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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1751-1759, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134508

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los textos escolares en Chile siguen siendo un recurso educativo ampliamente utilizado por los profesores/as, por lo tanto, son herramientas pedagógicas que deben contar con una correcta terminología, garantizando una comunicación eficiente y precisa. En este sentido, la Terminología Anatómica Internacional aborda la organización de nombres de estructuras humanas, sin embargo, se ha observado que aún existen problemas en la correcta denominación de estructuras, generando problemas de comunicación entre profesionales y estudiantes de ciencias. En esta investigación se analizaron los términos histológicos, embriológicos y anatómicos del sistema cardiovascular humano presentes en los libros de texto escolares de 7º a 12vo grado de Ciencias Naturales y Biología, impartidos por el Ministerio de Educación de Chile. El análisis fue realizado comparando los términos utilizados en los textos con los términos oficiales del Programa Federativo Internacional de Terminologías Anatómicas y del Comité Federativo Internacional en Terminología Anatómica. Los resultados indican que el 25 % de términos analizados presentan errores y de ellos un 100 % corresponden a sinonimias. Se concluye que persisten errores en la adecuada denominación de las estructuras del cuerpo humano en los textos escolares. Al respecto, se sugiere una serie de líneas de trabajo que deberán reunir a los profesores/as y especialistas como anatomistas y biólogos para corregir los errores existentes.


SUMMARY: School textbooks in Chile remain an educational resource widely used by teachers, therefore, they are pedagogical tools that must have a correct terminology, ensuring efficient and accurate communication. In this sense, The International Anatomical Terminology addresses the organization of names of human structures. However, it has been observed that there are still problems in the correct naming of structures, creating communication problems between professionals and science students. In this research, the histological, embryological, and anatomical terms of the human cardiovascular system present in school textbooks from 7th to 12th grade of Sciences and Biology, taught by the Chilean Ministry of Education, were analyzed. The analysis was carried out by comparing the terms used in the texts with the official terms of the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology and International Federative Committee for Anatomical Terminology. The results indicate that 25 % of the terms analyzed have errors and of these 100 % correspond to synonyms. It is concluded that errors persist in the proper naming of the structures of the human body in school textbooks. In this regard, a series of lines of work are suggested, that should bring together teachers and specialists such as anatomists and biologists to correct existing errors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Textbooks as Topic , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Terminology as Topic , Natural Science Disciplines , Biology , Chile , Human Body
2.
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.139-146.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009069
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 925-930, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893075

ABSTRACT

This study described the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main branches in Puma concolor. The hearts of six individuals of Puma concolor, were analyzed. The A. coronaria sinistra formed the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and the ramus circunflexus. A ramus septal was formed close to the origin of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and yielded from six to eight ventricular branches. The circumflex branch originated from two to five atrial branches and from three to seven ventricular branches. The right coronary artery formed two to six atrial branches, and four to nine ventricular branches. In half of the individuals, an accessory coronary artery was identified as the first branch of the right coronary artery. In all individuals, the subsinusal interventricular branch originated in the right coronary artery. It could be inferred that coronary circulation in Puma concolor is balanced, as each coronary artery yielded an interventricular branch and there was no significant difference in the total number of branches that originated from each coronary artery. These findings are different from the descriptions of most carnivore species, and may aid a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies of carnivore coronary circulation, especially in the Felidae family.


En este estudio se describió la anatomía de las arterias coronarias, y sus principales ramas, en el Puma concolor. Se analizaron los corazones de seis especímenes de Puma concolor. La arteria coronaria izquierda formó la rama interventricular paraconal y la rama circunfleja. Una rama septal se formó cerca del origen de la rama paraconal y otorgó de seis a ocho ramas ventriculares. La rama circunfleja originó de dos a cinco ramas atriales y de tres a siete ramas ventriculares. La arteria coronaria derecha originó de dos a seis ramas atriales y de cuatro a nueve ramas ventriculares. En la mitad de los especímenes, se identificó una arteria coronaria accesoria como la primera rama de la arteria coronaria derecha. En todos los individuos, la rama interventricular subsinusal se originó en la arteria coronaria derecha. Se podría inferir que la circulación coronaria en el Puma concolor es equilibrada, ya que cada arteria coronaria produce una rama interventricular y no hay diferencia significativa en el número total de ramas que se originan de cada arteria coronaria. Estos hallazgos son diferentes de las descripciones de la mayoría de las especies carnívoras y pueden ayudar a una mejor comprensión de las relaciones filogenéticas y de las sinapomorfias de la circulación de los carnívoros, especialmente en la familia Felidae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): 201-208, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-879380

