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2.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(3): 196-202, 30-09-2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128391

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar a existência de informações, em bulas destinadas aos profissionais de saúde, sobre precaução de uso de medicamentos cardiovasculares em idosos. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de estudo documental realizado por meio de análise de dados contidos em bulas de medicamentos. Analisou-se a existência, na bula, de informações sobre precauções no uso de medicamentos para idosos, conforme descrito no Consenso Brasileiro de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados para Idosos de 2016. RESULTADOS: Dos 29 medicamentos pertencentes ao grupo do sistema cardiovascular que devem ser evitados por idosos e estão disponíveis no Brasil, 15 independem da condição clínica prévia do paciente para que sejam vetados para os idosos. Desses 15, apenas 3 medicamentos (20%) têm informações explícitas concordantes com o Consenso (metildopa, digoxina e espironolactona); 2 (13,33%) têm informações explícitas ausentes; 4 (26,66%) têm informações explícitas discordantes; e 6 bulas (40%) foram categorizadas como informações não explícitas. Quanto às precauções dos medicamentos de acordo com a condição clínica do paciente, incluíram-se 14 medicamentos que devem ser evitados por idosos e estão disponíveis no Brasil. Destes, 12 (85,71%) têm em suas bulas recomendações concordantes com o Consenso, porém não explícitas, e 2 (14,28%) não têm as contraindicações. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria das bulas carece de informações sobre precauções de uso de medicamentos para a população idosa.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the existence of information on drug labeling intended for health professionals on the precaution of cardiovascular drugs use in older people. METHODS: This is a documentary study, carried out with the analysis of data contained in drug labelings. The existence of information on precautions in the use of drugs for older people as described in the 2016 Brazilian Consensus on Potentially Inappropriate Drugs for Older People (Consenso Brasileiro de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados para Idosos de 2016). RESULTS: Of the 29 drugs belonging to the cardiovascular system group that should be avoided by older people and are available in Brazil, 15 are independent of the clinical condition. Of these fifteen, only three drugs (20%) have explicit information in accordance with the Consensus (methyldopa, digoxin, and spironolactone); two (13.33%) have missing explicit information; four (26.66%) have explicitly discordant information; and six drug labels (40%) were categorized as non-explicit information. Regarding drug precautions according to clinical condition, 14 drugs were included. Of these, 12 (85.71%) have equal contraindications of that of Consensus on their drug labels, however, non-explicit; and two (14.28%) contraindications are missing. CONCLUSION: Most drug labels lack information on the precautions for the use of drugs in older people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Medicine Package Inserts , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Health of the Elderly , Age Factors , Pharmacovigilance
3.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(2): 90-96, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1138761

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: improper use of medication is becoming more frequent and can cause physical or physiological damage. Objective: to determine the frequency of potentially inappropriate prescriptions of cardiovascular drugs according to Beers' criteria in a population of colombian patients. Method: cross-sectional study conducted during november 2016 using a population database of 326,192 adults over 65 years of age who were eligible to receive drugs included in the cardiovascular system category according to the Beers' criteria. The frequency of potentially inappropriate prescriptions was determined and investigated in relation to sociodemographic variables. Results: the mean subject age was 74.6±7.6 years (range:65-100 years). It was found that 11.3% (n=36894) of the elderly presented at least one potentially inappropriate prescription for cardiovascular conditions. The most frequent finding was the use of aspirin in patients older than 80 years of age followed by the use of prazosin for hypertension in patients over 65 years of age or in patients who consulted emergency services for syncope. The other criteria were present in less than 1% of patients, and in 16 out of 33 treatment drugs, no patients exposed to potentially inappropriate prescriptions were found. Within the criteria based on drug-drug interactions, the most frequent were loop diuretics along with prazosin (6.4%). Conclusions: the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in an elderly population of patients in Colombia is lower than that reported worldwide. In addition, there is a need to re-evaluate the Beers' criteria in this population and adjust the guidelines according to results of pharmacovigilance of active pharmaceutical substances available in Colombia.


