencia por vía retrógrada, y cursa durante el periodo postintervencional con insuficiencia cardíaca y su estudio identifica una disección auricular. Se realiza reparación del anillo mitral, plastía del aparato subvalvular y parche de pericardio, la paciente presenta evolución clínica y ecográfica favorable. Discusión: El tratamiento de esta entidad debe analizarse caso a caso, ya que la etiología relacionada a procedimientos percutáneos es diferente a la causada por cirugía valvular mitral. Conclusión: La reparación de una disección auricular con parche es una buena alternativa de tratamiento en estos casos.


Introduction: Left atrial dissection is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of cardiac surgery. It is frequently associated with mitral valve surgery, both its repair and replacement, with an incidence of 0.16%. However, other procedures such as percutaneous interventions can also be predisposing factors. Objectives: To report the surgical resolution of a left atrial dissection case and contribute to the national casuistry. Materials and Method: Clinical, imaging and photographic record of the clinical episode. Results: A patient who underwent retrograde radiofrequency ablation during the post-interventional period with heart failure and whose study identifies an atrial dissection. Mitral ring repair, subvalvular apparatus repair and pericardial patch was performed, the patient evolves with favorable clinical and sonographic evolution. Discussion: The treatment of this entity should be analyzed case by case, the etiology related to percutaneous procedures is different to that caused by mitral valve surgery and this should be considered when choosing a therapeutic option. Conclusion: Repairing an atrial dissection with a patch is a good alternative in these cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Rare Diseases , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Mitral Valve/surgery
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(2): 206-210, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery remarkably remains the most prevalent event in perioperative cardiac surgery, having great clinical and economic implications. The purpose of this study is to present recommendations based on international evidence and adapted to our clinical practice for the perioperative management of POAF. This update is based on the latest current literature derived from articles and guidelines regarding atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(2): 211-224, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To comprehensively understand cardiac surgeryassociated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) and methods of prevention of such complication in cardiac surgery patients. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the electronic database to identify articles describing acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients that undergone cardiac surgery. There was neither time limit nor language limit on the search. The results were narratively summarized. Results: All the relevant articles have been extracted; results have been summarized in each related section. CSA-AKI is a serious postoperative complication and it can contribute to a significant increase in perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of factors that can reduce CSA-AKI, therefore, contributes to a better postoperative outcome. Conclusion: Several factors can significantly increase the rate of AKI; identification and minimization of such factors can lead to lower rates of CSA-AKI and lower perioperative morbidity and mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Risk Factors
17.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 348-359, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más frecuente en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca. Se relaciona con insuficiencia cardíaca, insuficiencia renal, embolismo sistémico y más días de estancia y mortalidad. La fibrilación auricular en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca (FAPCC) suele aparecer en las primeras 48 horas. Los principales mecanismos que producen la aparición y el mantenimiento de la FAPCC son el aumento del tono simpático y la respuesta inflamatoria. Los factores de riesgo adjuntos son la edad avanzada, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, enfermedad renal crónica, cirugía valvular, fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo menor de 40% e interrupción de fármacos bloqueadores β. Existen instrumentos que han demostrado predecir la aparición de FAPCC. El tratamiento profiláctico con bloqueadores β y amiodarona se relaciona con disminución de la aparición de FAPCC. Dada su naturaleza transitoria, se sugiere que el tratamiento inicial de FAPCC sea el control de la frecuencia cardíaca y sólo en caso de que el tratamiento no consiga el retorno al ritmo sinusal está indicada la cardioversión eléctrica. Se desconoce cuál debe ser el seguimiento a largo plazo y sólo se conocen en escasa medida las complicaciones más allá de este periodo. La FAPCC no es una arritmia benigna ni aislada en los pacientes sometidos a operación cardíaca, por lo que la identificación de los factores de riesgo, su prevención y el seguimiento en el ámbito ambulatorio deben formar parte de las unidades dedicadas a la atención y los cuidados de estos pacientes.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. It is associated with heart failure, renal insufficiency, systemic embolism and increase in days of in-hospital and mortality. Atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (FAPCC) usually appears in the first 48 h after surgery. The main mechanisms involved in the appearance and maintenance of FAPCC are the increase in sympathetic tone and the inflammatory response. The associated risk factors are advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, valve surgery, fraction of ejection of the left ventricle less 40% and the withdrawal of beta-blocker drugs. There are instruments that have been shown to predict the appearance of FAPCC. Prophylactic treatment with beta-blockers and amiodarone, is associated with a decrease in the appearance of FAPCC. Given its transient nature, it is suggested that the initial treatment of FAPCC be the heart rate control and only if the treatment does not achieve a return to sinus rhythm, the use of electrical cardioversion is suggested. It is unknown what should be the long-term follow-up and complications beyond this period are little known. FAPCC is not a benign or isolated arrhythmia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, so the identification of risk factors, their prevention, and follow-up in the outpatient setting, should be part of the units dedicated to the care and care of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 550-559, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Many publications on coronary surgery and carotid stenosis (CS) can be found, but we do not have enough information about the relationship between ischemic stroke, CS and non-coronary cardiac surgery. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors associated with the stroke and CS ≥50% in patients undergoing non-coronary surgeries. Objectives: We assessed 241 patients, aged 40 years or older, between 2009 and 2016, operated in Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil. We perform carotid Doppler in patients 40 years of age or older before any cardiac surgery as a routine. The incidence and possible risk factors for CS ≥50% and perioperative stroke were analyzed by univariate statistical analysis. Results: 11 patients (4.56%) presented perioperative stroke. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50%: OR=5.3750 (1.2909-22.3805), P=0.0208. Eighteen patients (7.46%) had CS ≥50% and their risk factors were extracardiac arteriopathy: OR=18.6607 (6.3644-54.7143), P<0.0001; COPD: OR=3.9040 (1.4491-10.5179), P=0.0071; diabetes mellitus: OR=2.9844 (1.0453-8.5204), P=0.0411; recent myocardial infarction: OR=13.8125 (1.8239-104.6052), P=0.0110; EuroSCORE II higher P=0.0056. Conclusion: The incidences of stroke and CS ≥50% were 4.56% and 7.46%, respectively. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50% and for CS ≥50% were extracardiac arteriopathy, COPD, diabetes mellitus, recent myocardial infarction and higher EuroSCORE II.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 511-516, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042045

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate Ebstein's anomaly surgical correction and its early and long-term outcomes. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 62 consecutive patients who underwent surgical repair of Ebstein's anomaly in our institution from January 2000 to July 2016. The following long-term outcomes were evaluated: survival, reoperations, tricuspid regurgitation, and postoperative right ventricular dysfunction. Results: Valve repair was performed in 46 (74.2%) patients - 12 of them using the Da Silva cone reconstruction; tricuspid valve replacement was performed in 11 (17.7%) patients; univentricular palliation in one (1.6%) patient; and the one and a half ventricle repair in four (6.5%) patients. The patients' mean age at the time of surgery was 20.5±14.9 years, and 46.8% of them were male. The mean follow-up time was 8.8±6 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 8.06% and the one and 10-year survival rates were 91.9% both. Eleven (17.7%) of the 62 patients required late reoperation due to tricuspid regurgitation, in an average time of 7.1±4.9 years after the first procedure. Conclusion: In our experience, the long-term results of the surgical treatment of Ebstein's anomaly demonstrate an acceptable survival rate and a low incidence of reinterventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Ebstein Anomaly/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ebstein Anomaly/complications , Ebstein Anomaly/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality
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