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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(1): e2087, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1367592

ABSTRACT

Un estudio mostró que el aumento de valores de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides se asoció a un aumento de mortalidad por todas las causas, estimando que las enfermedades cardiovasculares mediaban dicha asociación en aproximada-mente el 14 % de los casos. Asimismo se observó que el reemplazo con levotiroxina disminuiría los niveles de colesterol, lo cual podría tener un efecto en la reducción de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Partiendo de una viñeta clínica la autora intenta, a través de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de la evidencia, determinar si el tratamiento del hipotiroidismo subclínico en adultos mayores reduciría la morbimortalidad por eventos cardiovasculares. (AU)


A study showed that increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality, with cardiovascular disease estimated to mediate this association in approximately 14 % of cases. Additionally, levothyroxine replacement was found to lower cholesterol levels, which could have an effect in reducing cardiovascular diseases. Basedon a clinical vignette, the author attempts, through a literature search and an analysis of the evidence, to determine whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in older adults would reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Age Factors , Hypothyroidism/blood
2.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e303, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347398

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sexo influye en la susceptibilidad de las personas de ambos géneros con relación a la mayoría de las enfermedades comunes, incluidas la diabetes mellitus y la aterosclerosis. Objetivo: Identificar si existen diferencias en la presentación de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica entre hombres y mujeres de edad mediana con diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 1449 pacientes con diabetes mellitus en edad mediana (40 a 59 años) que ingresaron en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, desde el año 2010 al 2019. Se empleó la prueba de Chi Cuadrado para comprobar la relación entre las variables cualitativas, y T de Student para comparar los valores promedio de las variables cuantitativas. Resultados: La proporción de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en el sexo masculino fue similar a la del femenino (51,4 por ciento x 48,6 por ciento, p=0.2328). No hubo discrepancias importantes en el porcentaje de la enfermedad, entre ambos sexos, en los diferentes grupos etarios. El riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en los hombres fue mayor que en las mujeres premenopausicas (OR=2,19, IC: 1,4-3,3 p=0,0002), pero inferior respecto a las posmenopáusicas. (OR=1.12, IC: 0.8-1.4, p=0.4129). El análisis multivariado mostró al tiempo de la diabetes >10 años y a la hipertensión arterial como riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en ambos sexos. Asimismo, se evidenció en la edad mayor de 45 años en los hombres (OR=2.5, IC: 1.4-4.6) y la menopausia en las mujeres (OR=1.8, IC: 1.1-3.07). Conclusiones: La frecuencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en las personas de edad mediana con diabetes mellitus es similar en ambos sexos. El sexo masculino tiene mayor riesgo de enfermarse que las mujeres premenopausicas, pero menor que las posmenopáusicas. La hipertensión arterial y el tiempo de la diabetes son factores de riesgo comunes para uno y otro sexo(AU)


Introduction: Sex influences the susceptibility of people of both genders to most common diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM) and atherosclerosis. Objective: Identify if there are differences in the presentation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease between middle-aged men and women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 1449 patients with DM in middle age (40 to 59 years) who were admitted to the Diabetic´s Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province, from 2010 to 2019. The Chi-Square test was used to check the relation between the qualitative variables, and the T Student test to compare the average values of the quantitative variables. Results: The proportion of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in males was similar to that of females (51.4 percent x 48.6 percent, p=0.2328). There were no major discrepancies in the percentage of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, between both sexes, in the different age groups. The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in men was higher than in pre-menopausal women (OR=2.19, CI: 1.4-3.3 p=0.0002), but lower than in post-menopausal women. (OR=1.12, CI: 0.8-1.4, p=0.4129). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes >10 years and arterial hypertension as a risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in both sexes. It was also evidenced in ages over 45 years in men (OR=2.5, CI: 1.4-4.6) and menopause in women (OR=1.8, CI: 1.1-3.07). Conclusions: The frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged people with diabetes mellitus is similar in both sexes. Males have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than pre-menopausal women, but lower than post-menopausal women. High blood pressure and diabetes time are common risk factors for both sexes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Menopause , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis
3.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(2): e278, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289365

