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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 53-59, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360559


Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between oral contraceptive use and cardiovascular risks, including metabolic syndrome and their components in Brazilian adolescents. Method: This study used data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes - ERICA), a nationwide, cross-sectional, school-based study with individuals aged 12-17 years. Sociodemographic variables and OC use were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Descriptive statistics were reported as prevalence and their respective confidence interval of 95% of oral contraceptives according to variables. Logistic regression was performed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Results: This subsample was composed of 22,682 female adolescents, of which 12.65% reported using oral contraceptives and their use was associated with hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. These associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, school region, race, and tobacco use with an increase of 2.68 (1.66 - 4.32) and 3.45 (2.56 - 4.65) times, respectively. Conclusion: The present study was the first to examine the association between the use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular risk factors among the largest number of female Brazilian adolescents. This method was significantly associated with hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia. Teenagers using oral contraceptives should be monitored for side effects, including blood pressure measurements and advised to avoid smoking.

Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606


BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM

Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Young Adult
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 271-274, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125078


Ante la pandemia de COVID-19 (del inglés coronavirus disease 2019), uno de los fármacos propuesto para su tratamiento es la hidroxicloroquina. Se revisan aquí aspectos cardiológicos del uso de cloroquina e hidroxicloroquina. Se realizó una revisión no sistemática en la literatura médica orientada a la búsqueda de información acerca de su seguridad y eficacia como antimaláricos y antivirales, así como en el tratamiento prolongado de enfermedades reumatológicas. Se halló un efecto antiinflamatorio con reducción de eventos cardiovasculares a largo plazo, una cardiopatía muy infrecuente por un efecto lisosomal del fármaco, y a nivel hemodinámico hipotensión, taquicardia, y prolongación del intervalo QT, exacerbado si se combina con azitromicina. Sin embargo, la tasa de eventos adversos cardíacos de la hidroxicloroquina y la cloroquina fue baja.

Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a wide number of compounds are under scrutiny regarding their antiviral activity, one of them being hydroxychloroquine. Cardiac aspects of the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are reviewed in this manuscript. A non-systematic review of the medical literature was performed. Information about their safety and efficacy as antimalarials, antivirals, as well as in the long-term treatment of rheumatic diseases was collected. We found an anti-inflammatory effect with reduction of long-term cardiovascular events, a very infrequent heart disease due to a lysosomal effect of the drug, and at the hemodynamic level hypotension, tachycardia, and QT interval prolongation, exacerbated when combined with azithromycin. However, the rate of adverse cardiac events of hydroxychloroquine (and chloroquine) was low.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Heart/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 271-277, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130879


Abstract Finasteride is a 5α-reductase enzyme inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of male androgenic alopecia since 1997. Over time, it has been considered a safe and well-tolerated drug with rare and reversible side effects. Recently there have been reports of adverse drug-related reactions that persisted for at least three months after discontinuation of this drug, and the term post-finasteride syndrome arose. It includes persistent sexual, neuropsychiatric, and physical symptoms. Studies to date cannot refute or confirm this syndrome as a nosological entity. If it actually exists, it seems to occur in susceptible people, even if exposed to small doses and for short periods, and symptoms may persist for long periods. Based on currently available data, the use of 5α-reductase inhibitors in patients with a history of depression, sexual dysfunction, or infertility should be carefully and individually assessed.

Humans , Male , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/chemically induced , Finasteride/adverse effects , 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Infertility/chemically induced , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 150-157, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130840


