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Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 28-34, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007841


Cardiovascular risk assessment is a basic tenet of the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Conventional risk assessment models require measurements of blood pressure, blood lipids, and other health-related information prior to assessment of risk via regression models. Compared with traditional approaches, fundus photograph-based cardiovascular risk assessment using artificial intelligence (AI) technology is novel, and has the advantages of immediacy, non-invasiveness, easy performance, and low cost. The Health Risk Assessment and Control Committee of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, in collaboration with the Chinese Society of Cardiology and the Society of Health Examination, invited multi-disciplinary experts to form a panel to develop the present consensus, which includes relevant theories, progress in research, and requirements for AI model development, as well as applicable scenarios, applicable subjects, assessment processes, and other issues associated with applying AI technology to assess cardiovascular risk based on fundus photographs. A consensus was reached after multiple careful discussions on the relevant research, and the needs of the health management industry in China and abroad, in order to guide the development and promotion of this new technology.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , Consensus , Risk Factors , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202310070, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510096


Investigaciones de las últimas décadas revelaron que un ambiente adverso en la etapa de desarrollo puede producir una mayor susceptibilidad hacia fenotipos relacionados con enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes, hipertensión, trastornos neuroconductuales y otras enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Estas enfermedades, cuyo aumento ocurre especialmente en países con alta vulnerabilidad social, provocan muertes prematuras y constituyen la primera causa de muerte en la vida adulta, además de un elevado costo para la salud pública. Consciente de la necesidad de prevenir estas enfermedades desde los primeros mil días de vida, la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría creó la Subcomisión DOHaD y formuló una declaración para la prevención de enfermedades no transmisibles a la que adhirieron otros países de Latinoamérica. La aplicación de las estrategias declaradas con acciones interdisciplinarias e intersectoriales sostenidas en el tiempo contribuirá a construir salud, a disminuir la carga de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y al mayor bienestar y productividad para los pueblos.

Research in recent decades has revealed that an adverse environment in the developmental stage can produce a greater susceptibility to phenotypes related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, or neurobehavioral disorders, among other chronic noncommunicable diseases. These diseases, whose tendency is increasing especially in countries with high social vulnerability, cause premature deaths and constitute the first cause of death in adult life as well as a great cost to public health. Aware of the need to prevent these diseases from the first thousand days of life, the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría created the DOHaD Committee and formulated a statement for the prevention of NCDs, to which Latin American countries also adhered. We believe that the application of the declared strategies with interdisciplinary and intersectoral actions sustained over time will contribute to building health, reducing the burden of NCDs, and to greater wellbeing and productivity for the people

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Hypertension , Knowledge
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 81-100, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515424


Intermittent fasting (IF) has gained increasing scientific and general attention. Most studied forms of IF include alternate-day fasting, modified alternate-day fasting, and time-restricted eating (TRE). Several cardiometabolic effects of IF have been described in animal models and, to a lesser extent, in humans. This review analyzes the impact of IF on weight loss, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and lipid profile in humans. A literature search was conducted in the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Controlled observational or interventional studies in humans, published between January 2000 and June 2021, were included. Studies comparing IF versus religious fasting were not included. Most studies indicate that the different types of IF have significant benefits on body composition, inducing weight loss and reducing fat mass. Changes in cardiometabolic parameters show more divergent results. In general, a decrease in fasting glucose and insulin levels is observed, together with an improved lipid profile associated with cardiovascular risk. High heterogeneity in study designs was observed, particularly in studies with TRE, small sample sizes, and short-term interventions. Current evidence shows that IF confers a range of cardiometabolic benefits in humans. Weight loss, improvement of glucose homeostasis and lipid profile, are observed in the three types of IF protocols evaluated.