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los aneurismas aórticos abdominales constituyen un problema de salud por la alta mortalidad que provocan. Su seguimiento y tratamiento son fundamentales para evitar las complicaciones posquirúrgicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar las principales complicaciones posquirúrgicas de los pacientes con aneurisma de la aorta abdominal operados electivamente. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo en 94 pacientes operados de forma electiva en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular por presentar un diagnóstico de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, enfermedades asociadas, diámetro del aneurisma, profilaxis antibiótica, tiempo quirúrgico, tipo de prótesis vascular, tipo de complicación posoperatoria, tiempo de aparición de las complicaciones, estadía hospitalaria posoperatoria y estado al egreso. Se determinaron las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: El 56,4 por ciento de los pacientes operados presentó algún tipo de complicación, las cuales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo masculino por encima de los 60 años. Las más predominantes resultaron la bronconeumonía (24,5 por ciento) y las arritmias cardíacas (20,8 por ciento). La proporción de complicaciones se mostró mayor en los pacientes con injertos bifurcados, así como en aquellos sin profilaxis y con un tiempo quirúrgico prolongado. Hubo mayor frecuencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares entre los fallecidos. Conclusiones: En los pacientes operados de forma electiva de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal predominaron las complicaciones respiratorias y cardiovasculares, estas últimas provocaron un aumento en la mortalidad(AU)


Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a health problem because of the high mortality they cause. Their follow-up and treatment are essential to avoid post-surgical complications. Objective: Characterize the main post-surgical complications of patients with electively operated abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: An observational and descriptive study was conducted in 94 electively operated patients at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery after having a diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study variables were: age, sex, skin color, associated diseases, aneurysm diameter, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical time, type of vascular prosthesis, type of postoperative complication, time of onset of complications, postoperative hospital stay, and state at discharge moment. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined. Results: 56.4 percent of operated patients had some form of complication, which were more common in the males over 60 years. The most predominant complications were bronchopneumonie (24.5 percent) and cardiac arrhythmias (20.8 percent). The proportion of complications was shown to be higher in patients with forked grafts, as well as in those without prophylaxis and with prolonged surgical time. There was a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases among the deceased patients. Conclusions: In patients electively operated of abdominal aortic aneurysm, there was a predominance of respiratory and cardiovascular complications, and the latter caused an increase in mortality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Postoperative Complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
5.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 17-23, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283039