Abstract Background: Psoriasis is associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Currently, an automated ultrasound, called quantitative intima media thickness, has proven to be a useful method to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis. Objectives: To compare increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis patients receiving two types of treatments: Methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor inhibitor and to evaluate the correlation between the Framingham score and quantitative intima media thickness. Methods: Fifty patients with plaque psoriasis were selected from June 2017 to July 2018, divided into two groups, receiving methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor inhibitor. Measurement of abdominal circumference, blood pressure, body mass index and presence of metabolic syndrome were performed. Afterwards, the patients were evaluated for increased cardiovascular risk with the Framingham score and for the quantitative intima media thickness of the carotid arteries. Results: The mean age was 54.8 (±12.5) with a slight male predominance (58%). Overall, 84% of the patients had elevated waist circumference, 82% had a body mass index above ideal, and 50% had a metabolic syndrome. For the correlation between quantitative intima media thickness and Framingham Score, Pearson's linear correlation coefficient was 0.617 (p < 0.001), indicating a moderate to strong positive association. Study limitations: The protective effect of the therapies cited in relation to the increased cardiovascular risk was not evaluated. Conclusions: A moderate to strong positive association was found correlating the Framingham Score values with the quantitative intima media thickness measurement and it is not possible to state which drug has the highest increased cardiovascular risk.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Psoriasis/complications , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Waist Circumference , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880590


Depression has a high incidence in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and shows adverse effects on their life quality and prognosis. With the advent of new antidepressant drugs, oral antidepressant drugs are increasingly used in CVD patients with depression, and their efficacy and safety have attracted attention. Commonly used antidepressant drugs have many adverse reactions. When applying antidepressant drugs in CVD patients, we should pay special attention to their cardiovascular adverse reactions and their interaction drugs with commonly used CVD drugs. Clinicians should comprehensively evaluate and select appropriate antidepressant drugs for patients.

Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular System , Humans , Incidence , Patients
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1178-1191, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094121


RESUMEN Introducción: la discapacidad mental, íntimamente relacionada con el incremento de la expectativa de vida, se considera uno de los problemas más graves que hay que enfrentar en la centuria recién iniciada. Esto trae consigo el aumento de la prescripción de agentes anti psicóticos, como la tioridazina, lo que tiende a convertirse en un problema de salud al causar arritmias y en ocasiones fatales. Aún no se conoce en qué grado estas alteraciones son responsables de algunas muertes súbitas ocurridas en personas que tomaban estos medicamentos. Objetivo: identificar cuáles son las alteraciones clínicas y electrocardiográficas en los pacientes que usan la tioridazina, como droga de elección en los trastornos psiquiátricos. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, a los ancianos atendidos en el Servicio de Geriatría que ingieran tioridazina, en cualquier dosis. Durante al período de marzo del año 2017 hasta marzo del 2018. Resultados: predominaron los ancianos del sexo femenino y comprendido en las edades 60 y 74 años, con nivel de escolaridad secundario, lo que se correlacionó con la doble función de la mujer en la sociedad actual, y el elevado nivel de escolaridad de la ciudadanía cubana. Predominaron antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y diabetes, al igual las palpitaciones en relación a un aumento de los bloqueos del has de his, observados en los electrocardiogramas. No se presentaron fallecidos. Conclusiones: deben utilizarse dosis bajas del medicamento, por corto tiempo y bajo supervisión electrocardiográfica (AU).

ABSTRACT Introduction: mental incapacity, tightly related to the life expectancy increase, is considered one of the most serious problems to afford in the current century. It brings about the increase of the prescription of anti-psychotic agents, like thioridazine, tending to become a health problem because of causing arrhythmias that are occasionally life-threatening. It is still unknown in what level these alterations are responsible for several sudden deaths in persons who took these drugs. Objective: to identify which are the clinical and electrocardiographic alterations in patients using thioridazine as drug of choice in psychiatric disorders. Materials and methods: a descriptive study was carried out in all patients who attended the Geriatric Service taking thioridazine in any doses during the period from March 2017 to March 2018. Results: female elder people aged 60-74 years predominated, with secondary school scholarship, finding a relationship with the double function of women in the current society, and the high level of scholarship among Cuban citizen. Arterial hypertension and diabetes antecedents predominated, and also palpitations related to the increase of His bundle blockade observed in electrocardiograms. There were no deaths. Conclusions: low doses of the drug should be used for a short time and under electrocardiographic supervision (AU).