Resumen Introducción: el uso incorrecto de medicamentos es cada vez más frecuente y puede causar daños físicos o fisiológicos. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de las prescripciones de medicamentos de uso cardiovascular potencialmente inapropiadas según criterios de Beers en una población de pacientes colombianos. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal, a partir de una base de datos de una población de 326.192 adultos mayores de 65 años, durante el mes de noviembre de 2016, susceptibles de recibir medicamentos incluidos en los criterios de Beers en la categoría de sistema cardiovascular, determinando la frecuencia de prescripciones potencialmente inapropiadas, así como la identificación de variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 74,6±7,6 años (rango 65-100 años). Se halló que el 11,3% (n=36894) de los ancianos tuvo al menos una prescripción potencialmente inapropiada para condiciones cardiovasculares. El criterio más frecuente fue el uso de aspirina en mayores de 80 años, seguido del empleo de prazosín para la hipertensión arterial en mayores de 65 años, o en pacientes que consultaron por síncope a los servicios de urgencias. Los demás criterios se presentaban en menos del 1% de pacientes y en 16 de 33 fármacos de cuidado no se halló ningún paciente expuesto. Entre los criterios basados en interacciones fármaco-fármaco, el más frecuente fue diuréticos de asa junto con prazosín (6,4%). Conclusiones: la prevalencia de prescripciones potencialmente inapropiadas en una población de ancianos colombianos es menor a la reportada en el mundo. Además, se plantea la necesidad de reevaluar los criterios de Beers en dicha población y ajustarlos de acuerdo con los informes de farmacovigilancia y principios activos disponibles en Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pharmacology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Geriatrics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cardiovascular Agents , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 34-38, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102292

ABSTRACT

Las mujeres han sido tratadas por décadas con testosterona intentando aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas con riesgos y beneficios inciertos. En la mayoría de los países, la testosterona se prescribe "off-label", de modo que las mujeres están utilizando compuestos y dosis ideadas para tratamientos en hombres. En este sentido, varias sociedades médicas de distintos continentes adoptaron recientemente por consenso una toma de posición sobre los beneficios y potenciales riesgos de la terapia con testosterona en la mujer, explorar las áreas de incertidumbre e identificar prácticas de prescripción con potencial de causar daño. Las recomendaciones con respecto a los beneficios y riesgos de la terapia con testosterona se basan en los resultados de ensayos clínicos controlados con placebo de al menos 12 semanas de duración. A continuación se comentan las recomendaciones. (AU)


