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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 219-230, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356035

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o risco nutricional e cardiovascular segundo medidas antropométricas em idosos quilombolas do estado do Maranhão. Trata-se de estudo transversal realizado em 11 comunidades remanescentes de quilombolas do município de Bequimão, Maranhão, Brasil. Realizou-se censo da população idosa que representou 205 pessoas. Foram estimados os riscos nutricional e cardiovascular por meio dos indicadores antropométricos segundo sexo e idade. Realizou-se Testes de Qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Exacto de Fisher e análises de variância. Diferenças foram consideradas estatisticamente significantes quando p<0,05. Idosos quilombolas vivem em precárias condições de moradia e de infraestrutura sanitária, com elevado risco nutricional e cardiovascular, mas com diferenças entre sexo e idade. O excesso de peso foi mais prevalente em mulheres e idosos mais jovens, enquanto os homens e idosos com 80 ou mais anos apresentaram-se mais desnutridos e com maior perda de massa corporal. O risco cardiovascular foi maior entre as mulheres e em todas as faixas etárias. Idosos quilombolas vivem em vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e apresentaram alta prevalência de baixo peso, perda de massa muscular e alto risco cardiovascular, sendo maior risco entre mulheres e idosos do grupo de maior idade.


Abstract This article aims to assess nutritional and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk based on anthropometric measures among older persons living in Quilombola communities in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 205 older persons living in 11 Quilombola communities in Bequimão, Maranhão. Nutritional and CVD risk were estimated according to sex and age group based on anthropometric indicators using Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and analysis of variance, adopting a significance level of p<0.05. The study participants suffer precarious housing, basic sanitation and social conditions. Prevalence of nutritional and CDV risk was high across the sample, showing differences between sexes and age groups. Prevalence of excess weight was higher in women and the youngest age group, while prevalence of malnourishment and loss of muscle mass was higher in men and individuals aged 80 years and over. Prevalence of CVD risk was high across all age groups and higher in women than men. The older persons living in the Quilombola communities investigated by this study are socially vulnerable and showed high prevalence of low weight, loss of muscle mass and CDV risk. The prevalence of CVD risk was higher among women and the oldest age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Malnutrition , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(1): e2087, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1367592

ABSTRACT

Un estudio mostró que el aumento de valores de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides se asoció a un aumento de mortalidad por todas las causas, estimando que las enfermedades cardiovasculares mediaban dicha asociación en aproximada-mente el 14 % de los casos. Asimismo se observó que el reemplazo con levotiroxina disminuiría los niveles de colesterol, lo cual podría tener un efecto en la reducción de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Partiendo de una viñeta clínica la autora intenta, a través de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de la evidencia, determinar si el tratamiento del hipotiroidismo subclínico en adultos mayores reduciría la morbimortalidad por eventos cardiovasculares. (AU)


A study showed that increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality, with cardiovascular disease estimated to mediate this association in approximately 14 % of cases. Additionally, levothyroxine replacement was found to lower cholesterol levels, which could have an effect in reducing cardiovascular diseases. Basedon a clinical vignette, the author attempts, through a literature search and an analysis of the evidence, to determine whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in older adults would reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Age Factors , Hypothyroidism/blood
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00346520, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360299

ABSTRACT

Body fat distribution seems to have different effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We aimed to estimate the associations between lower limbs and trunk fat ratio and the 10-year CVD risk, and isolated risk factors in men and women. A total of 10,917 participants from ELSA-Brasil were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Associations between lower limb/trunk fat ratio with the percentage of 10-year CVD risk - according to the Framingham Risk Score - and its risk factors (systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, diabetes, and use of antihypertensive medication) were performed using generalized linear models, linear and logistic regressions. All analyses were stratified by gender and adjustments were made by age, self-reported skin color, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, hypolipidemic drug use and, for women, menopausal status. In this study, 55.91% were women, with a mean age of 52.68 (SD = 6.57) years. A higher lower limb/trunk fat ratio was related to lower 10-year CVD risk, as well as a reduction in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and antihypertensive drug use, also an increasing HDL-cholesterol in both genders, but this relationship was stronger in women. Besides, a protective relationship to diabetes was observed in women. Higher fat accumulation in the lower body, when compared to the trunk, seems to have a lower risk of CVD and associated risk factors - even in the presence of fat in the abdominal region - with women presenting lower risks than men.


