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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE00171, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1152647

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Sintetizar e analisar criticamente a literatura a respeito de potenciais biomarcadores associados à desfechos clínicos no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca em lactentes e crianças em cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Revisão integrativa, cuja busca ocorreu nos meses de setembro e dezembro de 2019, nas bases de dados MEDLINE, ISI of Knowledge, CENTRAL Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct e LILACS para responder à questão norteadora: "Quais as evidências científicas acerca de potenciais biomarcadores relacionados à desfechos clínicos no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca de lactentes e crianças em cuidado intensivo?" Foram incluídos artigos originais publicados entre 2000 e 2019, nos idiomas inglês, português ou espanhol. Excluiu-se toda a literatura cinzenta. Resultados: A amostra final foi constituída por oito artigos, sendo seis estudos observacionais prospectivos descritivos e dois coortes prospectivas. Na maioria dos estudos os pacientes pediátricos foram submetidos à técnica de Bypass Cardiopulmonar (BCP) intraoperatória durante cirurgia de cardiopatia congênita. Os potenciais biomarcadores analisados foram moléculas participantes de processos imune-inflamatórios, predominantemente citocinas pró-inflamatórias tais como IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 e o fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α) e seu receptor, ou citocinas anti-inflamatórias como a IL-10. Conclusão: As citocinas IL-6, IL-8 e IL-10, o cortisol e o lactato, apresentaram-se como moléculas promissoras para elucidação de mecanismos subjacentes a desfechos clínicos no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca em lactentes e/ou crianças em cuidado intensivo. Tais moléculas podem assumir um caráter preventivo, podendo futuramente ser utilizadas como ferramentas diagnósticas e prognósticas alternativas para um regime que permita identificar pacientes sob alto risco de desenvolver complicações clínicas nos pós-operatórios.


Resumen Objetivo: Sintetizar y analizar críticamente la literatura sobre potenciales biomarcadores relacionados con resultados clínicos en el posoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca de lactantes y niños en cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Revisión integradora, cuya búsqueda ocurrió en los meses de septiembre y diciembre de 2019, en las bases de datos MEDLINE, ISI of Knowledge, CENTRAL Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct y LILACS para responder la pregunta orientadora: "¿Cuáles son las evidencias científicas sobre potenciales biomarcadores relacionados con resultados clínicos en el posoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca de lactantes y niños en cuidados intensivos?". Se incluyeron artículos originales publicados entre los años 2000 y 2019, en idioma inglés, portugués o español. Se excluyó toda la literatura gris. Resultados: La muestra final fue formada por ocho artículos, de los cuales seis eran estudios observacionales prospectivos y dos cohortes prospectivas. En la mayoría de los estudios, los pacientes pediátricos fueron sometidos a la técnica de bypass cardiopulmonar (BCP) intraoperatoria durante la cirugía de cardiopatía congénita. Los potenciales biomarcadores analizados fueron moléculas participantes de procesos inmunoinflamatorios, predominantemente citocinas proinflamatorias tales como IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 y el factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-α) y su receptor, o citocinas antinflamatorias como la IL-10. Conclusión: Las citocinas IL-6, IL-8 e IL-10, el cortisol y el lactato, se presentaron como moléculas promisorias para explicar mecanismos subyacentes de los resultados clínicos en el posoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca de lactantes o niños en cuidados intensivos. Estas moléculas pueden asumir un carácter preventivo y, en un futuro, pueden utilizarse como herramientas alternativas de diagnóstico y pronóstico para un régimen que permita identificar pacientes con alto riesgo de presentar complicaciones clínicas en el posoperatorio.