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to describe the anatomy of the femoral artery in wild canids such as the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), the hoary fox (Lycalopex vetulus), and the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Two specimens from each canid group were used. Red dyed latex was injected in the arterial system of the animals, which were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and dissected following the routine techniques in macroscopic anatomy. In the three canid groups, the arterial pattern was similar to that described for domestic canids, in which the deep femoral artery rises from the external iliac artery, still in the abdominal cavity, and sends its first branch, the lateral circumflex femoral artery. A few muscular branches, one or two caudal femoral arteries, and the terminal branches ­ the descending genicular artery, the saphenous artery, and the popliteal artery ­ are all originated from the femoral artery. The origin pattern of these vessels also shows similarities with those from domestic canids, sometimes forming trunks and occasionally rising individually. Thus, it can be concluded that the anatomical pattern of the femoral artery and its branches in wild canids shows similarities with that from domestic canids, but inherent variations in each species are also present.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a anatomia da artéria femoral em canídeos selvagens, como o cachorro do mato (Cerdocyon thous), a raposa do campo (Lycalopex vetulus) e o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Foram utilizados dois espécimes de cada grupo canídeo. Solução de látex vermelha foi injetada no sistema arterial dos animais, que foram então fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10% e dissecados seguindo as técnicas rotineiras da anatomia macroscópica. Nos três grupos canídeos, o padrão arterial foi semelhante ao descrito para canídeos domésticos, em que a artéria femoral profunda origina da artéria ilíaca externa, ainda na cavidade abdominal, e envia seu primeiro ramo, a artéria femoral circunflexa lateral. Alguns ramos musculares, uma ou duas artérias femorais caudais e os ramos terminais - a artéria genicular descendente, a artéria safena e a artéria poplítea - são originários da artéria femoral. O padrão de origem desses vasos também mostra semelhanças com as de canídeos domésticos, às vezes formando troncos e ocasionalmente originando individualmente. Assim, pode-se concluir que o padrão anatômico da artéria femoral e seus ramos em canídeos selvagens mostra semelhanças com a dos canídeos domésticos, mas variações inerentes em cada espécie também estão presentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology , Canidae/anatomy & histology , Femoral Artery/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(9): 912-918, set. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-829321

ABSTRACT

As artérias mesentéricas das aves são importantes para a irrigação do aparelho digestório e encontram-se associadas ao ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. Objetivou-se descrever as origens, esqueletopias, medidas e principais ramificações das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em avestruzes. Foram utilizados 41 cadáveres de filhotes de avestruzes, 23 machos e 18 fêmeas, obtidos de um criadouro após morte natural. Os cadáveres foram fixados com formaldeído a 10% e tiveram o sistema vascular preenchido com Petrolatex® S-65 colorido. As artérias mesentéricas, cranial e caudal e seus ramos proximais foram dissecados "in situ" e medidas com paquímetro digital. A artéria mesentérica cranial teve comprimento médio de 3,68 ± 1,04 cm e surgiu da aorta descendente ao nível da oitava vértebra torácica na maioria dos casos. Ramificou-se em artérias jejunal e ileocecal. A artéria jejunal ofereceu média de 14,04 ±2,08 ramos ao jejuno e a artéria ileocecal originou um ramo retal e outro que se bifurcou para derivar ramos para íleo, ceco e reto. Em um espécime macho a artéria ileocecal foi ramo da artéria celíaca. A artéria mesentérica caudal originou-se na porção terminal da aorta descendente predominantemente ao nível das 4ª e 6ª vértebras sacro-caudais. Perto da extremidade caudal do rim emitiu os ramos cranial e caudal. O primeiro irrigou o reto e anastomosou-se com ramo retal da artéria mesentérica cranial; o segundo irrigou a porção final do reto, cloaca e bolsa cloacal. Não houve diferença significativa (p<0,05) entre as medidas, esqueletopia e número de ramificações das artérias entre os sexos.(AU)


The mesenteric arteries of birds are important for the irrigation of the digestive tract and are associated with weight gain and food conversion. This study aimed to describe the origins, skeletopy, measures and main branches of cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in ostriches. Forty-one cadavers of ostrich chicks, 23 males and 18 females, obtained from a farmer after natural death. The cadavers were fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution and their vascular system was filled with colored Petrolatex® S-65. The cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries and its proximal branches were dissected in situ and measured with a digital caliper. The mesenteric artery had an average length of 3.68cm±1.04 and emerged from the descending aorta at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra in most cases; it branched into jejunal and ileocecal arteries. The jejunal artery sent a mean of 14 (14.04±2.08) branches to the jejunum. The ileocecal artery sent a rectal branch and another branch that irrigated ileum, cecum and rectum. In a male specimen the ileocecal artery was originated from the celiac artery. The caudal mesenteric artery emerged in the terminal portion of the descending aorta predominantly at the level of the 4th and 6th sacrocaudal vertebrae. Near the caudal end of the kidney it issued the cranial and caudal branches. The first irrigated the rectum and anastomosed with the rectal branch of the cranial mesenteric artery; the second irrigated the final part of the rectum, cloaca and cloacal bursa. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between measurements, skeletopy and number of branches of the arteries between genders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestines/blood supply , Mesenteric Arteries/anatomy & histology , Skull/blood supply , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Tail/blood supply , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(5): 417-422, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787583