A distribuição de gordura no corpo parece ter efeitos diferentes nas doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). Objetivou-se estimar as associações da razão de gordura entre membros inferiores e tronco com o risco de DCV em 10 anos e os fatores de risco independentes em homens e mulheres. Um total de 10.917 participantes do ELSA-Brasil eram elegíveis para este estudo transversal. As associações da razão de gordura entre os membros inferiores e tronco com o percentual de risco de DCV em 10 anos, de acordo com a Escala de Risco de Framingham, e os respectivos fatores de risco (pressão arterial sistólica, colesterol total e HDL colesterol, diabetes e uso de medicação anti-hipertensiva), foram avaliados com modelos lineares generalizados, lineares e de regressão logística. Todas as análises foram estratificadas por sexo, e os ajustes foram feitos por idade, raça/cor, escolaridade, consumo de álcool, atividade física, uso de medicação hipolipemiante e, para as mulheres, estado de menopausa. Na amostra do estudo atual, 55,91% eram mulheres, com média de idade de 52,68 anos (DP = 6,57). A maior diferença entre a gordura dos membros inferiores e tronco foi associada com menor risco de DCV em 10 anos e com redução na pressão arterial sistólica, colesterol total e uso de medicação anti-hipertensiva, assim como um aumento no HDL colesterol em ambos os sexos (mas essa correlação foi mais forte em mulheres). Além disso, foi observada uma relação protetora contra diabetes, apenas em mulheres. O acúmulo maior de gordura nos membros inferiores, comparado com o tronco, parece estar associado a um risco menor de DCV e aos fatores de risco, mesmo na presença de gordura na região abdominal, e esse efeito é mais forte nas mulheres que nos homens.


Las distribuciones de grasa corporal parecen tener diferentes efectos en las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). Nuestro objetivo fue estimar las asociaciones entre extremidades inferiores/ratio de grasa troncal y el riesgo de ECV a los 10 años, y sus factores de riesgo aislados, en hombres y mujeres. Un total de 10.917 participantes de ELSA-Brasil fueron elegibles para este estudio transversal. Las asociaciones de la ratio de grasa entre la parte inferior del cuerpo y el tronco, con el porcentaje de riesgo de ECV a los 10 años, según la Escala de Riesgo de Framingham, y sus factores de riesgo (presión sanguínea sistólica, colesterol total y colesterol HDL, diabetes, y uso de medicación antihipertensiva), se realizaron usando modelos lineales generalizados, regresiones lineales y logísticas. Todos los análisis fueron estratificados por sexo y los ajustes se hicieron por edad, raza/color de piel autoinformado, nivel educativo, consumo de alcohol, actividad física durante el ocio, uso de medicamentos hipolipemiantes y, para mujeres, estatus menopáusico. En este estudio, un 55,91% fueron mujeres, con una media de edad de 52,68 (SD = 6,57) años. Una ratio de masa adiposa más alta entre las extremidades inferiores/tronco estuvo asociada a un riesgo menor de ECV en 10 años, también una reducción en la presión sistólica sanguínea, colesterol total, y el consumo de medicamentos antihipertensivos, también en un incremento del colesterol HDL en ambos sexos, pero esta relación fue más fuerte en mujeres. Asimismo, una relación protectora frente a la diabetes se observó solo en mujeres. Una acumulación más alta de grasa en las extremidades inferiores, comparada con la del tronco, parece tener un riego más bajo de ECV y sus factores de riesgo, incluso con la presencia de grasa en la región abdominal, además este efecto es más fuerte en mujeres comparadas con los hombres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Body Fat Distribution , Middle Aged
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 666-675, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345243