Abstract Objective: To summarize and critically analyze the literature on potential biomarkers associated with clinical outcomes in the postoperative cardiac surgery period in infants and children under intensive care. Methods: Integrative review, whose search was carried out in September and December 2019 in the databases MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Science Direct, and Latin America and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information to answer the following guiding question: "What is the scientific evidence on potential biomarkers associated with clinical outcomes in the postoperative cardiac surgery period in infants and children under intensive care?". Original articles published between 2000 and 2019 in English, Spanish, or Portuguese were included. Gray literature was excluded. Results: Eight articles made up the final sample (six descriptive observational prospective studies and two prospective cohort studies). Most studies, pediatric patients were submitted to the intraoperative cardiopulmonary bypass technique during congenital heart disease surgeries. The potential biomarkers analyzed were molecules that participate in immune-inflammatory processes, mainly proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptor, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. Conclusion: The IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 cytokines, cortisol, and lactate showed as promising molecules for elucidating mechanisms underlying clinical outcomes in the postoperative cardiac surgery period in infants and/or children under intensive care. These molecules can take on a preventive role by being used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the future in a protocol that allows to identify patients with high risk to develop clinical complications during the postoperative period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pediatric Nursing , Thoracic Surgery , Biomarkers , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Heart Diseases/surgery , Heart Diseases/congenital , Postoperative Period , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Databases, Bibliographic , Observational Study
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 373-378, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152810

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Bleeding as a complication is associated with poorer results in cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that the use of blood products is an independent factor of increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Dyke et al. established the universal definition of perioperative bleeding (UDPB). This classification is more precise defining mortality in relation to the degree of bleeding. Methods: A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of a database of patients underwent cardiac surgery from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2017, was performed. The primary objective of the study was to look at mortality associated with the degree of bleeding using the UDPB. Results: A total of 918 patients who went to cardiac surgery were obtained. Most of the population was classified as insignificant bleeding class (n = 666, 72.9%), and for massive bleeding the lowest proportion (n = 25, 2.7%). For the primary outcome of 30-day mortality, a significant difference was found between the groups, observing that it increased to a higher degree of bleeding. This was corroborated by multivariate logistic regression analysis that was adjusted to EuroScore II and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, finding an independent association of the bleeding class with 30-day mortality (OR, 95%, 5.82 [2.22-15.26], p = 0.0001). Conclusions: We found that the higher the degree in UDPB was associated with higher mortality independently to EuroScore II and CPB duration for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Resumen Antecedentes: El sangrado como complicación está asociado a peores resultados en cirugía cardiaca. Existe una evidencia cada vez mayor que la transfusión de productos sanguíneos por si solo es un factor independiente de incremento en la morbilidad, mortalidad, y costos hospitalarios. Dyke y colaboradores establecieron la definición universal de sangrado perioperatorio. Esta clasificación es más precisa en definir mortalidad en relación con el grado de sangrado. Material y métodos: Se realizo un estudio descriptivo y analítico de tipo retrospectivo de una base de datos de pacientes que fueron a cirugía cardiaca del 1 enero del 2016 al 31 de diciembre del 2017. El objetivo primario del estudio fue observar la mortalidad asociada con el grado de sangrado utilizando la definición universal de sangrado perioperatorio. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 918 pacientes que fueron a cirugía cardiaca. La mayor parte de la población fue clasificada como clase de sangrado insignificante (n = 666, 72.9%), y para sangrado masivo la menor proporción (n = 25, 2.7%). En el desenlace primario de mortalidad a 30 días se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los grupos, observando que aumentada a mayor clase de sangrado. Esto fue corroborado mediante un análisis multivariado regresión logística que fue ajustado a con EuroScore II y el tiempo de bomba de circulación extracorpórea, encontrando una asociación independiente de la clase de sangrado con mortalidad a 30 días (OR, 95%, 5.82 [2.22-15.26], p = 0.0001). Conclusiones: Encontramos que cuanto mayor era el grado en la UDPB se asociaba con una mayor mortalidad independientemente de EuroScore II y la duración del bypass cardiopulmonar para pacientes adultos sometidos a cirugía cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Postoperative Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Postoperative Hemorrhage/classification , Critical Care , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Mexico , Terminology as Topic
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 436-443, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the effect of continuous lung ventilation with low tidal volume on oxidation parameters, such as thiol/disulphide homeostasis and albumin-adjusted ischemia-modified albumin (AAIMA), during cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Seventy-four patients who underwent elective CABG with CPB were included in the study. Blood samples were taken in the preoperative period, 10 minutes after CPB, and six and 24 hours postoperatively. Patients were assigned to the continuous ventilation group (Group 1, n=37) and the non-ventilated group (Group 2, n=37). The clinical characteristics, thiol/disulphide homeostasis, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and AAIMA levels of the patients were compared. Results: A significant difference was found between the groups regarding native thiol, total thiol, and IMA levels at the postoperative 24th hour (P=0.030, P=0.031, and P=0.004, respectively). There was no difference between the groups in terms of AAIMA. AAIMA levels returned to preoperative levels in Groups 1 and 2, at the 6th and 24th postoperative hours, respectively. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in Group 1 (P<0.001) than in Group 2. Conclusion: Continuous ventilation during CPB caused an increase in native and total thiol levels, an earlier return of AAIMA levels, and shorter hospital stay. Continuous ventilation may reduce the negative effects of CPB on myocardium (Table 2, Figure 1, and Reference 31).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Sulfhydryl Compounds/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Disulfides/blood , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Lung Injury/etiology , Serum Albumin, Human , Homeostasis/physiology , Antioxidants
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 335-343, Jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013465