There are currently no clear established indications for testosterone replacement therapy for women. Nonetheless, clinicians have been treating women with testosterone to alleviate a variety of symptoms for decades with uncertainty regarding its benefits and risks. In most countries, testosterone therapy is prescribed off-label, which means that women are using testosterone formulations or compounds approved for men with a modified dose for women. Due to these issues, there was a need for a global Consensus Position Statement on testosterone therapy for women based on the available evidence from placebo randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This Position Statement was developed to inform health care professionals about the benefits and potential risks of testosterone therapy intended for women. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clear guidance as to which women might benefit from testosterone therapy; to identify symptoms, signs, and certain conditions for which the evidence does not support the prescription of testosterone; to explore areas of uncertainty, and to identify any prescribing practices that have the potential to cause harm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Postmenopause/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Placebos/administration & dosage , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Testosterone/analysis , Testosterone/adverse effects , Testosterone/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Indomethacin/adverse effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/adverse effects , Postmenopause/physiology , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Cholinergic Antagonists/adverse effects , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/etiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/therapy , Danazol/adverse effects , Consensus , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Off-Label Use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Amphetamines/adverse effects , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens/physiology , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Narcotics/adverse effects
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 948-957, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Backgrund: New-onset atrial fibrillation complicating acute myocardial infarction represents an important challenge, with prognostic significance. Objective: To study the incidence, impact on therapy and mortality, and to identify predictors of development of new-onset atrial fibrillation during hospital stay for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: We studied all patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction included consecutively, between 2010 and 2017, in a Portuguese national registry and compared two groups: 1 - no atrial fibrillation and 2 - new-onset atrial fibrillation. We adjusted a logistic regression model data analysis to assess the impact of new-onset atrial fibrillation on in-hospital mortality and to identify independent predictors of its development. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We studied 6325 patients, and new-onset atrial fibrillation was found in 365 (5.8%). Reperfusion was successfully accomplished in both groups with no difference regarding type of reperfusion. In group 2, therapy with beta-blockers and angiotensin-conversion enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was less frequent, 20.6% received anticoagulation at discharge and 16.1% were on triple therapy. New-onset atrial fibrillation was associated with more in-hospital complications and mortality. However, it was not found as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. We identified age, prior stroke, inferior myocardial infarction and complete atrioventricular block as independent predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: New-onset atrial fibrillation remains a frequent complication of myocardial infarction and is associated with higher rate of complications and in-hospital mortality. Age, prior stroke, inferior myocardial infarction and complete atrioventricular block were independent predictors of new onset atrial fibrillation. Only 36.7% of the patients received anticoagulation at discharge.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação auricular de novo no contexto de infarto agudo do miocárdio representa um importante desafio com potencial impacto prognóstico. Objetivo: Determinar a incidência, impacto na terapêutica e mortalidade, e identificar possíveis preditores do aparecimento de fibrilação auricular de novo durante o internamento por infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST. Métodos: Estudamos todos os pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST inseridos consecutivamente de 2010 a 2017 num registro nacional português e comparamos dois grupos: 1 - sem fibrilação auricular; 2- com fibrilação auricular de novo. Efetuamos análise com modelo de regressão logística para avaliar o impacto de fibrilação auricular de novo na mortalidade intra-hospitalar e identificar preditores independentes para o seu aparecimento. Para teste de hipóteses, considerou-se significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Estudamos 6325 pacientes, dos quais 365 (5.8%) apresentaram fibrilação auricular de novo. Não houve diferença no número de pacientes reperfundidos nem na estratégia de reperfusão. No grupo 2, terapêutica com betabloqueadores e IECA/ARA foi menos frequente, 20.6% tiveram alta sob anticoagulação oral e 16.1% sob terapêutica tripla. A fibrilação auricular de novo associou-se a maior incidência de complicações e mortalidade intra-hospitalar, mas não foi preditor independente de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Identificamos idade, acidente vascular cerebral prévio, infarto inferior e bloqueio auriculoventricular completo como preditores independentes de fibrilação auricular de novo. Conclusões: A fibrilação auricular de novo continua sendo uma complicação frequente do infarto agudo do miocárdio, estando associada a aumento das complicações e mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Apenas 36.7% desses pacientes teve alta sob anticoagulação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stents/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Portugal/epidemiology , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion/mortality , Incidence , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Hospital Mortality , Coronary Angiography , Thrombectomy/mortality , Stroke/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(3): 330-333, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043154

ABSTRACT

Background: Pharmacological treatment improves survival in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The use of sacubutril/valsartan and ivabradine has been recently approved and incorporated in the latest guidelines. Aim: To identify candidates eligible for these therapies among patients treated in a heart failure clinic, considering the inclusion criteria for the PARADIGM-HF and SHIFT trials. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study on 158 patients aged 62 ± 11 years (67% male) with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, with at least three months of follow-up and without decompensation. The percentage of patients complying for the inclusion criteria for the PARADIGM-HF y SHIFT trials was determined. Results: In 37%, the etiology of heart failure was ischemic, 49% were in functional class I, their ejection fraction was 33 ± 11% and their median Pro-brain natriuretic peptide was 800 pg/mL. Ninety five percent were treated with vasodilators, 97% with beta-blockers and 82% with aldosterone antagonists. Using PARADIGM-HF and SHIFT criteria, 11 patients (7%) were eligible for sacubitril / valsartan and 21 patients (13.3%) for ivabradine. Among the main causes of non-eligibility for sacubitril / valsartan were being functional class I (48.7%) and not achieving a stable dose of enalapril ≥ 20 mg / day or losartan ≥ 100 mg / day (24.7%). In the case of ivabradine, apart from those in functional class I, the absence of sinus rhythm and a heart rate < 70 / min when receiving a maximal tolerated dose of beta-blockers, were present in 22%. Conclusions: A low percentage of our patients were eligible for these therapies. Among the causes that explain these results were clinical stability, a high percentage of patients in functional class I and being in a disease modifying treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Ivabradine/administration & dosage , Aminobutyrates/administration & dosage , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Selection , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/physiopathology
8.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 20(2): 14-21, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990966