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Os resultados de estudos anteriores sobre a relação entre ácido úrico sérico (AUS) e o risco de doença cardiovascular (DCV) até agora são inconsistentes devido aos fatores de confusão causados por outros fatores de risco cardiovascular conhecidos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre o AUS e as DCV incidentes em chineses de meia-idade e idosos, que foram estratificados de acordo com o índice de massa corporal (IMC). Métodos Recrutamos 5.721 participantes com idades entre 40 e 75 anos que não tinham diagnóstico de DCV na linha de base, e que foram monitorados de 2008 a 2017. Os participantes foram categorizados em quintis de AUS. A regressão de Cox e a análise de sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier foram utilizadas para comparar a incidência de DCV entre os grupos de AUS. As correlações entre AUS e a incidência de DCV em grupos com IMC e circunferência de cintura (CC) variados também foram analisadas. Um P valor <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Durante um período médio de monitoramento de 7,6 anos, a incidência de DCV aumentou com o AUS (teste de Log-rank p<0,001). Em comparação com o primeiro quintil, as razões de risco padronizadas (intervalos de confiança de 95%) para p desenvolvimento de DCV foram 1,08 (0,78-1,65), 1,17 (0,88-1,77), 1,47 (1,12-2,21), e 1,68 (1,28-2,44) para o segundo, terceiro, quarto e quinto quintis, respectivamente. Essa relação ficou mais clara em participantes com IMC e CC normais. A razão de risco ajustada para cada aumento de 100 μmol/L de AUS foi de 1,13 (intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,02-1,39) para eventos de DCV. Conclusões O AUS alto é um fator de risco de DCV independente em pessoas de meia-idade e idosas do norte da China. Esse efeito é mantido mesmo depois da estratificação de acordo com medidas de magreza/obesidade.


Abstract Background The results of previous studies of the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been inconsistent due to confounding factors caused by other known cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SUA and incident CVD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people, who were stratified according to body mass index (BMI). Methods This study recruited 5,721 participants of 40-75 years of age, who were free of CVD at baseline and who underwent follow-up from 2008 to 2017. Participants were categorized in SUA quintiles. Cox proportional hazard and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to compare CVD incidence among the SUA groups. The correlations between SUA and CVD incidence in groups with differing BMI and waist circumference (WC) were also analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years, CVD incidence increased with SUA (log-rank test p<0. 001). Compared with the first quintile, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the development of CVD were 1.08 (0.78-1.65), 1.17 (0.88-1.77), 1.47 (1.12-2.21), and 1.68 (1.28-2.44) for the second to fifth quintiles, respectively. This relationship was clearer in participants with normal BMI and WC. The adjusted hazard ratio for each 100 μmol/L increase in SUA was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02-1.39) for CVD events. Conclusions High SUA is an independent risk factor for CVD in middle-aged and elderly northern Chinese people. This effect is maintained even after stratification according to measures of leanness/obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uric Acid , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Middle Aged
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 968-975, nov. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350012

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A presença de Doença Cardiovascular (DCV) em indivíduos infectados pela COVID-19 pode implicar em um pior prognóstico. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG) por COVID-19 e analisar os fatores associados a essa condição em adultos e idosos com doença cardiovascular no Brasil até a 30ª Semana Epidemiológica de 2020. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado com dados do Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe (SIVEP-Gripe), referente às fichas de notificação de SRAG de indivíduos hospitalizados no Brasil, entre a 1a e 30a Semana Epidemiológica de 2020. Foram incluídos adultos e idosos (≥ 18 anos) com DCV. A variável dependente foi a confirmação de SRAG por COVID-19 e foram analisados fatores relacionados a características sociodemográficas, sinais e sintomas e fatores clínicos. Aplicou-se a regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Foram analisadas as notificações de 116.343 indivíduos. Destes, 61,9% obtiveram diagnóstico de SRAG por COVID-19. A prevalência do desfecho foi 4% menor nas mulheres (IC95%: 0,94-0,99) e 18% menor em zonas rurais (IC95%: 0,77-0,87). Observou-se prevalência maior na faixa etária de 50 a 59 anos (IC95%: 1,09-1,48) e na região nordeste (IC95%: 1,72-1,91). Febre, tosse, internação em UTI, uso de suporte ventilatório e caso nosocomial também foram significativamente associados a uma maior probabilidade de SRAG por COVID-19 nesses indivíduos. Conclusão Há alta prevalência de SRAG por COVID-19 em adultos e idosos com DCV no Brasil. Associaram-se fatores relacionados a características sociodemográficas, clínicas, sinais e sintomas.


