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1.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(1): 4-11, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1097695

ABSTRACT

Desde hace varias décadas se conocen los clásicos factores de riesgo cardiovascular (género, edad, hipertensión arterial, dislipidemias, tabaquismo, obesidad, sedentarismo). También existen factores de riesgo "no convencionales", es decir situaciones no descriptas ni contenidas en la mayoría de los puntajes de riesgo tradicionales, pero de las cuales existen evidencias científicas. En esta revisión se analizan algunos de ellos, tales como factores socioeconómicos, horarios prolongados de trabajo, factores ambientales, aislamiento social, cantidad y calidad del sueño. También hay factores de "protección" cardiovascular como la dieta mediterránea. La literatura cuenta con un número muy elevado de publicaciones que abarcan estos factores. En la presente descripción se incluyeron algunas que fuesen representativas, con buen diseño experimental y que hayan realizado análisis multivariado de los resultados para controlar potenciales confundidores que invaliden las conclusiones. Finalmente, se discuten los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados en la generación de los eventos cardiovasculares finales. (AU)


The classical cardiovascular risk factors have been known for several decades (gender, age, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle). There also exist "non conventional" risk factors, that are those not described or not included in the majority of the traditional cardiovascular risk scores, but for whom scientific evidence is available. In this review some of them are analyzed, such as socio economic factors, prolonged work schedules, environmental factors, social isolation, sleep quantity and quality. There are also some "preventive" cardiovascular factors as the Mediterranean diet. There exist considerable amount of publications in the literature analyzing these issues. In the present paper some of them are discussed. They have been selected as they were representative of the corresponding aspect, well designed and with multivariate statistical analysis of the results, in order to control potential confounders that could invalidate the conclusions. Finally, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are discussed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Wake Disorders , Socioeconomic Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Risk Factors , Workload , Diet, Mediterranean , Environment
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(6): S205-S242, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051592

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cardiovascular secundaria a aterosclerosis es la principal causa de morbimortalidad en la población adulta a nivel mundial. Aunque las manifestaciones clínicas de aterosclerosis (enfermedad coronaria, accidente cerebrovascular y arteriopatía periférica) son excepcionales en la población pediátrica, la presencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular, así como la adquisición de hábitos que favorecen su desarrollo, se observan ya desde edades tempranas. En el presente documento, se elaboraron recomendaciones, con dos objetivos principales: prevenir la aparición de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular (prevención primordial) y detectar y tratar los que favorecen el desarrollo de aterosclerosis clínica (prevención primaria). Si bien las recomendaciones están dirigidas a la población pediátrica, el objetivo del trabajo conjunto de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría y la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología es asegurar un abordaje integral y consensuado de la prevencion cardiovascular a lo largo de toda la vida, incluso, desde antes de la concepción.


Cardiovascular disease secondary to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbimortality in the adult population worldwide. Although clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis (coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease) are extremely rare in the pediatric population, the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the development of health-behavior patterns that promote them are observed since early childhood.In this document, recommendations were developed addressing two main goals: prevention of the risk factors development for cardiovascular disease (primordial prevention) and early detection and treatment of the risk factors to prevent clinical atherosclerosis (primary prevention). Even though the recommendations are addressed to the pediatric population, the aim of the collaborative work between the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría and the Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología is to ensure a comprehensive and consensual approach of lifetime cardiovascular prevention beginning even before conception.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Primary Prevention/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Alcohol-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Overweight/prevention & control , Sedentary Behavior , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/therapy , Medical History Taking , Obesity/prevention & control
3.
Rev. ADM ; 76(6): 332-335, nov.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1087510

ABSTRACT

La salud bucal está relacionada con varios factores que son considerados dañinos o protectores para poder estar en un equilibrio de la salud, desde el punto de vista preventivo debemos de enfocarnos cada vez más a aquellos factores protectores, como lo es la nutrición, ya que el alimentarnos adecuadamente nos ayuda a estar sanos, no solamente de la cavidad bucal sino de todo nuestro cuerpo. Una de las ciencias que ha tenido un creciente avance para el entendimiento de este fenómeno es la nutrigenómica, ya que nos ayuda a entender como los alimentos y sus contenidos desde el punto de vista genético colaboran a tener una mejor salud (AU)


