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1.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7974, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La caries dental es la enfermedad bucal más prevalente en Ecuador. En nuestro país no existen estudios que hayan considerado a la población de las Islas Galápagos. La aplicación de flúor sobre lesiones incipientes de caries dental ha demostrado efectividad para evitar ejecutar procedimientos invasivos restauradores. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo del Estudio de Salud Oral Galápagos, EESO-Gal, es determinar la prevalencia e incidencia de caries dental y evaluar el efecto de la acción del cepillado dental supervisado, acompañado de aplicaciones periódicas de flúor en barniz sobre lesiones cariosas incipientes en escolares de las Islas Galápagos. Con este informe se busca reportar el protocolo del Estudio de Salud Oral Galápagos. MÉTODOS: Se plantea realizar una cohorte con los escolares de las Islas Galápagos para determinar la prevalencia e incidencia de caries con evaluaciones cada seis meses durante veinticuatro meses. RESULTADOS: Se espera determinar la prevalencia e incidencia de caries cada seis meses durante veinticuatro meses en escolares de tres a diez años y obtener datos que permitan evidenciar el estado de las condiciones de caries en los escolares de Galápagos con la inclusión del cepillado diario en la escuela, supervisado por el docente, y con la aplicación semestral del barniz de flúor. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de caries dental e incidencia después de las acciones tomadas demostrará la importancia de aplicar acciones de prevención y promoción de la salud oral, para crear hábitos de higiene y salud desde edades tempranas.


INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in Ecuador. In our country, there are no studies that have included the population of the Galapagos Islands. Fluoride application to incipient lesions of dental caries has shown to be effective in avoiding the use of invasive restorative procedures. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the EESO-Gal study is to determine the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and to evaluate the effect of supervised dental brushing, accompanied by periodic applications of fluoride varnish on incipient precarious lesions of schoolchildren in the Galapagos Islands. This article presents the protocol of the EESO-Gal study. METHODS: A cohort is planned with Galapagos Islands schoolchildren to determine the prevalence and incidence of dental caries, with assessments every six months, during twenty-four months. RESULTS: We expect to determine the prevalence and incidence of caries every six months, for twenty-four months, in schoolchildren between three and ten years of age, and obtain data to show the state of the caries conditions in Galapagos schoolchildren, with the inclusion of daily brushing at school, supervised by the teacher, and with the application of fluoride varnish every six months. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries and incidence after the program will demonstrate the importance of implementing oral health prevention and promotion actions to create hygiene and health habits from an early age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Oral Hygiene , Toothbrushing/methods , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/epidemiology , School Health Services , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Oral Health , Incidence , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology
2.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8003, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122677

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las lesiones de caries cavitadas en dentición primaria y mixta requieren un tratamiento oportuno, para evitar así la progresión de la caries. El fluoruro diamino de plata ha surgido como una alternativa a la técnica de restauración atraumática debido a su fácil aplicación. Sin embargo, aún existe incertidumbre en relación a su efectividad y seguridad. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos diez revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron dos estudios primarios, ambos ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que el fluoruro diamino de plata en comparación a la técnica de restauración atraumática podría aumentar el arresto de caries en dentición primaria y mixta primera fase, pero la certeza de la evidencia ha sido evaluada como baja. Por otra parte, el tratamiento con fluoruro diamino de plata comparado con la técnica de restauración atraumática (ART) probablemente aumenta el riesgo de eventos adversos


INTRODUCTION: Cavitated carious lesions in primary and mixed dentition require prompt treatment to control caries progression. Silver diamine fluoride has emerged as an alternative to the atraumatic restorative technique due to its easy application. However, there is still uncertainty regarding its effectiveness and safety. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a metanalysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified ten systematic reviews, including two studies overall, which are randomized trials. We concluded that silver diamine fluoride compared to the atraumatic restorative technique may increase the arrest of caries in primary and mixed first phase dentition, however, the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as low. On the other hand, treatment with silver diamine fluoride compared to the atraumatic restorative technique (ART) probably increases the risk of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Silver Compounds/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Fluorides, Topical/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Silver Compounds/adverse effects , Dentition, Mixed , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/adverse effects
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 46-50, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990063