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To reveal the risk factors that can lead to a complicated course and an increased morbidity in patients < 1 year old after surgical ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure. Methods: We reviewed a consecutive series of patients who were admitted to our institution for surgical VSD closure who were under one year of age, between 2015 and 2018. Mechanical ventilation (MV) time > 24 hours, intensive care unit (ICU) stay longer than three days, and hospital stay longer than seven days were defined as "prolonged". Unplanned reoperation, complete heart block requiring a permanent pacemaker implantation, sudden circulatory arrest, and death were considered as significant major adverse events (MAE). Results: VSD closure was performed in 185 patients. The median age was five (1-12) months. There was prolonged MV time in 54 (29.2%) patients. Four patients (2.2%) required permanent pacemaker implantation. Hemodynamically significant residual VSD was observed in six (3.2%) patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed in one (0.5%) patient. Small age (< 4 months) (P-value<0.001) and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (P=0.03) were found to delay extubation and to prolong MV time. Low birth weight at the operation was associated with MAE (P=0.03). Conclusion: Higher body weight during operation had a reducing effect on the MAE frequency and shortened the MV duration, ICU stay, and hospital stay. As a conclusion, for patients who are scheduled to undergo VSD closure, body weight should be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Wound Closure Techniques/adverse effects , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/surgery , Time Factors , Body Weight , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(2): 156-164, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objetive: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) improved symptoms and increased survival and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. However, it should be the main cause of a complex organic systemic inflammatory response that greatly contributes to several postoperative adverse effects. Methods: We aimed to evaluate heat-shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression as a morbimortality predictor in patients with preserved ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to determine their association with the lactate as a marker of tissue hypoperfusion and the EuroSCORE risk score. This is a prospective, observational study including 46 patients and occurring between May and July 2016. Patients without ventricular dysfunction undergoing myocardial revascularization with extracorporeal circulation were included. They were divided into (1) complicated and (2) uncomplicated postoperative evolution groups. EuroSCORE, lactate levels, and HSP 70 expression and their correlations were determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the group with complicated evolution had higher EuroSCORE values than the other group. HSP 70 protein levels were significantly increased in the group with uncomplicated evolution and showed similar results. According to our results, HSP family proteins may be independent predictors of uncomplicated evolution in patients without ventricular dysfunction undergoing CABG with CPB. Conclusion: HSP 70 should be a good discriminator and protection marker for complications in cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Risk Assessment/methods , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/analysis , Lactic Acid/blood , Preoperative Period , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Logistic Models , Blotting, Western , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Myocardium/pathology
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 535-541, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the inflammation resulting from myocardial revascularization techniques with and without cardiopulmonary bypass, based on ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP) behavior. Methods: A prospective non-randomized clinical study with 136 patients was performed. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled for Group 1 (on-pump coronary artery bypass - ONCAB) and 67 patients were assigned to Group 2 (off-pump coronary artery bypass - OPCAB). All study participants had blood samples collected for analysis of glucose, triglycerides, creatinine, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and creatinephosphokinase (CPK) in the preoperative period. The samples of creatinephosphokinase MB (CKMB), troponin I (TnI) and US-CRP were collected in the preoperative period and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours after surgery. We also analyzed the preoperative biological variables of each patient (age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, left coronary trunk lesion, body mass index, previous myocardial infarction, myocardial fibrosis). All angiographically documented patients with >70% proximal multiarterial stenosis and ischemia, documented by stress test or classification of stable angina (class II or III), according to the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, were included. Reoperations, combined surgeries, recent acute myocardial infarction, recent inflammatory disease, deep venous thrombosis or recent pulmonary thromboembolism, acute kidney injury or chronic kidney injury were not included. Results: Correlation values between the US-CRP curve and the ONCAB group, the treatment effect and the analyzed biological variables did not present expressive results. Laboratory variables were evaluated and did not correlate with the applied treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion: The changes in the US-CRP at each moment evaluated from the postoperative period did not show any significance in relation to the surgical technique applied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Postoperative Period , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/blood
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 443-447, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Various surgical procedures for minimally invasive cardiac surgery have been described in recent decades as alternatives to median sternotomy. Cardiopulmonary bypass via femoral arterial and venous cannulation is the foundation of these procedures. In this study, we evaluated the mid-term outcomes of femoral cannulation performed with U-suture technique in patients undergoing robotic heart surgery. Methods: A total of 216 patients underwent robotic-assisted cardiac surgery between January 2013 and April 2017. Cardiopulmonary bypass was performed via femoral artery, jugular, and femoral vein cannulation, and a Chitwood clamp was used for aortic occlusion. A total of 192 patients attended the outpatient follow-up, and femoral arterial and venous flow pattern was examined using Doppler ultrasound (DUS) in 145 patients. Results: Hospital mortality occured in 4 of the 216 (1.85%) cases, but there was no late mortality in this patient group. Postoperatively, seroma (n=9, 4.69%) and cannulation site infection (n=3, 1.56%) were managed with outpatient treatment. DUS in 145 patients revealed triphasic flow pattern in the common femoral arteries in all patients except for 2 (1.38%). These patients were determined to have asymptomatic arterial stenosis. Chronic recanalized thrombus in the common femoral vein was also detected in 2 (1.38%) patients. Conclusion: Femoral artery cannulation with the U-suture technique can be successfully performed in robotic-assisted cardiac surgery, with good mid-term results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Femoral Artery , Femoral Vein
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 224-232, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958406