ABSTRACT

Antecedente: El infarto miocárdico es un problema de salud global. El conocimiento del perfil de riesgo podría con- tribuir a planificar intervenciones sobre todo en la atención prima- ria. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de riesgo en fallecidos por infarto miocárdico en la atención pre-hospitalaria en Florida, Cuba entre 2017 y 2019. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retros- pectivo de los 53 fallecidos por infarto miocárdico en la atención pre-hospitalaria en el municipio Florida. Los datos se obtuvieron del registro de fallecidos, historias clínicas, y de la autopsia verbal realizada a familiares. Resultados: Predominaron los hombres con 67.9% (36), el color de piel blanca 35.8% (19) y el grupo de edad entre 60 a 69 años 30.2% (16). El edema agudo del pulmón representado por 37.8% y la insuficiencia cardiaca 24.3%, fueron las complicaciones más frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes fallecieron en domicilio 35.9% (19) y el 22.6% (12) fallecieron en traslado no sanitario hacia hospitales. Procedían de áreas urba- nas 56.6%. La hipertensión arterial 73.6%, el tabaquismo 66.0%, y obesidad 52.8% fueron los factores de riesgo modificables más identificados. Tener más de 3 factores de riesgo y mayor demora en ser admitido influyó negativamente en la sobrevida. La morta- lidad fue significativamente mayor en los pacientes con elevación del segmento ST en 74.2%. Discusión: Existió un comportamien- to similar al revisado en la literatura en cuanto a riesgos y tiempo en llegar al hospital. La atención pre-hospitalaria al IAM es el punto más crítico en el abordaje de esta entidad...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Prehospital Care , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ambient temperature may contribute to seasonality of mortality; in particular, a warming climate is likely to influence the seasonality of mortality. However, few studies have investigated seasonality of mortality under a warming climate.@*METHODS@#Daily mean temperature, daily counts for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality, and annual data on prefecture-specific characteristics were collected for 47 prefectures in Japan between 1972 and 2015. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the seasonal variation of mortality with a focus on its amplitude, which was quantified as the ratio of mortality estimates between the peak and trough days (peak-to-trough ratio (PTR)). We quantified the contribution of temperature to seasonality by comparing PTR before and after temperature adjustment. Associations between annual mean temperature and annual estimates of the temperature-unadjusted PTR were examined using multilevel multivariate meta-regression models controlling for prefecture-specific characteristics.@*RESULTS@#The temperature-unadjusted PTRs for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-1.30), 1.53 (95% CI: 1.50-1.55), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.44-1.48), respectively; adjusting for temperature reduced these PTRs to 1.08 (95% CI: 1.08-1.10), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.11), and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.32-1.39), respectively. During the period of rising temperature (1.3 °C on average), decreases in the temperature-unadjusted PTRs were observed for all mortality causes except circulatory mortality. For each 1 °C increase in annual mean temperature, the temperature-unadjusted PTR for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality decreased by 0.98% (95% CI: 0.54-1.42), 1.39% (95% CI: 0.82-1.97), and 0.13% (95% CI: - 1.24 to 1.48), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Seasonality of mortality is driven partly by temperature, and its amplitude may be decreasing under a warming climate.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Climate Change/mortality , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Regression Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Seasons , Time
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 293-299, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131046

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La utilidad de la aspirina en la prevención primaria es todavía objeto de controversia. Los avances médicos y la variabilidad del riesgo cardiovascular podrían explicar la heterogeneidad de los estudios publicados, y las poblaciones de alto riesgo tendrían mayor beneficio. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos de la aspirina en pacientes sin antecedentes cardiovasculares y evaluar los resultados de acuerdo con el riesgo cardiovascular de las poblaciones. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que evaluaron el uso de la aspirina en comparación con placebo en la prevención primaria. Se analizó la combinación de muerte cardiovascular, infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) y accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico. El punto final de seguridad fue la combinación de ACV hemorrágico y sangrado mayor. Se clasificaron los estudios en riesgo bajo y moderado/ alto, de acuerdo con el número de episodios en la rama de placebo. Resultados: Se evaluaron 13 estudios (n = 164,225), ocho de riesgo cardiovascular bajo (n = 118,455) y cinco de moderado/alto (n = 45,770). Se observó una reducción del punto final combinado en el grupo de aspirina (OR 0.90; IC 95%, 0.85-0.94), sin diferencias en mortalidad cardiovascular (OR 0.94; IC 95%, 0.86-1.04). No se identificaron diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Se reconocieron mayores complicaciones hemorrágicas en el grupo de aspirina (OR 1.45; IC 95%, 1.32-1.60), sin diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Conclusión: La aspirina se relacionó con una leve disminución de IAM y ACV isquémico en términos absolutos, sin diferencias en la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esto, junto con el aumento de las complicaciones hemorrágicas, se traduce en una ausencia de beneficio clínico neto. El riesgo cardiovascular basal de la población no modificó los resultados.