Humans , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Intermittent Fasting , Weight Loss , Fasting/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Lipids
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 141-149, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970034


BACKGROUND@#Evidence on the relations of the American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) with mortality in Asians is sparse, and the interaction between behavioral and medical metrics remained unclear. We aimed to fill the gaps.@*METHODS@#A total of 198,164 participants without cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were included from the China Kadoorie Biobank study (2004-2018), Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (2008-2018), and Kailuan study (2006-2019). Four behaviors (i.e., smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index) and three medical factors (i.e., blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid) were classified into poor, intermediate, and ideal levels (0, 1, and 2 points), which constituted 8-point behavioral, 6-point medical, and 14-point ICH scores. Results of Cox regression from three cohorts were pooled using random-effects models of meta-analysis.@*RESULTS@#During about 2 million person-years, 20,176 deaths were recorded. After controlling for demographic characteristics and alcohol drinking, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing ICH scores of 10-14 vs. 0-6 were 0.52 (0.41-0.67), 0.44 (0.37-0.53), 0.54 (0.45-0.66), and 0.86 (0.64-1.14) for all-cause, CVD, respiratory, and cancer mortality. A higher behavioral or medical score was independently associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality among the total population and populations with different levels of behavioral or medical health equally, and no interaction was observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ICH was associated with lower all-cause, CVD, and respiratory mortality among Chinese adults. Both behavioral and medical health should be improved to prevent premature deaths.

Adult , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , East Asian People , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoking
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1779-1791, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981395


Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death initiated by the activation of caspases, which is involved in the development and progression of several cardiovascular diseases. The gasdermins, a protein family, are key executive proteins in the development of pyroptosis, which increase cell membrane permeability, mediate the release of inflammatory factors, and aggravate the inflammatory injury. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)has shown unique therapeutic advantages in cardiovascular diseases with multi-component and multi-target characteristics. Currently, the effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases based on the theory of pyroptosis become a new research hotspot in this field. Based on the theories of TCM and modern medicine, this study summarized the role of pyroptosis in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and myocarditis. The role of TCM, including active monomers, crude extracts, and compound preparations, in cardiovascular protection through the regulation of pyroptosis was also summarized, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases by TCM.

Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Pyroptosis , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 661-672, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981053


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are one of the global public health issues concerning health of human beings. Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular events, while elevation of plasma cholesterol levels is associated with the onset of over 50% coronary heart disease. The incidence risks of cardiovascular diseases are higher in HIV/AIDS patients than those in normal populations. In addition to conventional risk factors, viral duplication and suboptimal treatments increase risks of atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease (ASCVD) in HIV/AIDS patients. Thus, a deep knowledge of lipid metabolism and dysregulation profiles, an efficient control of conventional ASCVD risk factors, as well as strengthened measures to lipid management, are of significance to improve long-term prognosis and life quality for HIV/AIDS patients. However, up to date, there is no particular consensus on lipid management for HIV/ADIS populations under long-term antiretroviral therapies (ART). Hereby, based on current status quo of ART in China and frontier achievements of fundamental researches and clinical trials, we invited domestic experts in fields of infectious diseases and cardiovascular diseases to compose this expert consensus on the integrated management of lipid in HIV/AIDS patients in China.

Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Consensus , HIV Infections , Lipids/blood , China
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 887-902, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007798


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important factor threatening the health of the elderly. Aging leads to changes in the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, which increases the risk of CVD in the elderly. Cardiac aging is characterized by increased left ventricular wall thickness, increased degree of myocardial fibrosis, increased cardiac hardness, and decreased cardiac function, while vascular aging is characterized by enlarged lumen, thickened wall, and endothelial dysfunction. Promoting healthy cardiovascular aging means reducing the age-related cardiovascular dysfunction and the risks of CVD. Exercise is a crucial means for the treatment and rehabilitation of CVD. Exercise reduces the risk factors of CVD, remodels the cardiovascular structure, and increases the resistance of heart to detrimental stimulus, which promotes healthy cardiovascular aging. The improved mitochondrial function via exercise plays a key role in the health effects of exercise. In addition, exercise promotes the secretion of exerkines in various tissues and organs, which plays a role in reducing inflammation, improving metabolism, inhibiting apoptosis, etc., thus benefiting cardiovascular health. This review discusses the mechanism and potential application of exercise in promoting healthy cardiovascular aging. Exploring the specific mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiovascular health and formulating accurate exercise prescriptions for different populations is an important direction to promote healthy cardiovascular aging and prevent CVD.