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción y objetivos: La insuficiencia cardíaca es una patología que afecta a la población adulta mundial; se estima que más de 23 millones de personas en el mundo la padecen, siendo esta una de las principales causas de mortalidad cardiovascular. Dicha investigación buscó evaluar la terapia utilizada en un ambiente hospitalario privado y su correlación con respecto a las guías internacionales; todo esto con el fin de proyectar el posible impacto sobre la morbimortalidad del paciente. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional retrospectivo analizando múltiples variables obtenidas de los expedientes físicos y electrónicos de todos los pacientes adultos hospitalizados por insuficiencia cardiaca en el Hos pital Clínica Bíblica enero 2014 y diciembre 2016, para comparar la farmacoterapia utilizada con la definida por las guías terapéuticas seleccionadas. Resultados: Se analizaron 72 pacientes, de los cuales 35% estaba entre 81-90 años, 58% eran hombres; 61% estuvieron hospitalizados entre 1-5 días (61%), 9 ingresaron por rehospitalización y el resto fue por primera vez; 69 fueron egresados y 3 fallecieron. La estrategia terapéutica más utilizada en estos pacientes fue un betabloqueador en conjunto con un antagonista del receptor de angiotensina y un diurético de asa. Un 78% mantuvo un tratamiento adecuado según las guías. Conclusiones: El abordaje farmacoterapéutico de los pacientes con falla cardiaca fue satisfac torio, estuvo en la mayoría de los casos de acuerdo con las guías clínicas, por lo que se podría esperar beneficios en torno a la mortalidad, tiempo de hospitalización y tasa de rehospitalización.


Abstract Pharmacotherapy of heart failure: analysis of cases of hospitalized patients in a private health center in Costa Rica Objective: Heart failure is a disease that affects a highly proportion of the adult population worldwide; about 23 million people endure this ailment, being one of the main causes of cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the correlation between the current therapy in a hospital setting and international guidelines, as well as the impact on morbidity and mortality. Methods: Observational prospective study, to analyze multiple variables from physical and electronic registers from all hospitalized patients for heart failure at Hospital Clínica Bíblica from January 2014 to December 2016, with the intention to compare the prescribed therapy at the hospital with selected therapeutical guidelines. Results: There were 72 patients, from which 35% were between 81 and 90 years old, 58% were men, 61% were hospitalized between 1-5 days, 9 were readmitted and 63 had their first admission, 69 were discharged and 3 perished. Conclusions: The pharmacotherapeutic approach in patients with heart failure has had a satisfactory evolution, and it's according to clinical guidelines, which could have repercussions regarding the reduction of mortality rates, hospitalization stays and rehospitalization rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases , Evidence-Based Medicine , Costa Rica , Heart Failure/drug therapy
9.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 20(2): 22-36, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990967

ABSTRACT

Resumen La insuficiencia cardiaca es una de las principales enfermedades a nivel cardiaco debido a su mayor riesgo de mortalidad y de hospitalizaciones por descompensaciones agudas o por presencia de novo de falla cardiaca, por eso en los últimos años se desarrollaron a partir de estudios clínicos randomizados, medicamentos que mejoraran estos eventos, a partir del estudio PARADIGM-HF. Con el surgimiento de sacubitril/valsartan se evaluó su efecto en diferentes escenarios, así el enfoque de este artículo se basa en la revisión de artículos con el objetivo de analizar la importancia de los efectos be neficiosos del sacubitril/valsartan en comparación con enalapril en diferentes análisis y subestudios basado en el estudio PARADIGM-HF, en los cuales se evaluó el impacto del sacubitril/valsartan en diabetes mellitus tipo 2, en la función renal, hipertensión arterial, a nivel de mortalidad y seguridad, a nivel de edad, de hiperkalemia e hiperkalemia severa, en los factores asociados con la falta de cumplimiento durante el período de ejecución antes de la aleatorización y la influen cia en el beneficio estimado de sacubitril/valsartan en el ensayo PARADIGM-HF, eficacia de sacubitril/valsartan con dosis metas bajas, tolerabilidad y seguridad en el inicio de sacubitril/valsartan en insuficiencia cardiaca, efectos de sacubitril/ valsartan asociado a antagonistas de receptores de mineralocorticoides en la reducción de hiperkalemia, implicaciones en el pronóstico de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección reducida con los cambios de pépti dos natriuréticos, eficacia y seguridad de sacubitril/valsartan en distintos rangos de edades, efecto del fármaco sobre la terapia de fondo utilizada en insuficiencia cardiaca y eficacia e influencia de sacubitril/valsartan en la fracción de eyección y desenlace primario.


