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1.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(1): 4-11, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1097695

ABSTRACT

Desde hace varias décadas se conocen los clásicos factores de riesgo cardiovascular (género, edad, hipertensión arterial, dislipidemias, tabaquismo, obesidad, sedentarismo). También existen factores de riesgo "no convencionales", es decir situaciones no descriptas ni contenidas en la mayoría de los puntajes de riesgo tradicionales, pero de las cuales existen evidencias científicas. En esta revisión se analizan algunos de ellos, tales como factores socioeconómicos, horarios prolongados de trabajo, factores ambientales, aislamiento social, cantidad y calidad del sueño. También hay factores de "protección" cardiovascular como la dieta mediterránea. La literatura cuenta con un número muy elevado de publicaciones que abarcan estos factores. En la presente descripción se incluyeron algunas que fuesen representativas, con buen diseño experimental y que hayan realizado análisis multivariado de los resultados para controlar potenciales confundidores que invaliden las conclusiones. Finalmente, se discuten los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados en la generación de los eventos cardiovasculares finales. (AU)


The classical cardiovascular risk factors have been known for several decades (gender, age, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle). There also exist "non conventional" risk factors, that are those not described or not included in the majority of the traditional cardiovascular risk scores, but for whom scientific evidence is available. In this review some of them are analyzed, such as socio economic factors, prolonged work schedules, environmental factors, social isolation, sleep quantity and quality. There are also some "preventive" cardiovascular factors as the Mediterranean diet. There exist considerable amount of publications in the literature analyzing these issues. In the present paper some of them are discussed. They have been selected as they were representative of the corresponding aspect, well designed and with multivariate statistical analysis of the results, in order to control potential confounders that could invalidate the conclusions. Finally, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are discussed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Wake Disorders , Socioeconomic Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Risk Factors , Workload , Diet, Mediterranean , Environment
3.
s.l; IETSI; 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BRISA | ID: biblio-1096660

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Aproximadamente cuatro meses han transcurrido desde que se reportaron los primeros casos de enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-2019) y al día de hoy (22 de abril) la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) reporta 2 471 136 casos confirmados y 169 006 muertes a nivel global. En el Perú, la sala situacional del Ministerio de Salud (22 de abril) reporta 19 250 casos confirmados, 62.3% de los cuales son del sexo masculino y un total de 530 fallecidos. Lamentablemente, se espera que estas cifras sigan creciendo en todo el mundo. La información publicada hasta el momento, en su mayoría proveniente de China, revela que los casos más severos y con mayor tasa de letalidad se reportan en personas del sexo masculino, adultos mayores y personas con presencia de comorbilidades. Esta situación es similar a lo reportado en otras infecciones virales respiratorias como la causada por el virus H1N1, en la que las personas con obesidad y con enfermedades crónicas pre-existentes mostraron mayor probabilidad de desarrollar síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo que conllevaba a falla orgánica múltiple y muerte. La evidencia de que el sexo masculino y la presencia de comorbilidades son factores de riesgo para mortalidad por COVID-19 está aún aumento. Los reportes de COVID-19 se actualizan constantemente y la información revelada sirve para entender mejor el comportamiento de la enfermedad y en base a ello plantear estrategias de prevención y contención. Por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión rápida es evaluar y presentar la evidencia disponible sobre el sexo y la presencia de comorbilidades en los casos fatales por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de estudios publicados hasta el 02 de abril y disponibles en PubMed y MedRxiv. Se incluyó artículos que reportaban información clínica y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en casos letales por COVID-19. Se incluyó reportes de casos, estudios de caso-control, cohortes y revisiones sistemáticas, se limitó la búsqueda solo a publicaciones en inglés. Se excluyó noticias, editoriales, cartas al editor, comentarios, modelamientos matemáticos y casos que reportaban letalidad en menores de 18 años. RESULTADOS: Luego de verificar los criterios de elegibilidad, se incluyeron 17 artículos de los cuales 13 se consideraron para meta-análisis. El total de participantes incluidos en los estudios suman 27 264, los casos letales suman en total 1037 que representa una prevalencia agrupada [Pr(a)] = 12 % (95% IC: 8% - 16%), la edad promedio de los casos fatales es de 69.2 años. La mayoría de los estudios corresponden a reporte de China, 2 provienen de Corea y 1 de ellos de Italia. Los estudios reportan tener diseños principalmente de reportes de casos retrospectivos y cohortes retrospectivas, se identificó, además un estudio transversal y dos revisiones sistemáticas en la base de datos MedRxiv. Para la evaluación de la calidad, los reportes de casos y cohortes retrospectivas se trataron como "Estudios de Serie de Casos", en ninguno de los estudios se puede determinar si el tiempo de seguimiento fue el adecuado y los estudios reportados en Corea e Italia no cumplen con al menos un criterio de evaluación La calidad del estudio transversal y las revisiones sistemáticas es pobre. CONCLUSIÓN: La caracterización de los casos letales por COVID-19 es importante porque puede permitir mejorar las intervenciones y resultados en los pacientes infectados, sobretodo, en los que en mayor riesgo se encuentran como la población del sexo masculino y aquellos con hipertensión, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Evaluation of the Efficacy-Effectiveness of Interventions , Hypertension/etiology , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(6): S205-S242, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051592

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cardiovascular secundaria a aterosclerosis es la principal causa de morbimortalidad en la población adulta a nivel mundial. Aunque las manifestaciones clínicas de aterosclerosis (enfermedad coronaria, accidente cerebrovascular y arteriopatía periférica) son excepcionales en la población pediátrica, la presencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular, así como la adquisición de hábitos que favorecen su desarrollo, se observan ya desde edades tempranas. En el presente documento, se elaboraron recomendaciones, con dos objetivos principales: prevenir la aparición de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular (prevención primordial) y detectar y tratar los que favorecen el desarrollo de aterosclerosis clínica (prevención primaria). Si bien las recomendaciones están dirigidas a la población pediátrica, el objetivo del trabajo conjunto de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría y la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología es asegurar un abordaje integral y consensuado de la prevencion cardiovascular a lo largo de toda la vida, incluso, desde antes de la concepción.