Humans , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Thioridazine/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Mentally Ill Persons , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/therapy
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(1): 49-57, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003646


Los incendios forestales representan un problema creciente de la salud pública a nivel mundial, especialmente para la población más vulnerable (niños, ancianos, embarazadas y portadores de enfermedades cardiovasculares o respiratorias crónicas) expuesta al humo y a otros contaminantes aéreos. A diferencia de la contaminación atmosférica habitual de grandes urbes, aquella derivada de los incendios forestales tiene una composición diferente y su ocurrencia es esporádica y difícil de prever. La exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos derivados de incendios forestales se asocia a aumento de la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular, mediada por una respuesta inflamatoria pulmonar y sistémica, estrés oxidativo y disfunción endotelial. En sujetos expuestos a humo de incendios forestales se ha observado un aumento en la producción de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, activación endotelial y disfunción del sistema nervioso autónomo, que produce daño tisular, aumento de los mecanismos protrombóticos, aumento de la presión arterial y cambios en el ritmo cardiaco. Esta revisión analiza los mecanismos que han sido involucrados en generar efectos nocivos para la salud de seres humanos expuestos a material particulado y gases emanados de incendios forestales.

Wildfires represent a growing global public health issue, especially to the most vulnerable segment of the population (children, old people, pregnant women, patients with cardiovascular or respiratory diseases) exposed to smoke and other air borne contaminants generated from these events. In contrast to great cities ' usual atmospheric pollution, that derives from forest fires differ in composition and its occurrence is sporadic and usually unpredictable. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants derived from forest fires has been associated to increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, mediated by an inflammatory systemic response, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In people exposed to forest fire smoke an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelial activation and autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been observed, that leads to tissue injury, increased prothrombotic response, increased blood pressure and changes in heart rhythm. This review analyzes the mechanisms that have been involved in generating harmful health effects in humans exposed to inhaled particulate matter and gases steaming from wildfires.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Wildfires , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/chemically induced , Cytokines/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Inhalation Exposure , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(5): 721-728, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973792


Abstract Background: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, although efficient for treating breast cancer, is associated with cardiovascular complications. Recent studies seek to identify methods that can early detect cardiological and vascular changes as a strategy to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular comorbidities. Objective: To evaluate the role of arterial stiffness measurement in the monitoring of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study in 24 breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Patients underwent an indirect evaluation of arterial stiffness through non-invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters such as pulse wave velocity with the Mobil-O-Graph® 24H PWA device at three different times of the chemotherapy treatment (pre-chemotherapy, after the first and the fourth cycle). The left ventricular ejection fraction was also evaluated by Doppler echocardiography (pre-chemotherapy and after the fourth chemotherapy cycle). Data were considered significant when p ≤ 0.05. Results: Patients had a mean age of 52.33 ± 8.85 years and body mass index of 31 ± 5.87 kg/m2. There was no significant difference between the hemodynamic parameters evaluated by the oscillometric method or in the left ventricular ejection fraction in the different evaluated periods. Conclusion: Evaluations of arterial stiffness by oscillometry and measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction by Doppler echocardiography showed equivalence in the values found, suggesting that the evaluation method of arterial stiffness studied could be used as a marker for cardiovascular adverse events associated with doxorrubicin-based chemotherapy drugs.

Resumo Fundamento: O tratamento quimioterápico com doxorrubicina e ciclofosfamida, apesar de eficiente no combate ao câncer de mama, está associado a complicações cardiovasculares. Trabalhos recentes identificam métodos que possam detectar alterações cardiológicas e vasculares precocemente, visando a uma estratégia para diminuição na incidência de comorbidades cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da medida da rigidez arterial no acompanhamento da ocorrência de eventos adversos cardiovasculares induzidos por doxorrubicina e ciclofosfamida em pacientes com câncer de mama. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal prospectivo realizado com 24 pacientes com câncer de mama em tratamento com doxorrubicina e ciclofosfamida. As pacientes foram submetidas à avaliação indireta da rigidez arterial, por mensuração não invasiva de parâmetros hemodinâmicos, como a velocidade de onda de pulso, pelo equipamento Mobil-O-Graph® 24H PWA em três diferentes momentos do tratamento quimioterápico (pré-quimioterapia, após o primeiro e após o quarto ciclos). Foi avaliada também a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo pelo ecoDopplercardiograma (pré-quimioterapia e após o quarto ciclo quimioterápico). Os valores de p ≤ 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: As pacientes apresentaram média de idade de 52,33 ± 8,85 anos e índice de massa corporal de 31 ± 5,87 kg/m2. Não houve diferença significativa entre os parâmetros hemodinâmicos avaliados pelo método oscilométrico ou na fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, nos diferentes períodos avaliados. Conclusão: As avaliações de rigidez arterial por oscilometria e medida da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo por ecoDopplercardiograma mostraram equivalência nos valores encontrados, sugerindo que o método de avaliação da rigidez arterial estudado possa ser utilizado como mais um marcador para eventos adversos cardiovasculares associados aos medicamentos quimioterápicos baseados em doxorrubicina.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Vascular Stiffness , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Echocardiography, Doppler , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Pilot Projects , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Anthracyclines/pharmacology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Cardiotoxicity/physiopathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(5): 349-355, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976123


Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINEs) se encuentran entre los fármacos más utilizados en la práctica clínica. Actúan mediante el bloqueo de las enzimas ciclooxigenasas (COX), pero el grado de inhibición de COX-1 y COX-2 varía entre ellos. Se ha generalizado la clasificación entre COX-2 selectivos o coxibs, y los no selectivos o AINEs tradicionales. Tanto los efectos analgésico y antiinflamatorio como los efectos adversos cardiovasculares dependen de la inhibición de COX-2. Este trabajo revisa las evidencias disponibles del aumento del riesgo de eventos trombóticos tanto para los coxibs como para los AINEs tradicionales. El efecto protrombótico podría deberse a la inhibición de la COX-2 endotelial, con disminución de la prostaciclina y un incremento relativo de los niveles del tromboxano plaquetario. Los coxibs y el diclofenac, 150 mg/día, aumentarían el riesgo de eventos vasculares mayores en más de un tercio. El ibuprofeno 2400 mg/día aumentaría levemente el riesgo de eventos coronarios. El naproxeno 1000 mg/día no incrementaría el riesgo de eventos vasculares. Además, el ibuprofeno y el naproxeno tienen el potencial del disminuir el efecto cardioprotector de bajas dosis de aspirina. El naproxeno (≤ 1000 mg/día) y el ibuprofeno a bajas dosis (≤ 1200 mg/día) deberían considerarse los AINEs con el mejor perfil de seguridad cardiovascular. Las decisiones terapéuticas deben basarse en una adecuada evaluación del riesgo del paciente, utilizando los AINEs más seguros, a las menores dosis efectivas, por el menor tiempo posible que permita el control de los síntomas, restringiendo su utilización en enfermos con aumento del riesgo cardiovascular.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used drugs in clinical practice. They block cyclooxygenases (COX) enzymes, but the degree of inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 varies between them. In general, NSAIDs are classified in selective COX-2 or coxibs and non-selective or traditional NSAIDs. Both the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the cardiovascular adverse effects, depend on the COX-2 inhibition. This paper reviews the available evidence of the increased risk of thrombotic events for both coxibs and traditional NSAID. The prothrombotic effect could be due to the inhibition of endothelial COX-2, with a decrease in production of prostacyclin and a relative increase in platelet thromboxane levels. Coxibs and diclofenac 150 mg/day seem to increase the risk of major vascular events by more than a third. Ibuprofen 2400 mg/day could slightly increase the risk of coronary events. Naproxen 1000 mg/day apparently does not increase the risk of vascular events. Besides ibuprofen and naproxen have the potential to decrease the cardioprotective effect of low doses of aspirin. Naproxen (≤ 1000 mg/day) and low doses of ibuprofen (≤ 1200 mg/day) are considered to have the most favorable thrombotic cardiovascular safety profiles of all NSAIDs. Therapeutic decisions should be based on an assessment of a person´s individual risk factors, using the safest NSAIDs, at the lowest effective doses, for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms, restricting their use in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Naproxen/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Drug Interactions , Celecoxib/adverse effects
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(3): 185-193, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954975