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to characterize the patterns of arterial vascularization in swine hearts. Ninety swine hearts were submitted to the Spalteholz diaphanization technique in order to dissect the coronary arteries. Three types of arterial vascularization patterns were characterized through the behaviorof the rami circumflexus and interventricularis, namely: balanced, right and left types. The balanced pattern was the most frequently (42.2%); in this case, the rami circumflexus and interventricularis occupied their respective sulci. The right type (40%) was further categorized into three vascularization subtypes. In the first, ramus circumflexus dexter branched from the ramus interventricularis subsinuosus. In the second, the arteria coronaria dextra branched from ramus interventricularis subsinuosus and ramus circumflexus. In the third model, arteria coronaria sinister branched from ramus interventricularis paraconalis. The left type (17.7%) exhibited two subtypes. In the first, ramus interventricularis paraconalis ran through the entire corresponding sulcus and the ventral third of sulcus interventricularis subsinuosus, and ramus interventricularis subsinuosus occupied the dorsal and middle third of its respective sulcus. In the second, ramus interventricularis subsinuosus branched from arteria coronaria dextra and ran through the dorsal and medium thirds of its respective sulcus, and the ventral third was occupied by the collateral branch of ramus circumflexus sinister. Our results reinforce the thesis that the blood distribution system through the coronary artery in swine is similar to human, not only in qualitative but also by a quantitative comparison.


Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar os padrões de vascularização arterial em corações de suínos. Para tanto, 90 corações de suínos foram submetidos à técnica de diafanização de Spalteholz com a finalidade de dissecar as artérias coronárias. Através do comportamento dos rami circumflexus e interventricularis caracterizou-se três modalidades de vascularização arterial do coração de suínos, sendo eles os tipos equilibrado, direito e esquerdo. O equilibrado foi observado com maior frequência (42,2%), neste caso os rami circumflexus e interventricularis das artérias coronárias ocupavam seus respectivos sulcos. O tipo direito (40%) apresentou três subtipos de vascularização. No primeiro o ramus circumflexus dexter ramificava-se formando o ramus interventricularis subsinuosus. No segundo, a arteria coronaria dextra emitia o ramus interventricularis subsinuosus e ramus circunflexus. E no terceiro modelo, da arteria coronaria sinistra emergia o ramus interventricularis paraconalis. O tipo esquerdo (17,7%) apresentou dois subtipos. No primeiro, o ramus interventricularis paraconalis percorria todo o sulco correspondente e o terço ventral do sulcus interventricularis subsinuosus, o ramus interventricularis subsinuosus ocupava os terços dorsal e médio do seu respectivo sulco. No segundo, o ramus interventricularis subsinuosus oriundo da arteria coronaria dextra percorria apenas os terços dorsal e médio do seu respectivo sulco, ficando o terço ventral ocupado por colateral do ramus circumflexus sinister. Nossos resultados reforçam a tese de que a distribuição do suprimento sanguíneo pela artéria coronária em suínos é semelhante ao humano, não apenas de maneira qualitativa, mas também do ponto de vista quantitativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Swine/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Models, Animal , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 538-545, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732167

ABSTRACT

Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation.


O conhecimento da anatomofisiologia do Sistema Cardiovascular (SCV) progride desde o quarto milênio AC. No Egito (3500 AC), acreditava-se que um conjunto de canais conectava-se ao coração, transportando ar, urina, ar, sangue e a alma. Mil anos após, o Corpo Hipocrático, na escola médica de Kós, estabeleceu o coração como o centro do SCV, definindo algumas características deste órgão. O SCV transportava sangue via ventrículo direito pelas veias, e o pneuma via ventrículo esquerdo pelas artérias. Duzentos anos depois, em Alexandria, com o aparecimento da dissecção anatômica do corpo humano, Herophilus descobriu que as artérias eram seis vezes mais espessas que as veias, enquanto que Erasistratus descreveu as válvulas semilunares, enfatizando que as artérias eram preenchidas por sangue quando o ventrículo esquerdo se esvaziava. Duzentos anos depois, Galeno demonstrou que as artérias continham sangue, não ar. Com o declínio do Império Romano, todo o conhecimento médico Greco-romano do SCV foi preservado na Pérsia, e posteriormente no Islã, onde Ibn-Nafis descreveu incompletamente a circulação pulmonar. Aqui, deve-se enfatizar a incompleta descrição da circulação pulmonar por Ibn-Nafis. A ressurgência da dissecção do corpo humano na Europa no século XIV é associada ao renascimento do conhecimento do SCV. Os principais marcos foram a descrição da circulação pulmonar por Servetus, as descobertas anatômicas de Vesalius, a demonstração da circulação pulmonar por Colombo, e a descoberta das válvulas das veias por Fabricius. Tal contexto abriu o caminho para Harvey descobrir a circulação do sangue.