Abstract Background: The usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention continues to be the subject of debate. Medical advances and the variability of cardiovascular risk could explain the heterogeneity of the published studies. High risk populations would have greater benefit. Objective: Analyzing the effects of aspirin in patients without cardiovascular disease and evaluating the results according to the cardiovascular risk of the populations. Methods: Studies evaluating aspirin versus placebo in primary prevention were included. The primary endpoint was the combined cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. The final safety point was the combination of hemorrhagic stroke and major bleeding. The studies were classified into low and moderate/high risk, according to the number of events in the placebo arm. Results: Thirteen studies were evaluated (n = 164,225), eight of low cardiovascular risk (n = 118,455) and five of moderate/high risk (n = 45,770). There was a reduction of the combined endpoint in the aspirin group (odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.94), without differences in cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04). No differences were observed when comparing the risk subgroups. Greater hemorrhagic complications were observed in the aspirin group (OR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.32-1.60), without differences between the risk subgroups. Conclusion: Aspirin was associated with a slight decrease in AMI and ischemic stroke in absolute terms, with no differences in cardiovascular mortality. This accompanied by the increase in hemorrhagic complications, results in an absence of net clinical benefit. The baseline cardiovascular risk of the population did not affect the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Primary Prevention/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aspirin/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(2): 273-277, ago., 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131294

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O SARS-CoV-2 é um vírus de RNA emergente associado à doença respiratória aguda grave conhecida como COVID-19. Embora a COVID-19 seja predominantemente uma doença pulmonar, alguns pacientes apresentam graves danos cardiovasculares. Realizamos uma síntese de evidências quantitativas de dados clínicos, biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica e complicações cardíacas associadas ao óbito hospitalar em pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos Buscamos nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Google Scholar para identificar estudos que comparassem dados clínicos, biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica e complicações cardíacas entre pacientes sobreviventes e não sobreviventes da COVID-19. Os tamanhos dos efeitos foram apresentados como diferença média ou diferença média padronizada para variáveis contínuas e razão de risco para variáveis dicotômicas, com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Foi utilizado um modelo de efeitos aleatórios para agrupar os resultados. Resultados Foram incluídos seis estudos retrospectivos que relataram dados de 1.141 pacientes (832 sobreviventes e 309 não sobreviventes). Verificamos que condições cardiovasculares subjacentes; elevação de troponina cardíaca I de alta sensibilidade; N-terminal do pró-hormônio do peptídeo natriurético do tipo B e creatina quinase-MB; e complicações cardíacas foram associadas ao aumento do risco de óbito em pacientes com infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões A confirmação de que condições cardiovasculares subjacentes, elevação de biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica durante a infecção por COVID-19 e descompensação cardiovascular aguda são preditores de mortalidade na infecção por SARS-CoV-2 deve incentivar novas pesquisas para esclarecer possíveis mecanismos e testar tratamentos adequados. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):273-277)


Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging RNA virus associated with a severe acute respiratory disease known as COVID-19. Although COVID-19 is predominantly a pulmonary disease, some patients have severe cardiovascular damage. We performed a quantitative evidence synthesis of clinical data, myocardial injury biomarkers, and cardiac complications associated with in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. Methods We searched the databases PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify studies comparing clinical data, myocardial injury biomarkers, and cardiac complications between non-survivors and survivors of COVID-19. Effect sizes were reported as mean difference or standardized mean difference for continuous variables and risk ratio for dichotomous variables with 95% confidence intervals. A random effects model was used to pool the results. Results Six retrospective studies reporting data from 1,141 patients (832 survivors and 309 non-survivors) were included. We found that underlying cardiovascular conditions; elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatine kinase-MB; and cardiac complications were associated with increased risk of death for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions The confirmation that underlying cardiovascular conditions, elevation of myocardial injury biomarkers during COVID-19 infection, and acute cardiovascular decompensation are predictors for mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection must encourage new research to clarify potential mechanisms and test appropriate treatments. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):273-277)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Myocardium/pathology
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 503-511, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126150