Oral health is related to several factors that are considered harmful or protective to be in a balance of health, from the preventive point of view we must focus increasingly on those protective factors, such as nutrition, since to feed ourselves properly helps us to be healthy, not only of the oral cavity but of our whole body. One of the sciences that has had a growing advance for the understanding of this phenomenon is the nutriogenomic, since it helps us to understand how foods and their contents from the genetic point of view collaborate to have a better health (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Health , Dentistry , Nutrigenomics , Periodontal Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control
4.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 20(2): e387, jul.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1003855

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes con enfermedad arterial periférica sometidos a cirugía vascular no cardíaca programada presentan un riesgo significativo de complicaciones cardiovasculares, debido a la enfermedad cardíaca sintomática o asintomática subyacente. Objetivo: Valorar el riesgo coronario en los pacientes tributarios de cirugía vascular no cardíaca. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo en 35 pacientes del Servicio de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras. El período de estudio osciló entre octubre de 2013 y mayo de 2016. Las variables cualitativas se expresaron como frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Se evaluó la asociación entre las variables mediante el test de Fischer, se usó el coeficiente de Pearson para relacionar los valores del índice de presiones tobillo brazo y los niveles del calcio score. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino y la edad menor de 60 años. El tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial fueron los factores de riesgo de mayor frecuencia. A pesar de no existir diferencia significativa (p = 0,563) al asociar el calcio score y el índice de presiones tobillo-brazo, sí existió una correlación lineal negativa entre ellos. Las complicaciones perioperatorias presentadas en el grupo de moderado-alto riesgo quirúrgico fueron la fibrilación ventricular, el infarto agudo de miocardio y el paro cardíaco. Conclusiones: La valoración del riesgo coronario es una herramienta útil en la detección de lesiones coronarias significativas que pueden favorecer la aparición de complicaciones perioperatorias en los pacientes que son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico revascularizador no cardíaco(AU)


Introduction: Patients with peripheral arterial disease undergoing scheduled non-cardiac vascular surgery present a significant risk of cardiovascular complications due to underlying symptomatic or asymptomatic heart disease. Objective: To assess coronary risk in patients eligible for non-cardiac vascular surgery. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in 35 patients of the Angiology and Vascular Surgery service in Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital. The study was conducted between October 2013 and May 2016. Qualitative variables were summarized as absolute and relative frequencies. It was assessed the association between the variables using the Fischer´s test; Pearson´s coefficient was used to relate the values of the index of ankle- arm pressure and the levels of calcium score. Results: Male sex predominated; and ages less than 60 years. Smoking habit and high blood pressure were the most common risk factors. Although there is no significant difference (p= 0,563) when associating the calcium score and the ankle-brachial pressure index, there was a negative linear correlation between them. The peri-operative complications presented in the moderate to high surgical risk group were ventricular fibrillation, acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. Conclusions: Identification of coronary risk is a useful tool in the detection of significant coronary lesions that may favor the emergence of peri-operative complications in patients who are scheduled for non-cardiac revascularization's surgical treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 691-697, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Different strategies have been proposed for the cardiovascular risk management of patients with psoriasis. Objective: To estimate the cardiovascular risk and evaluate two cardiovascular prevention strategies in patients with psoriasis, analyzing which proportion of patients would be candidates to receive statin therapy. Methods: A retrospective cohort was selected from a secondary database. All patients >18 years with psoriasis without cardiovascular disease or lipid-lowering treatment were included. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator (2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk calculator (2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines) were calculated. The SCORE risk value was adjusted by a multiplication factor of 1.5. The recommendations for the indication of statins suggested by both guidelines were analyzed. Results: A total of 892 patients (mean age 59.9 ± 16.5 years, 54.5% women) were included. The median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation values were 13.4% (IQR 6.1-27.0%) and 1.9% (IQR 0.4-5.2), respectively. According to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator, 20.1%, 11.0%, 32.9%, and 36.4% of the population was classified at low, borderline, moderate, or high risk. Applying the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, 26.5%, 42.9%, 20.8%, and 9.8% of patients were stratified as having low, moderate, high, or very high risk, respectively. The proportion of subjects with statin indication was similar using both strategies: 60.1% and 60.9% for the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines, respectively. Study limitations: This was a secondary database study. Data on the severity of psoriasis and pharmacological treatments were not included in the analysis. Conclusion: This population with psoriasis was mostly classified at moderate-high risk and the statin therapy indication was similar when applying the two strategies evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psoriasis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Sex Factors , Cholesterol/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Complications
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 473-480, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040099

