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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1450010

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La esclerosis sistémica es una enfermedad crónica del tejido conectivo de carácter autoinmune, de causa desconocida, que produce exceso de colágeno provocando fibrosis en la piel, con afectación de órganos internos. Los anticuerpos frecuentes son: antitopoisomerasa 1 y anticentrómero. Las formas clínicas son la cutánea difusa y cutánea limitada. La prevalencia de la afectación cardíaca varía entre un 8-28 por ciento y en fases tardías la presencia de signos y síntomas cardiovasculares es de mal pronóstico y una de las principales causas de mortalidad. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre afectación cardíaca y las formas clínicas, el pro-péptido natriurético cerebral N-terminal (NT-proBNP) y los autoanticuerpos en la esclerosis sistémica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de un universo de 140 pacientes, la muestra fue de 54 pacientes. Se le realizó ecocardiograma, niveles de NT-proBNP, anti-scl 70, anticentrómero y determinación de formas clínicas a todos los pacientes que cumplieron criterios de inclusión y que fueron atendidos en el Hospital: Hermanos Ameijeiras Habana-Cuba, entre julio de 2016 a diciembre de 2017. Resultados: La edad media fue 51,76 ± 12,82. Sexo femenino en un 96,3 por ciento. El 72,2 por ciento era piel blanca. La afectación cardíaca de la EScd fue de 77,5 por ciento, hormona NT-proBNP tuvo niveles elevados en un 55,0 por ciento. Los anti-scl-70 estuvieron negativos en el 70 por ciento (n = 28) de los pacientes con afectación cardíaca. El anti-centrómero estuvo negativo en el 95,0 por ciento (n = 38). Conclusiones: Se determinó que la afectación cardíaca en pacientes con esclerosis sistémica, es independiente de las formas clínicas y de la presencia de autoanticuerpos. Los pacientes que tuvieron los niveles séricos de NT-proBNP elevados presentaron afectación cardíaca(AU)


Introduction: Systemic sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune connective tissue disease of unknown cause, which produces excess collagen causing fibrosis in the skin, affecting internal organs. Common antibodies are antitopoisomerase 1 and anticentromere. The clinical forms are diffuse cutaneous and limited cutaneous. The prevalence of cardiac involvement varies between 8-28percent and in late stages the presence of cardiovascular signs and symptoms have poor prognosis and one of the main causes of mortality. Objective: To determine the association between cardiac involvement and clinical forms, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and autoantibodies in SSc. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a universe of 140 patients was carried out. Fifty four patients made up the sample. An echocardiogram, NT-proBNP, Anti-scl 70, anticentromere levels and determination of clinical forms were performed on all patients who met the inclusion criteria and who were treated at Hermanos Ameijeiras hospital in Havana, Cuba, from July 2016 to December 2017. Results: The mean age was 51.76 ± 12.82. Female sex accounted 96.3percent. 72.2percent were white skinned. Cardiac involvement of EScd was 77.5percent, NT-proBNP hormone had high levels in 55.0percent. Anti-scl-70 were negative in 70percent (n=28) of patients with cardiac involvement. Anti-centromere (ACT) was negative in 95.0percent (n=38). Conclusions: Cardiac involvement in patients with SS is independent of the clinical forms and the presence of autoantibodies. Patients with elevated NT-proBNP serum levels had cardiac involvement(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1115-1123, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985520

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is a major threat to human health and has become the leading cause of death worldwide; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are of great value. Due to its miniaturization, integration, and ease of operation, microfluidic technology enables the rapid, multi-target detection of cardiovascular disease markers and significantly facilitates the early and rapid diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the research progress of microfluidics in cardiovascular disease detection, analyzes its advantages and weaknesses in the rapid detection of protein, lipid, and nucleic acid biomarkers, hopes to provide a reference to promote the quick detection technology of cardiovascular disease, and thus proposes new considerations for the early management of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microfluidics , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Early Diagnosis
3.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 244-248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981535

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 48.0% of all deaths in Europe and 34.3% in the United States. Studies have shown that arterial stiffness takes precedence over vascular structural changes and is therefore considered to be an independent predictor of many cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, the characteristics of Korotkoff signal is related to vascular compliance. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of detecting vascular stiffness based on the characteristics of Korotkoff signal. First, the Korotkoff signals of normal and stiff vessels were collected and preprocessed. Then the scattering features of Korotkoff signal were extracted by wavelet scattering network. Next, the long short-term memory (LSTM) network was established as a classification model to classify the normal and stiff vessels according to the scattering features. Finally, the performance of the classification model was evaluated by some parameters, such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. In this study, 97 cases of Korotkoff signal were collected, including 47 cases from normal vessels and 50 cases from stiff vessels, which were divided into training set and test set according to the ratio of 8 : 2. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the final classification model was 86.4%, 92.3% and 77.8%, respectively. At present, non-invasive screening method for vascular stiffness is very limited. The results of this study show that the characteristics of Korotkoff signal are affected by vascular compliance, and it is feasible to use the characteristics of Korotkoff signal to detect vascular stiffness. This study might be providing a new idea for non-invasive detection of vascular stiffness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vascular Stiffness , Neural Networks, Computer , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1147-1163, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425447