Humans , Aged , Heart , Exercise , Aging , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Risk Factors
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1054-1062, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985632


Objective: To assess the cardiovascular health status of adults in China by using the "Life's Essential 8" score, and provide reference for the development and improvement of cardiovascular disease prevention and control policies and measures. Methods: Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance was conducted in 298 counties/districts in 2015 in 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) across China, multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 45 households in each village or neighborhood, and 20 households were further selected to conduct dietary surveys. In this study, a total of 70 093 adults aged ≥20 years who completed the dietary survey and had complete information were included, their cardiovascular health status were assessed by using the "Life's Essential 8" score, a cardiovascular health scoring standard released by the American Heart Association in 2022. All results were adjusted using complex design-based sampling weights to achieve a better estimate of the population. Results: In 2015, the overall cardiovascular health score of Chinese adults aged ≥20 years was 73.3±12.6, the score was significantly higher in women (77.9±11.6) than in men (68.7±11.8), and higher in urban area (74.5±12.8) than in rural area (71.9±12.2), the differences were significant (P<0.001). It was estimated that about 0.25% (95%CI: 0.16%-0.33%) of adults in China had cardiovascular health score of 100, and 33.0% (95%CI: 31.6%-34.3%), 63.2% (95%CI: 62.1%-64.3%), and 3.9% (95%CI: 3.5%-4.2%) of adults had high, moderate and low cardiovascular health scores, respectively. The proportion of those with high cardiovascular health scores was relatively low in men, those with low education level, those with low income, those living in rural areas, and those living in southwest China (P<0.001). Of the eight factors, diet had the lowest mean score (46.0, 95%CI: 44.7-47.3), followed by blood pressure (59.4, 95%CI: 58.2-60.6) and tobacco exposure (61.4, 95%CI: 60.6-62.2). Conclusions: The cardiovascular health status of two-thirds of adult population in China needs to be improved. Diet, tobacco exposure, and blood pressure are the factors affecting the cardiovascular health of Chinese population, to which close attention needs to be paid, and men, rural residents, and those with lower socioeconomic status are key groups in cardiovascular health promotion.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Asian People , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Diet , East Asian People , Health Status , Risk Factors , United States , Health Status Indicators
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 941-948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985500


The cardiovascular health index (CVH) is a composite index consisting of 7 CVH metrics (CVHM) to evaluate the cardiovascular health status in the population. CVH has been proven to be closely related to a variety of health outcomes and widely used in the prevention of many diseases and the evaluation of intervention effectiveness. This review summarizes the recent distribution of CVH and CVHM in pregnant women and the relationship between CVH and CVHM with adverse health outcomes, which aims to explore the application of CVH and CVHM in preventing pregnancy-related diseases and improving the long-term health level of perinatal women and their offspring.

Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Status
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 549-553, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982399


"Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food"-the ancient adage proposed by Greek philosopher Hippocrates of Kos thousands of years ago already acknowledged the importance of the beneficial and health-promoting effects of food nutrients on the body (Mafra et al., 2021). Recent epidemiological and large-scale community studies have also reported that unhealthy diets or eating habits may contribute heavily to the burden of chronic, non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, arthritis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Jayedi et al., 2020; Gao et al., 2022). Emerging evidence highlights that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can prevent various chronic diseases (Chen et al., 2022). Food bioactive compounds including vitamins, phytochemicals, and dietary fibers are responsible for these nutraceutical benefits (Boeing et al., 2012). Recently, phytochemicals such as polyphenols, phytosterols, and carotenoids have gained increasing attention due to their potential health benefits to alleviate chronic diseases (van Breda and de Kok, 2018). Understanding the role of phytochemicals in health promotion and preventing chronic diseases can inform dietary recommendations and the development of functional foods. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the health benefits of phytochemicals derived from commonly consumed foods for the prevention and management of chronic diseases.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Vegetables/chemistry , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Phytochemicals , Chronic Disease
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 32(1): e2022669, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430313


Objective: to analyze the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) in the Brazilian adult population based on the 2019 National Health Survey. Methods: this was a population-based cross-sectional study (n = 77,494); prevalence and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of ideal CVH (seven metrics achieved simultaneously) and by individual metrics (four behavioral and three biological metrics), as defined by the American Heart Association, were estimated. Results: only 0.5% (95%CI 0.4;0.6) of the study population presented ideal CVH, with higher prevalence among those with higher level of education (1.3%; 95%CI 0.9;1.6) and residents in urban areas (0.6%; 95%CI 0.5;0.7); the prevalence of behavioral and biological metrics was 0.7% (95%CI 0.6;0.8) and 63.3% (95%CI 62.7;63.9) respectively. Conclusion: the prevalence of ideal CVH was very low, highlighting the need for public policies aimed at promotion, surveillance and CVH care in the Brazilian adult population.

Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de salud cardiovascular (SCV) ideal en la población adulta brasileña con base en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud de 2019. Métodos: estudio transversal de base poblacional (n = 77.495). Según lo propuesto por la Asociación Americana del Corazón, la prevalencia y los intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) del SCV ideal se estimaron globalmente (siete metas alcanzadas simultáneamente) y por metas individuales (cuatro metas de comportamiento y tres metas). Se calculó la prevalencia de las metas por variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: sólo el 0,5% (IC95% 0,4;0,6) de la población presentó SCV ideal, siendo más frecuente en aquellos con educación superior (1,3%; IC95% 0,9;1,6) y entre los residentes de áreas urbanas (0,6%; IC95%0,5;0,7). La prevalencia de las metas de comportamiento y biológicas fue de 0,7% (IC95% 0,6;0,8) y 63,3% (IC95% 62,7;63,9), respectivamente. Conclusión: la prevalencia de SCV ideal en adultos brasileños es muy baja, destacando la necesidad de políticas públicas para la promoción, vigilancia y atención a la SCV en la población adulta brasileña.

Objetivo: analisar a prevalência de saúde cardiovascular (SCV) ideal na população adulta brasileira. Métodos: estudo transversal com base na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019 (n = 77.494); foram estimadas as prevalências e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) de SCV ideal (sete metas alcançadas simultaneamente) e por metas individuais (quatro metas comportamentais; três biológicas), conforme propõe a Associação Americana do Coração. Resultados: apenas 0,5% (IC95% 0,4;0,6) da população estudada apresentou SCV ideal, observando-se maior prevalência entre aqueles com maior escolaridade (1,3%; IC95% 0,9;1,6) e os residentes em áreas urbanas (0,6%; IC95% 0,5;0,7); as prevalências das metas comportamentais e biológicas foram de 0,7% (IC95% 0,6;0,8) e 63,3% (IC95% 62,7;63,9) respectivamente. Conclusão: a prevalência de SCV ideal foi muito baixa, evidenciando a necessidade de políticas públicas para promoção, vigilância e atenção à SCV na população adulta brasileira.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Population Studies in Public Health , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Status Indicators , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0168, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394832


ABSTRACT Introduction: Several programs to encourage physical activity has been encouraged to reduce the sedentary lifestyle in China. Running is among them because it has potentially positive effects on cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia, in addition to the intrinsic psychological and social benefits of outdoor sports. Objective: Explore the protective effect of running on the cardiac system by analyzing strategies for cultivating exercise health awareness. Methods: A group of ten healthy volunteers, five women aged 25-35 years, underwent a 45-minute running program, performed four times a week for three weeks. Data collected by spirometry and cardiac monitoring were collected, treated, compared, and discussed. This paper introduced the concept of subjective exercise intensity to find the best analysis and judgment of Cardiac Function. Finally, a quantitative investigation involving the analysis of 315 questionnaires explored the current status of sports health awareness in running fans. Results: Heart rate amplitude during running remained in the range of 120-160, belonging to the normal heart rate range for the surveyed audience. In most cases, women's heart rate was higher than men's (P<0.05). The exercise intensity was fixed at a frequency below the value of 16, which is a slightly strenuous stage, and the relative exercise intensity was controlled between 50% and 71.5%. Conclusion: Running has a good cardiac protective effect, and its followers are highly aware of sports health. Due to the beneficial effect of sports practice, its dissemination is recommended as a form of physical and social therapeutic activity. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.