Subject(s)
History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Anatomy/history , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Physiology/history , Cardiology/history , Egypt , Greece , Medical Illustration , Roman World
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(supl.1): 32-38, dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705849

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se caracterizar a morfologia das câmaras cardíacas e das artérias aortas e pulmonares da espécie Chelonia mydas. Foram avaliados 11 espécimes de C. mydas mortas coletadas no litoral do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os animais foram necropsiados para a obtenção do coração, fragmentos das artérias aorta e pulmonares direita e esquerda. Os vasos adquiridos foram fixados em formol e submetidos ao processamento histológico de rotina e coloração com Técnica de Verhoff modificada. Enquanto, do coração, os parâmetros largura, altura base-ápice e a circunferência ventricular foram mensurados por meio do paquímetro. Nessa espécie a microscopia das artérias pulmonares e artérias aortas variaram de acordo com o antímero. A maior espessura relativa do Cavum Venosum (CV) auxilia no bombeamento cardíaco durante o mergulho e sua menor espessura direita é uma vantagem para a dilatação ventricular durante a imersão profunda enquanto que a quantificação das lâminas elásticas e fibras musculares da túnica média das artérias aortas e pulmonares direita e esquerda comprovaram que a túnica média das aortas predomina o componente elástico vs. muscular, entretanto, nas artérias pulmonares o componente elástico não-predomina. Essa angioarquitetura pode estar relacionada com a capacidade de mergulho, favorecendo um maior aproveitamento do sangue oxigenado armazenado previamente durante o período de apneia.


This study aimed to characterize the morphology of the heart chambers, pulmonary arteries and aortas of Chelonia mydas. Eleven specimens were evaluated from dead C. mydas collected on the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The animals were necropsied to obtain heart, aorta and fragments of the right and left pulmonary vessels. The vessels were fixed in formalin and subjected to histological processing and staining by a modified Verhoff technique. The parameters width, height and base-apex ventricular circumference of the heart were measured with a caliper. In the species the microscopy of pulmonary arteries and aorta varied according to the antimere. The largest relative thickness of Cavum venosum (CV) assists the cardiac output during diving, and its smaller thickness is advantageous for the right ventricular dilation during deep immersion, while the quantification of elastic and muscle fibers of the tunica media of aortas and right and left pulmonary arteries showed that the medial layer of aorta dominates the elastic vs. muscle fibers; however the elastic fibers are not dominating in the pulmonary arteries. The angioarchitecture may be related to the ability to swim, favoring better use of oxygenated blood previously stored during the period of apnea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart Atria/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary
9.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 83(3): 225-231, jul.-sept. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-703005

ABSTRACT

El léxico anatómico más antiguo se estableció por los sacerdotes egipcios, quienes ofrecían de forma ritual a los dioses todas las partes del cuerpo del difunto. Hacia el año 500 a. c. se iniciaron estudios de anatomía comparada por el médico Alcmeón de Crotona, autor del texto que, según Laín Entralgo, inicia formalmente la historia universal de la patología científica. Solamente en el siglo III a. C. en el Egipto tolemaico comenzaron a efectuarse disecciones en cadáveres humanos. En la época romana y en la Alta Edad Media, los médicos realizaban estudios anatómicos en humanos para descartar o confirmar sospechas de envenenamiento y en animales (monos, cerdos, etcétera) para extrapolar sus hallazgos al hombre. Pero en la Baja Edad Media (siglo XIV), se volvió al estudio directo del cuerpo humano. Dicho estudio alcanzó un gran auge en el siglo XVI, lo que llevó al descubrimiento de la circulación menor y, más tarde, de la circulación mayor de la sangre. En el siglo XVII llegó el estudio de la anatomía microscópica y, en el siglo XVIII, la sistematización de la anatomía patológica. En el siglo siguiente se impuso el cotejo anatomoclínico y, actualmente, se impone el auxilio de procedimientos tecnológicos de gabinete.