La diabetes mellitus constituye actualmente un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, que incrementa el riesgo de presentar complicaciones tanto microvasculares como macrovasculares. Aunque lograr los objetivos de glucemia recomendados reduce el riesgo de complicaciones microvasculares, el efecto de los fármacos para tratar la hiperglucemia sobre las complicaciones macrovasculares y la muerte cardiovascular es motivo de preocupación. En este contexto, las agencias regulatorias han modificado la normativa para la aprobación de nuevos fármacos en diabetes, de forma que establecen la necesidad de demostrar que son capaces de disminuir la glucemia junto con una evaluación sólida de la seguridad cardiovascular. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los efectos cardiovasculares de las nuevas familias de fármacos no insulínicos, en especial en su efecto sobre el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares mayores. En los últimos años, finalmente, se ha confirmado que algunos fármacos para tratar la diabetes no solo son seguros desde el punto de vista cardiovascular, sino que incluso han mostrado capacidad para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. La evidencia obtenida ha determinado la actualización de algunas guías terapéuticas vigentes cuando el riesgo cardiovascular debería considerarse una variable fundamental al momento de la elección terapéutica en pacientes con diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is currently a serious public health problem worldwide, that increases the risk of presenting microvascular and macrovascular complications. Although achieving the recommended blood glucose goals reduces the risk of microvascular complications, the effect of the drugs used to treat hyperglycemia on macrovascular complications and cardiovascular death is a cause for concern. In this context, the regulatory agencies have modified the regulations for the approval of new drugs in diabetes, by adding the need to demonstrate that they are capable of lowering blood glucose levels together with a solid assessment of cardiovascular safety. The objective of this study is to review the cardiovascular effects of the new families of non-insulin drugs, with special emphasis on their effect on the risk of major cardiovascular events. In recent years, it has finally been confirmed that some of the drugs used to treat diabetes are not only safe from a cardiovascular point of view, but have even shown capacity to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The evidence obtained determined the updating of some current therapeutic guidelines when cardiovascular risk should be considered a fundamental variable at the time of therapeutic choice in patients with diabetes.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(3): 261-267, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956444


Summary Objective: Determine whether there is an association between the risk of cardiovascular adverse events and the use of antipsychotic agents. Method: Analysis of original articles retrieved from the following databases: LILACS, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Clinical Data Bank (CENTRAL) and PsycINFO, without language restriction, dated until November 2015. After screening of 2,812 studies, three cohort original articles were selected for quality analysis. Results: 403,083 patients with schizophrenia and 119,015 participants in the control group data were analyzed. The occurrence of cardiovascular events observed in the articles was: 63.5% (article 1), 13.1% (article 2) and 24.95% (article 3) in the group of treated schizophrenic patients, and 46.2%, 86.9% and 24.9%, respectively, in the control groups. Conclusion: Clinical heterogeneity among the studies led to a provisional response and made it impossible to perform the meta-analysis, although the articles demonstrate an association between cardiovascular adverse events and the use of antipsychotics. More quality clinical trials are needed to support this evidence.

Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se existe associação entre o risco de eventos adversos cardiovasculares e o uso de agentes antipsicóticos. Método: Análise de artigos originais identificados pelas bases de dados: Lilacs, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Banco de Dados Clínicos (CENTRAL) e PsycINFO, sem restrição de idiomas, foi realizada até novembro de 2015. Depois da triagem de 2.812 estudos, três artigos originais tipo coorte foram selecionados para análise de qualidade. Resultados: Foram analisados dados de 403.083 pacientes com esquizofrenia e 119.015 participantes do grupo controle. A ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares observados nos artigos foi: 63,5% (artigo 1), 13,1% (artigo 2), 24,95% (artigo 3) nos grupos de esquizofrênicos tratados e, respectivamente, 46,2%, 86,9% e 24,9%, nos grupos controle. Conclusão: A heterogeneidade clínica entre os estudos levou a uma resposta provisória e impossibilitou a execução da metanálise, apesar de os artigos demonstrarem associação entre eventos adversos cardiovasculares e uso de antipsicóticos. São necessários mais ensaios clínicos de qualidade para sustentar essa evidência.