RESUMO Introdução: Com o intuito de reduzir o índice de sedentarismo na China, diversos programas de incentivo à atividade física foram estimulados. A corrida está dentre eles pois tem potenciais efeitos positivos nas doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e hipercolesterolemia, além dos benefícios psicológicos e sociais intrínsecos na prática esportiva ao ar livre. Objetivo: Explorar o efeito protetor da corrida no sistema cardíaco analisando as estratégias para a cultura da consciência sanitária do exercício. Métodos: Um grupo de dez voluntários saudáveis, com cinco mulheres e idade entre 25 a 35 anos foram submetidos a um programa de corrida por 45 minutos, realizado quatro vezes por semana, durante três semanas. Dados coletados por espirometria e monitoramento cardíaco foram coletados, tratados, comparados e discutidos. Este artigo introduziu o conceito de intensidade de exercício subjetivo para encontrar a melhor análise e julgamento da Função Cardíaca. Por fim, uma investigação quantitativa envolvendo a análise de 315 questionários explorou a situação atual da conscientização em saúde esportiva em adeptos da corrida. Resultados: A amplitude de frequência cardíaca durante a corrida manteve-se na faixa de 120-160, pertencente à faixa normal de frequência cardíaca ao público pesquisado. A frequência cardíaca das mulheres foi maior do que a dos homens na maioria dos casos (P<0,05). A intensidade do exercício fixou-se numa frequência inferior ao valor de 16, que é um estágio ligeiramente extenuante, e a intensidade relativa do exercício ficou controlada entre 50% e 71,5%. Conclusão: A corrida apresenta um bom efeito protetor cardíaco, seus adeptos possuem elevada conscientização da saúde esportiva. Devido ao efeito salutar da prática esportiva, recomenda-se a sua divulgação como forma de atividade terapêutica física e social. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción: Con el fin de reducir el estilo de vida sedentario en China, se han estimulado varios programas para fomentar la actividad física. La carrera se encuentra entre ellos porque tiene potenciales efectos positivos sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares, la hipertensión, la diabetes mellitus y la hipercolesterolemia, además de los beneficios psicológicos y sociales intrínsecos del deporte al aire libre. Objetivo: Explorar el efecto protector de correr sobre el sistema cardíaco analizando las estrategias para cultivar la conciencia de la salud del ejercicio. Métodos: Un grupo de diez voluntarios sanos, cinco mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 25 y los 35 años, fueron sometidos a un programa de carrera durante 45 minutos, realizado cuatro veces por semana durante tres semanas. Los datos recogidos por la espirometría y la monitorización cardíaca fueron recogidos, tratados, comparados y discutidos. Este trabajo introdujo el concepto de intensidad subjetiva del ejercicio para encontrar el mejor análisis y juicio de la Función Cardíaca. Por último, una investigación cuantitativa que incluyó el análisis de 315 cuestionarios exploró el estado actual de la conciencia de la salud deportiva en los aficionados a las carreras. Resultados: La amplitud de la frecuencia cardíaca durante la carrera se mantuvo en el rango de 120-160, perteneciendo al rango de frecuencia cardíaca normal para el público encuestado. La frecuencia cardíaca de las mujeres fue mayor que la de los hombres en la mayoría de los casos (P<0,05). La intensidad del ejercicio se fijó en una frecuencia inferior al valor de 16, que es una etapa ligeramente agotadora, y la intensidad relativa del ejercicio se controló entre el 50% y el 71,5%. Conclusión: La acción de correr presenta un buen efecto cardioprotector, sus adeptos poseen alta conciencia de la salud deportiva. Debido al efecto saludable de la práctica deportiva, se recomienda su difusión como forma de actividad terapéutica física y social. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypercholesterolemia/prevention & control
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 30(1): 22-27, jan. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517536


A hipertensão arterial sistêmica representa um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo. O controle pressórico estrito é essencial para a redução de eventos cardiovasculares maiores, pois a pressão arterial sistólica elevada é o principal fator de risco modificável para doenças cardiovasculares e mortalidade total. Ensaios clínicos randomizados prévios, como o SPRINT trial e o STEP trial, geraram evidências robustas sobre os benefícios do alcance de metas pressóricas intensivas na redução de eventos cardiovasculares maiores em pacientes hipertensos de alto risco cardiovascular não-diabéticos e sem acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) prévio. Porém, ainda há dúvidas sobre o benefício de tal estratégia nestas duas populações de pacientes. Para dar uma resposta definitiva a esta questão, os estudos OPTIMAL-DIABETES e OPTIMAL-STROKE estão sendo conduzidos com alto rigor científico no Brasil e estes já são os maiores estudos sobre o tema em nível global. Os resultados destes dois estudos, previstos para 2024/2025, são muito esperados para nos dar as evidências necessárias sobre o benefício do controle pressórico intensivo em pacientes diabéticos e pós-AVC (AU).