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: One of the most effective and studied measures in the prevention of caries is the use of fluoride, which has the property to reduce their incidence and severity. In Chile, 75 % of the population receives it the drinking water. In 1984, WHO recommended the use of milk as an alternative vehicle. In Chile, the Fluoridated School Feeding Program (FSFP) was introduced in 1994, using this alternative in rural areas without fluoride in water. The objective of the study was to compare prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis in 8-year-old children of four state schools: two with fluoride supplementation in drinking water or milk and two without any fluoride program. Epidemiological, descriptive, comparative, observational and cross-sectional study with a sample of 140 8-year-old children, with no systemic diseases and who had lived in the same place since birth: 50 schoolchildren from an area with fluoridated water; 40 from an area with fluoridated milk and 50 from a zone without supplementation of F. The percentage of caries-free children was obtained with the methodology described by the WHO, for severity the dmft and DMFT indexes were used. To quantify the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis, Dean Index was used. 38 % of the children were caries-free in the community with fluoridated water (CFW); 0 % in the community with fluoridated milk (FSFP) and 10 % in the community with no fluoride program established (CNF). The difference between CFW with CNF is statistically significant (p<0.05). The prevalence of fluorosis is significantly higher for CFW (48.8 %) than FSFP (35 %) and CNF (16 %). Conclusion: The contribution of fluoride in drinking water causes a decrease in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in children of 8 years of age, and an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis.


RESUMEN: Una de las medidas más efectivas y estudiadas en la prevención de caries es el uso de fluoruros, que tiene la propiedad de reducir su incidencia y severidad. 75 % de la población chilena lo recibe al incluirlo en el agua potable. La OMS en 1984 recomendó el uso de leche como un vehículo alternativo. En Chile, el Programa de Alimentación Escolar con leche fluorada fue implementado en 1994 como alternativa en zonas rurales sin fluoruro en el agua. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la caries dental y la fluorosis dental en niños de 8 años en tres escuelas públicas, con suplementación de fluoruro en el agua potable o en la leche y con aquella que no tiene ningún programa de fluoración. Estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, comparativo, observacional y de corte transversal con una muestra de 140 niños de 8 años, sin enfermedades sistémicas y que han vivido en el mismo lugar desde su nacimiento: 50 escolares en el área con agua fluorada, 40 en el área con leche fluorada y 50 en la zona sin suplementación de fluoruro. El porcentaje de niños libres de caries fue obtenido con la metodología descrita por la OMS, usando índices ceo-d y CPO-D para evaluar severidad. Para cuantificar la prevalencia y severidad de la fluorosis dental se ocupó el índice de Dean. Niños libres de caries fueron 38 % en la comunidad con agua fluorada (CWF); 0 % en la comunidad con leche fluorada (FSFP) y 10 % en la comunidad sin programa de fluoración (CNF). La diferencia entre CWF y CNF es estadísticamente significativa (p<0,05). La prevalencia de fluorosis es significativamente mayor en CWF (48,8 %) que FSFP (35 %) y CNF (16 %). La contribución del fluoruro en el agua potable causa una disminución en la prevalencia y severidad de la caries dental en niños de 8 años, y un aumento en la prevalencia de fluorosis dental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Chile/epidemiology , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/pathology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/pathology , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(4): 1045-1054, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952637

ABSTRACT

Resumo Há uma preocupação com o aumento da prevalência de fluorose dentária, que depende da dose de fluoreto (F) a que as crianças são submetidas durante a formação dos dentes. A temperatura ambiental afeta a ingestão de água e, portanto, seria importante avaliar se as crianças que vivem em uma região de clima semiárido estão expostas a uma dose excessiva de F. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose total de F a que as crianças são expostas durante a idade crítica para a fluorose dentária, tendo dieta (água e alimentos) e dentifrício como fontes de F, em uma região de clima semiárido no Brasil. Metodologia: foram selecionadas 26 crianças com idade de 25,2 ± 9,1 meses, residentes em Feira de Santana-BA. Foram coletadas amostras de dieta-duplicada, água, produtos de escovação e dentifrícios. A concentração de F foi determinada após o devido preparo das amostras, utilizando um eletrodo específico. Resultados: a média e o desvio padrão de dose (mg F / kg / dia) em função da dieta, dentifrício e total foram, respectivamente: 0,016 ± 0,010; 0,030 ± 0,039 e 0,047 ± 0,043. Conclusões: as crianças avaliadas, residentes em uma região de clima semiárido, não estão expostas a uma dose de risco de fluorose dentária.


Abstract There is a concern about the increasing prevalence of dental fluorosis, which depends on the dose of fluoride (F) to which children are subjected during tooth formation. Environmental temperature affects water intake and therefore it would be important to assess whether children living in the semiarid region are exposed to an excessive dose of F. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the total dose of F to which children are exposed during the critical age for dental fluorosis, with diet (water and food) and toothpaste as F sources, in the semiarid region of Brazil. Methodology: 26 children aged 25.2 ± 9.1 months, residents in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia (with F in the public water supply) were selected. Duplicate-diet, water, products from toothbrushing and toothpaste samples were collected. F concentration was determined using an ion-specific electrode, after proper sample preparation. Results: the mean and standard deviation of dose (mg F/kg/day) from diet, toothpaste and total were respectively: 0.016 ± 0.010; 0.030 ± 0.039 and 0.047 ± 0.043. Conclusions: the children evaluated living in the semiarid region are not exposed to a risk dose for dental fluorosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Toothpastes/chemistry , Drinking , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Temperature , Toothbrushing , Water Supply , Brazil/epidemiology , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Diet
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e26, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889486