Abstract Background The presence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in individuals infected with COVID-19 may imply a worse prognosis. Objective To describe the prevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) by COVID-19 and to analyze the factors associated with this condition in adults and the elderly with cardiovascular disease in Brazil until the 30th Epidemiological Week of 2020. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe - SIVEP-Gripe), referring to the SARS notification forms of hospitalized individuals in Brazil, between the 1st and 30th Epidemiological Week of 2020. Adults and the aged (≥ 18 years old) with CVD. The dependent variable was SRAG confirmation by COVID-19 and factors related to sociodemographic characteristics, signs and symptoms, and clinical factors were analyzed. Poisson regression with robust variance was applied. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results Notifications from 116,343 individuals were analyzed. Of these, 61.9% were diagnosed with SARS by COVID-19. The prevalence of the outcome was 4% lower in women (95%CI: 0.94-0.99) and 18% lower in rural areas (95%CI: 0.77-0.87). There was a higher prevalence in the 50 to 59 age group (95%CI: 1.09-1.48) and in the northeast region (95%CI: 1.72-1.91). Fever, cough, admission to the ICU, use of ventilatory support, and nosocomial cases were also significantly associated with a higher probability of SRAS by COVID-19 in these individuals. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of SARS by COVID-19 in adults and aged people with CVD in Brazil. Factors associated with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, signs, and symptoms were associated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5201-5214, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345771

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo y en Colombia siendo consideradas un serio problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar espacial y temporalmente la mortalidad por ECV en la región Pacifico de Colombia durante el periodo 2002-2015 y su asociación con algunos indicadores socioeconómicos municipales usando técnicas estadísticas de análisis espacial. Fue un estudio descriptivo-ecológico en los 177 municipios de la región Pacifico que usó datos de mortalidad por ECV, bajo los códigos I00-I99 de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-10), y siete indicadores socioeconómicos municipales. El análisis incluyó cálculo de tasas de mortalidad crudas y estandarizadas, según sexo, para las ECV y sus principales causas, y la modelación del conteo de defunciones usando modelos jerárquicos Bayesianos. Durante el periodo 2002-2015 las tasas estandarizadas de mortalidad por ECV mostraron una tendencia descendente en hombres (129,0 a 119,3) y en mujeres (129,0 a 110,0) siendo las principales causas de muerte las enfermedades isquémicas del corazón, seguidas de las cerebrovasculares. En general, el riesgo de mortalidad por ECV fue mayor en los municipios menos favorecidos económica y socialmente.


Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world, and they are considered a serious public health problem in Colombia. The main goal of this study was to analyze CVD mortality spatially and temporarily in the Pacific region of Colombia during the 2002-2015 period, and its association with some municipal socio-economic indicators using spatial statistical analysis techniques. It involved a descriptive-ecological study in the 177 municipalities of the Pacific region that used CVD mortality data, under codes I00-I99 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), and seven municipal socio-economic indicators. The analysis included the calculation of crude and standardized mortality rates, according to sex, for CVD and its main causes, and modeling of CVD death counts using Bayesian hierarchical models. During the 2002-2015 period, standardized rates of CVD mortality showed a downward trend in men (129.0 to 119.3) and in women (129.0 to 110.0), the main causes of death being ischemic heart diseases, followed by cerebrovascular diseases. In general, the risk of CVD mortality was higher in the less economically and socially privileged municipalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Mortality , Bayes Theorem , Cities , Colombia/epidemiology
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(7): 2601-2612, jul. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278769

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi verificar associação entre trabalho e fatores sociodemográficos, de condutas de saúde e de risco cardiovasculares em adolescentes brasileiros. Foram analisados dados do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (ERICA), com amostra constituída de 37.815 adolescentes com idades entre 12 e 17 anos, estudantes do turno matutino. Considerando a amostragem complexa, foram calculadas as Razões de Prevalências (RP) brutas e ajustadas com estimativas intervalares para as variáveis usando modelo de regressão múltipla de Poisson com estimativa robusta da variância. Os fatores sociodemográficos associados ao trabalho entre adolescentes brasileiros foram: sexo masculino (RP 1,34), idade entre 15 e 17 anos (RP 1,68), escolaridade materna até o fundamental (RP 1,26), de escola pública (RP 1,63) e da zona rural (RP 1,90). Em relação a hábitos de vida e comportamento social, a associação foi significativa em alunos ativos fisicamente (RP 1,19) e que consumiam álcool (RP 1,35). Em conclusão, o trabalho entre adolescentes brasileiros estudantes do turno matutino ainda está ligado fortemente às questões sociais. O trabalho foi associado ao consumo de álcool e não houve associação com marcadores metabólicos.