The first anatomical lexicon was established in old Egypt, Alexandria by the priests who ritually offered all the parts of the human corpses to their gods. About 500 years b. C. studies of comparative anatomy began due to the physician Alcmeon of Croton, author of the text seriously starting the history of scientific pathology according to Laín Entralgo. It was only during the III century b. C. that dissections of human corpses began at the famous Alexandrian School of Medicine in Ptolemaic Egypt. During the Roman era and in high Middle Ages, physicians carried out anatomical studies in humans in order to dismiss or confirm poisoning suspicions or to extrapolate their flindings in animals (monkeys, pigs, etc) to humans. However, in low Middle Ages (XIV century), direct studies in human corpses were performed once again. These studies reached their pinnacle in the XVI century allowing the discovery of the lesser blood circulation and later of the greater blood circulation. The XVII century saw the coming of microscopic anatomy and the XVIII century witnessed the zenith of pathological anatomy. These studies developed during the following century into clinical-anatomical comparison. Today the help of technological studies is mandatory.


Subject(s)
History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Cardiology/history , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Knowledge
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2013. 105 p. ilus, tab. (BR).
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-746928

ABSTRACT

Embora amplamente utilizados no monitoramento durante o tratamento odontológico, pesquisas questionam a sensibilidade de medidas como da Pressão Arterial e Frequência Cardíaca na detecção precoce de anormalidades cardiocirculatórias iniciais e, sobretudo, das respostas autonômicas ao estresse mental e às drogas administradas durante procedimentos cirúrgicos. A Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca (VFC), isto é, a variação do intervalo RR batimento-a-batimento, é reconhecida como uma sensível preditora de eventos cardiovasculares graves como arritmias, isquemia miocárdica e morte súbita, além de trazer informações sobre a atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da análise da VFC (obtida a partir da utilização de frequencímetro portátil) na mensuração de respostas fisiológicas durante cirurgias odontológicas. 33 pacientes, ASA 1, com indicação de extração de terceiros molares inferiores foram avaliados em 3 momentos: entrevista, cirurgia e pós-operatório, com intervalos de uma semana. Também foi avaliada a ansiedade ao tratamento odontológico e relato de evento traumático prévio. A VFC foi obtida após processamento dos intervalos RR registrados com o frequencímetro Polar RS800. Foram analisadas as variáveis do domínio tempo (SDNN e rMSSD) e frequência (razão LF/HF). Concomitantemente foram medidas Pressão Arterial Sistólica (PAS), Diastólica (PAD), Média (PAM), Frequência Cardíaca (FC) e variáveis eletrocardiográficas. Nesta amostra de voluntários saudáveis, a ansiedade ao tratamento odontológico e o antecedente de experiências traumáticas não se mostraram correlacionados à maior intensidade de dor pós-operatória. Não foram observadas alterações da PAS, PAD, PAM, FC, tampouco alterações eletrocardiográficas relevantes ao longo das fases cirúrgicas. Com relação à VFC, houve redução do SDNN entre a fase basal e a fase anestesia. Gênero, idade, ansiedade e tabagismo passivo não determinaram comportamentos diferentes nas variáveis estudadas. O presente estudo demonstrou viabilidade da inclusão do estudo da VFC em protocolos clínicos de avaliação do comportamento do aparelho cardiovascular em procedimentos odontológicos. O estudo da VFC através de frequencímetros de pulso, instrumentos de baixo custo, ampla disponibilidade e fácil manuseio, pode prestar-se como uma ferramenta útil em estudos de segurança cardiovascular de novos fármacos e procedimentos.


Although widely used in monitoring during dental treatment, researches question the sensitivity measures such as Blood Pressure and Heart Rate (HR) in the early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities early and especially of autonomic responses to mental stress and drugs administered during surgical procedures. The Heart Rate Variability (HRV), the variation of the RR interval beat-to-beat, is recognized as a significant predictor of serious cardiovascular events such as arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and sudden death, in addition to providing information about the activity of autonomic nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of HRV analysis (obtained from the use of portable frequency meter) in measuring physiological responses during dental surgery. 33 patients, ASA 1, indicating the extraction of third molars were evaluated in three stages: interview, surgery and postoperatively at intervals of a week. Was also assessed anxiety during dental treatment and reported prior traumatic event. HRV was obtained after processing of RR intervals recorded with the frequency meter Polar RS800. The variables analyzed were in the time domain (SDNN and rMSSD) and frequency (LF / HF ratio). Concomitantly were measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic (DBP), Medium (PAM), HR and electrocardiographic variables. In this sample of healthy volunteers, anxiety during dental treatment and previous traumatic experiences were not correlated to the intensity of postoperative pain. No changes were observed in SBP, DBP, MAP, HR, nor relevant electrocardiographic changes along the surgical stages. Regarding to HRV, the SDNN decreased between the baseline phase and phase anesthesia. Gender, age, anxiety, and passive smoking didnt determine different behaviors in studied variables. The present study demonstrated feasibility of including the study of HRV in clinical protocols for assessing the behavior of the cardiovascular system in dental procedures. The study of HRV by pulse frequency meters, instruments low cost, wide availability and easy handling, it may lend itself as a useful tool in studies of cardiovascular safety of new drugs and procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Anxiety/diagnosis , Blood Pressure , Molar, Third/surgery , Tooth Extraction/methods , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
11.
Lima; s.n; 2013. 70 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-724550