ABSTRACT

A Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC) é uma das principais causas de internação hospitalar no mundo e tem um elevado grau de morbidade e mortalidade, sendo um grave problema de saúde pública. Os lncRNAs (RNAs longo não codificantes), têm funções regulatórias transcricionais e/ou pós transcricionais bem complexas e que ainda não são totalmente claras, mas que podem exercer influência sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, dentre elas a IC. Assim o estudo teve como objetivo identificar na literatura o papel dos lncRNAs na patogênese da IC por meio de uma revisão integrativa com busca sistemática. Foram considerados elegíveis para leitura e composição do estudo 33 artigos e os principais papéis dos lncRNA na IC foram relatados como possíveis marcadores biológicos para diagnóstico e prognóstico da doença devido a sua expressividade na corrente sanguínea. Além disso, os lncRNAs podem estar relacionados à capacidade funcional uma vez que o aumento ou diminuição de sua expressão promove redução da apoptose de células endoteliais, melhora a disfunção cardíaca, distúrbios de contratilidade e dos canais de cálcio em pacientes com IC. Portanto, os lncRNAs parecem estar envolvidos na patogênese e/ou fisiopatologia da IC, podendo ser utilizados como biomarcadores genéticos com sensibilidade e especificidade semelhantes ou superiores aos empregados atualmente no diagnóstico e prognóstico da IC.


Heart Failure (HF) is one of the main causes of hospitalization worldwide and has a high degree of morbidity and mortality being considered a public health pro- blem. lncRNAs (non-coding long RNAs) have very complex transcriptional and/or post- transcriptional regulatory functions that are still not entirely clear but may influence car- diovascular diseases, including HF. Thus, the study aimed to identify in the literature the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of HF through an integrative review with a systema- tic search. A total of 33 articles were considered eligible for reading and composition of the study. The roles of lncRNA in HF were reported as possible biological markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease due to its expressiveness in the bloodstream. In addition, lncRNAs may be related to functional capacity since the increase or decrease in their expression promotes a reduction in endothelial cell apoptosis, and improves car- diac dysfunction, contractility, and calcium channel disorders in patients with HF. The- refore, lncRNAs seem to be involved in the pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of HF and can be used as genetic biomarkers with sensitivity and specificity similar or superior to those currently employed in the diagnosis and prognosis of HF.


La Insuficiencia Cardiaca (IC) es una de las principales causas de hospita- lización en el mundo y tiene un alto grado de morbimortalidad considerándose un pro- blema de salud pública. Los lncRNAs (ARN largos no codificantes) tienen funciones re- guladoras transcripcionales y/o post-transcripcionales muy complejas que aún no están del todo claras pero que pueden influir en las enfermedades cardiovasculares, incluida la IC. Así pues, el estudio se propuso identificar en la literatura el papel de los lncRNAs en la patogénesis de la IC mediante una revisión integradora con una búsqueda sistemática. Un total de 33 artículos fueron considerados elegibles para su lectura y composición del estudio. Las funciones de los lncRNA en la IC se señalaron como posibles marcadores biológicos para el diagnóstico y pronóstico de la enfermedad debido a su expresividad en el torrente sanguíneo. Además, los lncRNAs pueden estar relacionados con la capacidad funcional, ya que el aumento o disminución de su expresión promueve una reducción de la apoptosis de las células endoteliales y mejora la disfunción cardiaca, la contractilidad y los trastornos de los canales de calcio en pacientes con IC. Por tanto, los lncRNAs parecen estar implicados en la patogénesis y/o fisiopatología de la IC y pueden ser utili- zados como biomarcadores genéticos con sensibilidad y spe-cificidad similares o superi- ores a los empleados actualmente en el diagnóstico y pronóstico de la IC.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Patients/psychology , Review Literature as Topic , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Gene Expression , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitalization
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 180 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437402

ABSTRACT

Diversas evidências científicas demonstram que o consumo de ácidos graxos trans está associado com mortes por doenças cardiovasculares. A OMS, em 2018, considerando a presença de ácidos graxos trans nos alimentos recomendou a sua total eliminação até o ano de 2023. Sendo assim, no Brasil, em 2019, a RDC 332 aborda que a partir de 01 de janeiro de 2023 estarão proibidas a produção e a importação de ácidos graxos trans em alimentos destinados ao consumo humano. Atualmente, a legislação que está em vigor sobre ácidos graxos trans é a RDC 54, da ANVISA, que estabelece que, somente os alimentos que apresentarem teores de ácidos graxos trans ≤ 0,1 g por porção e somatória de ácidos graxos saturados e ácidos graxos trans até 1,5 g por porção podem alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional. As bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers são importantes representantes de alimentos ultraprocessados, sendo muito consumidas por adultos e principalmente por crianças pelo seu baixo custo e acessibilidade. A partir destas considerações, o objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados por cromatografia gasosa em bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers, comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo, analisando os teores dos ácidos graxos e comparando com a RDC 54. Em 2018 e 2019, foram analisadas 65 bolachas recheadas, e 40 bolachas wafers, as bolachas foram divididas entre as que possuíam ácidos graxos trans nos rótulos, e as que possuíam a ausência dessa gordura. Os teores de ácidos graxos trans encontrados nas bolachas com a presença de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem, variaram de 0,34 a 5,21 g por 100 g e 0,19 e 8,54 g por 100 g nas bolachas recheadas e nas bolachas wafers, respectivamente. Diante disso, constatou-se que algumas marcas de bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers apresentaram grandes quantidades de gordura trans em sua composição. Em relação às bolachas recheadas e wafers com a ausência de gordura trans nos rótulos, todas as bolachas estavam em acordo com a legislação vigente em relação aos valores menores ou iguais a 0,1 g de gordura trans por porção, porém, em relação à somatória de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados de até 1,5 g por porção, todas estavam com valores superiores, dessa maneira, os fabricantes dessas bolachas não poderiam alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional, e por isto, estavam em desacordo com a legislação vigente. Em 2022, foram reanalisadas seis amostras de bolachas recheadas e quatro amostras de bolachas wafers, que em 2018 apresentaram altos teores de ácidos graxos trans. Também foram analisadas três bolachas wafers que em 2022 ainda apresentavam altos teores de gorduras trans nos rótulos. Os resultados dessas amostras demonstraram que em 2022 ainda há em supermercados brasileiros, bolachas com altos teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados em sua composição. Diante disso, ratifica-se a necessidade do cumprimento da legislação vigente e da RDC 332 em 2023 e de fiscalizações mais frequentes pelos órgãos competentes, devido aos malefícios do consumo dos ácidos graxos trans para a saúde da população