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Hemodilution is a concern in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a smaller dual tubing rather than a single larger inner diameter (ID) tubing in the venous limb to decrease prime volume has been a standard practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these tubing options. Methods: Four different CPB circuits primed with blood (hematocrit 30%) were investigated. Two setups were used with two circuits for each one. In Setup I, a neonatal oxygenator was connected to dual 3/16" ID venous limbs (Circuit A) or to a single 1/4" ID venous limb (Circuit B); and in Setup II, a pediatric oxygenator was connected to dual 1/4" ID venous limbs (Circuit C) or a single 3/8" ID venous limb (Circuit D). Trials were conducted at arterial flow rates of 500 ml/min up to 1500 ml/min (Setup I) and up to 3000 ml/min (Setup II), at 36°C and 28°C. Results: Circuit B exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit A, and Circuit D exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit C, at both temperatures. Flow resistance was significantly higher in Circuits A and C than in Circuits B (P<0.001) and D (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: A single 1/4" venous limb is better than dual 3/16" venous limbs at all flow rates, up to 1500 ml/min. Moreover, a single 3/8" venous limb is better than dual 1/4" venous limbs, up to 3000 ml/min. Our findings strongly suggest a revision of perfusion practice to include single venous limb circuits for CPB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygenators/standards , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/instrumentation , Cannula/standards , Pediatrics/instrumentation , Reference Standards , Temperature , Time Factors , Venous Pressure/physiology , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Equipment Design , Equipment Safety , Hemodilution , Models, Cardiovascular
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 122-128, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare early postoperative outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with sutureless bioprostheses and conventional stented bioprostheses implanted through median sternotomy. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2016, 763 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with bioprostheses; of these, 139 received a Perceval S sutureless valve (Group A) and 624 received a Perimount Magna Ease valve (Group B). These groups were further divided into A1 (isolated Perceval AVR), A2 (Perceval AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]), B1 (isolated conventional stented bioprosthesis), and B2 (conventional stented bioprosthesis + CABG). Results: Patients in Group A were older (mean 74 years vs. 71 years; P<0.0001), predominantly women (53% vs. 32%; P<0.0001), had a higher logistic EuroSCORE (3.26 vs. 2.43; P<0.001), more preoperative atrial fibrillation (20% vs. 13%; P=0.03), and had a lower reopening rate for bleeding (2.1% vs. 6.7%; P=0.04). Compared to Group B1, Group A1 had shorter cross-clamp (mean 40 min vs. 57 min; P≤0.0001) and bypass times (mean 63 min vs. mean 80 min; P=0.02), and they bled less postoperatively (mean 295 ml vs. mean 393 ml; P=0.002). The mean gradient across Perceval valve was 12.5 mmHg while its effective orifice area was 1.5 cm2. Conclusion: In our retrospective study of 763 patients, sutureless valve group patients are older, mostly women, more symptomatic preoperatively, and have higher logistic EuroSCORE. They have shorter cross-clamp and bypass times, less postoperative bleeding, and reduced incidence of reopening. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefits in short, mid, and long-terms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Bioprosthesis/standards , Heart Valve Prosthesis/standards , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Aortic Valve/surgery , Postoperative Period , Prosthesis Design , Time Factors , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constriction , Sternotomy/methods , Sutureless Surgical Procedures/methods
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 143-150, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958392