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar los efectos deletéreos de los ácidos grasas constituyentes del aceite y/o grasa denominada comercialmente "Light" sobre el perfil lipídico y tejido cardiovascular de ratas albinas sometidas a dietas con requerimientos normales durante 45 días de experimentación. MATERIAL y METODOS: Se trabajó con 30 ratas machos de 21 días de edad, de raza Wistar, distribuidas en tres grupos. Se les proporcionó dietas con energía y proteínas de acuerdo a sus requerimientos durante 45 días. El primer grupo recibió como fuente de ácidos grasas los provenientes de Aceite Vegetal de Cocina (dieta A), el segundo grupo Aceite Vegetal de Cocina denominada "Light" (dieta B) y el tercer grupo Margarina Vegetal denominada "Light" (dieta C). RESULTADOS: Se registró un incremento de peso en los tres grupos y hubo diferencias significativas en la composición corporal (p<0.05) en el grupo alimentado con Margarina Vegetal "Light" (dieta C) comparados con los otros dos grupos (dietas A y B). En los animales alimentados con ácidos grasas constituyentes de la Margarina "Light" (Dieta C) se encontró histológicamente en las fibras musculares una reducción de los paquetes musculares en relación con los otros grupos de Animales, presentando significancia estadística (p<0.01), de igual forma se presentó Disminución de la capa media (compuesta de músculo liso) y luz de la arteria con significancia estadística (p<0.01). En relación a los componentes del perfil lipídico, en los animales alimentados con la dieta A (Colesterol Total, Triglicéridos, Colesterol HDL, Colesterol LDL y Colesterol VLDL), también se presentaron cambios con significancia estadística (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONES: Ratas alimentadas con dietas que incluían ácidos grasas provenientes de la grasa tipo Margarina Vegetal "Light" (Dieta C), presentaron trastornos en la composición corporal, variaciones en el perfil lipídico, con discreto foco degenerativo y reducción del paquete muscular cardíaco.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the deleterious effect of fatty acids included in commercially called 'Light' oil and/or fats upon the lipid profile and cardiovascular tissue in albino rats who received diet complying with the normal requirement during 45 days. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out the trial in 30 male Wistar rats aged 21 days old. The animals were divided in three groups. They received a diet complying with energy and protein requirements during 45 days. The first group received vegetable cooking oil (diet A) as a source of fatty acids, the second group received 'Light' cooking vegetable oil (diet B), and the third group received 'Light' vegetable margarine (diet C). RESULTS: Weight gain was observed in the three groups, and there were significant differences in the body composition (p<0.05) in the group of animals receiving 'Light' vegetable margarine (diet C), compared with the other two groups (diets A and B).Histological studies in the animals that received fatty acids included in 'Light' margarine (diet C) there was a reduction in muscle bundles compared to the other groups, with statistical significance (p<0.01), and also there was a reduction in the media layer (with smooth muscle) and in the arterial lumen, also with statistical significance (p<0.01). With respect to the lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-LDL-, and VLDL-cholesterol), the animals that received diet A also had statistically significant changes (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Rats fed with diets containing fatty acids derived from 'Light' vegetable margarine (diet C) had changes in their body composition, in the lipid profile, and mild degenerative changes and a reduction in cardiac muscle mass.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Food, Formulated , Animal Experimentation , Tissue Extracts , Lipids/analysis , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Fat Substitutes , Epidemiology, Experimental , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 27(12): 481-486, dez. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-472999

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de estabelecer valores de medidas ecocardiográficas em bezerros da raça Holandesa, utilizaram-se 25 animais, com idade entre 8 e 28 dias e peso entre 27 e 57 kg. Procedeu-se o exame ecocardiográfico em modo-B e modo-M para a obtenção dos valores médios dos seguintes parâmetros, em diástole e sístole, respectivamente: diâmetros internos dos ventrículos direito (2,05±0,13cm e 1,59±0,13cm) e esquerdo (3,91±0,09cm e 2,52±0,13cm), espessuras do septo interventricular (1,24±0,04cm e 1,62±0,06cm) e da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo (0,92±0,04cm e 1,50±0,05cm). Obtiveram-se ainda valores do diâmetro dos átrios direito e esquerdo em sístole (2,97±0,12cm e 4,11±0,21cm, respectivamente), dos volumes diastólico (67,90±3,65ml), sistólico (25,32±3,05ml) e de ejeção (42,58±2,46ml) do ventrículo esquerdo, do débito cardíaco (3857±339ml/min), do diâmetro aórtico (2,52±0,05cm), da distância entre o ponto de maior abertura do folheto anterior da valva atrioventricular esquerda até o septo interventricular (0,65±0,08cm) e tempo de ejeção (0,39±0,02s), das frações de encurtamento (36,27±2,40 por cento) e de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (64,67±3,22 por cento). Houve média correlação linear positiva (66,4 por cento, P<0,01) entre diâmetro aórtico e peso dos animais, média correlação linear negativa (P<0,01) entre tempo de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e freqüência cardíaca (69,1 por cento) e com o débito cardíaco (62,4 por cento). Observou-se uma tendência dos bezerros em apresentar menor diâmetro da câmara cardíaca esquerda, apesar de mantidas as relações de espessura de parede e índices funcionais do miocárdio.