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends as a weekly "target dose" of exercise 150 minutes of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of intense exercise. Public health policies have prioritized the practice of exercise as a strategy for disease prevention and health promotion, with health professionals as their main promoters. Objective: To assess the interaction between the amount of exercise per week and the knowledge about recommendations for fighting a sedentary lifestyle among health care professionals attending a congress of cardiology. Methods: Participants of the 2017 Rio de Janeiro Society of Cardiology Congress were interviewed. Knowledge about the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for fighting a sedentary lifestyle was assessed by asking participants the question: "How much weekly exercise is recommended by the WHO?" Responders were stratified by the weekly exercise load reported. A multivariate logistic model was created to determine independent predictors of knowledge. Results: A total of 426 participants were interviewed (45.5% men, median age 31 years, 37.8% physicians, 65.8% of the physicians were cardiologists). The overall knowledge level was 44.6%; 38.1%, 52.7% and 56.6% among non-physicians, non-cardiologists and cardiologists, respectively (p = 0.002). Of all participants, 21.8% were inactive, 15% were lightly active, 34.7% moderately active and 28.4% highly active, and the percentage of individuals who gave a correct answer to the question on exercise recommendations was 30.1%, 42%, 48% and 52.9% respectively (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, being highly active (OR = 2.25, IC95%, 1.238 - 4.089), moderately active (OR = 1.93, IC 95% 1.105 - 3.39) and being a cardiologist (OR = 2.01, IC 95% 1.243 - 3,267) were predictors of knowledge. Conclusions: There was a linear association between exercise level and knowledge about the WHO recommendations on exercise. Policies to stimulate the practice of exercise among health professionals can positively impact campaigns for reducing sedentary lifestyle in the general population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sports , Sports Medicine/trends , World Health Organization , Exercise , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Body Mass Index , Statistical Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sedentary Behavior , Health Promotion , Heart Rate , Motor Activity
9.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 287-295, sept. 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1025029

ABSTRACT

La Hipercolesterolemia Familiar (HF) es una enfermedad hereditaria frecuente que se caracteriza por niveles elevados de colesterol ligado a las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL). El exceso de LDL se acumula en las arterias produciendo aterosclerosis prematura. El diagnóstico y tratamiento desde la infancia mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad. Existe subdiagnóstico de la HF lo que provoca muertes prematuras por enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). Para mejorar el subdiagnóstico la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría propuso en el año 2015 realizar tamizaje universal al ingreso escolar. Es relevante entonces que el pediatra pueda diagnosticar la hipercolesterolemia y diferenciar las hipercolesterolemias monogénicas o familiares, de las secundarias (AU)


Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common hereditary disease that is characterized by high cholesterol levels, linked to low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Excess LDL accumulates in the arteries leading to premature atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis and treatment since childhood improve the prognosis of the disease. FH is underdiagnosed resulting in premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). To improve diagnosis, in 2015 the Argentine Society of Pediatrics proposed a universal screening program at school age. It is relevant, therefore, for the pediatrician to be able to diagnose hypercholesterolemia and differentiate monogenic or familial from secondary hypercholesterolemia (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/physiopathology , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/therapy , Mass Screening , Diagnosis, Differential , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Actual. osteol ; 15(2): 78-93, mayo - ago. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1048450