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Hypothermic circulatory arrest is widely used for correction of acute type A aortic dissection pathology. We present our experience of 45 consecutive patients operated in our unit with bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion and moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest. Methods: Between January 2011 and April 2015, 45 consecutive patients were admitted for acute type A aortic dissection and operated emergently under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion. Results: Mean age was 58±11.4 years old. Median circulatory arrest time was 41.5 (30-54) minutes while the 30-day mortality and postoperative permanent neurological deficits rates were 6.7% and 13.3%, respectively. Unadjusted analysis revealed that the factors associated with 30-day mortality were: preoperative hemodynamic instability (OR: 14.8, 95% CI: 2.41, 90.6, P=0.004); and postoperative requirement for open sternum management (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.041, 24.02, P=0.044) while preoperative hemodynamic instability (OR: 8.8, 95% CI: 1.41, 54.9, P=0.02) and postoperative sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction (OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 89.9, P=0.007) were correlated with neurological dysfunction. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, postoperative sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction independently predicted (OR: 15.9, 95% CI: 1.05, 96.4, P=0.045) the incidence of severe postoperative neurological complication. During median follow-up of 6 (2-12) months, the survival rate was 86.7%. Conclusion: Bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion and direct carotid perfusion for cardiopulmonary bypass, in the surgical treatment for correction of acute aortic dissection type A, is a valuable technique with low 30-day mortality rate. However, postoperative severe neurological dysfunctions remain an issue that warrants further research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Aneurysm/surgery , Brain/blood supply , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Reperfusion/methods , Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced/methods , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm/mortality , Postoperative Complications , Time Factors , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion/mortality , Logistic Models , Acute Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced/adverse effects , Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced/mortality , Hemodynamics , Aneurysm, Dissecting/mortality , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 203-205, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958389

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sickle cell anemia is a haematological disorder characterized by multiple vaso-occlusive complications, resulting in a reduced life expectancy. These patients are exposed to several triggering factors for sickle cell crises when they are submitted to cardiovascular surgeries with extracorporeal circulation. Therefore, meticulous care and perioperative management are required. This paper reports a successful case of combined cardiovascular surgery - aortic valve replacement and ascending aortic aneurysmectomy - with no serious post-operative complications. In this report, we emphasize the peculiarities of perioperative care in patients with sickle cell anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aorta/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm/surgery , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Heart Failure/surgery , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Treatment Outcome , Perioperative Care/methods
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 183-188, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958400