With the purpose of establishing echocardiographic measurements in Holstein calves, 25 calves, 8 to 28 days of age and body weight ranging from 27 to 57 kg, were used. The echocardiographic examination was proceeded in B and M-modes to obtain the following parameters, in diastole and systole: right ventricle (2.05±0.13cm and 1.59±0.13cm) and left ventricle internal diameter (3.91±0.09cm and 2.52±0.13cm), and interventricular septum (1.24±0.04cm and 1.62±0.06cm) and left ventricle free wall thickness (0.92±0.04cm and 1.50±0.05cm). The values for both left and right atria in systole were 2.97±0.12cm and 4.110.21cm, respectively. The left diastolic (67.90±3.65ml), systolic (25.32±3.05ml) and ejection (42.58±2.46ml) volumes, cardiac output (3857±339ml/min), aortic root diameter (2.52±0.05cm), E-point septal separation (0.65±0.08cm), left ventricle ejection time (0.39±0.02s), fractional shortening (36.27±2.40 percent) and ejection fraction (64.67±3.22 percent) were also calculated. There was a mean positive linear correlation (66.4 percent, P<0.01) between the aortic root diameter and the bodyweight, mean negative linear correlation (P<0.01) heart rate (69.1 percent) and cardiac output (62.4 percent). There was a tendency of the calves in between the left ventricle ejection time and presenting a smaller left chamber diameter, although maintained the relationship between myocardial wall thickness and functional indexes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the vascular pattern of proximal fibula with use of embalmed cadaveric specimens. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present study was done on 33 lower extremities from 19 embalmed human, adult cadavers. The average ages of the cadavers were 68.6 years (range from 36 to 98 years), 11 females and 8 males. The size and site of vessels around the proximal fibula were recorded. RESULTS: There were three main blood supplies of proximal fibular the epiphyseal artery, the lateral genicular artery, and the periosteal blood supply. They are anterior tibial recurrent artery and posterior tibial artery or artery of the neck of fibula posteriorly. Inferior lateral genicular artery was seen in all specimens (33/33). Among them, 42.4% (14/33) had a single artery with double accompanied veins. The average diameter of artery and veins were 1.71 mm (0.75-2.25), and 1.69 mm (1.30-2.10), respectively. The others were single artery and single vein. The average diameter ofartery and veins were 1.66 mm (0.65-2.14), and 2. 1 mm (0. 95-2.30) respectively. Anterior tibial recurrent artery was seen in 31 of 33 specimens (94%). The average size of artery and accompanying vein were 1.24 mm (0.8-2.1), and 1.86 mm (0.8-2.6), respectively. Posterior tibial recurrent artery was an inconsistent branch that appeared in only 11 of 33 specimens (33%). Artery of the neck of fibula appeared in 24 of 33 specimens (72.7%). The others were replaced by the predominant posterior tibial recurrent artery (7/33) and neither of them was found in two specimens. CONCLUSION: Based on the present results, the authors recommend preserving the epiphyseal blood supply, the inferior lateral genicular artery, and the periosteal blood supply for free epiphyseal transfer In addition, surgeons should pay attention to the variation of posterior periosteal blood supply because its variations will affect the viability percentage of proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Dissection , Female , Fibula/anatomy & histology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects
14.
Fisioter. Bras ; 7(2): 109-112, mar.-abr. 2006.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-491126