ABSTRACT

Los hallazgos osteológicos se intensi!caron en los últimos años. Se demostró que el esqueleto se comporta, además de sus funciones clásicas, como un órgano de secreción endocrina que sintetiza al menos dos hormonas: el factor de crecimiento de !broblastos 23 (FGF-23) y la osteocalcina (Ocn). La Ocn es un péptido pequeño que contiene 3 residuos de ácido glutámico. Estos residuos se carboxilan postraduccionalmente, quedando retenida en la matriz ósea. La forma decarboxilada en el primer residuo de ácido glutámico (GluOcn) fue reportada por poseer efectos biológicos; la resorción ósea es el mecanismo clave para su bioactivación. La presente revisión se centra en los conocimientos actuales sobre la función hormonal de la Ocn. A la fecha se reporta que la Ocn regularía el metabolismo energético aumentando la proliferación de células ` pancreáticas, y la secreción de insulina y de adiponectina. Sobre el músculo esquelético actuaría favoreciendo la absorción y el catabolismo de nutrientes. La función reproductiva masculina estaría regulada mediante el estímulo a las células de Leydig para sintetizar testosterona; en el desarrollo cerebral y la cognición, la Ocn aumentaría la síntesis de neurotransmisores monoaminados y disminuiría el neurotransmisor inhibidor GABA. Si bien son indispensables mayores evidencias para dilucidar los mecanismos reguladores por medio de los cuales actuaría la Ocn, los resultados enumerados en los distintos estudios experimentales establecen la importancia de este novedoso integrante molecular. Dilucidar su rol dentro de estos procesos interrelacionados en seres humanos abriría la posibilidad de utilizar a la Ocn en el tratamiento de enfermedades endocrino-metabólicas. (AU)


Osteological !ndings have intensi!ed in recent years. The skeleton behaves as an endocrine secretion organ that synthesizes at least two hormones: osteocalcin (Ocn) and !broblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). Ocn is a small peptide that contains 3 glutamic acid residues. After translation, these residues are carboxylated to make possible its retention into the bone matrix. Decarboxylation on the !rst glutamic acid residue (GluOcn) has been reported to have biological effects. Bone resorption is the key mechanism for its bioactivation. This review focuses on current knowledge on Ocn hormonal function. It has been reported that Ocn regulates energy metabolism by increasing the proliferation of pancreatic ` cells, and the secretion of insulin and adiponectin. On the skeletal muscle, it may act by favoring the absorption and catabolism of nutrients. Male reproductive function might be regulated by stimulating Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone. Regarding brain development and cognition, Ocn would increase monoamine neurotransmitters synthesis and decrease inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Although more evidence is needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of Ocn, different experimental studies establish the importance of this novel molecular mediator. Clarifying its role within interrelated processes in humans, might open the possibility of using Ocn in different treatments of endocrine-metabolic diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Osteocalcin/therapeutic use , Skeleton/physiology , Skeleton/metabolism , Skeleton/pathology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Osteocalcin/biosynthesis , Osteocalcin/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , Fertility , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Infertility/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 238-246, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002226

ABSTRACT

Grapes and its derivatives (wines and juices) are rich in polyphenols that have high antioxidant and vasodilator capacity. These biological activities may vary in the juices marketed and produced in different regions of Brazil. Objectives: To determine the antioxidant and vasorelaxant effects of grape juice samples produced in different regions of Brazil. Methods: The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were evaluated by the methods of Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH, ABTS and a new electroanalytical approach (differential pulse voltammetry - DPV). Vasodilator effects were analyzed in isolated aorta from rats in an organ bath. Results: The samples from RJ and SP presented respectively the higher and lower phenolic content and also antioxidant capacity by the methods used (ABTS and DPPH). The results of the electrochemical index corroborate to the other tests, with the best results to RJ (21.69 ± 3.15 µA/V) and worse to the SP sample (11.30 ± 0.52 µA/V). In the vascular reactivity studies, the relaxation induced by each sample presented more distinct differences, following the order: RJ (87.9 ± 4.8%) > RS1 (71.6 ± 8.6%) > GO (56.2 ± 7.2%) > SP (39.9 ± 7.8%) > PR (39.4 ± 9.5%) > RS2 (19.5 ± 6.2%). Inhibition of endothelial NO practically abolished (p < 0.001) the relaxation for all samples, except one. Conclusion: The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity vary greatly among samples. The results obtained for the order of antioxidant activity were: RJ > RS1 > GO > RS2 > PR > SP. The juices were able to induce vascular relaxation at quite varied levels, and the RJ sample the most effective. The L-NAME practically blocked all samples except one (RS2)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Vitis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Electrochemical Techniques , Polyphenols , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Hypertension , Neoplasms/prevention & control
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 238-246, may.-june. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1005997