Cardiovascular disease secondary to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbimortality in the adult population worldwide. Although clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis (coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease) are extremely rare in the pediatric population, the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the development of health-behavior patterns that promote them are observed since early childhood.In this document, recommendations were developed addressing two main goals: prevention of the risk factors development for cardiovascular disease (primordial prevention) and early detection and treatment of the risk factors to prevent clinical atherosclerosis (primary prevention). Even though the recommendations are addressed to the pediatric population, the aim of the collaborative work between the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría and the Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología is to ensure a comprehensive and consensual approach of lifetime cardiovascular prevention beginning even before conception.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Primary Prevention/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Alcohol-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Overweight/prevention & control , Sedentary Behavior , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/therapy , Medical History Taking , Obesity/prevention & control
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 691-697, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Different strategies have been proposed for the cardiovascular risk management of patients with psoriasis. Objective: To estimate the cardiovascular risk and evaluate two cardiovascular prevention strategies in patients with psoriasis, analyzing which proportion of patients would be candidates to receive statin therapy. Methods: A retrospective cohort was selected from a secondary database. All patients >18 years with psoriasis without cardiovascular disease or lipid-lowering treatment were included. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator (2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk calculator (2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines) were calculated. The SCORE risk value was adjusted by a multiplication factor of 1.5. The recommendations for the indication of statins suggested by both guidelines were analyzed. Results: A total of 892 patients (mean age 59.9 ± 16.5 years, 54.5% women) were included. The median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation values were 13.4% (IQR 6.1-27.0%) and 1.9% (IQR 0.4-5.2), respectively. According to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator, 20.1%, 11.0%, 32.9%, and 36.4% of the population was classified at low, borderline, moderate, or high risk. Applying the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, 26.5%, 42.9%, 20.8%, and 9.8% of patients were stratified as having low, moderate, high, or very high risk, respectively. The proportion of subjects with statin indication was similar using both strategies: 60.1% and 60.9% for the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines, respectively. Study limitations: This was a secondary database study. Data on the severity of psoriasis and pharmacological treatments were not included in the analysis. Conclusion: This population with psoriasis was mostly classified at moderate-high risk and the statin therapy indication was similar when applying the two strategies evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psoriasis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Sex Factors , Cholesterol/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Complications
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 531-537, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Method: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). Results: A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels were higher in the eutrophic group compared to the obese and excess-weight groups (p < 0.01). Flow-mediated vasodilation after hyperemia was higher in the eutrophic group in comparison to obese and excess-weight subjects (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the physical activity levels among groups measured by PAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho = −0.41; p = 0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho = 0.28; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index.


Resumo: Objetivos: A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se há disfunção endotelial nas crianças com peso normal ou excesso de peso e se o perfil metabólico, as adipocinas e a disfunção endotelial seriam mais fortemente associados à aptidão física ou aos níveis de atividade física. Método: Estudo transversal que envolve crianças de 5-12 anos. A avaliação incluiu pletismografia de oclusão venosa, níveis séricos de adiponectina, leptina, insulina e lipidograma, escore de atividade física (questionário PAQ-C) e avaliação da aptidão física (teste Yo-yo). Resultados: Um total de 62 crianças participou deste estudo. Com base no índice de massa corporal, 27 eram eutróficos, 10 estavam acima do peso e 25 estavam obesos. Os níveis de triglicerídeos, colesterol LDL, HOMA-RI e leptina estavam mais elevados nas crianças obesas e com excesso de peso que o grupo de eutróficos (p < 0,01). Os níveis de colesterol HDL e adiponectina estavam mais elevados no grupo de eutróficos em comparação ao grupo de obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,01). A vasodilatação mediada pelo fluxo após hiperemia foi maior no grupo de eutróficos em comparação aos indivíduos obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,05). Não houve nenhuma diferença nos níveis de atividade física entre os grupos medidos pelo PAQ-C. O teste de ida e volta foi significativamente associado ao colesterol HDL (ró = −0,41; p = 0,01) e essa associação continuou após ajustar o escore z do índice de massa corporal (ró = 0,28; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a disfunção endotelial já está presente nas crianças obesas, sugeriu uma predisposição à doença aterosclerótica. Além disso, os níveis de colesterol HDL foram correlacionados à aptidão física, independentemente do índice de massa corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Adipokines/blood , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 288-292, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Mineral and bone metabolism disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) constitute a syndrome defined by changes in calcium, phosphorus (P), vitamin D and parathormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and its specific cofactor, Klotho. CKD-MBD, as well as smoking, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known whether or not smoking impacts the cardiovascular risk in CKD- MBD. Objective: To analyze the relationship between smoking and CKD-MBD markers. Methods: We evaluated 92 patients divided into: 1) Control Group: non-smokers without CKD; 2) CKD group in stages III and IV under conservative treatment (20 non-smokers and 17 smokers); 3) CKD group on dialysis (21 non-smokers and 19 smokers). Clinical, demographic, and biochemical markers were compared between the groups. Results: FGF-23 and Klotho levels were not different between smokers and non-smokers. Patients in the CKD group on conservative treatment had higher serum P than non-smokers (p = 0.026) even after adjusted for renal function (p = 0.079), gender (p = 0.145) and age (p = 0.986). Conclusion: Smoking confers a higher cardiovascular risk to CKD patients under conservative treatment as it is associated with higher levels of P. Further studies are needed to confirm and better elucidate this finding.