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: On pump beating/non-beating coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) has been compared in patients with unstable angina and/or severe left ventricular dysfunction. There is scarce evidence regarding the beneficial use of on-pump beating CABG in patients with stable angina and normal left ventricular function. Our aim was to study the postoperative results using both techniques in this group of patients. Methods: One thousand one hundred and forty-five patients with stable angina underwent on-pump isolated CABG in Uruguay from 2011 to 2015. Patients were grouped into beating/non-beating CABG. Operative mortality and long-term survival were evaluated as primary outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to define the predictive role of aortic cross clamp (AXC) on prolonged inotropic support, ventilator support and intraoperative glycemia. Results: Among the included patients, 988 underwent aortic cross clamp. No differences were found in operative mortality, stroke and long-term survival among both groups. Patients without AXC showed higher intraoperative values of glycemia and higher incidence of postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilator support (7.6% vs. 2.4%; P=0.001). The need for prolonged inotropic support was lower in this group of patients (27.4% vs. 49.5%; P<0.001). Conclusion: On-pump beating CABG has similar operative mortality and long-term survival compared with conventional AXC. Higher intraoperative glycemia and higher incidence for prolonged mechanical ventilator is associated with on-pump beating CABG. On the contrary, higher incidence for prolonged inotropic support is associated with AXC. Taking these factors into consideration, both techniques are safe and allow the surgeon to choose the most comfortable option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/surgery , Angina, Stable/surgery , Time Factors , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Logistic Models , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Constriction , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Angina, Stable/mortality
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897989

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the perioperative incidence rates of hemolysis and inflammatory response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with the two main types of cardiopulmonary bypass, centrifugal and roller pumps, and establish correlations among hemolytic and inflammatory changes. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized trial of 60 patients assigned to either roller pump (G1, n=30) or centrifugal pump (G2, n=30) bypass. Markers of hemolysis (serum haptoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) were measured and analyzed. Results: There was no significant between-group difference in the variables of interest. In G1, there was a positive association with IL-6 and TNF-α (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). In G2, there was a positive association with LDH in the postoperative period (P<0.5). At 24h post-cardiopulmonary bypass, there were positive associations between LDH and IL-1ß (P<0.05), LDH and TNF-α (P<0.01), haptoglobin and TNF-α (P<0.05), and LDH and TNF-α (P<0.01) in G1, and between LDH and IL-6 (P<0.01), LDH and TNF-α (P<0.01), and LDH and IL-6 (P<0.01) in G2. Conclusion: There were no significant between-group differences in markers of hemolysis or inflammation. IL-6 and TNF-α were positively associated with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in G1, while LDH was positively associated with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in G2. The rate of significant associations between markers of hemolysis and inflammation was higher in the roller pump group (G1). Registration number: ReBEC (RBR-92b9dg).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , Hemolysis , Inflammation/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Perioperative Period
14.
Clinics ; 73: e178, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to apply a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to investigate the free propofol plasma levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions compared with the off-pump procedure. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions (n=10) or the equivalent off-pump surgery (n=9) were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol target-controlled infusion (2 μg/mL) during surgery. The propofol concentration was then reduced to 1 μg/mL, and a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using the maximum-effect-sigmoid model obtained by plotting the bispectral index values against the free propofol plasma levels was performed. RESULTS: Significant increases (two- to five-fold) in the free propofol plasma levels were observed in the patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions. The pharmacokinetics of propofol varied according to the free drug levels in the hypothermic on-pump group versus the off-pump group. After hypothermic coronary artery bypass was initiated, the distribution volume increased, and the distribution half-life was prolonged. Propofol target-controlled infusion was discontinued when orotracheal extubation was indicated, and the time to patient extubation was significantly higher in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group (459 versus 273 min, p=0.0048). CONCLUSIONS: The orotracheal intubation time was significantly longer in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group. Additionally, residual hypnosis was identified through the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach based on decreases in drug plasma protein binding in the hypothermic on-pump group, which could explain the increased hypnosis observed with this drug in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Propofol/pharmacokinetics , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacokinetics , Hypothermia, Induced , Propofol/blood , Anesthetics, Intravenous/blood , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Consciousness Monitors , Operative Time , Hypnosis, Anesthetic/standards
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 523-529, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897959