ABSTRACT

Background: Grapes and its derivatives (wines and juices) are rich in polyphenols that have high antioxidant and vasodilator capacity. These biological activities may vary in the juices marketed and produced in different regions of Brazil. Objectives: To determine the antioxidant and vasorelaxant effects of grape juice samples produced in different regions of Brazil. Methods: The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were evaluated by the methods of Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH, ABTS and a new electroanalytical approach (differential pulse voltammetry - DPV). Vasodilator effects were analyzed in isolated aorta from rats in an organ bath. Results: The samples from RJ and SP presented respectively the higher and lower phenolic content and also antioxidant capacity by the methods used (ABTS and DPPH). The results of the electrochemical index corroborate to the other tests, with the best results to RJ (21.69 ± 3.15 µA/V) and worse to the SP sample (11.30 ± 0.52 µA/V). In the vascular reactivity studies, the relaxation induced by each sample presented more distinct differences, following the order: RJ (87.9 ± 4.8%) > RS1 (71.6 ± 8.6%) > GO (56.2 ± 7.2%) > SP (39.9 ± 7.8%) > PR (39.4 ± 9.5%) > RS2 (19.5 ± 6.2%). Inhibition of endothelial NO practically abolished (p < 0.001) the relaxation for all samples, except one.Conclusion: The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity vary greatly among samples. The results obtained for the order of antioxidant activity were: RJ > RS1 > GO > RS2 > PR > SP. The juices were able to induce vascular relaxation at quite varied levels, and the RJ sample the most effective. The L-NAME practically blocked all samples except one (RS2)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Vitis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Electrochemical Techniques , Polyphenols , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Hypertension , Neoplasms/prevention & control
14.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 181-187, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify if there is an association between cardiometabolic risk factors and active daily commuting to school among children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 1,743 schoolchildren aged 7 to 17 years old were evaluated in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS). The way of commuting to school was investigated with a questionnaire, and the cardiometabolic risk factors analyzed were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and fractions, LDL and HDL. Results: The prevalence of active commuting among schoolchildren was 48.0% (95%CI 45.7-50.4), and it was associated, in the crude analysis, with blood glucose and LDL cholesterol levels. Passive schoolchildren had a 1.1 higher prevalence ratio of high glucose and LDL cholesterol levels. However, when sociodemographic variables were included in the model, these associations were not maintained. Conclusions: The prevalence of active commuting in the sample studied is low and it was shown to have a crude association with glucose and LDL cholesterol levels in students. However, sociodemographic factors seem to influence these associations.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se existe associação entre fatores de risco cardiometabólicos e deslocamento ativo à escola em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Foram avaliados 1.743 escolares, de sete a 17 anos, do município de Santa Cruz do Sul (RS). A forma de deslocamento até a escola foi investigada por meio de questionário e os fatores de risco cardiometabólicos analisados foram: o índice de massa corpórea (IMC), a circunferência da cintura (CC), a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e a diastólica (PAD), glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total (CT), LDL e HDL. Resultados: A prevalência de deslocamento ativo entre os escolares foi de 48,0% (IC95% 45,7-50,4) e associou-se, na análise bruta, com os níveis de glicose e colesterol LDL. Escolares que se deslocavam de forma passiva apresentaram uma razão de prevalência (RP) 1,1 vez maior de glicose e colesterol LDL elevados. No entanto, ao serem incluídas variáveis sociodemográficas no modelo, essas associações não se mantiveram. Conclusões: Conclui-se que a prevalência de deslocamento ativo na amostra estudada é baixa e que o deslocamento ativo à escola apresentou associação bruta com os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e de colesterol LDL dos escolares, sendo que se deslocar de forma ativa parece auxiliar na redução desses níveis. Porém, fatores sociodemográficos parecem exercer influência sobre estas associações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Child , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/analysis , Transportation/methods , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Body Mass Index , Demography , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment/methods , Sociological Factors
15.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 133-136, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1009419