Hypertension represents one of the main public health problems in Brazil and in the world. Blood pressure (BP) control is essential to reduce major cardiovascular events, as high systolic BP is the main modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and any-cause deaths. Previous randomized clinical trials, such as the SPRINT trial and the STEP trial, have provided robust evidence on the benefits of intensive BP targets on the reduction of major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risk without diabetes and previous stroke. However, there is still uncertainty about the benefits of such strategy on this two populations of patients. To provide a definitive answer to this question, the OPTIMAL-DIABETES and OPTIMAL-STROKE trials are being conducted with high scientific rigor in Brazil and these are already the biggest studies in this area globally. The results of these two trials, expected in 2024/2025, are long awaited to provide us the necessary evidence on the benefits of intensive BP control in patients with diabetes and patients with stroke (AU).

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Stroke/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1596-1604, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515407


BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) practice reduces the adverse effects of COVID-19. PA counseling promotes healthy lifestyles and prevents cardiometabolic diseases. AIM: To assess the trend in cases of PA counseling and the cardiometabolic disease between 2012 and 2019 (before COVID-19) in a southern Chilean region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records of Maule Region Health Service for 731.163 men, and 829.097 women aged < 10 to ≥ 65 years were analyzed. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) during the study period and the annual percentage change (APC) during intermediate periods, were calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in PA counseling in women in the study period (AAPC: −13.6%). In the 2012-2017 period a significant decrease in counseling for total, men and women were observed (APC: −18.1, −16.5 and −19.1%, respectively). Obesity increased significantly in total, men and women in the 2012-2019 period (AAPC: 10.1, 8.5 and 10.7%, respectively). The same trend was observed for hypertension (AAPC: 8.1, 8.5 and 7.6% respectively) and elevated blood glucose (AAPC: 10, 11.5 and 9.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In the study period PA counseling decreased along with an increase in obesity, hypertension and high blood glucose. Increasing PA counseling is a mainstay in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases and probably to prevent contagion and complement the treatment of COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Exercise , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Counseling/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Hypertension , Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684


Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.

A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 213-217, jul.-ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395859


La cardiopatía isquémica es un padecimiento que se caracteriza por la falta de oxígeno del músculo cardiaco y es la principal causa de infarto de miocardio. Existen múltiples factores que predisponen al desarrollo de ésta como la obesidad, la hiperlipidemia, el sedenta- rismo, tabaquismo, diabetes e hipertensión. Dadas las características que configuran la fisiopatología de la cardiopatía isquémica, existen diversas consideraciones que deben ser tomadas en cuenta toda vez que el estomatólogo brinde atención a un paciente con este padecimiento. El objetivo del presente artículo es conocer todo lo relacionado con la fisiopatología de la cardiopatía isquémica, sus manifestaciones clínicas, su tratamiento médico y lo más importante, las consideraciones que deben tomarse en el consultorio dental cuando se atienda a un paciente que padezca esta condición (AU)

Ischemic heart disease is a condition characterized by a lack of oxygen in the heart muscle and is the main cause of myocardial infarction. There are multiple factors that predispose to the development of this, such as obesity, hiyperlipidemia, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, diabetes and hypertension. Given the characteristics that make up the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease, there are various considerations that must be taken into account whenever the stomatologist provides care to a patient with this condition. The objective of this article is to know everything related to the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease, its clinical manifestation, its medical treatment and most importantly, the considerations that must be taken in the dental office when caring for a patient with this condition (AU)

Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Dental Care for Chronically Ill/methods , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Sedentary Behavior , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Nitrates/therapeutic use