Abstract This study aimed to verify the association between work and sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and cardiovascular risk in Brazilian adolescents. Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were analyzed, with a sample of 37,815 adolescents aged 12-17 years and morning shift students. Considering complex sampling, crude and adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR) were calculated with interval estimates for variables by Poisson multiple regression model with robust variance estimate. The sociodemographic factors associated with work among Brazilian adolescents were male gender (PR 1.34), aged 15-17 years, with maternal schooling up to elementary school (PR 1.26), public school students (PR 1.63), and from the rural area (PR 1.90). Regarding lifestyle habits and social behavior, the association was significant in physically active (PR 1.19) and alcohol-consuming students (PR 1.35). In conclusion, work among Brazilian adolescent morning shift students is still strongly linked to social issues. Work was associated with alcohol consumption, and there was no association with metabolic markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1221-1231, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285914

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo visa comparar a proporção de indivíduos classificados como portadores de alto risco cardiovascular (RCV) na população adulta brasileira, segundo seis diferentes calculadoras de risco, visando analisar a concordância entre as medidas. Estudo transversal, no qual foram utilizados dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). As prevalências do RCV em 10 anos para a população entre 45 e 64 anos foram: Escore de risco global (ERG) da Sociedade Geral de Cardiologia (SBC):38,1%, "American College of Cardiology" e "American Heart Association" ACC/AHA, 44,1%, "Framingham Heart Study"/ERG 19,4%, SCORE da "European Society of Cardiology", 14,6, Organização Mundial da Saúde/Sociedade Internacional de hipertensão (OMS/ISH) e Lim et al. As calculadoras de RCV apresentaram baixa concordância para identificar os indivíduos de alto risco e alta concordância dos de risco baixo/moderado, exceto pela ACC/AHA. O emprego de diferentes calculadoras resultou em diferentes populações elegíveis para iniciar a terapia farmacológica para prevenção cardiovascular, o que pode implicar em percepções de risco inadequadas, baixo custo efetividade desse tratamento e dificuldade de implementação de políticas públicas.


Abstract This study compares the proportion of the Brazilian adult population classified as being at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on six different CVD risk calculators in order to assess the agreement across different tools. A cross-sectional study was conducted using laboratory data from the National Health Survey (NHS). The prevalence rates of high 10-year risk of CVD among individuals aged between 45 and 64 years were as follows: Brazilian Society of Cardiology (BSC) global risk score (GRS) - 38.1%; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) score - 44.1%; Framingham Heart Study/GRS - 19.4%; European Society of Cardiology SCORE - 14.6%; World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) score - 3.1%; and Lim et al. - 2.5%. The CVD calculators showed poor agreement for the identification of high-risk individuals and a high level of agreement for the identification of low/moderate risk individuals, except for the ACC/AHA risk score. The findings show that the proportion of individuals classified as eligible for preventive drug therapy varies from tool to tool, which could lead to the misinterpretation of risk, poor cost-effectiveness of therapy and difficulty implementing public policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 774-781, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285205

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Principal causa de morte em todo o mundo, as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) e sua prevalência nos médicos cardiologistas são pouco conhecidas. Objetivos: Descrever os hábitos de vida e os fatores de risco cardiovascular e verificar a prevalência de diagnóstico, conhecimento e controle dos fatores de risco cardiovasculares (FRCV) de médicos cardiologistas associados e especialistas pela Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. Métodos: Estudo multicêntrico nacional transversal que avaliou cardiologistas brasileiros por meio de questionário sobre hábitos de vida, doenças preexistentes, medicações em uso, medidas antropométricas, pressão arterial e dosagens de glicose e lípideos sanguíneos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 555 cardiologistas, 67,9% do sexo masculino, média de idade de 47,2±11,7 anos. A maioria era não tabagista (88,7%), fisicamente ativa (77,1%), consumia bebida alcóolica (78,2%), com circunferência abdominal normal (51,7%) e excesso de peso (56,1%). As prevalências de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), diabetes mellitus (DM) e dislipidemia (DLP) foram de 32,4%, 5,9% e 49,7%, respectivamente e, destes, apenas 57,2%, 45,5% e 49,6% sabiam ter as doenças. Conclusões: Os cardiologistas brasileiros participantes do estudo apresentaram prevalências significativas de HAS, DM e DLP, mas apenas a metade dos participantes sabia ser portador dessas condições e, entre eles, as taxas de controle eram baixas para HAS e DLP, apesar de os cardiologistas serem profissionais detentores de conhecimento diferenciado sobre esses FRCV. Os achados representam um alerta para a abordagem dos FRCV em cardiologistas brasileiros e estimulam a realização de estudos futuros.