There is a lot of scientific evidence showing that consumption of trans fatty acids is associated with deaths from cardiovascular diseases. The WHO in 2018, considering the presence of trans fatty acids in foods, recommended their total elimination by the year 2023. Therefore, in Brazil in 2019, RDC 332 addresses that from January 1, 2023, the production and the importation of trans fatty acids in foods intended for human consumption are prohibited. Currently, the legislation in force on trans fatty acids is ANVISA's RDC 54, this RDC establishes that only foods that have trans fatty acids contents ≤ 0.1 g per serving and the sum of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving can claim zero trans on nutrition labels. Stuffed cookies and wafer cookies are important representatives of ultra-processed foods, being widely consumed by adults and especially children due to their low cost and accessibility. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids by gas chromatography (AOAC method 996.06) in stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, commercialized in the State of São Paulo, analyzing the contents of the fatty acids and comparing with RDC 54. In 2018 and 2019, 65 stuffed cookies and 40 wafers cookies were analyzed, the cookies were divided between those that had trans fatty acids on the labels, and those that had the absence of this fat. The levels of trans fatty acids found in the cookies with the presence of trans fatty acids on the label ranged from 0.34 to 5.21 g per 100 g and 0.19 and 8.54 g per 100 g in the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, respectively. Therefore, it was found that some brands of stuffed cookies and wafers cookies had large amounts of trans fat in their composition. Regarding the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies with the absence of trans fat on the labels, all cookies were in accordance with current legislation in relation to values less than or equal to 0.1 g of trans fat per serving, but in relation to the sum of acids trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving, all had higher values, thus, the manufacturers of these cookies could not claim zero trans on the nutrition label, and therefore, they were in disagreement with the current legislation. In 2022, six samples of stuffed cookies and four samples of wafers were reanalyzed, which in 2018 had high levels of trans fatty acids. Three wafers were also analyzed, which in 2022 still had high levels of trans fats on the labels. The results of these samples showed that in 2022 there are still cookies in brazilian supermarkets with high levels of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in their composition. In view of this, the need to comply with current legislation and RDC 332 in 2023 and more frequent inspections by competent institutions are ratified, due to the harmful effects of the consumption of trans fatty acids on the health of the population


Subject(s)
Brazil/ethnology , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Cookies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Minors/classification , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Nutritional Sciences/classification
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 820-831, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399473

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os riscos de desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares são altamente prevalentes em indivíduos idosos, contudo essa condição tem crescido de maneira preocupante em adultos jovens, principalmente em acadêmicos de graduação. Essa condição pode estar relacionada a vários comportamentos de risco, associados às doenças cardiovasculares, como má alimentação, baixos níveis de atividade física, sobrepeso, etc. Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência dos riscos cardiovasculares em acadêmicos do Curso de Enfermagem de uma universidade particular do Sudoeste do Paraná. Metodologia: Pesquisa transversal, realizada em acadêmicos do Curso de Enfermagem de uma universidade particular do Sudoeste do Paraná. Avaliaram-se 99 acadêmicos do Curso de Enfermagem, que assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Utilizou-se para coleta de dados um formulário eletrônico, disponibilizado nos endereços eletrônicos, WhatsApp e Classroom dos acadêmicos. O instrumento continha questões sobre autorrelato de medidas antropométricas (peso, estatura, circunferência de cintura) e pressão arterial, além de questões objetivas sobre consumo de álcool, medicamentos, doença existente, nível de atividade física habitual e bem-estar geral. Para análise dos dados, empregou-se estatística descritiva e Teste U de Mann- Withney, com nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados: Observou-se que nos fatores de riscos cardiovasculares de Índice de Massa Corporal, Pressão Arterial e Circunferência Abdominal, os acadêmicos apresentaram valores médios adequados de acordo com tabelas normativas, cujos dados dos homens foram significativamente maiores em todas as variáveis analisadas (p<0,05). Para hábito de fumar e consumo de álcool diário, observou-se percentual baixo (3% e 2%, respectivamente). Verificou-se que 28,3% dos estudantes relataram ter alguma doença preexistente e 58,6% informaram fazer uso contínuo de alguma medicação. Observou-se, ainda, os percentuais de inadequação para pressão arterial (6,5%), Circunferência Abdominal (27%), Índice de Massa Corporal (28,3%) e Nível de Atividades Físicas Habitual (46,6%). A agregação de dois e quatro ou mais fatores de risco foi mais prevalente em mulheres, ao passo que os homens apresentaram maior agregação e três fatores. Conclusão: Os universitários do Curso de Enfermagem analisado apresentaram percentuais importantes de fatores de riscos cardiovasculares, principalmente em relação ao estado de sobrepeso ou obesidade e sedentarismo.