RESUMO Introdução: Os distúrbios do metabolismo mineral e ósseo da doença renal crônica (DMO-DRC) constituem uma síndrome definida por alterações do cálcio, do fósforo (P), da vitamina D e do paratormônio, do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos 23 (FGF-23) e de seu cofator específico, Klotho. Os DMO-DRC, assim como o tabagismo, estão associados a maior risco de doença cardiovascular. Porém, não se sabe se há influência do tabagismo no risco cardiovascular dos DMO-DRC. Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre o tabagismo e marcadores dos DMO-DRC. Métodos: Avaliamos 92 pacientes divididos em: 1) Grupo controle sem DRC não tabagistas; 2) Grupo DRC em tratamento conservador estágios III e IV (20 não tabagistas e 17 tabagistas); 3) Grupo DRC em diálise (21 não tabagistas e 19 tabagistas). Marcadores clínicos, demográficos e bioquímicos foram comparados entre os grupos. Resultados: Níveis de FGF-23 e Klotho não foram diferentes entre tabagistas e não tabagistas. Pacientes tabagistas do grupo com DRC em tratamento conservador exibiram maior P sérico do que não tabagistas (p = 0,026) mesmo após ajuste para função renal (p = 0,079), sexo (p = 0,145) e idade (p = 0,986). Conclusão: O tabagismo confere um maior risco cardiovascular adicional aos pacientes com DRC em tratamento conservador à medida que se associa com maiores níveis de P. Novos estudos são necessários para confirmar e melhor elucidar esse achado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Phosphorus/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Smoking/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Conservative Treatment
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(1): 22-32, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1003643

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La apnea obstructiva del sueño (AOS) está asociada a alta morbi-mortalidad cardiovascular. Sujetos y métodos: Se seleccionaron 3.657 sujetos entre 30 y 74 años (x: 50,1 ±12,1 DS) de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2010. Se estimó el riesgo de AOS mediante una regla de predicción clínica (RPC) basada en las variables del Cuestionario STOP-Bang. Según puntaje se clasificaron en Riesgo BAJO (< 3), MEDIO (3-4) y ALTO (≥ 5) de AOS. El nivel de actividad física (NAF) fue clasificado en 3 niveles: Bajo, Moderado y Alto, según los resultados autorreportados con el cuestionario GPAQ. Para estudiar la asociación entre el riesgo de AOS y NAF con el RCV Alto/Muy Alto (≥ 10%, Framingham) construimos un modelo de regresión logística ajustado por sexo, edad, IMC, diabetes tipo 2, hipertensión arterial, colesterol total elevado, colesterol HDL bajo, triglicéridos elevados, nivel educacional, tabaquismo y horas de sueño autorreportadas. Resultados: 3.098 sujetos se clasificaron como riesgo de AOS: BAJO 1.683 (54,3%), MEDIO 1.116 (36%) y ALTO 299 (9,7%). El NAF fue evaluado en 3.570 sujetos, y clasificado como: Nivel Bajo 1.093 (30,6%), Moderado 705 (19,7%), y Alto 1.772 (49,6%). El RCV fue determinado en 3.613 sujetos, y 711 (19,7%) clasificaron como riesgo Alto /Muy Alto. El modelo de regresión muestra: riesgo MEDIO un OR = 1,75 (1,05-2,90; p = 0,03), riesgo ALTO un OR = 3,86 (1,85-8,06; p < 0,001). Para el NAF Bajo un OR = 1,14 (0,75-1,74; p = 0,525), NAF Moderado un OR = 1,18 (0,73-1,92; p = 0,501). Conclusión: El riesgo MEDIO y ALTO de AOS, pero no el NAF autorreportado, constituyen un factor de riesgo independiente para riesgo cardiovascular elevado.


Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Subjects and methods: 3,657 subjects between 30 and 74 years-old ( x ¯: 50.1 ± 12.1 SD) from 2010 Chilean National Health Survey were selected. Risk of OSA was estimated using a clinical prediction rule (CPR) based on the variables of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire. According to their score they were classified as LOW (< 3), MEDIUM (3-4) and HIGH (≥ 5) risk of OSA. Their physical activity level (PAL) was classified into 3 levels: Low, Moderate and High, according to the self-reported results with the GPAQ questionnaire. To study the association between the risk of OSA and PAL with High / Very High CVR (≥ 10%, Framingham) we constructed a logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, BMI, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, educational level, smoking and self-reported sleep hours. Results: 3,098 subjects were classified as OSA risk: LOW 1.683 (54.3%), MEDIUM 1.116 (36%) and HIGH 299 (9.7%). The PAL was evaluated in 3,570 subjects and classified as: Low 1,093 (30.6%), Moderate 705 (19.7%), and High 1,772 (49.6%). The CVR was determined in 3,613 subjects, and 711 (19.7%) classified as High/Very High risk. The regression model shows: MEDIUM risk an OR = 1.75 (1.05 - 2.90, p = 0.03), HIGH risk an OR = 3.86 (1.85-8.06, p < 0.001). For the PAL Low an OR = 1.14 (0.75-1.74, p = 0.525), PAL Moderate an OR = 1.18 (0.73-1.92, p = 0.501). Conclusion: The MEDIUM and HIGH risk of OSA, but not the self-reported PAL, constitute an independent risk factor for high cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Exercise/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Self Report
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002428