Abstract Background: A major cause of death worldwide, cardiovascular diseases and their prevalence in cardiologists are little known. Objectives: To describe life habits and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and to investigate the prevalence of diagnosis, awareness, and control of these CVRF among cardiologists members affiliated to and specialists from the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Methods: National multicenter cross-sectional study to assess Brazilian cardiologists using a questionnaire on life habits, preexisting diseases, current medications, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and levels of glucose and lipids. Results: A total of 555 cardiologists were evaluated, of which 67.9% were male, with a mean age of 47.2±11.7 years. Most were non-smoker (88.7%) and physically active (77.1%), consumed alcohol (78.2%), had normal weight circumference (51.7%), and were overweight (56.1%). The prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia (DLP) were 32.4%, 5.9%, and 49.7%, respectively, of which only 57.2%, 45.5%, and 49.6%, respectively, were aware of the diseases. Conclusions: The Brazilian cardiologists participating in the study had a high prevalence of SAH, DM and DLP, but only a half of participants were aware of these conditions and, among these, the rates of controlled disease were low for SAH and DLP, although cardiologists are professionals with great knowledge about these CVRF. These findings represent a warning sign for the approach of CVRF in Brazilian cardiologists and encourage the conduction of future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Specialization , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Middle Aged
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 423-431, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248879

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morbimortalidade, altos custos com saúde e perdas econômicas importantes. O escore de Framingham tem sido amplamente utilizado para estratificar o risco dos indivíduos avaliados, identificando aqueles com risco maior para que sejam implementadas medidas de prevenção direcionadas para esse grupo. Objetivos: Estimar o risco cardiovascular em 10 anos da população brasileira adulta. Métodos: Estudo transversal, utilizando dados laboratoriais de uma subamostra da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Para calcular o risco cardiovascular, utilizou-se o escore de Framingham, estratificado por sexo. Resultados: A maioria das mulheres (58,4%) apresentou baixo risco cardiovascular, 32,9%, risco médio e 8,7%, risco elevado. Entre homens, 36,5% apresentaram risco cardiovascular baixo, 41,9%, risco médio e 21,6%, risco elevado. O risco aumentou com a idade e foi elevado na população com baixa escolaridade. A proporção dos componentes do modelo de Framingham, por grupos de risco e sexo, mostra que, no risco elevado entre mulheres, os indicadores que mais contribuíram para o risco cardiovascular foram: a pressão arterial sistólica, colesterol total, HDL, diabetes e tabagismo. Entre homens, pressão arterial sistólica, colesterol total, HDL, tabagismo e diabetes. Conclusões: Trata-se do primeiro estudo nacional com dados laboratoriais a estimar o risco de doença cardiovascular em dez anos. Os escores de risco são úteis para subsidiar as práticas de prevenção dessas doenças, considerando o contexto clínico e epidemiológico.


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in high health costs and significant economic losses. The Framingham score has been widely used to stratify the cardiovascular risk of the individuals, identifying those at higher risk for the implementation of prevention measures directed to this group. Objective: To estimate cardiovascular risk at 10 years in the adult Brazilian population. Methods: Cross-sectional study using laboratory data from a subsample of the National Health Survey. To calculate cardiovascular risk, the Framingham score stratified by sex was used. Results: Most women (58.4%) had low cardiovascular risk, 32.9% had medium risk and 8.7% had high risk. Among men, 36.5% had low cardiovascular risk, 41.9% had medium risk and 21.6% had high risk. The risk increased with age and was high in the low-educated population. The proportion of the components of the Framingham model, by risk and sex, shows that, among women at high risk, the indicators that mostly contributed to cardiovascular risk were: systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, diabetes and tobacco. Among men, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, tobacco and diabetes. Conclusion: The study estimates, for the first time in Brazil, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in ten years. The risk score is useful to support the prevention practices of these diseases, considering the clinical and epidemiological context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Heart Disease Risk Factors
18.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 66-72, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152862