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article describes our proposal for routine anesthesia, intraoperative medical management, cerebral and physiological monitoring during pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass that intend to provide appropriate anesthesia (analgesia, hypnosis), neuroprotection, adequate cerebral and systemic oxygen supply, and preventing against drugs neurotoxicity. A concise retrospective data is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Neuroprotection , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Clinical Protocols , Monitoring, Intraoperative
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(4): 270-275, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Midline sternotomy is the preferred approach for device migration following transcatheter device closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Results of patients operated for device migration were retrospectively reviewed after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Methods: Among the 643 patients who underwent atrial septal defect with closure device, 15 (2.3%) patients were referred for device retrieval and surgical closure of atrial septal defect. Twelve patients underwent device retrieval and surgical closure of atrial septal defect through right antero-lateral minithoracotomy with femoral cannulation. Three patients were operated through midline sternotomy. Results: Twelve patients operated through minithoracotomy did not require conversion to sternotomy. Due to device migration to site of difficult access through thoracotomy, cardiac tamponade and hemodynamic instability, respectively, three patients were operated through midline sternotomy. Mean aortic cross-clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 28.1±17.7 and 58.3±20.4 minutes, respectively. No patient had surgical complication or mortality. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1.6±0.5 days and 7.1±2.2 days, respectively. Postoperative echocardiography confirmed absence of any residual defect and ventricular dysfunction. In a mean follow-up period of six months, no mortality was observed. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I without wound or vascular complication. Conclusion: Minithoracotomy with femoral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe-approach for selected group of patients with device migration following transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defect without increasing the risk of cardiac, vascular or neurological complications and with good cosmetic and surgical results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thoracotomy/methods , Foreign-Body Migration/surgery , Septal Occluder Device/adverse effects , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/surgery , Catheterization/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Retrospective Studies , Foreign-Body Migration/complications , Treatment Outcome , Femoral Artery , Sternotomy/methods , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 228-230, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897906

ABSTRACT

Abstract The development of left atrial myxoma after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is a rare entity. A 60-year-old man with previous off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting four years ago with patent coronary grafts was diagnosed with left atrial mass. The patient underwent successful resection of the same through minimally invasive right anterolateral thoracotomy. Histopathology of the atrial mass confirmed the diagnosis of atrial myxoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Heart Neoplasms/etiology , Heart Neoplasms/pathology , Myxoma/etiology , Myxoma/pathology , Reoperation , Time Factors , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Sternotomy/methods , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Myxoma/surgery
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(2): 111-117, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843472

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The biggest challenge faced in minimally invasive pediatric cardiac surgery is cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. Our technique and experience of cervical cannulation in infants and small children for repair of congenital cardiac defects is reported in this study. METHODS: From January 2013 to June 2015, 37 children (22 males) with mean age of 17.97±8.63 months and weight of 8.06±1.59 kg were operated on for congenital cardiac defects through right lateral thoracotomy. The most common diagnosis was ventricular septal defect (18 patients). In all patients, right common carotid artery, right internal jugular vein and inferior vena cava were cannulated for institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and aorta was cross clamped through right 2nd intercostal space. RESULTS: There were no deaths or any major complications related to cervical cannulation. Common carotid artery cannulation provided adequate arterial inflow while internal jugular vein with inferior vena cava provided adequate venous return in all patients. No patient required conversion to sternotomy or developed vascular, neurological or wound related complications. Three patients had residual lesions (small leak across ventricular septal defect patch-2, Grade II left atrio-ventricular valve regurgitation-1) and one patient had mild left ventricular dysfunction. At discharge, both common carotid artery and internal jugular vein were patent on color Doppler ultrasonography in all patients. In a mean follow-up period of 11.4±2.85 months, all patients were doing well. No patient had any wound related, neurological or vascular complication. No patient had residual leak across ventricular septal defect patch. CONCLUSION: Cervical cannulation of common carotid artery and internal jugular vein is a safe, reliable, efficient and quick method for institution of cardiopulmonary bypass in minimally invasive pediatric cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior , Catheterization/methods , Carotid Artery, Common , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Jugular Veins , Postoperative Period , Thoracotomy/methods , Catheterization/instrumentation , Echocardiography , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Retrospective Studies , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/surgery , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/diagnostic imaging
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(2): 209-215, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844601