Abstract Descriptores: sacubitril/valsartan, enalapril, insuficiencia cardiaca, péptidos natriureticos Heart failure is one of the main diseases at the cardiac level due to its higher risk of mortality and hospitalizations due to acute decompensation or de novo heart failure, which is why in recent years they were developed from randomized clinical trials. medicines that will improve these events, from there and from the PARADIGM-HF study. From the emergence of sacubitril / valsartan its effect was evaluated in different scenarios, hence the focus of this article was based on the review of articles and with the aim of analyzing the importance of the beneficial effects of sacubitril / valsartan compared to enalapril in different analyzes and substudies from the PARADIGM-HF study, which will evaluate the impact of sacubitril / valsartan in type 2 diabetes mellitus, in renal function, arterial hypertension, in terms of mortality and safety, in terms of age, hyperkalemia and severe hyperkalemia, in the factors associated with non-compliance during the execution period before randomization and the influence on the estimated benefit of sacubitril / valsartan in the PARADIGM-HF trial, efficacy of sacubitril / valsartan with low target doses , tolerability and safety at the onset of sacubitril / valsartan in heart failure, effects of sacubitril / valsartan associated with antag of mineralocorticoid receptors in the reduction of hyperkalemia, implications in the prognosis of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction with changes in natriuretic peptides, efficacy and safety of sacubitril / valsartan in different age ranges, effect of the drug on the background therapy used in heart failure and the efficacy and influence of sacubitril / valsartan on the ejection fraction and primary outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents , Neprilysin , Costa Rica , Natriuretic Peptides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714896

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to verify the effects of increases in consuming Korean food in patients who underwent cardiovascular disease (CVD) surgery based on a Korean diet control education program and to investigate the effects of Korean diet control nutrition education on risk factors of CVD, changes in amounts of medication, and nutritional intakes. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 15 patients who have undergone CVD surgery within three years and continuously taken cardiovascular drugs. The Korean traditional diet (KTD) emphasizes intake of vegetables and fermented foods to lower saturated fat and cholesterol intake. We applied a KTD education program that included a modified DASH (The dietary approaches to stop hypertension) diet for cardiovascular disease patients. Korean diet control education was then applied to the patients for 12 weeks to evaluate the risk factors of CVD and the state of nutritional intakes. RESULTS: The Korean diet control compliance score increased significantly (p < 0.001) as Korean diet control education was implemented. Additionally, the obesity indexes, waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.002) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after subjects received the education. Moreover, the glycemic control index, HbA1c, was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from 7.3 ± 1.0% before the education to 7.0 ± 1.1% after the education. Changes in the amounts of Korean diet intake consisted of significant increases in cooked rice with whole grains, narmuls (vegetables either raw or cooked), kimchi, and traditional fermented foods following the education. Moreover, the nutritional intake after the education showed significant decreases (p < 0.05) in animal protein, animal lipids, and cholesterol. However, the intakes of Na, K, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and folic acid were significantly increased. CONCLUSION: The active encouragement of consuming Korean food and the intervention of implementing diet control education positively affected nutritional intake, the obesity index and glycemic control of patients who have undergone CVD surgery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Compliance , Diet , Dietary Fiber , Education , Folic Acid , Humans , Obesity , Risk Factors , Vegetables , Vitamin A , Vitamin B 6 , Waist Circumference , Waist-Hip Ratio , Whole Grains
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(4): 1036-1044, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-916262