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the association of cardiovascular diseases with falls in the geriatric population. Methods: Original, Transversal and analytical study. Elderly patients who attend the external consultation of the Geriatrics service, older than 65 years, with falls history, perform comprehensive geriatric assessment to indentify causes of falls in the period from March 2018 to June 2019. We perform measures of central tendency, chi-square test X2 for qualitative variables, we performed linear regression model. Results: A total of 669 patients were included, the analysis shows association with frailty [OR 1.65 (95% CI 1.37-3.77), p <0.05], Heart Failure [OR 1.02, (95% CI, 0.68 - 1.54), p < 0.05 ], the logistic regression analysis with the variables (Fragility, SAH, es: DM2, AMI, Stroke, AF, postural hypotensive syncope, Hypothyroidism, Dyslipidemia, and HF) shows that the probability of falling is 57%. Conclusion: Cardiovascular diseases have a high prevalence in the population studied and increase the risk of falls. Individually analyzed cardiovascular diseases do not show an association with the syndrome of falls in the elderly, except for frailty, which proved to be an independent factor that increases the risk of falls with an OR 1.65. When analyzing them together, the risk of falling increases up to 57%. It is necessary to correctly identify and treat cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la asociación de las caídas con las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la población geriátrica. Métodos: Estudio original, transversal y analítico. Se incluyó a los pacientes que acuden a la consulta externa del Servicio de Geriatría, mayores de 65 años, con antecedentes de caídas, se realizó una evaluación geriátrica integral para identificar las causas de las caídas en el periodo de marzo de 2018 a junio de 2019. Realizamos medidas de tendencia central, chi cuadrada (prueba c2) para variables cualitativas, realizamos modelo de regresión lineal. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 669 pacientes. El análisis muestra asociación con fragilidad (odds ratio [OR]: 1.65; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%]: 1.37-3.77); p < 0.05]), insuficiencia cardiaca (OR: 1.02; IC 95%: 0.68-1.54); p < 0.05). El análisis de regresión logística con las variables fragilidad, HAS, DM2, IAM, EVC, FA, síncope por hipotensión ortostática, hipotiroidismo, dislipidemia e insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) muestra que la probabilidad de caídas es del 57%. Conclusión: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares tienen una alta prevalencia en la población estudiada y aumentan el riesgo de caídas. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares analizadas individualmente no muestran una asociación con el síndrome de caídas en los ancianos, a excepción de la fragilidad, que resultó ser un factor independiente que aumenta el riesgo de caídas con una OR de 1.65. Al analizarlas juntas, el riesgo de caídas se incrementa en un 57%. Es necesario identificar y tratar correctamente las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 16-23, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287236

ABSTRACT

Resumen El rendimiento de las ecuaciones existentes de predicción de riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) en población argentina es desconocido. Se comparó RCV estimado por dichas ecuaciones, con la ocurrencia de eventos cardiovasculares (ECV) en una población de pacientes sin enfermedad cardiovascular de un hospital argentino. Se incluyeron aleatoriamente adultos entre 40 y 70 años, excluyéndose quienes al momento del enrolamiento presentaban historia de ECV mayor, cáncer activo, o tratamiento hipolipemiante. Se calculó RCV a 10 años al momento de inclusión, utilizando ecuaciones de Framingham 2008, SCORE (para poblaciones de bajo y alto riesgo), ATP III, Organización mundial de la saludregión América B (OMS-B) y Ecuación de Cohorte Agrupada (ECA). El fin de seguimiento fue 10 años ± 6 meses, ocurrencia de infarto de miocardio fatal o muerte por cualquier causa. Se utilizaron curvas ROC para evaluar discriminación (ABC > 0.75 buena discriminación). La calibración se evaluó mediante chi-cuadrado de Hosmer Lemeshow (Chi > 20 o p < 0.05 pobre calibración). Incluimos 606 pacientes, 366 mujeres, edad promedio 56.7 ± 8.4 años. Se observaron 10 (1.7%) muertes de causa no cardiovascular, 5 (0.8%) causa cardiovascular. Se registraron 58 (9.8%) ECV no fatales. Hubo aceptable discriminación para ecuaciones de Framingham, ATP-III y ECA. La calibración global solo fue buena con las ecuaciones de ATP-III y ECA. La frecuencia observada de ECV fue baja, y hubo sobreestimación de RCV con todas las ecuaciones. Sin embargo, se podría sugerir la aplicación de las ecuaciones de ATP-III o ECA en esta población.