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la relación entre consumo habitual de café y la mortalidad general y cardiovascular. En una búsqueda sistemática en Medline, EMBASE, LILACS y Cochrane se seleccionaron y analizaron revisiones sistemáticas y meta-análisis por una pareja de investigadores. De 181 referencias, 74 fueron seleccionadas por título y resumen; luego de eliminar duplicados y según el puntaje de calidad obtenido por AMSTAR, se consideraron 5 artículos para extracción y análisis. El consumo moderado de café (3 o 4 tazas) disminuye la mortalidad general, tanto comparado con el no consumo (RR= 0,83; IC95%: 0,79-0,88; I2= 83% para 3 tazas, y RR=0,84 IC95%: 0,82-0,87; I2= 58% para 4), como con un consumo mínimo (RR= 0,88; IC95%: 0,84-0,93; I2= 68,7% para 4 tazas, y RR= 0,87; IC95%: 0,83-0,91; I2= 59,8% para consumo entre 3 y 4 tazas). La mortalidad cardiovascular se reduce si se compara con el no consumo, para 4 tazas (RR= 0,80; IC95%: 0,74-0,86; I2= 58%) y (RR= 0,83; IC95%: 0,75-0,92, I2 = 92%) y para 3 tazas (RR= 0,81; IC95%: 0,72-0,90; I2= 92%) y RR (0,79; IC95% 0.74-0.84; I2= 58%). Como conclusión, el consumo habitual de 3 y 4 tazas de café reduce la mortalidad general y cardiovascular.


The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A systematic review was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane databases. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were selected and analyzed. From 181 systematic reviews, 74 were selected by title and summary; after eliminating duplicates. According to the quality score of the AMSTAR tool, five articles were selected for information extraction and analysis. Moderate coffee consumption (3 or 4 cups) decreased overall mortality, compared to non-consumption (RR= 0.83, 95% CI: 0.79-0.88; I2= 83% for 3 cups, and RR= 0.84, 95% CI: 0.82-0.87; I2= 58% for 4 cups) and minimum consumption (RR= 0.88, 95% CI: 0.84-0.93; I2= 68.7% for 4 cups, and RR= 0.87, 95% CI: 0.83-0.91; I2= 59.8% between 3 and 4 cups). Cardiovascular mortality was reduced when compared to non-consumption, for 4 cups (RR= 0.80, 95% CI: 0.74-0.86; I2= 58%) and (RR= 0.83, 95% CI: 0.75-0.92; I2= 92%), and for 3 cups (RR= 0.81, 95 CI: 0.72-0.90; I2= 92%; RR= 0.79, 95% CI: 0.74-0.84; I2= 58%). In conclusion, habitual coffee consumption between 3 and 4 cups reduces the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coffee , Drinking Behavior , Mortality
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 248-252, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125076

ABSTRACT

Existen crecientes informes sobre una drástica caída en consultas y realización de procedimientos cardiovasculares (incluyendo urgencias y emergencias) en regiones afectadas por la pandemia de COVID-19, con el consecuente incremento marcado de la mortalidad total que no se explica totalmente por las defunciones atribuidas a COVID-19. En Argentina, la enfermedad cardiovascular lidera el ranking de muertes en adultos con 280 muertes por día, y en las últimas décadas hemos reducido su mortalidad entre 20 y 30% mediante diversas intervenciones basadas en la evidencia. En el presente trabajo realizamos análisis predictivos para entender cuáles podrían ser las consecuencias de una peor implementación de dichas intervenciones. Estimamos que un menor control de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular de abril a octubre de 2020 podría causar hasta 10 500 nuevos casos prevenibles de enfermedad cardiovascular. En términos de infarto de miocardio, una caída del 40% al 60% del tratamiento de reperfusión podría incrementar la mortalidad del 3% al 5%. Un incremento marginal de riesgo relativo de 10% a 15% de muerte cardiovascular equivaldría a un exceso de 6000 a 9000 muertes evitables. En conclusión, dada la alta prevalencia y fatalidad de la enfermedad cardiovascular, incluso un pequeño impacto negativo en la eficacia de su cuidado se traducirá en grandes cantidades de afectados en Argentina. Es necesario informar a las autoridades y educar al público para que sigan controlando enfermedades cardiovasculares y sus factores de riesgo, siempre que existan recursos y minimizando el riesgo de contagio y propagación del virus.