ABSTRACT

O esforço físico crônico e conhecido por induzir uma serie de adaptações morfo-funcionais no sistema cardiovascular. As alterações funcionais podem ser observadas através do tempo médio de realização de um determinado protocolo de esforço físico com intensidade e duração pré-definidas ou não, como o de esforço físico exaustivo a 6% de sobrecarga corporal que foi utilizado neste estudo para avaliação funcional. Alem das alterações funcionais, modificações anatômicas cardíacas como um aumento na massa ventricular, podem ser observadas, dependendo dos padrões de intensidade, duração e freqüência do esforço físico crônico. Para analisar-se estas referidas alterações adaptativas, o esforço físico realizado em água por ratos e um bom modelo experimental. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de se analisar as possíveis respostas adaptativas decorrentes do esforço físico crônico breve, por quatro semanas, sob diferentes intensidades máximas, relativas as sobrecargas corpórea de 2%, 4% e 6%. Na analise morfométrica não houve alteração morfológica significativa em nenhum dos grupos estudados. Os resultados obtidos em função do esforço físico exaustivo indicaram um perfil adaptativo funcional do sistema cardiovascular significativo dos animais submetidos ao esforço físico crônico com sobrecarga máxima de 6 %.


Chronic physical effort is known for inducing a serie of morphofunctional adaptations at the cardiovascular system. The functional alterations can be observed through the average realization time of a determined physical effort protocol with pre-defined, or not, intensity and duration, with tone of exhaustive physical effort at 6% of body overcharge, which was used in this study for functional evaluation. Besides the functional alterations, heart anatomic alterations like increase of ventricular muscle mass, we can observe, depending on the intensity, duration and frequency patterns of chronic physical effort. The physical effort made by rats inside the water is a good experimental model to analyze these adaptive alterations. This study was realized with the intention of analyzing the possible adaptive answers resulting from brief chronic physical effort, for four weeks, under different maximum intensities, related to body overcharges of 2%, 4% and 6%. At the morphometric analysis there was no significant alteration in any of the studied groups. The results obtained due to the exhaustive physical effort indicated a significant adaptive functional profile of the cardiovascular system in animals submitted to chronic physical effort with maximum overload of 6%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Physical Exertion/physiology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar
16.
In. Timerman, Ari; Machado César, Luiz Antonio; Ferreira, Joäo Fernando Monteiro; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara. Manual de Cardiologia: SOCESP. Säo Paulo, Atheneu, 2000. p.1-5, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-265371
17.
In. Mendez, José Gregorio; Cabello Escobar, Sonia; Rojas, Mery; Labory, Evelyn; Davila, Egleé. Semiología pediátrica en recién nacidos y lactantes. Caracas, Tipografía Principios, 6 dic. 1998. p.87-100, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-256804

ABSTRACT

Debemos destacar las características anatómicas del sistema cardiovascular del RN y del lactante lo que hace que el examen cardiovascular en este grupo de edades presenten ciertas variaciones. 1. Presentan cuello corto por lo que el estudio de arterias y venas es difícil. 2. Tórax de paredes delgadas por lo que los ruidos cardíacos son más intensos. 3. El gran tamaño del Timo en este grupo de edades debe tenerse en cuenta para la interpretación de la Rx de Tórax. 4. Presenta horizontalidad del corazón producto de la posición más elevada del diafragma. 5. Hipertrofia fisiológica del ventrículo derecho por lo que la relación ventrículo derecho/ventrículo izquierdo es de 1,3:1


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Physical Examination/methods , Infant, Newborn/physiology
19.
Arch. venez. farmacol. ter ; 15(1): 36-41, 1996. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-217647

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar el efecto de D-carnitina (D-car) sobre mioblastos cardíacos en cultivo primario. Los mioblastos fueron obtenidos a partir de explantes de corazón de embrión de pollo de 5 días de desarrollo y cultivados en gota pendiente. D-car fue disuelta en solución Tyrode en tres distintas concentraciones 0,001M; 0,01M y 0,1M. Luego de 1 hora de interacción entre los mioblastos cardíacos y las respectivas concentraciones del inhibidor se observa el estrechamiento del citoplasma con una reducción sustancial del área de superficie celular media de estas células; efecto que disminuye al ser removido el inhibidor. A nivel ultraestructural resalta la presencia de gotas de lípidos y la carencia de glucógeno en estas células tratadas con D-carnitina, así como vacuolas ubicadas en la periferia y zonas adyacentes a la membrana plasmática. Estos resultados sugieren características particulares del mecanismo de acción de D-car como son: dependencia de la concentración y reversibilidad y por otra parte la activación de un "switch" con el cual los mioblastomas cardíacos pasan de una situación consumo preferencial de ácidos grasos y reserva del glucógeno, hacia otra en la cual se promueva la movilización de dicha reserva. Esta situación podría definir una condición de stress metabólico en donde los mioblastos responden con alteraciones en la ultraestructura normal de los mismos. Se concluye que el seleccionar D-carnitina para estudiar alteraciones morfológicas en sistemas in vitro permite entender la respuesta morfológica que comprende el patrón normal de estructuración del tejido cardíaco embrionario


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology , Carnitine/adverse effects , Cells , Chickens , Stress, Physiological/complications
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