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for several unfavorable outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in the elderly, who represent the most rapidly growing segment of the end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. Portugal has the highest European unadjusted incidence and prevalence rates of ESKD. In 2012, we started to follow a cohort of elderly CKD patients, we describe their baseline characteristics, risk profile, and cardiovascular disease burden. Methods: All CKD patients aged 65 years and older referred to our department during 2012 were enrolled. Baseline data included: demographic, CKD stage, medication, comorbid conditions. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the CKD-EPI formula. Results: A total of 416 patients, 50% referred by primary care physicians, aged 77 ± 7 years, 52% male, with a median eGFR of 32 mL/min/1.73m2 participated in the study. Fifty percent had diabetes (DM), 85% dyslipidemia, 96% hypertension; 26% were current/former smokers, and 24% had a body mass index > 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of CVD was 62% and higher in stage 4-5 patients; in diabetics, it gradually increased with CKD progression (stage 3a < stage 3b < stage 4-5) (39, 58, 82%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: At baseline, our CKD elderly cohort had a higher burden of CVD. The prevalence of CVD was greater than in other European CKD cohorts. Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD and was more pronounced in diabetics, highlighting the importance of strategically targeting cardiovascular risk reduction in these patients.


RESUMO Introdução: Doença renal crônica (DRC) é fator de risco independente para vários desfechos desfavoráveis, incluindo doença cardiovascular (DCV), particularmente em idosos, o segmento de crescimento mais rápido da população com doença renal terminal (DRT). Portugal tem a maior incidência europeia não-ajustada e a maior prevalência de DRT. Neste artigo caracterizamos uma coorte de idosos com DRC, referenciados para a nefrologia, com particular ênfase para o risco e carga de doença cardiovascular. Métodos: Foram incluídos todos os pacientes com DRC com 65 anos ou mais encaminhados ao nosso departamento em 2012. Os dados basais incluíram: demografia, estágio da DRC, medicação e comorbidades. A taxa de filtração glomerular (TFGe) foi calculada pela fórmula CKD-EPI. Resultados: Metade dos 416 pacientes incluídos foram encaminhados por médicos da atenção primária; sua idade era 77 ± 7 anos; 52% eram homens; a TFGe mediana era de 32 mL /min/1,73 m2. Metade tinha diabetes (DM), 85% dislipidemia, 96% hipertensão; 26% eram fumantes atuais/ antigos; 24% tinham índice de massa corporal > 30 kg/m2. A prevalência de DCV foi de 62%, sendo maior entre pacientes nos estágios 4-5; em diabéticos, aumentou gradualmente com a progressão da DRC (estágio 3a < estágio 3b < estágio 4-5) (39%, 58%, 82%; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A coorte de idosos com DRC apresentava inicialmente maior carga de DCV. A prevalência de DCV foi maior que em outras coortes europeias com DRC. Níveis menores de TFGe foram associados a carga maior de DCV e foram mais pronunciados entre diabéticos, destacando a importância de objetivar estrategicamente a redução do risco cardiovascular nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00153818, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1001680

ABSTRACT

O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os padrões alimentares de adolescentes brasileiros para cada uma das cinco regiões do país, e verificar se há diferença na adesão dos padrões alimentares de acordo com idade, sexo e tipo de escola. Foram analisados dados de 71.298 adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos que participaram do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (ERICA), pesquisa transversal, nacional, multicêntrica e de base escolar. Os dados de consumo alimentar foram obtidos por meio de recordatório alimentar de 24hs, e para a identificação dos padrões alimentares foi aplicada análise fatorial. A associação entre as características dos adolescentes e os padrões alimentares foi verificada por meio de análises de regressão linear, estratificadas por idade e ajustadas por estado nutricional, ingestão energética total e atividade física. Nas cinco regiões foram identificados três padrões alimentares com características similares: padrão tradicional, padrão pão e café e padrão não saudável. A Região Norte apresentou um quarto padrão alimentar caracterizado por alimentos típicos da região: padrão tradicional Norte. Em todas as regiões, os adolescentes do sexo masculino registraram maior adesão ao padrão tradicional e menor adesão ao padrão não saudável. entre os estudantes de escolas privadas foi observada maior adesão ao padrão não saudável e menor adesão ao padrão tradicional. Os resultados sugerem que, entre os adolescentes avaliados, ser do sexo masculino foi associado ao maior consumo de alimentos tradicionalmente brasileiros como o arroz e feijão, já o maior nível socioeconômico esteve associado ao consumo de alimentos não saudáveis como bebidas açucaradas e lanches.