Introduction: The risks of developing cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in elderly individuals, however, this condition has grown alarmingly in young adults, especially in undergraduate students. This condition may be due to various risk behaviors associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as poor diet, low levels of physical activity, overweight, etc. Objective: To identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risks in undergraduate Nursing students at a private university in the southwest of Paraná. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional research, carried out in Nursing students from a private university in the Southwest of Paraná. 99 students of the Nursing Course were evaluated, who signed the Informed Consent Term. An electronic form was used for data collection, available at the academic addresses, WhatsApp and Classroom. The instrument contained self-reported anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference) and blood pressure, and objective questions about alcohol consumption, medication, existing disease, habitual physical activity level and well be general. For data analysis, was used descriptive statistics and Mann-Withney U test with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: It was observed that in the cardiovascular risk factors of body mass index, blood pressure and waist circumference, the students presented adequate average values according to normative tables, and the data of men were significantly higher in all variables analyzed (p <0.05). For smoking habits and daily alcohol consumption, a low percentage was observed (3% and 2% respectively). It was found that 28.3% of the students reported having a pre-existing disease and 58.6% reported making continuous use of some medication. It also observed the percentage of inadequacy for blood pressure (6.5%), waist circumference (27%), Body Mass Index (28.3%) and habitual physical activity level (46.6%). The aggregation of two and, four or more risk factors was more prevalent in women, whereas men showed greater aggregation and three factors. Conclusion: The university students of the analyzed nursing course presented important percentages of cardiovascular risk factors, mainly in relation to the state of overweight or obesity and physical inactivity.


Introducción: Los riesgos de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares son altamente prevalentes en individuos de edad avanzada, sin embargo esta condición ha ido aumentando de manera preocupante en adultos jóvenes, especialmente en estudiantes de pregrado. Esta afección puede estar relacionada con varios comportamientos de riesgo asociados a las enfermedades cardiovasculares, como la mala alimentación, los bajos niveles de actividad física, el sobrepeso, etc. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de riesgos cardiovasculares en estudiantes de pregrado de enfermería de una universidad privada del suroeste de Paraná. Metodología: Investigación transversal, realizada en académicos del Curso de Enfermería de una universidad particular del Sudoeste de Paraná. El estudio evaluó a 99 estudiantes de enfermería que firmaron el formulario de consentimiento libre e informado. Para la recogida de datos, se utilizó un formulario electrónico que se puso a disposición de los alumnos en sus direcciones electrónicas, WhatsApp y Aula. El instrumento contenía preguntas sobre las medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, perímetro de la cintura) y la presión arterial declaradas por el propio paciente, así como preguntas objetivas sobre el consumo de alcohol, la medicación, las enfermedades existentes, el nivel de actividad física habitual y el bienestar general. Para el análisis de los datos se emplearon estadísticas descriptivas y la prueba U de Mann-Withney, con un nivel de significación de p<0,05. Resultados: Se observó que en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular de Índice de Masa Corporal, Presión Arterial y Circunferencia Abdominal, los académicos mostraron valores medios adecuados según tablas normativas, cuyos datos de los hombres fueron significativamente mayores en todas las variables analizadas (p<0,05). En cuanto al hábito de fumar y al consumo diario de alcohol, se observó un bajo porcentaje (3% y 2%, respectivamente). Se comprobó que el 28,3% de los estudiantes declaró tener alguna enfermedad preexistente y el 58,6% informó del uso continuo de algún medicamento. También se observaron los porcentajes de inadecuación para la presión arterial (6,5%), el perímetro abdominal (27%), el índice de masa corporal (28,3%) y el nivel de actividad física habitual (46,6%). La agregación de dos y cuatro o más factores de riesgo fue más frecuente en las mujeres, mientras que los hombres mostraron una mayor agregación y tres factores. Conclusión: Los estudiantes de pregrado del Curso de Enfermería analizados presentaron porcentajes importantes de factores de riesgo cardiovascular, especialmente en relación con el estado de sobrepeso u obesidad y el sedentarismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Universities , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Education, Nursing/ethics , Students, Nursing , Body Mass Index , Overweight/diagnosis , Sedentary Behavior , Data Analysis , Obesity/diagnosis
9.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.