Humans , Male , Female , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Schizophrenia/complications , Risk Factors , Publication Bias
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(3): 252-263, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785225


ABSTRACT The proper dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation, when indicated, are important factors in the acquisition of peak bone mass during youth and in the prevention of fractures in old age. In addition to its deposition in bone, calcium confers an increase in its resistance and exhibits important activities in different enzymatic pathways in the body (e.g., neural, hormonal, muscle-related and blood clotting pathways). Thus, calcium supplementation can directly or indirectly affect important functions in the body, such as the control of blood pressure, plasma glucose, body weight, lipid profile and endothelial function. Since one publication reported increased cardiovascular risk due to calcium supplementation, many researchers have studied whether this risk actually exists; the results are conflicting, and the involved mechanisms are uncertain. However, studies that have evaluated the influence of the consumption of foods rich in calcium have reported no increase in the cardiovascular risk, which suggests that nutritional intake should be prioritized as a method for supplementation and that the use of calcium supplements should be reserved for patients who truly need supplementation and are unable to achieve the recommended daily nutritional intake of calcium.

Humans , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium, Dietary/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Bone Density/drug effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Calcium/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Recommended Dietary Allowances
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 4, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962202


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. METHODS A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. RESULTS For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR) for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54), 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17) and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93), respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75), %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5), and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31) for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto da poluição atmosférica na morbidade respiratória e cardiovascular de crianças e adultos em Vitória. MÉTODOS Foi realizado estudo utilizando modelos de séries temporais via regressão de Poisson a partir de dados de hospitalizações e poluentes em Vitória, ES, de 2001 a 2006. Foram testadas como variáveis independentes o material particulado fino (PM10); o dióxido de enxofre (SO2) e o ozônio (O3) em defasagem simples e acumulada até cinco dias. Introduziu-se temperatura, umidade e variáveis indicadoras dos dias da semana e feriados da cidade como variáveis de controle nos modelos. RESULTADOS Para cada incremento de 10 µg/m3 dos poluentes PM10, SO2 e O3, foram observados aumentos no risco relativo percentual (RR%) para as hospitalizações por doenças respiratórias totais de 9,67 (IC95% 11,84-7,54), 6,98 (IC95% 9,98-4,17) e 1,93 (IC95% 2,95-0,93), respectivamente. Encontrou-se RR% = 6,60 (IC95% 9,53-3,75), RR% = 5,19 (IC95% 9,01-1,5) e RR% = 3,68 (IC95% 5,07-2,31) para doenças respiratórias em menores de cinco anos para o PM10, SO2 e O3, respectivamente. As doenças cardiovasculares apresentaram relação significativa com o O3 com RR% = 2,11 (IC95% 3,18-1,06). CONCLUSÕES As doenças respiratórias apresentaram relação mais forte e consistente com os poluentes pesquisados em Vitória. Observou-se melhor relação dose-resposta quando se utilizou defasagens acumuladas em modelos de distribuição polinomial.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Hospitalization
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(6): 1283-1297, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752149


Os avanços no controle do tabagismo no Brasil podem ser verificados na redução da prevalência nas últimas duas décadas. As estatísticas de óbitos, ocorrência de eventos e custos diretos atribuíveis às doenças tabaco-relacionadas não são estimadas com frequência no país. O objetivo deste artigo foi estimar a carga do tabagismo em 2011, em termos de mortalidade, morbidade e custos da assistência médica das principais doenças tabaco-relacionadas. Desenvolveu-se um modelo econômico baseado em uma microssimulação probabilística de milhares de indivíduos através de coortes hipotéticas que considerou a história natural, os custos diretos em saúde e a qualidade de vida desses indivíduos. O tabagismo foi responsável por 147.072 óbitos, 2,69 milhões anos de vida perdidos, 157.126 infartos agudos do miocárdio, 75.663 acidentes vasculares cerebrais e 63.753 diagnósticos de câncer. O custo para o sistema de saúde foi de R$ 23,37 bilhões. O monitoramento da carga do tabagismo é uma importante estratégica para informar aos tomadores de decisão e fortalecer a política pública de saúde.