El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los patrones alimentarios de adolescentes brasileños para cada una de las cinco regiones del país, y verificar si existen diferencias en la adhesión a los patrones alimentarios, de acuerdo a la edad, sexo y tipo de escuela. Se analizaron datos de 71.298 adolescentes de 12 a 17 años que participaron en el Estudio de Riesgos Cardiovasculares en Adolescentes (ERICA), investigación transversal, nacional, multicéntrica y de base escolar. Los datos de consumo alimentario se obtuvieron mediante un recordatorio alimentario de 24h, y para la identificación de los patrones alimentarios se aplicó el análisis factorial. La asociación entre las características de los adolescentes y los patrones alimentarios se verificó mediante un análisis de regresión lineal, estratificado por edad y ajustado por estado nutricional, ingestión energética total y actividad física. En las cinco regiones se identificaron tres patrones alimentarios con características similares: patrón tradicional, patrón pan y café y patrón no saludable. La Región Norte presentó un cuarto patrón alimentario caracterizado por alimentos típicos de la región: patrón tradicional Norte. En todas las regiones, los adolescentes del sexo masculino registraron una mayor adhesión al patrón tradicional y menor adhesión al patrón no saludable. Entre los estudiantes de escuelas privadas se observó una mayor adhesión al patrón no saludable y menor adhesión al patrón tradicional. Los resultados sugieren que, entre los adolescentes evaluados, ser de sexo masculino se asoció a un mayor consumo de alimentos tradicionalmente brasileños como el arroz y frijoles, por otra parte, un mayor nivel socioeconómico estuvo asociado al consumo de alimentos no saludables como bebidas azucaradas y aperitivos.


The study aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Brazilian adolescents in each of Brazil's five major geographic regions and verify possible differences in adherence to dietary patterns according to age, sex, and type of school. Data were analyzed from 71,298 adolescents 12 to 17 years of age that participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional nationwide, multicenter, school-based survey. Food consumption data were obtained using a 24-hour food recall, and identification of dietary patterns used factor analysis. Associations between the adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics and dietary patterns were verified by linear regression analyses, stratified by age and adjusted for nutritional status, total energy intake, and physical activity. In the five geographic regions, three dietary patterns with similar characteristics were identified: traditional pattern, bread-and-coffee pattern, and unhealthy pattern. The North of Brazil showed a fourth dietary pattern characterized by typical regional foods, called the traditional-North pattern. In all five regions, male adolescents showed the highest adherence to the traditional pattern and the lowest adherence to the unhealthy pattern. Private school students showed higher adherence to the unhealthy pattern and lower adherence to the traditional pattern. The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents, males were associated with traditional Brazilian foods such as rice and beans, while higher socioeconomic status was associated with the consumption of unhealthy foods like sugary beverages and snacks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Residence Characteristics , Sex Factors , Diet Surveys , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Adolescent Behavior
12.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 35(4): 145-154, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102332

ABSTRACT

Las complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus pueden resultar en una baja calidad de vida, por lo cual la aplicación de un índice pronóstico puede ser una herramienta útil para mejorar esta situación.Objetivo: Asociar la presencia actual de complicaciones crónicas de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, con las presentes 10 años antes aplicando la formula RECODE. Métodos: estudio observacional, analítico, longitudinal, retro-prospectivo en pacientes mayores de 30 años, se evaluaron las complicaciones crónicas en el presente y se aplicó la formula RECODE tomando los datos de la historia anterior. Tratamiento estadístico: estadística descriptiva para cada variable a través de análisis de frecuencia y porcentaje, además de la formula RECODE. Resultados: Se evaluaron 593 pacientes, con 308 exclusiones. El promedio de edad fue 63 años ± 15,5 DE. Hubo leve predominio de mujeres en 55%. En 75% de los pacientes había hipertensión. Las complicaciones crónicas encontradas fueron: nefropatía diabética 44%, neuropatía en 41% y afección cardiovascular en 14%. La mortalidad fue de 2%. Al confrontar las complicaciones crónicas que predice la formula RECODE en la actualidad, con los resultados de la fórmula con datos de 10 años previos, se encontró que todos los eventos ya estaban presentes durante la evaluación actual y la fórmula estimaba una menor frecuencia de los hallazgos documentados, con excepción de la cardiopatía isquémica o enfermedad cerebrovascular. Conclusión: La presencia de complicaciones crónicas actuales fue mayor a la que estimada según RECODE 10 años antes; aún así se concluye que dicha fórmula es útil para el cálculo de riesgo de complicaciones crónicas(AU)


The chronic complications of diabetes mellitus can result in a low quality of life for these patients. The application of a prognostic index can be a useful medical tool to improve this issue. Objective: To associate the present chronic complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, with the result of the application of the RECODE formula in the recent past. Methods: observational, analytical, longitudinal, retro-prospective study of patients older than 30 years. the chronic complications were assesed in the clinical record and at the present time using the RECODE formula as well as for the former 10 years Statistics:descriptive statistics for each variable through frequency and percentage analysis, in addition to the RECODE formula. Results: 593 patients were evaluated, with 308 exclusions. The average age was 63 years ± 15.5 SD. There was a slight predominance of women in 55%. Hypertension was present in 75%. Among the chronic complications found were: diabetic nephropathy 44%, followed by neuropathy in 41% and cardiovascular disease in 14%. Mortality was 2%. When comparing the present chronic complications predicted by the RECODE formula, with the results of the formula dated 10 years before we found that all the events were already present during the current evaluation and the formula estimated a lower frequency of the documented findings, with the exception of ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease in 10 patients. Conclusion: The presence of current chronic complications was greater than estimated according to RECODE 10 years before.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Obesity/etiology , Quality of Life , Public Health , Chronic Disease
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 388-402, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-984581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There are striking differences in chronic kidney disease between Caucasians and African descendants. It was widely accepted that this occurred due to socioeconomic factors, but recent studies show that apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) gene variants are strongly associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, HIV-associated nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and lupus nephritis in the African American population. These variants made their way to South America trough intercontinental slave traffic and conferred an evolutionary advantage to the carries by protecting against forms of trypanosomiasis, but at the expense of an increased risk of kidney disease. The effect of the variants does not seem to be related to their serum concentration, but rather to local action on the podocytes. Risk variants are also important in renal transplantation, since grafts from donors with risk variants present worse survival.