A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 537-545, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385268

ABSTRACT

Abstract The prevalence of depression varies from 1 to 17% in different geographic regions, and its incidence is 70% higher in women than men. Today, depression affects more than 300 million people worldwide, affecting twice as many women from adolescence to adulthood. In addition to this earlier onset, depression in women tends to be more severe. Cardiovascular disease and depression are chronic diseases that have a major impact on cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, with evidence of a two-way relationship between them, in which depression is a predictor of cardiovascular disease and vice versa. In females, the degree of illness and prognosis are more severe when both diseases are present, than when diagnosed alone. In patients with acute or chronic cardiovascular disease, especially women, a systematic screening for depression should be considered as a preventive strategy of cardiovascular events, aiming to reduce the risk of future events. There are still no clinical studies designed to assess the impact of antidepressant treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Depression/complications , Prognosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology
11.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 53-60, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397628

ABSTRACT

Hypertension in black patients is usually more frequent and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Due to demographic changes in the Chilean population, dealing with this group of patients has become more frequent. The case of a young Haitian patient with severe hypertension and target organ damage is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Blood Pressure Determination , Prevalence , Black People , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents
12.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e801, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1383633

ABSTRACT

Se presentan, en un trabajo conjunto, las recomendaciones para la evaluación cardiovascular de personas menores de 35 años que realizan ejercicio y deportes. Se establecen pautas en cuanto a la valoración y la habilitación que tendrá dicha evaluación, quiénes estarán a cargo de su realización y cuáles son los componentes fundamentales de una correcta valoración cardiovascular. Se toman en cuenta los antecedentes familiares y personales, el examen físico exhaustivo y se considera conveniente la realización del ECG como parte integrante obligatorio. Se hacen referencia a otros estudios funcionales como opcionales, así como la posible derivación a los especialistas cuando se considere necesario.


We hereby present joint recommendations for cardiovascular assessment of people under 35 years of age who do exercise and sports. We set the guidelines regarding evaluation and score of such assessment, the agents in charge of implementing it and the main components of a correct cardiovascular assessment. We take into account the family and personal history and perform a comprehensive physical examination as well as an ECG as a mandatory part of this comprehensive approach. We mention other optional functional studies as well as reference to specialists whenever necessary.


Apresentamos através dum paper conjunto recomendações para a avaliação cardiovascular de pessoas de 35 anos de idade que praticam exercício e esportes. Estabelecem-se as diretrizes quanto à qualificação dessa avaliação, quem a realizará e quais são os componentes fundamentais de uma correta avaliação cardiovascular. Consideramos obrigatório incluir a história familiar e pessoal, o exame físico exaustivo e o ECG opcional. Referimo-nos a outros estudos funcionais opcionais, assim como ao possível encaminhamento para especialistas quando for necessário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sports , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Physical Examination , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Electrocardiography , Medical History Taking
13.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(1): 10-18, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388108

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Un evento cardiovascular puede reducir o alterar la capacidad funcional de las personas y, por ende, afectar el desempeño adecuado en el ámbito físico, familiar, social y laboral. La OMS ha definido la salud de los adultos mayores por su capacidad funcional y no por sus limitaciones, discapacidades o enfermedades. Por lo tanto, la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores está estrechamente relacionada con la capacidad funcional y el conjunto de condiciones que le permiten participar en su propio autocuidado, en la vida social y familiar. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es explorar la evidencia existente en la última década acerca de las pruebas y escalas de funcionalidad usadas en población adulta mayor con enfermedad cardiovascular durante su hospitalización y que reciben tratamiento de terapia física. MÉTODOS: Se usó la metodología Scoping Review, usando los términos DeCS/MeSH: cardiac, rehabilitation, cardiovascular disease, physical therapy, elderly, inpatient, y functionality. La revisión siguió el modelo PRISMA para ordenar y sintetizar los resultados. Las bases de datos consultadas fueron: Pubmed, Scielo, Sciencedirect y Scopus, Lilacs, PeDro. RESULTADOS: 20 artículos fueron seleccionados en los cuales se identificó que las escalas de valoración funcional más utilizadas fueron: caminata de 6 minutos, escala de independencia (FIM), Percepción de salud SF -36. CONCLUCIONES: La evidencia encontrada para guiar la rehabilitación física en paciente adulto mayor muestra cambios significativos en el incremento de la capacidad funcional.


ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: A cardiovascular event can reduce or alter the functional capacity of people affecting the physical capacity, and the performance in family, social and work environments. The WHO has defined the health of older adults by their functional capacity and not by their limitations, disabilities or illnesses. Therefore, the quality of life of older adults is closely related to the functional capacity and the set of conditions that allow them to participate in their own self-care, in social and family life. The aim of this study was to explore the existing evidence in the last decade about the tests and scales of functionality used in older adults with cardiovascular disease receiving physical therapy during hospitalization. METHODS: The Scoping Review methodology was used. Mesh and DeCS/MeSH terms included were cardiac, rehabilitation, cardiovascular disease, physical therapy, elderly, inpatient and functionality. The review followed the PRISMA model to sort and synthesize the results. The databases consulted were: Pubmed, Scielo, Science direct and Scopus, Lilacs, PeDro. RESULTS: 20 articles were selected in which it was identified that the most used functional assessment scales were: The 6-minute walk test, the Independence scale (FIM) and the Health Perception scale (SF-36). CONCLUSION: In older patients the functional tests identified allowed to detect significant improvements in functional capacity following cardiac rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiac Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Exercise , Epidemiology, Descriptive
14.
J. health inform ; 14(1): 3-10, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370250