ABSTRACT

Physical activity alters the cardiovascular system of dogs, depending on the exercise characteristics and the animal's physical conditioning. Little is known about the cardiovascular changes in rescue-trained dogs. This study evaluated the cardiovascular responses to a search and rescue exercise session to differentiate these alterations from cases of exhaustion or some possible pathology. Nine healthy rescue-trained dogs that trained for at least one year were used. Seven German Shepherds and two Belgian Shepherd Malinois were evaluated twice, immediately before exercise (M0) and immediately after a 20-minute training (M1). Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and systemic blood pressure (SBP) measurements were performed at each evaluation. Heart rate was evaluated in three moments, M0, M1 and five minutes after the end of the physical activity (M2). The results indicated that training increased oxygen demand and significantly increased cardiac output, left ventricular volume in diastole and aortic artery diameter, and the contraction force with the increased mitral annular motion without impairing systolic and diastolic cardiac functions. Heart rate values immediately and five minutes after exercise were similar to baseline values. Training did not alter SBP and the electrocardiographic parameters. The present study indicated good cardiac performance to the physical effort of rescue-trained dogs and reduced the chances of poor performance and the occurrence of sudden death caused by exercise in response to the pattern of activity performed.(AU)


A atividade física acarreta diversas mudanças no sistema cardiovascular dos cães, dependendo das características do exercício realizado e do condicionamento físico do animal. Pouco se sabe sobre as alterações cardiovasculares causadas pelo treinamento de busca, resgate e salvamento. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar as respostas cardiovasculares após uma sessão desse tipo de treino, a fim de diferenciar essas alterações de casos de exaustão ou de alguma possível patologia. Foram utilizados nove cães saudáveis em treinamento de busca, resgate e salvamento há pelo menos um ano, sendo sete da raça Pastor Alemão e dois da raça Pastor Belga Malinois. Os cães foram submetidos a dois momentos de avaliação: M0 imediatamente antes do exercício e M1 imediatamente após um treinamento de 20 minutos. Em cada avaliação, foram realizados os exames eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiográfico e a aferição da pressão arterial sistólica sistêmica. Apenas a frequência cardíaca foi avaliada em três momentos, em M0, M1 e após cinco minutos do término da atividade física (M2). Os resultados obtidos indicam que o treinamento causa um aumento na demanda de oxigênio, provocando um aumento significativo no débito cardíaco, no volume ventricular esquerdo em diástole e no diâmetro da artéria aorta, assim como um aumento em um dos parâmetros de contratilidade cardíaca (movimento anular de mitral), sem causar prejuízo às funções cardíacas sistólicas e diastólicas. Os valores da FC imediatamente após e cinco minutos após o exercício foram similares aos valores basais. A PASS e os parâmetros eletrocardiográficos não se alteraram após o treinamento. Os achados encontrados indicam um bom desempenho cardíaco ao esforço físico dos cães de busca, resgate e salvamento, reduzindo-se as chances de má performance e de ocorrência de morte súbita causada pelo exercício, em resposta ao padrão da atividade realizada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Cardiovascular Agents , Dogs , Exercise , Arterial Pressure , Electrocardiography/veterinary
12.
Medwave ; 18(7): e7331, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-966433

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad coronaria estable posee varios tratamientos con beneficio probado tanto en mortalidad como en incidencia de eventos agudos. Sin embargo, el control de los síntomas, especialmente en aquellos que no responden a terapia de primera línea, sigue siendo controvertido. Este resumen pretende evaluar el papel de la ranolazina como terapia adicional al tratamiento antianginoso estándar en pacientes que persisten sintomáticos a pesar de éste. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 16 estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados, de los cuales cuatro son atingentes para la pregunta específica. Concluimos que en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria estable que persisten sintomáticos a pesar de terapia antianginosa estándar, el tratamiento adicional con ranolazina podría disminuir los episodios de angina semanales pero aumentando la incidencia de efectos adversos, y resulta en poca o nula diferencia en el riesgo de muerte o infarto agudo al miocardio.