RESUMO Existem importantes diferenças na doença renal crônica entre caucasianos e afrodescendentes. Foi amplamente aceito que isso ocorreu devido a fatores socioeconômicos, mas estudos recentes mostraram que as variantes gênicas da apolipoproteína L-1 (APOL1) estão fortemente associadas à glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal, nefropatia associada ao HIV, nefroesclerose hipertensiva e nefrite lúpica na população afrodescendente. Essas variantes chegaram à América do Sul através do tráfico intercontinental de escravos, e proporcionaram uma vantagem evolutiva aos portadores, protegendo contra formas de tripanossomíase, mas à custa de um maior risco de doença renal. O efeito das variantes não parece estar relacionado à sua concentração sérica, mas sim à sua ação local sobre os podócitos. Variantes de risco também são importantes no transplante renal, já que enxertos de doadores com variantes de risco apresentam pior sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , African Americans/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Podocytes , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Apolipoprotein L1/physiology
14.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(6): 742-747, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1020853

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a prevalência de Síndrome Metabólica entre os usuários do programa hipertensão e diabetes de um Centro de Saúde da cidade de Jequié, Bahia, Brasil. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, realizado na cidade de Jequié Bahia. Os participantes da pesquisa foram usuários do programa HIPERDIA do Centro de Saúde inserida na atenção primária. Resultados A prevalência de Síndrome Metabólica nesses usuários foi de 43%. Quanto ao gênero, a prevalência foi de 35% entre homens e 47% em mulheres, considerando que em 23% dos prontuários não havia dados suficientes para a classificação. Conclusão Evidenciou-se que a síndrome metabólica atinge proporcionalmente mais as mulheres do que os homens, ao passo que em relação à idade foi verificado maior prevalência da doença em indivíduos maiores de 60 anos.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To identify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in users of the hypertension and diabetes mellitus program at a Health Center in Jequié City, Bahia, Brazil. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 100 patients enrolled in HIPERDIA. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the State University of Southwest of Bahia (Minutes no. 013/2011). Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these users was 43%. Regarding sex, the prevalence was 35% among men and 47% among women, considering that in 23% of the medical records there were insufficient data for classification. Conclusions It was evidenced that the metabolic syndrome reaches proportionately more women than men, whereas, in relation to age, a higher prevalence of the disease was verified in individuals older than 60 years.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico entre los usuarios del programa hipertensión y diabetes de un Centro de Salud de la ciudad de Jequié, Bahia, Brasil. Método Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra fue constituida por 100 pacientes registrados en HIPERDIA. Este estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Estadual del Sudoeste de Bahía (Dictamen n ° 013/2011). Resultados La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en estos usuarios fue del 43%. En cuanto al género, la prevalen-cia fue del 35% entre hombres y el 47% en mujeres, considerando que en el 23% de los prontuarios no había datos suficientes para la clasificación. Conclusión Se evidenció que el síndrome metabólico alcanza proporcionalmente más a las mujeres que los hombres, mientras que en relación a la edad se verificó mayor prevalencia de la enfermedad en individuos mayores de 60 años.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation
16.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 29(2): 1-16, mayo.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-978383

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: en los últimos años se ha debatido en cuanto al papel de ácido úrico como marcador independiente del riesgo cardiovascular y como posible componente del síndrome metabólico en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Objetivo: demostrar la asociación entre las concentraciones de ácido úrico con el riesgo cardiovascular global, y su nexo con algunos componentes del síndrome metabólico en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal basado en 350 sujetos con edades comprendidas entre 19 y 70 años que fueron reclutados consecutivamente de una consulta para personas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas, antecedentes patológicos personales, mediciones antropométricas y tensión arterial, así como las concentraciones de glucosa, insulina, lípidos, creatinina y ácido úrico. El riesgo cardiovascular global fue evaluado mediante las tablas de Gaziano, que no emplea análisis de laboratorio. Resultados: la frecuencia de riesgo cardiovascular global moderado/alto fue de 20,6 por ciento (72/350). Los individuos con riesgo cardiovascular global moderado/alto presentaron edades superiores, incremento en el índice de conicidad y de la tensión arterial sistólica, así como concentraciones elevadas de glucosa, colesterol, triglicéridos, creatinina y ácido úrico, que los individuos con riesgo cardiovascular global bajo. La frecuencia de personas con concentraciones de ácido úrico superior o igual al percentil 50 (296,5 mujeres y 365,0 hombres) fue superior en los individuos con riesgo cardiovascular global moderado/alto (62,5 por ciento [45/72]) que en aquellos con riesgo cardiovascular global bajo (47,12 por ciento [131/278], p= 0,014). De los sujetos con hiperuricemia, el 31,5 por ciento (23/73) presentó riesgo cardiovascular global moderado/alto, en cambio, en los individuos sin hiperuricemia, la frecuencia de riesgo cardiovascular global moderado/alto fue baja (17,7 por ciento [49/277], p= 0,014). Conclusiones: el incremento de las concentraciones de ácido úrico se relacionó con un mayor riesgo cardiovascular global. Los sujetos con riesgo cardiovascular global moderado/alto mostraron niveles elevados de la mayoría de los componentes del síndrome metabólico, así como de colesterol y ácido úrico. Este último podría utilizarse como un factor de riesgo potencial de enfermedad cardiovascular a nivel de la atención primaria de salud(AU)