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Thousands of people suffer from cardiovascular diseases. Even though the electrocardiogram is an exam consolidated. The lack of methodological observation in the placement of sensors can compromise the results. This article proposes a wearable vest capable of conditioning cardiac signals from three simultaneous channels, reducing the chance of failures in the exam due to the smaller number of electrodes attached to the patient's body. Methods: It adds the vectorcardiogram technique to the electrocardiogram wearable, which consists of three orthonormal derivations Vx, Vy, and Vz, measuring dynamic components of the heart vector. Results: The display of the cardiac biopotential in the web-mobile application represents the visualization of the twelve derivations synthesized from the Dower transform and the spatial projections of the cardiac loop under a three-dimensional view. Conclusion: Feasibility of integrating the vectorcardiogram with the electrocardiogram exam.


Objetivos: Milhares de pessoas sofrem com doenças cardiovasculares, apesar do Eletrocardiograma ser um exame consolidado, a falta de observação metodológica na colocação dos sensores pode comprometer os resultados. O presente artigo propõe um colete vestível capaz de condicionar sinais cardíacos de três canais simultâneos, reduzindo a chance de falhas na execução do exame em função da menor quantidade de eletrodos fixados ao corpo do paciente. Métodos: Acrescenta a técnica do vetocardiograma ao vestível de eletrocardiograma, que consiste em três derivações ortonormais Vx, Vy e Vz, medindo componentes dinâmicos do vetor coração. Resultados: Exibição do biopotencial cardíaco na aplicação web-mobile representa de forma satisfatória a visualização das doze derivações sintetizadas a partir da transformada de Dower, bem como, as projeções espaciais do loop cardíaco sob uma visão tridimensional. Conclusão: Viabilidade de integração do vetocardiograma ao exame de eletrocardiograma.


Objetivos: Miles de personas padecen enfermedades cardiovasculares, a pesar de que el electrocardiograma es un examen consolidado, la falta de observación metodológica en la colocación de sensores puede comprometer los resultados. Este artículo propone una tecnología vestible capaz de acondicionar las señales cardíacas de tres canales simultáneos, reduciendo la posibilidad de fallas en el examen por la menor cantidad de electrodos adheridos al cuerpo del paciente. Métodos: Agrega la técnica del vetocardiograma al electrocardiograma vestible, que consta de tres derivaciones ortonormales Vx, Vy y Vz, midiendo los componentes dinámicos del vector cardíaco. Resultados: La visualización del biopotencial cardíaco en la aplicación web-móvil representa satisfactoriamente la visualización de las doce derivaciones sintetizadas a partir de la transformada de Dower, así como las proyecciones espaciales del bucle cardíaco bajo una vista tridimensional. Conclusión: Viabilidad de integrar el vetocardiograma con el examen electrocardiográfico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vectorcardiography/instrumentation , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Wearable Electronic Devices
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 127-134, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. People living in vulnerable and poor places such as slums, rural areas and remote locations have difficulty in accessing medical care and diagnostic tests. In addition, given the COVID-19 pandemic, we are witnessing an increase in the use of telemedicine and non-invasive tools for monitoring vital signs. These questions motivate us to write this point of view and to describe some of the main innovations used for non-invasive screening of heart diseases. Smartphones are widely used by the population and are perfect tools for screening cardiovascular diseases. They are equipped with camera, flashlight, microphone, processor, and internet connection, which allow optical, electrical, and acoustic analysis of cardiovascular phenomena. Thus, when using signal processing and artificial intelligence approaches, smartphones may have predictive power for cardiovascular diseases. Here we present different smartphone approaches to analyze signals obtained from various methods including photoplethysmography, phonocardiograph, and electrocardiography to estimate heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart murmurs and electrical conduction. Our objective is to present innovations in non-invasive diagnostics using the smartphone and to reflect on these trending approaches. These could help to improve health access and the screening of cardiovascular diseases for millions of people, particularly those living in needy areas.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Triage/trends , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/trends , Smartphone/trends , Triage/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends , Mobile Applications/trends , Smartphone/instrumentation , Telecardiology , COVID-19/diagnosis
16.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 206-214, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927654

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore associations between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and the risk of cardiovascular events in a Chinese population, with a long-term follow-up.@*Methods@#A random sample of 2,031 participants (73.6% males, mean age = 60.4 years) was derived from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study (APAC) from 2010 to 2011. Serum Lp-PLA2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The composite endpoint was a combination of first-ever stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or all-cause death. Lp-PLA2 associations with outcomes were assessed using Cox models.@*Results@#The median Lp-PLA2 level was 141.0 ng/mL. Over a median follow-up of 9.1 years, we identified 389 events (19.2%), including 137 stroke incidents, 43 MIs, and 244 all-cause deaths. Using multivariate Cox regression, when compared with the lowest Lp-PLA2 quartile, the hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for developing composite endpoints, stroke, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause death were 1.77 (1.24-2.54), 1.92 (1.03-3.60), 1.69 (1.003-2.84), and 1.94 (1.18-3.18) in the highest quartile, respectively. Composite endpoints in 145 (28.6%) patients occurred in the highest quartile where Lp-PLA2 (159.0 ng/mL) was much lower than the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommended cut-off point, 200 ng/mL.@*Conclusion@#Higher Lp-PLA2 levels were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular event/death in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Lp-PLA2 cut-off point may be lower in the Chinese population when predicting cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/blood , Asian People , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Stroke/blood
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 894-902, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970085