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares, principalmente as decorrentes de casos de acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, têm importante impacto na mortalidade global e nas internações hospitalares em todo o mundo. A despeito do vasto conhecimento dos diversos fatores de risco implicados na gênese da doença cardiovascular, o número de eventos ainda se mantém elevado e a instituição de medidas de prevenção primária e secundária são essenciais e complementares. Nos últimos anos, importantes avanços no campo do tratamento farmacológico de aterosclerose e insuficiência cardíaca, predominantemente em decorrência de cardiopatia isquêmica, foram publicados e seus principais resultados são destacados no presente artigo


Cardiovascular diseases, particularly those arising from cases of stroke and acute myocardial infarction, have a significant impact on global mortality and hospital admissions around the world. Despite the vast knowledge of the various risk factors involved in the genesis of cardiovascular disease, the number of events remains high and institution of primary and secondary prevention measures is essential and complementary. In recent years, important advances in the field of pharmacological treatment of atherosclerosis and heart failure, particularly those arising from ischemic heart disease, have been published. The main results are highlighted in this article


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Therapeutics/methods , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Atherosclerosis , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Heart Failure , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Motor Activity
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 137-145, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1009426

ABSTRACT

Mudanças no estilo de vida associadas ao comportamento sedentário, maus hábitos alimentares e exposição a condições estressantes têm aumentado a suscetibilidade para desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV's). Neste sentido, atribui-se à inatividade física grande parte do risco de desenvolvimento de doenças que acometem indivíduos de diversas faixas etárias. Em contrapartida, é consenso que a vida fisicamente ativa é essencial para a manutenção da saúde cardiovascular. De fato, a prática de exercícios tem se mostrado efetiva tanto no ponto de vista preventivo quanto terapêutico, caracterizando-se como uma abordagem essencial no manejo de condições e fatores de risco associados às DCV's como obesidade, diabetes e dislipidemia, exercendo ainda efeitos positivos sobre diferentes comportamentos relacionados a hábitos de vida inadequados, como má alimentação, tabagismo, alcoolismo e estresse. Na perspectiva da psicologia, o estresse manifesta-se em processos cognitivos, emocionais, comportamentais, sociais e psicofisiológicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento das DCV's, as quais podem produzir sentimento de insegurança, ansiedade e medo, que podem levar a comportamentos pouco funcionais como fumar e comer em excesso. Neste artigo, revisamos o papel do sedentarismo e de alterações psicológicas nas DCV's, assim como destacamos evidências para a adoção de abordagens preventivas e terapêuticas de manejo destes importantes fatores de risco


Lifestyle changes associated with sedentary behavior, unhealthy eating habits and exposure to stressful conditions have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD's) susceptibility. In this regard, the risk of developing diseases that affect individuals of different age groups can be largely attributed to physical inactivity. Conversely, the general consensus is that a physically active life is essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. In fact, exercising has proven effective from both the preventive and therapeutic perspective, characterizing a key approach in the management of conditions and risk factors associated with CVD's, such as obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Moreover, this approach also has positive effects on different behaviors related to inappropriate lifestyle habits, such as an unhealthy diet, smoking, alcoholism and stress. From the psychological perspective, stress manifests in cognitive, emotional, behavioral, social and psychophysiological processes, contributing to the development of CVD's which can produce feelings of insecurity, anxiety and fear, which in turn can lead to dysfunctional health behaviors such as smoking and overeating. In this article, we review the role of a sedentary lifestyle and psychological alterations in CVD's, highlighting evidence in favor of the adoption of preventive and therapeutic approaches to manage these important risk factors