Los avances en el control del tabaquismo en Brasil pueden reflejarse en la reducción de la prevalencia observada en las últimas dos décadas. Las estadísticas de muertes, incidencia de eventos y costos directos atribuibles a las enfermedades, relacionadas con el tabaquismo, no han sido estimadas frecuentemente en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la carga del tabaquismo en el año 2011, en términos de mortalidad, morbilidad y costos de asistencia médica para las patologías relacionadas con el tabaquismo. Se construyó un modelo de microsimulación probabilístico que incorpora la historia natural, los costos y la calidad de vida de los individuos. En 2011, el tabaquismo fue responsable de 147.072 muertes prematuras, 2,69 millones de años de vida perdidos, 157.126 infartos de miocardio, 75.663 accidentes cerebro-vasculares y 63.753 diagnósticos de cáncer. El costo directo fue de R$ 23,37 mil millones. El monitoreo de la carga de enfermedad atribuible al tabaquismo es una importante estrategia para informar a los responsables de las políticas públicas de salud.

Advances in tobacco control in Brazil can be reflected in the decrease in prevalence over the past two decades. Death statistics and the occurrence of events and direct costs attributable to tobacco-related diseases have not been frequently estimated in the country. The goal of this article is to estimate the burden of smoking in 2011 regarding mortality, morbidity and medical care costs of the main tobacco-related diseases. A probabilistic microsimulation health economic model was built. The model incorporates the natural history, costs and quality of life of all the tobacco-related adult-specific diseases. Smoking was accountable for 147,072 deaths, 2.69 million years of life lost, 157,126 acute myocardial infarctions, 75,663 strokes, and 63,753 cancer diagnoses. The direct cost for the health system was of BRL 23.37 billion. The monitoring of tobacco-related burden is an important strategy to guide decision-makers and to strenghten health public policies.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/economics , Smoking/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Incidence , Life Expectancy , Morbidity , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Neoplasms/economics , Neoplasms/mortality , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects , Stroke/chemically induced , Stroke/economics , Stroke/mortality
Rev. cuba. farm ; 49(2)abr.-jun. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-776397


La azitromicina es un antibiótico macrólido semisintético de amplio espectro y de uso bien frecuente en la población mundial, indicado para el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades infecciosas.1 Existen varios reportes del riesgo cardiovascular asociado al uso de azitromicina y aún no existen estudios convincentes del mecanismo molecular de este efecto.1,2 Un gran número de medicamentos se retiran del mercado por producir reacciones adversas cardiovasculares fatales, de ahí la importancia de comprender los mecanismos moleculares de la acción cardiovascular de los fármacos en desarrollo o de los que se comercializan en el mercado farmacéutico y más aún, aquellos de uso frecuente por la población. En el año 2011 la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos, (Food and Drug Administration , FDA), la agencia reguladora de los Estados Unidos revisó la información ofrecida en la etiqueta de los antibacterianos macrólidos, relacionada con la prolongación del intervalo QT y las arritmias cardiovasculares del tipo Torsades de Pointes (TdP), que incluye la nueva información acerca del riesgo de prolongación del intervalo QT, que parece ser bajo.3 Posteriormente, el 17 de mayo de 2012 al revisar la publicación de un artículo de Ray y colaboradores, la FDA advirtió a los profesionales de la salud que el antimicrobiano azitromicina, puede causar un ritmo cardíaco irregular potencialmente fatal en algunos pacientes, en función del estudio publicado por estos autores, sobre un pequeño aumento de la mortalidad y el riesgo de muerte en personas tratadas durante 5 días con azitromicina en comparación con las personas tratadas con amoxicilina, ciprofloxacino, o ningún fármaco.4 Desde el año 2012, la FDA hizo una advertencia en el etiquetado de los medicamentos que contenían azitromicina, basado en evidencias previas que indicaban riesgo cardiovascular asociado a su uso. Por otra parte, el Centro Colaborador de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para la Vigilancia Farmacéutica Internacional radicado en Uppsala, Suecia (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre, The Uppsala Monitoring Centre for International Drug Monitoring), posee un registro de 100 casos con prolongación del segmento QT y unos 65 casos con TdP asociados al uso de azitromicina.5 El 12 de marzo de 2013 la FDA advirtió al público que la azitromicina...(AU)

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Cuba