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular homeostasis is regulated by both physical and chemical factors. Vascular stiffness, a physical property of vessel, is crucial in maintaining the physiological function of vasculature. Vascular stiffness has been indicated to be correlated with hypertension, heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases. It has been the most widely accepted clinical index for assessment of vascular function and dysfunction. This paper reviews the commonly used experimental and clinical techniques for evaluating vascular stiffness including direct detection of the Young's modulus and indirect detection method that is based on ultrasound technique and others. Principles of these methodologies, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, are also presented here. Researchers and clinical staff are encouraged to choose the most suitable methods for detecting vascular stiffness according to their purposes and objects, so as to effectively evaluate vascular function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vascular Stiffness , Elastic Modulus , Hypertension/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Failure
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 136 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415619

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A aterosclerose é uma doença inflamatória crônica decorrente de alterações na parede das artérias de médio e grande calibre e associadas a diversos fatores de risco, dentre os quais destaca-se as hiperlipidemias, ou seja, o aumento plasmático das lipoproteínas, mas também outras comorbidades, como a Síndrome Metabólica. Entre as lipoproteínas, a lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) é de grande relevância na aterosclerose. Diferentes espécies de LDL modificada (LDLm) são originadas através de lipólise, glicação e proteólise, além da oxidação, variando em densidade e eletronegatividade, sendo melhor denominada LDL eletronegativa [LDL (-)]. Considerando as diferenças conformacionais entre a estrutura da ApoB-100 da LDL nativa e da LDL (-), em um estudo inicial, nosso grupo desenvolveu um anticorpo monoclonal (2C7) a partir da imunização de camundongos Balb/c com a LDL (-) humana. Em uma etapa seguinte foi mapeado o epítopo reconhecido pelo anticorpo monoclonal anti-LDL (-) através de phage display. O peptídeo ligante do anticorpo monoclonal anti-LDL (-) foi nomeado p2C7. Esse peptídeo não representa regiões da sequência linear da ApoB-100 humana, mas microdomínios conformacionais de epítopos da ApoB-100 da LDL (-), tornando-os candidatos para a imunomodulação da aterogênese. Portanto, investigar a imunomodulação induzida pelos peptídeo p2C7 miméticos da LDL (-), por representar um epítopo imunodominante da LDL (-), poderá abrir novas perspectivas terapêuticas futuras para a imunomodulação da aterosclerose. Objetivo: Avaliar a imunomodulação promovida pelo p2C7 in vivo, utilizando camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- e amostras de plasma humano. Adicionalmente, no estágio (BEPE) realizado no Instituto Karolinska (dezembro de 2019 a março de 2021), investigou-se o imunometabolismo como mediador nas doenças cardiovasculares. Na parte II-A, estão descritos os resultados do estudo inicialmente proposto. Na parte II-B, apresenta-se os resultados que foram desenvolvidos posteriormente, com ampliação do escopo do projeto, abordando-se a inflamação vascular envolvida no aneurisma de aorta abdominal através de ferramentas de bioinformática. Na parte II-C, são apresentados os resultados do estudo do envolvimento da enzima indolamina 2,3 dioxigenase (IDO) na esteatohepatite não-alcoólica (NASH) e aterosclerose em camundongos ApoE-/- and ApoE/IDO/double-knockout. Metodologia: Foi avaliada a presença de anticorpos anti-p2C7 em amostras de plasma humano de indivíduos com ou sem síndrome metabólica. Realizamos a determinação de TNF circulante nas mesmas amostras e prosseguimos com regressões lineares associando os parâmetros inflamatórios com os níveis de anticorpos anti-p2C7. Camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- foram imunizados com p2C7 e os adjuvantes Alum ou Montanide ISA 720, analisando-se os títulos de anticorpos contra p2C7 e LDL (-), a produção de citocinas (IL-10, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6, IFNγ, IL-17, TNFα) e células secretoras de anticorpos. Camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- foram tolerizados contra os peptídeos mimotopos, com injeções intravenosas (veia caudal) e desafiados com a imunização contendo LDL (-) + Alum. Avaliou-se os títulos de anticorpos contra p2C7 e LDL (-) e a produção de citocinas (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 e MCP-1). Os camundongos foram mantidos em dieta hipercolesterolêmica por 3 meses para formação da placa aterosclerótica. Após este período, os camundongos foram eutanasiados, avaliando-se a formação de placa aterosclerótica na artéria abdominal e arco aórtico, assim como a produção de citocinas (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 e MCP-1). Camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- foram imunizados com OVA-p2C7 e, após dieta hipercolesterolêmica de 3 meses para formação de placa aterosclerótica, foram avaliados os parâmetros inflamatórios e avaliada a captação de 18F-FDG no arco aórtico através de PET/CT. Resultados: A imunização com o p2C7 (livre) não foi capaz de induzir resposta humoral, não se observando títulos detectáveis de anticorpos reativos à p2C7 ou LDL (-) em nenhum camundongo imunizado, assim como não foram detectadas células secretoras de anticorpos específicos para a LDL (-). O grupo imunizado com Alum ou Montanide + p2C7 teve aumento significativo na produção de TNF- quando comparado com os demais grupos. O protocolo de tolerização foi realizado com sucesso, visto que os camundongos tolerizados apresentaram títulos de anticorpos inferiores aos controles para o epítopo utilizado. Apenas os camundongos tolerizados com o p2C7 apresentaram aumento significativo na produção de IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, IFNγ e MCP 1 após dieta hipercolesterolêmica. A imunização ativa com OVA-p2C7 foi capaz de reduzir a produção de TNF induzida pela dieta hipercolesterolêmica, assim como reduzir a captação de 18F-FDG. Conclusão: o epítopo p2C7 é altamente expresso na LDL (-) de pacientes com maior risco cardiovascular. Além disso, a imunização ativa com p2C7 também se mostra uma ferramenta promissora para prevenir e regular a inflamação causada pela LDL (-) no curso da aterosclerose


Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from changes in the wall of medium and large-caliber arteries and associated with several risk factors, among which hyperlipidemias stand out, ie, the increase in plasma lipoproteins, but also other comorbidities, such as Metabolic Syndrome. Among the lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is of great relevance in atherosclerosis. Different isoforms of modified LDL (LDLm) are originated through lipolysis, glycation and proteolysis, in addition to oxidation, varying in density and electronegativity, being better called electronegative LDL [LDL (-)]. Considering the conformational differences between the ApoB-100 structure of native LDL and LDL (-), in an initial study, our group developed a monoclonal antibody (2C7) from the immunization of Balb/c mice with human LDL (-). In a next step, the epitope recognized by the anti-LDL monoclonal antibody (-) was mapped using phage display. The binding peptide of anti-LDL monoclonal antibodies (-) was named p2C7. This peptide does not represent linear sequence regions of human ApoB-100, but conformational microdomains of LDL (-) ApoB-100 epitopes, making them candidates for the immunomodulation of atherogenesis. Therefore, investigating the immunomodulation induced by p2C7 peptide mimetics of LDL (-) as it represents an immunodominant epitope of LDL (-) could open new future therapeutic perspectives for the immunomodulation of atherosclerosis. Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulation promoted by p2C7 in vivo, using C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice, and human plasma samples. In addition, in the internship (BEPE), held at the Karolinska Institute (December 2019 to March 2021), immunometabolism as a mediator of Cardiovascular Diseases was studied. In part II-A, the results of the initially proposed study are described. In part II-B, the results that were developed later are presented, expanding the scope of the project, approaching the vascular inflammation involved in the abdominal aortic aneurysm through bioinformatics tools. In part II-C, the results of the study of the involvement of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- and ApoE/IDO/double mice are presented -knockout. Methodology: The presence of anti-p2C7 antibodies in human plasma samples with or without Metabolic Syndrome was evaluated. We measured circulating TNF in the same samples and proceeded with linear regressions associating inflammatory parameters with levels of anti-p2C7 antibodies. C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice were immunized with p2C7 and the adjuvants Alum or Montanide ISA 720, analyzing the antibody titers against p2C7 and LDL (-), the production of cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL -2, IL-6, IFNγ, IL-17, TNFα) and antibody-secreting cells. C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice were tolerized against mimotope peptides with intravenous injections (caudal vein) and challenged with immunization containing LDL (-) + Alum. Antibody titers against p2C7 and LDL (-) and cytokine production (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1) were evaluated. The mice were kept on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 3 months for atherosclerotic plaque formation. After this period, the mice were euthanized, evaluating the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the abdominal artery and aortic arch, as well as the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 and MCP -1). C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice were immunized with OVA-p2C7 and, after a 3-month hypercholesterolemic diet for atherosclerotic plaque formation, inflammatory parameters were evaluated and 18F-FDG uptake was evaluated by PET/CT. Results: Immunization with p2C7 (free) was not able to induce a humoral response, with no detectable titers of antibodies reactive to p2C7 or LDL (-) being observed in any immunized mouse, as well as no detectable antibody-secreting cells for the LDL (-). The group immunized with Alum or Montanide + p2C7 had a significant increase in TNF-α production when compared to the other groups. The tolerance protocol was successfully performed, as the tolerized mice had lower antibody titers than controls for the epitope used. Only mice tolerated with p2C7 showed a significant increase in the production of IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, IFNγ and MCP 1 after a hypercholesterolemic diet. Active immunization with OVA-p2C7 was able to reduce TNF production induced by the hypercholesterolemic diet, as well as to reduce 18F-FDG uptake. Conclusion: the p2C7 epitope is highly expressed in LDL (-) of patients with higher cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, active immunization with p2C7 is also a promising tool to prevent and regulate inflammation caused by LDL (-) in the course of atherosclerosis


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Immunization/classification , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Pets , Lipoproteins, LDL/adverse effects , Mice/abnormalities , Arteries/abnormalities , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/classification , Methodology as a Subject
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 423-423, ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339165
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