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Disease Prevention , Psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Health Education/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Sedentary Behavior , Obesity
20.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 56(1): 50-59, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1041759

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad cardiovascular ocupa uno de los primeros puestos como causa de muerte en el mundo. Durante el primer año del proyecto, nos propusimos hallar la prevalencia y su distribución por sexo de hipertensión, obesidad general y abdominal en donantes de sangre. Establecer la frecuencia y su distribución por sexo de Síndrome Metabólico y hallar la incidencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2; en el segundo año nos centramos en re-evaluar y valorar el impacto de la intervención en cada individuo. En una población de dadores de sangre presuntamente sanos del Banco de Sangre, Tejidos y Biológicos de la Provincia de Misiones. Se obtuvieron datos antropométricos y presión arterial. Se realizó una extracción sanguínea con ayuno de 12 horas para las determinaciones bioquímicas, consulta médica y tratamiento para quienes lo necesitaron. Se realizó una encuesta abierta cualitativa. Se obtuvieron datos de 141 donantes voluntarios de sangre, 47 mujeres y 94 varones. El 38,1% tenía presión arterial elevada. El 29,5% presento obesidad. El 59 % obesidad abdominal. 41,7 % de los donantes presentaba SM. Se halló una incidencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de 8,6 % (n=12). El 39,6 % (n=55) de los individuos presentó Glucemia Alterada en Ayunas. Todos los individuos que presentaron algún factor de riesgo, concurrieron a la consulta médica. Al año se los recito para su control. De los 30 individuos que estaban en tratamiento solo 9 continuaron haciendolo, impidiendo esto una correcta evaluación clínica global y medición del impacto de las intervenciones que se realizaron. De toda la poblacion de estudio, solo en 4 individuos se ha notado un cambio significativo transcurrido un año. Casi la totalidad de la población de donantes presentó al menos un factor de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular, todos ellos modificables, destacando de ello la corta edad de la población. Ninguno de los individuos del estudio tenía conocimiento de su estado.


ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease occupies one of the first places as a cause of death in the world. During the first year of the project, we set out to find the prevalence and its distribution by sex of hypertension, general and abdominal obesity in blood donors. Establish the frequency and distribution by sex of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and find the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus; while in the second year we focused on re-evaluating and assessing the impact of the intervention on each individual. In a population of presumably healthy blood donors of the Blood, Tissue and Biological Bank of the Province of Misiones. Volunteer donors between 20 and 50 years were evaluated, 2014-2015 period. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were obtained. A blood extraction with fasting of 12 hours was performed for biochemical determinations, medical consultation and treatment for those who needed it. Period 2015-2016, a qualitative open survey and biochemical-clinical evaluation of individuals was conducted. Data were obtained from 141 voluntary blood donors, 47 women and 94 men. 38.1% of the total population had high blood pressure, 29.5% obesity, 59% of the study population had abdominal obesity and 41.7% of donors had MS. An incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus of 8.6% (n = 12) and 39.6% (n = 55) of the individuals had altered fasting blood glucose. All the individuals who presented some risk factor attended the medical consultation. At the end of one year they are re-scheduled for re-evaluation. Although, the majority agreed on the importance of carrying out health checks, of the 30 individuals who were in treatment only 9 continued to do so, preventing this a correct global clinical evaluation and measuring the impact of the interventions that were performed. Of all the study population, only 4 individuals have noticed a significant change after one year, improving all their risk factors. The parameter that showed the greatest change, in a year, was the fasting blood glucose. Everyone was aware of the significance of cardiovascular risk factors and what their consequences were. Almost all of the donor population had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease, all of them modifiable, highlighting the short age of the population. None of the individuals in the study was aware of their condition. Only 9 individuals completed the treatment scheme indicated according to their pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Hypertension/blood , Obesity/blood
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