INTRODUCTION: There are several effective therapeutic alternatives for stable coronary artery, in terms of prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the best way to achieve symptomatic control is a matter of debate, particularly in those who do not respond to first-line therapy. This summary aims to evaluate the role of ranolazine as an additional therapy to standard antianginal treatment in patients with persistent symptoms. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified four systematic reviews including 16 studies overall, all of which were randomized trials. We concluded additional treatment with ranolazine might decrease the frequency of anginal episodes but increase adverse effects. It probably has no effect on the risk of death or acute myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Ranolazine/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual
14.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 4(1): 69-73, Jan.-June 2017.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1092983

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, several new antidiabetic drugs have been developed, among which only two have demonstrated superiority in cardiovascular protection. They are liraglutide and empagliflozine, which belong, respectively, to GLP-1 RA and SGLT-2Í. These medications have also shown benefits in kidney protection. However, in a recent survey of the author among nephrologists in a large colombian city, it has been detected that most do not use these drugs. The greater resistance to the limitation in its use is due to the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease where they are contraindicated, but also to the anawareness of their potential benefits. In this regard, the nephrologists accepted they should learn more about these antidiabetic medicines, because the type of patient that is frequently attended in their consultation will undoubtly benefit, and considering they are obligated to handle the diabetic patient directly.


Resumen En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevos fármacos antidiabéticos, entre los que sólo dos han demostrado superioridad en protección cardiovascular. Son liraglutida y empagliflozina, que pertenecen, respectivamente, a los grupos GLP-1 RA y SGLT-2Í. Estos medicamentos también han demostrado beneficios en nefroprotección. Sin embargo, en una reciente encuesta del autor entre nefrólogos, en una gran ciudad colombiana, se ha detectado que la mayoría no utilizan estos fármacos. La mayor resistencia a su uso se debe a consideraciones sobre su restricción en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad renal crónica, pero también al desconocimiento de sus beneficios potenciales. Al respecto, los nefrólogos aceptaron que deberían aprender más acerca de estos medicamentos antidiabéticos, porque el tipo de paciente que frecuentemente asiste a su consulta sin duda se beneficiaría, y más teniendo en cuenta que por el gran número de diabéticos los nefrólogos están obligados a manejar directamente al paciente con esta patología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Agents , Nephrologists , Hypoglycemic Agents , Cardiotonic Agents , Colombia , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Liraglutide
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dementia is one of important social and economic healthcare issues in the aging age. Therefore, it signifies to analyze the relationship between chronic disease or cardiovascular drug use and the incidence of dementia to establish a basis for increasing or preventing the risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the prevalence of chronic diseases and the use of cardiovascular drugs in patients diagnosed with dementia. METHODS: In this study, we used data from sample of elderly patients from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. We analyzed by logistic regression analysis with age, gender, and medication as covariates. KCD-7 was used to diagnosis of the disease, and drugs were analyzed using ATC codes and Korean standardized drug classification codes. RESULTS: A total of 1,276,331 patients were analyzed in the sample of the elderly population, of which 532,075 (41.7%) were male and 744,256 (58.3%) were female. The patients have the higher risk of dementia in the older, women, and lower socioeconomically status. Cerebral infarction and ischemic heart disease increases risk of dementia. Patients taking statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) showed low incidence of dementia. CONCLUSION: This study has been shown that ACEI, ARB, and statin drugs may associate with lower incidence of Alzheimer's and other dementia except vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Alzheimer Disease , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Cardiovascular Agents , Cerebral Infarction , Chronic Disease , Classification , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Incidence , Insurance, Health , Logistic Models , Male , Myocardial Ischemia , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Prevalence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311392