There are increasing reports of a drastic drop in consultations and cardiovascular procedures (including urgencies and emergencies) in regions affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a consequent marked increase in total mortality that is not fully explained by COVID-19. Cardiovascular disease leads the ranking in deaths in adults in Argentina with 280 deaths per day, and in recent decades we have reduced its mortality by 20-30% through various evidence-based interventions. Herein we conducted predictive analyses to understand what could be the consequences of a worse implementation of those interventions. We estimate that less control of cardiovascular risk factors from April to October 2020 could cause up to 10 500 new preventable cases of cardiovascular disease. In terms of myocardial infarction, a drop from 40% to 60% of the reperfusion treatment could increase mortality by 3% to 5%. A marginal 10% to 15% increase in relative risk of cardiovascular death would be equivalent to an excess of 6000 to 9000 preventable deaths. In conclusion, given the high prevalence and fatality of cardiovascular disease, even a small negative impact on the efficacy of its care will translate into large numbers of people affected in Argentina. It is necessary to inform the authorities and educate the public so cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors remain a health priority, as long as resources exist and minimizing the risk of contagion and spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Argentina/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Global Burden of Disease , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(5): 817-822, maio 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131228

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) é uma pandemia global afetando o mundo, estando presente em mais de 1.300.000 pacientes. O COVID-19 age pelo receptor da enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 (ECA2). As comorbidades cardiovasculares são mais frequentes com COVID-19, e cerca 10% de casos desenvolvem miocardite (22% de pacientes críticas). Mais pesquisas serão necessárias para continuar ou descontinuar inibidores de ECA e bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina, que são essenciais para hipertensão e insuficiência cardíaca em COVID-19. Pesquisa intensiva é promissora para o tratamento e a prevenção da COVID-19.


Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting the world, seen in more than 1,300,000 patients. COVID-19 acts through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Cardiovascular comorbidities are more common with COVID-19, and nearly 10% of cases develop myocarditis (22% of critical patients). Further research is needed to continue or discontinue ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, which are essential in hypertension and heart failure in COVID-19. Intensive research is promising for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/enzymology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , China/epidemiology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/metabolism , Pandemics , Hypertension/enzymology , Hypertension/epidemiology
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(1): 1657-1668, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127022

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El incremento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, junto con los elevados costos que esto conlleva, ha identificado la necesidad de una renovación en el enfoque de la reducción de los riesgos cardiovasculares en la hipertensión arterial. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en inglés y español de los principales artículos publicados en PubMed, Scielo y MEDLINE durante los últimos cinco años. Aunque se han alcanzado logros, la reducción de las enfermedades cardiovasculares a través de la modificación de los estilos de vida sigue siendo un desafío. La mayoría de los pacientes continúan llevando un estilo de vida inadecuado, y menos de 1 % de la población observan los siete puntos esenciales que miden una vida saludable. La salud cardiovascular requerirá de un amplio enfoque para la eliminación de los factores de riesgo en base a la promoción de conductas saludables por vida, esto necesita de un enorme esfuerzo del gobierno local, las autoridades sanitarias, y sobre todo de los equipos locales de salud (AU).