Background: in recent years there has been a debate about the role of uric acid as an independent marker of cardiovascular risk and as a possible component of the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese people. Objective: to demonstrate the association between uric acid concentrations and overall cardiovascular risk, and its connection with some components of the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese people. Methods: a transversal descriptive, observational study was carried out based on 350 subjects aged from 19 to 70 years who were consecutively recruited from a consultation for overweight and obese people. Sociodemographic variables, personal pathological history, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were studied, as well as glucose, insulin, lipids, creatinine and uric acid concentrations. The overall cardiovascular risk was assessed using Gaziano tables, which do not use laboratory analysis. Results: the frequency of moderate/high overall cardiovascular risk was 20.6 percent (72/350). Individuals with moderate/high overall cardiovascular risk were older, had increased conicity and systolic blood pressure, as well as higher glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and uric acid levels than individuals with low overall cardiovascular risk. The frequency of people with uric acid concentrations greater than or equal to the 50th percentile (296.5 women and 365.0 men) was higher in individuals with moderate/high overall cardiovascular risk (62.5 percent [45/72]) than in those with low global cardiovascular risk (47.12 percent [131/278], p= 0.014). Of the subjects with hyperuricemia, 31.5 percent (23/73) presented moderate/high overall cardiovascular risk, whereas, in individuals without hyperuricemia, the frequency of moderate/high overall cardiovascular risk was low (17.7 percent [ 49/277], p= 0.014). Conclusions: the increase in uric acid concentrations was associated with an increased overall cardiovascular risk. Subjects with moderate/high overall cardiovascular risk showed elevated levels of most components of the metabolic syndrome, as well as cholesterol and uric acid. The latter could be used as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease at the primary health care level(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Uric Acid/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome , Primary Health Care/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3)jul.-ago. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-916547

ABSTRACT

A incidência exata de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) mesmo em países com registros clínicos bem estruturados ainda é desconhecida, mas as estimativas variam de 180.000 a mais de 450.000 mortes anuais. A etiologia mais comum da PCR é a doença cardiovascular isquêmica que ocasiona no desenvolvimento de arritmias letais. A sobrevivência decorrente da PCR apresenta desfechos divergentes. No cenário extra-hospitalar, os estudos relataram taxas de sobrevida de 1% a 6%. Três revisões sistemáticas de alta hospitalar sobre a PCR extra-hospitalar mostraram 5% a 10% de sobrevida entre aqueles tratados através de serviços médicos de emergência e 15% quando o distúrbio do ritmo era a fibrilação ventricular (FV). O suporte básico de vida consiste em ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP) e, quando disponível, desfibrilação com desfibrilador externo automático (DEA). As chaves para a sobrevivência após a PCR são reconhecimento e tratamento precoces, especificamente, início imediato de excelente RCP e desfibrilação precoce. O presente artigo discutirá os princípios do suporte básico de vida em adultos do pré-hospitalar à sala de emergência, conforme descritos nas Diretrizes de Ressuscitação Cardiopulmonar e Atendimento Cardiovascular de Emergência do ILCOR e AHA, atualizadas em novembro de 2017


The exact incidence of cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) even in countries with well-structured clinical records is still unknown, but estimates range from 180,000 to over 450,000 annual deaths. The most common etiology of CRA is ischemic cardiovascular disease, resulting in the development of lethal arrhythmias. Survival of CRA shows divergent outcomes. In the out-of-hospital setting, studies have reported survival rates of 1% to 6%. Three systematic reviews of hospital discharge on extra-hospital CRA showed 5% to 10% survival between those treated by emergency medical services and 15% when the rhythm disorder was ventricular fibrillation (VF). Basic life support consists of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, when available, defibrillation with an automatic external defibrillator (AED). The keys to survival of CRA are early recognition and treatment, specifically, immediate onset of excellent CPR and early defibrillation. This article will discuss the basics of adult life support from prehospital to emergency room, as outlined in the ILCOR and AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care, updated in November 2017


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Treatment/methods , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Prehospital Care/methods , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Defibrillators , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electric Countershock/methods , Electrodes , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Heart Arrest/etiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy
18.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(2): 171-175, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-957368

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a obesidade altera os marcadores ultrassonográficos de risco metabólico e cardiovascular em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 80 crianças entre 6 e 10 anos, comparando 40 crianças obesas com 40 crianças normais. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: peso; altura; índice de massa corporal; pressão arterial; massa gorda; taxa metabólica basal; HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e colesterol total; insulina de jejum e glicose; índice quantitativo de verificação da sensibilidade à insulina (QUICKI); Homeostase Modell Assessment (HOMA-IR); Diâmetro basal da artéria braquial; Dilatação mediada pelo fluxo da artéria braquial (FMD) e variação do índice de pulsatilidade (PI-C). Resultados: Entre obesos e não obesos, observaram-se diferenças significativas na pressão arterial sistólica (97,7±8,4 vs. 89,0±5,8 mmHg; p<0,01), pressão arterial diastólica (64,3±7,9 vs. 52,9±5.1 mmHg; p<0,01), gordura corporal (45,1±5,9 vs. 21,3±6,0%; p<0,01), taxa metabólica basal (1216,1±102,1 vs. 1072,9±66,4 Kcal; p<0,01), colesterol (164,7±25,2 vs. 153,4±15,8 mg/dL; p=0,03), insulina de jejum (7,1±5,2 vs. 2,8±1,8 pIU/mL; p<0,01), HOMA-IR (1,5±1,1 vs. 0,6±0,4; p<0.01), diâmetro basal da artéria braquial (2,5±0,3 vs. 2,1±0,3 mm; p<0,01); PI-C (-15,5±27,2 vs. -31,9±15,5%; p<0,01), redução de QUICKI (0,4±0,05 vs. 0,4±0,03; p<0,01) e FMD (6,6±3,2 vs. 15,6±7,3%; p<0,01). Conclusões: A obesidade piora os marcadores ultrassonográficos e laboratoriais de risco metabólico e cardiovascular em crianças.


ASTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether the obesity alters ultrasonographical markers of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study evaluated 80 children aged between 6 and 10 years, comparing 40 obese with 40 normal children. The following parameters were assessed: weight; height; body mass index; arterial blood pressure; body fat; basal metabolic rate; HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; fasting insulin and glucose; quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI); homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); basal diameter of the brachial artery; brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) and of pulsatility index change (PI-C). Results: Significant differences were observed between obese vs. non-obese children: systolic blood pressure (97.7±8.4 vs. 89.0±5.8 mmHg; p<0.01), diastolic blood pressure (64.3±7.9 vs. 52.9±5.1 mmHg; p<0.01), proportion of body fat (45.1±5.9 vs. 21.3±6.0%; p<0.01), basal metabolic rate (1216.1±102.1 vs. 1072.9±66.4 Kcal; p<0.01), total cholesterol (164.7±25.2 vs. 153.4±15.8 mg/dL; p=0.03), fasting insulin (7.1±5.2 vs. 2.8±1.8 pIU/mL; p<0.01), HOMA-IR (1.5±1.1 vs. 0.6±0.4; p<0.01), basal diameter of the brachial artery (2.5±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.3 mm; p<0.01); PI-C (-15.5±27.2 vs. -31.9±15.5%; p<0.01), decreased QUICKI (0.4±0.05 vs. 0.4±0.03; p<0.01), and FMD (6.6±3.2 vs. 15.6±7.3%; p<0.01). Conclusions: Obesity worsens ultrasonographical and laboratorial markers of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography
19.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(2): 221-229, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-957373

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Sintetizar os achados sobre a quemerina e os fatores relacionados ao risco cardiovascular em crianças e adolescentes. Fontes de dados: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática de acordo com os itens propostos pela diretriz PRISMA nas bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct e Lilacs. Utilizaram-se os descritores chemerin de forma associada a children e adolescent, sem limite de tempo. A pesquisa limitou-se a artigos originais realizados com seres humanos, em língua inglesa, excluindo-se a população adulta e idosa, assim como os artigos de revisão, comunicação breve, cartas e editoriais. Síntese dos dados: Após análise dos estudos por dois revisores, de forma independente, segundo os critérios de elegibilidade, permaneceram na revisão sete artigos, publicados entre 2012 e 2016. Foram incluídos estudos de delineamento transversal, prospectivo, coorte e caso-controle. A importância da adipocina quemerina nos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares é demonstrada por meio de sua associação com obesidade e diabetes melito, assim como com parâmetros clínicos, antropométricos e bioquímicos. Entretanto, a força da evidência dos estudos é relativamente baixa, em função da heterogeneidade das publicações, destacando-se como limitações o número reduzido das amostras e sua ausência de representatividade, a falta de padronização dos métodos de dosagem, o delineamento transversal de grande parte dos estudos e a impossibilidade de extrapolação dos resultados. Conclusões: A desregulação da quemerina provocada pelo aumento de tecido adiposo pode contribuir para o aparecimento de doenças cardiovasculares, sugerindo que tal adipocina tem papel relevante na identificação precoce de indivíduos em risco.


ABSTRACT Objective: To review findings on chemerin and factors related to cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents. Data source: A systematic review was performed, according to the standards proposed by the PRISMA guideline, on PubMed, Science Direct, and Lilacs databases. The descriptor "chemerin" was used in combination with "children" and "adolescent", no time limit applied. The research encompassed only original articles written in English, conducted with human subjects - the adult and elderly populations excluded -, as well as literature reviews, brief communications, letters, and editorials. Data synthesis: After independent analyses of the studies by two reviewers, seven articles meeting the eligibility criteria, published between 2012 and 2016, remained for the review. Cross-sectional, prospective, cohort, and case-control studies were included. The importance of chemerin adipokines on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease is demonstrated by its association with obesity and diabetes mellitus, as well as clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters. However, the strength of evidence from these studies is relatively low, due to their heterogeneity, with several limitations such as small samples and consequent lack of representativeness, lack of standardization in dosage methods, cross-sectional design of most studies, and impossibility of extrapolating results. Conclusions: The deregulation of chemerin caused by increased adipose tissue may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, suggesting that this adipokine may play a significant role in early identification of individuals at risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chemokines/physiology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(2): 163-168, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959223

ABSTRACT

Objective: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with positive coronary calcium score (CCS) in individuals with bipolar disorder type 1. Methods: Patients from the Bipolar Disorder Program at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, underwent computed tomography scanning for calcium score measurement. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were compared between patients according to their CCS status: negative (CCS = 0) or positive (CCS > 0). Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association of CCS with number of psychiatric hospitalizations. Results: Out of 41 patients evaluated, only 10 had a positive CCS. Individuals in the CCS-positive group were older (55.2±4.2 vs. 43.1±10.0 years; p = 0.001) and had more psychiatric hospitalizations (4.7±3.0 vs. 2.6±2.5; p = 0.04) when compared with CCS- negative subjects. The number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations correlated positively with CCS (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Age and number of psychiatric hospitalizations were significantly associated with higher CCS, which might be a potential method for diagnosis and stratification of cardiovascular disease in bipolar patients. There is a need for increased awareness of risk assessment in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bipolar Disorder/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Time Factors , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Poisson Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Vascular Calcification/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
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