Abstract The performance of available risk scores to predict cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the Argentinian population is unknown. Our aim was to compare the CVR predicted by several equations with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients without known cardiovascular disease in an Argentinian hospital. Adults between 40 and 70 years were randomly selected, excluding those with prior history of major CVE, active cancer, lipid lowering treatment and absence of follow-up data. Framingham 2008, SCORE (low and high-risk populations), ATP III, World Health OrganizationAmerican B region (WHO-B) and Pooled Cohort equations (PC) risk scores were used to calculate 10-y CVR at time of enrollment. End of follow-up was 10 years ± 6 months, occurrence of fatal myocardial infarction or death from any cause. We used ROC curves to assess discrimination (AUC > 0.75 good discrimination), and Hosmer Lemeshow chi-square to evaluate calibration (Chi > 20 or p value < 0.05 poor calibration). We included 606 patients in our study, 336 women, average age 56.7 ± 8.4 year. Of those, 10 (1.7%) non-cardiovascular deaths, and 5 (0.8%) cardiovascular deaths were observed. 58 (9.8%) a non-fatal CVE were recorded. There was acceptable discrimination for Framingham, ATP-III, and both PC equations. The global calibration was only good with the ATP-III and PC equations. The observed frequency of CVE was low, and the CVR was overestimated by all equations. However, applying ATP-III or PC equations to assess CVR could be considered in our population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , United States , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Risk Assessment , Heart Disease Risk Factors
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 25-33, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152857

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir los efectos cardiovasculares del tratamiento del cáncer infantil en supervivientes mediante métodos clínicos, electrocardiográficos y ecocardiográficos. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal y observacional de casos y controles de 34 pacientes de una clínica de supervivientes de cáncer infantil, evaluados de forma clínica, con electrocardiograma, ecocardiografía convencional y strain. Edad promedio de 13.03 años; dosis acumulada de antracíclicos promedio de 219.5 mg/m2; siete además con radiación a tórax. Análisis con pruebas T de Student y regresión lineal. Resultados: Fracción de expulsión izquierda preservada en supervivientes. Strain longitudinal izquierdo en dos, tres cámaras y circunferencial disminuido en supervivientes (p < 0.05). Los enfermos sometidos a radioterapia y antracíclicos mostraron un incremento de la frecuencia cardíaca, disminución de la fracción de expulsión y fracción de acortamiento izquierdos (< 0.05). Ventrículo derecho sin cambios significativos. Discusión y conclusiones: Existe un gran número de supervivientes de cáncer infantil tratados con cardiotóxicos y radioterapia; éstos pueden experimentar cambios en el strain miocárdico ventricular (aun con fracción de expulsión normal) o arritmias, como lo muestra el grupo estudiado, que concuerda con protocolos internacionales previos. Es importante su evaluación cardiovascular completa para predecir el riesgo de insuficiencia cardíaca como parte de un seguimiento protocolizado en clínicas de cardiooncología bien establecidas.


Abstract Objective: To describe the cardiovascular effects of childhood cancer treatment in survivors through clinical, electrocardiogram and echocardiographic methods. Material and methods: Prospective, observational case-control study of 34 patients of a Childhood Cancer Survivors Clinic, evaluated clinically, with electrocardiogram, with conventional echocardiography and strain. Average age 13.03 years; cumulative average anthracyclic dose 219.5 mg/m2; seven also with chest radiation. Analysis with student T tests and linear regression. Results: Left ejection fraction in survivors was preserved. Longitudinal left strain in 2, 3 chambers and circumferential was decreased in survivors (p < 0.05). Those undergoing radiotherapy and anthracyclic presented increased heart rate, ejection fraction and left shortening fraction decreased (< 0.05). Right ventricle without significant changes. Discussion and conclusions: There are a large number of childhood cancer survivors treated with cardiotoxics and radiotherapy. They may present changes in ventricular myocardial strain (even with normal ejection fraction) and/or arrhythmias, as evidenced in the group studied, which is consistent with previous international studies. Its complete cardiovascular evaluation is important to predict the risk of heart failure as part of a protocolized follow-up in well-established cardio oncology clinics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cancer Survivors , Mexico
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