SUMMARY The increment of the cardiovascular illnesses, together with the high costs that this bears, it has identified the necessity of a renovation in the focus of the reduction of the cardiovascular risks in the arterial hypertension. Was carried out a bibliographical revision about the cardiovascular factors risk of in English and Spanish of the main articles published in PubMed, Scielo and MEDLINE during the last five years. Develop and. Although achievements have been reached, the reduction of the cardiovascular illnesses through the modification of the lifestyles continues being a challenge. Most of the patients continue taking an inadequate lifestyle, and less than the population's 1 % observes the seven essential points that measure a healthy life. Although the cardiovascular health will require of a wide focus to elimination the risk factors based on the promotion of healthy behaviors for life, this needs of the local government's enormous effort, the sanitary authorities, and mainly of the local teams of health (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Risk Factors , Review Literature as Topic , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/prevention & control
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 199-206, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In many cities around the world, the mortality rate from cancer (CA) has exceeded that from disease of the circulatory system (DCS). Objectives: To compare the mortality curves from DCS and CA in the most populous capital cities of the five regions of Brazil. Methods: Data of mortality rates from DCS and CA between 2000 and 2015 were collected from the Mortality Information System of Manaus, Salvador, Goiania, Sao Paulo and Curitiba, and categorized by age range into early (30-69 years) and late (≥ 70 years), and by gender of the individuals. Chapters II and IX of the International Classification of Diseases-10 were used for the analysis of causes of deaths. The Joinpoint regression model was used to assess the tendency of the estimated annual percentage change of mortality rate, and the Monte Carlo permutation test was used to detect when changes occurred. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: There was a consistent decrease in early and late mortality from DCS in both genders in the cities studied, except for late mortality in men in Manaus. There was a tendency of decrease of mortality rates from CA in São Paulo and Curitiba, and of increase in the rates from CA in Goiania. In Salvador, there was a decrease in early mortality from CA in men and women and an increase in late mortality in both genders. Conclusion: There was a progressive and marked decrease in the mortality rate from DCS and a maintenance or slight increase in CA mortality in the five capital cities studied. These phenomena may lead to the intersection of the curves, with predominance of mortality from CA (old and new cases).


Resumo Fundamento: Em muitas cidades no mundo, a taxa de mortalidade por câncer (CA) ultrapassou aquela por doenças do aparelho circulatório (DAC). Objetivos: Comparar as curvas de mortalidade por DAC e CA nas capitais mais populosas das cinco regiões brasileiras. Métodos: Dados de mortalidade por DAC e CA entre 2000 e 2015 foram coletadas no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade das capitais mais populosas das cinco regiões do Brasil: Manaus, Salvador, Goiânia, São Paulo e Curitiba. Os dados foram categorizados por faixas etárias dos indivíduos em precoce (30-69 anos) e tardia (≥70 anos), e por gênero. Foram considerados os capítulos II e IX da Classificação Internacional de Doenças-10 para análise das causas de óbito. A tendência na estimativa de mudança percentual foi calculada pelo modelo de regressão Joinpoint 4.6.0.0. e a detecção das mudanças das taxas pelo teste de permutação Monte Carlo. Nível de significância estatística de 5%. Resultados: Observou-se queda consistente das mortalidades precoce e tardia por DAC, em ambos os gêneros, nas capitais estudadas, com exceção da mortalidade tardia em homens em Manaus. Houve tendência de queda das taxas de mortalidade por CA em São Paulo e Curitiba, e de aumento da taxa de mortalidade por CA em Goiânia. Em Salvador, houve queda na mortalidade precoce por CA em homens e mulheres e incremento na mortalidade tardia em ambos os gêneros. Conclusão: Houve queda progressiva e expressiva da taxa de mortalidade por DAC nas cinco capitais em oposição à manutenção ou discreta elevação da mortalidade por CA. Tais fenômenos concorrem para o cruzamento das curvas com predomínio da mortalidade por CA (já ocorrido ou casos novos).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Monte Carlo Method , Cause of Death/trends , Age Factors , Cities/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(supl.1): 77-83, may. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152848

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realiza una revisión sobre el riesgo de los pacientes que padecen diabetes mellitus en el contexto de morbimortalidad general y relacionada a infección por el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2). Así mismo se repasan las recomendaciones generales, de alimentación y de la prevención de las comorbilidades que más frecuentemente padecen dichos enfermos. Finalmente se hace una revisión de las recomendaciones farmacológicas sobre el tratamiento tanto oral como parenteral en el paciente ambulatorio, en la hospitalización y en estados críticos infectados por el SARS-CoV-2.