ABSTRACT

We investigated the usage of secondary prevention drugs and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products in individuals with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) at the community level in China. Among 2,407 participants with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) and 872 with stroke, nearly 80% of individuals with CHD and 73% of individuals with stroke were not taking any proven secondary prevention drug. However, 32.9% of them took TCM products. Patients with CVDs in rural areas used less secondary prevention treatment, but more TCM products than their counterparts in the urban regions. After adjusting for confounding factors, lower rates of secondary prevention treatment were evident in Western China compared with Eastern China, which was more developed. Systematic change is needed to promote the development of evidence-based medicine at the community level in China.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cardiovascular Diseases , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Drug Utilization , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 277-285, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several factors contribute to the greater propensity for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the elderly, including the use of multiple drugs and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations due to aging. We evaluated the characteristics of ADRs in elderly versus younger adults. METHODS: ADRs were collected from a spontaneous reporting system at Seoul National University Hospital from February 2010 to September 2013. We analyzed causative drugs, clinical manifestations, and the severity of ADRs. RESULTS: In total, 15,541 ADRs were reported in patients 18 years of age or older. Common causative drug categories included nervous system, anti-neoplastics, and anti-infectives. The prevalence of ADRs due to respiratory drugs and cardiovascular drugs was higher in the elderly group (≥ 60 years) than in other groups. The most common clinical types were gastrointestinal and skin and appendage issues. The elderly group had a tendency to show a higher proportion of psychiatric, cardiovascular, hematological, and genitourinary symptoms. The proportions of severe ADRs were higher in the elderly groups and in male patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients were susceptible to ADRs related to respiratory and cardiovascular drugs. Psychiatric, cardiovascular, hematological, and genitourinary disorders account for a higher proportion of ADR symptoms in the elderly than in other age groups. Further efforts to understand, manage, and prevent ADRs in the elderly are required.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aging , Cardiovascular Agents , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Male , Nervous System , Pharmacovigilance , Prevalence , Seoul , Skin , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812548

ABSTRACT

Aconite is a valuable drug and also a toxic material, which can be used only after detoxification processing. Although traditional processing methods can achieve detoxification effect as desired, there are some obvious drawbacks, including a significant loss of alkaloids and poor quality consistency. It is thus necessary to develop a new detoxification approach. In the present study, we designed a novel one-step detoxification approach by quickly drying fresh-cut aconite particles. In order to evaluate the technical advantages, the contents of mesaconitine, aconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine, benzoylhypaconine, neoline, fuziline, songorine, and talatisamine were determined using HPLC and UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Multivariate analysis methods, such as Clustering analysis and Principle component analysis, were applied to determine the quality differences between samples. Our results showed that traditional processes could reduce toxicity as desired, but also led to more than 85.2% alkaloids loss. However, our novel one-step method was capable of achieving virtually the same detoxification effect, with only an approximately 30% alkaloids loss. Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis analyses suggested that Shengfupian and the novel products were significantly different from various traditional products. Acute toxicity testing showed that the novel products achieved a good detoxification effect, with its maximum tolerated dose being equivalent to 20 times of adult dosage. And cardiac effect testing also showed that the activity of the novel products was stronger than that of traditional products. Moreover, particles specification greatly improved the quality consistency of the novel products, which was immensely superior to the traditional products. These results would help guide the rational optimization of aconite processing technologies, providing better drugs for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Toxicity , Alkaloids , Toxicity , Animals , Cardiovascular Agents , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Toxicity , Desiccation , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Toxicity , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812133

ABSTRACT

In the present study, three new triterpenoids, 23-hydroxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3β-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1), 23-hydroxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3β-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside-6-O-methyl ester (2), and urs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3β-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside-6-O-methyl ester (3), and a known triterpenoid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-2, 18-dien-28-oic acid (4, randialic acid B), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ilex cornuta. Their structures were identified by the spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR) and chemical reactions. Compound 4 showed significant cell-protective effects against HO-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury. Compounds 1-4 did not show any significant DPPH radical scavenging activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biphenyl Compounds , Metabolism , Cardiovascular Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Ilex , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac , Picrates , Metabolism , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rats , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812129

ABSTRACT

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a well-known tropical tree indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its fruit's pericarp abounds with a class of isoprenylated xanthones which are referred as mangostins. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that mangostins and their derivatives possess diverse pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic activities as well as neuroprotective properties in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review article provides a comprehensive review of the pharmacological activities of mangostins and their derivatives to reveal their promising utilities in the treatment of certain important diseases, mainly focusing on the discussions of the underlying molecular targets/pathways, modes of action, and relevant structure-activity relationships (SARs). Meanwhile, the pharmacokinetics (PK) profile and recent toxicological studies of mangostins are also described for further druggability exploration in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents , Pharmacology , Fruit , Chemistry , Garcinia mangostana , Chemistry , Humans , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Xanthones , Pharmacology
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