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) es una complicación asociada a la cirugía cardíaca con circulación extracorpórea (CEC) con impacto en la morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a IRA posquirúrgica de acuerdo a la escala pRIFLE (pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease) en niños intervenidos de cirugía cardiaca con CEC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte. Se incluyó a pacientes menores a 16 años de edad que ingresaron en una unidad de terapia intensiva pediátrica posterior a cirugía cardiaca con CEC en un período de 18 meses. Los casos fueron quienes desarrollaron IRA de acuerdo a la clasificación pRIFLE durante su estancia en la unidad de terapia intensiva. Los controles fueron aquellos que no desarrollaron esta complicación. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 91 pacientes (31 casos y 60 controles) con una mediana de edad de 20 meses y predominio del sexo masculino (53,8%). Los factores de riesgo independientes para IRA fueron la hiperlactatemia transoperatoria > 6 mmol/l (OR = 4,91; IC 95%:1,26-19,05; p = 0,02) y las cardiopatías cianógenas (OR = 3,62; IC 95%:1,11-11,63; p = 0,03). CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio permitió identificar que los pacientes pediátricos con niveles de lactato > 6 mmol/l durante la CEC y aquellos con cardiopatías congénitas cianógenas son un subgrupo de alto riesgo para desarrollar IRA tras cirugía cardiaca y deben vigilarse estrechamente para prevenir, detectar y/o tratar de forma oportuna dicha complicación.


Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication associated with cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with an impact on morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with postoperative IRA according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A nested case-control study was conducted. We included children under 16 years of age attended postoperative for CBP in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 18 months. The cases were those who developed ARF according to the classification pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale during their stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Controls were those who did not develop this complication. Logistic regression analysis was performed and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: 91 patients (31 cases and 60 controls) with a median age of 20 months and predominance of males (53.8%) were analyzed. Independent risk factors for ARF were the intraoperative lactate level > 6 mmol/l (OR = 4.91; 95% CI 1.26-19.05; p = .02) and cyanotic heart disease (OR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.11-11.63; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that pediatric patients with lactate levels >6 mmol/l during CPB and those with cyanotic congenital heart disease are a subgroup of high risk to develop ARF after heart surgery and should be closely monitored to prevent, detect and/or treat this complication timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(5): 343-350, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Usually only FDA-approved oxygenators are subject of studies by the international scientific community. The objective of this study is to evaluate two types of neonatal membrane oxygenators in terms of transmembrane pressure gradient, hemodynamic energy transmission and gaseous microemboli capture in simulated cardiopulmonary bypass systems. Methods: We investigated the Braile Infant 1500 (Braile Biomédica, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil), an oxygenator commonly used in Brazilian operating rooms, and compared it to the Dideco Kids D100 (Sorin Group, Arvada, CO, USA), that is an FDA-approved and widely used model in the USA. Cardiopulmonary bypass circuits were primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (Hematocrit 40%). Trials were conducted at flow rates of 500 ml/min and 700 ml/min at 35ºC and 25ºC. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. For gaseous microemboli testing, 5cc of air were manually injected into the venous line. Gaseous microemboli were recorded using the Emboli Detection and Classification Quantifier. Results: Braile Infant 1500 had a lower pressure drop (P<0.01) and a higher total hemodynamic energy delivered to the pseudopatient (P<0.01). However, there was a higher raw number of gaseous microemboli seen prior to oxygenator at lower temperatures with the Braile oxygenator compared to the Kids D100 (P<0.01). Conclusion: Braile Infant 1500 oxygenator had a better hemodynamic performance compared to the Dideco Kids D100 oxygenator. Braile had more gaseous microemboli detected at the pre-oxygenator site under hypothermia, but delivered a smaller percentage of air emboli to the pseudopatient than the Dideco oxygenator.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygenators, Membrane/standards , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Embolism, Air/prevention & control , Hemodynamics/physiology , Equipment Design , Models, Cardiovascular
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