Abstract A review is carried out to examine the risk of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus in the context of general morbidity and mortality and related to infection by SARS-CoV-2. Likewise, the general recommendations for food and the prevention of comorbidities that most these patients suffer most frequently are also studied. Finally, a review of the pharmacological recommendations on both oral and parenteral treatment in the outpatient, in hospitalization and in critical states infected with SARS-CoV-2 is made.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care/methods , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hospitalization
18.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 586-592, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1096991

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar quais os desfechos clínicos dos usuários internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Coronariana de um hospital no sul de Mato Grosso. Método: estudo do tipo coorte retrospectivo, documental, com abordagem quantitativa, com 593 usuários durante o ano de 2017. Resultados: verificou-se significância em relação ao desfecho clínico óbito no bloco de distúrbios mecânicos, em relação ao número menor de admissões e proporcionalmente um aumento do desfecho óbito com 36,3% o que reflete a associação estatística entre as variáveis (p-valor=0,0184); Também é imperativo destacar a relação entre o número de altas e de óbitos a partir do décimo sexto dia de internação, ocorrendo associação entre as varáveis (p-valor= 0,00001). Conclusão: espera-se que a partir dos dados sociodemográficos e clínicos dos usuários atendidos, a instituição consiga implementar da assistência ofertada, com foco no atendimento especializado, de modo a repercutir na redução do desfecho óbito na Unidade Coronariana


Objective: to verify the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized in a Coronary Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in the south of Mato Grosso. Method: a retrospective, documental cohort study with a quantitative approach, with a sample of 593 users during the year 2017. Results: significance was verified regarding the clinical outcome of death in the block of mechanical disorders, in relation to the lower number of admissions and proportionately an increase in the death outcome with 36.3%, which reflects the statistical association between the variables (p-value = 0.0184); It is also imperative to highlight the relationship between the number of discharges and deaths from the sixteenth day of hospitalization, with an association between the variables (p-value = 0.00001). Conclusion: based on the socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients served, the institution is able to implement the offered assistance, focusing on the specialized care, so as to pass on the reduction of the death outcome in the Coronary Unit


Objetivo: verificar los resultados clínicos de los usuarios internados en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Coronaria de un hospital en el sur de Mato Grosso. Método: estudio del tipo cohorte retrospectivo, documental, con abordaje cuantitativo, con muestra de 593 usuarios durante el año 2017. Resultados: se verificó significancia en relación al desenlace clínico óbito en el bloque de disturbios mecánicos, en relación al número menor de admisiones y proporcionalmente un aumento del desencadenamiento óbito con 36,3% lo que refleja la asociación estadística entre las variables (p-valor = 0,0184); También es imperativo destacar la relación entre el número de altas y de muertes a partir del décimo sexto día de internación, ocurriendo asociación entre las variables (p-valor = 0,00001). Conclusión: se espera que a partir de los datos sociodemográficos y clínicos de los usuarios atendidos, la institución consiga implementar la asistencia ofrecida, con foco en la atención especializada, para repercutir en la reducción del desenlace muerto en la Unidad Coronaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronary Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Aging , Retrospective Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s17-s24, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057108

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem, with a significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Various hypoglycemic therapies have proved to be beneficial to clinical outcomes, while others have failed to provide an improvement in cardiovascular and renal failure, only reducing blood glucose levels. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, represented by the empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have been showing satisfactory and strong results in several clinical trials, especially regarding the reduction of cardiovascular mortality, reduction of hospitalization due to heart failure, reduction of albuminuria, and long-term maintenance of the glomerular filtration rate. The benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors stems from its main mechanism of action, which occurs in the proximal tubule of the nephron, causing glycosuria, and a consequent increase in natriuresis. This leads to increased sodium intake by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, activating the tubule glomerular-feedback and, finally, reducing intraglomerular hypertension, a frequent physiopathological condition in kidney disease caused by diabetes. In addition, this class of medication presents an appropriate safety profile, and its most frequently reported complication is an increase in the incidence of genital infections. Thus, these hypoglycemic agents gained space in practical recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and should be part of the initial therapeutic approach to provide, in addition to glycemic control, cardiovascular outcomes, and the renoprotection in the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/therapeutic use , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose/metabolism , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism
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