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Data about total fluoride intake in children living in a tropical semi-arid climate city is scarce, thus we conducted this study. Fifty-eight children aged two to five years, living in a Brazilian tropical city with optimally fluoridated water were selected. Dietary samples were collected using the duplicate diet method on two non-consecutive days in the children's home toothpaste was determined by subtracting the amount of fluoride recovered after brushing from the amount placed on the toothbrush. The mean total dose (SD) of fluoride intake was 0.043(0.016) mg F·kg-1·d-1, with the major (60.6%) contribution from water. The factors associated with the ingestion of fluoride from toothpaste were fluoride concentration of the toothpaste (p = 0.03) and the use of kids toothpaste (p = 0.02). The findings suggest that children have a low fluoride intake, measured by at-home meals and use of fluoride toothpaste; drinking water is the main source of fluoride ingestion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Toothpastes/chemistry , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Diet , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Toothbrushing/methods , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluoridation , Risk Factors , Fluorides/analysis
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(6): 604-611, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893671

ABSTRACT

Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complexes are anticariogenic and capable of remineralizing the early stages of enamel lesions. The use of fluoride prevents dental decay and the association of CPP-ACP with fluoride can increase remineralization. Objective: To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF creams associated with a fluoride dentifrice to prevent enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic model. Material and Methods: Previously selected by surface microhardness (SH) analysis, human enamel blocks (n = 56) were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrice in a pH-cycling model. The enamel blocks were divided into four groups; G1: Crest™ Cavity Protection - Procter & Gamble (1,100 ppmF of NaF); G2: Crest™ +MI Paste (MP) - Recaldent™ GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan); G3: Crest™ + MI Paste Plus (MPP) - Recaldent™ 900 ppm as NaF, GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan), and G4: control, saliva. Specimens were soaked alternatively in a demineralizing solution and in artificial saliva for 5 d. The fluoride dentifrice, with proportion of 1:3 (w/w), was applied three times for 60 s after the remineralization period. The undiluted MP and MPP creams were applied for 3 m/d. After cycling, SH was re-measured and cross section microhardness measurements were taken. Results: The SH values observed for the groups G3 (257±70), G1 (205±70), and G2 (208±84) differed from the G4 group (98±110) (one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test). There were no differences between the groups G1xG2, G2xG3, and G1xG3 for demineralization inhibition. The percentage of volume mineral showed that, when applied with fluoride dentifrice, MPP was the most effective in preventing enamel demineralization at 50 µ from the outer enamel surface (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney p<0.05). Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrice associated with CPP-ACPF inhibited subsurface enamel demineralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Caseins/administration & dosage , Tooth Demineralization/drug therapy , Toothpastes , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
7.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 31(71): 43-50, jul.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869420

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la cantidad de fluoruro (F) residual en saliva después de la aplicación de barniz de fluoruro desodio al 5 por ciento y de barniz fluorado con fosfato tricálcico al 5 por ciento en niños de 2 a 5 años de edad. Se recolectó la saliva no estimulada de 24 niños que tenían acceso a sal fluorada diariamente y utilizaban dentífricos infantiles conteniendo 550 ppm F. La primera toma de muestrasalival fue colectada como basal y las siguientes fueron tomadas en diferentes intervalos de tiempo luego de realizar la aplicación del barnizfluorado (15; 30; 60 minutos y 24; 48; 72; 96; 168 horas). Un total de 216 muestras fueron obtenidas, siendo 96 muestras de barniz de Duraphat®, 96 muestras de barniz de ClinproTM WV y 24 muestras muestras basales. Los análisis de laboratorio fueron realizadosen el departamento de Bioquímica de la Facultad de Odontología de Baurú (FOB), Universidad de Sao Paulo. Un electrodo Orión 9409 y un microelectrodo acoplados a un potenciómetro Orion EA 940 se utilizaron para analizar las muestras previa difusión de las muestrascon el método de Taves. La concentración de iones de flúor mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos productos desde las 24 horas (p<0.001), esta característica se repite a las 48 (p=0.003); 96 (p<0.001) y 168 horas (p<0.001). Se utilizó el análisisestadístico de Shapiro Wilks y T de Student. Ambos barnices mostraron un incremento de fluoruro residual en saliva durante los 15; 30 y 60 minutos, sin embargo, posteriormente a estos tiempos, ambos muestran niveles no significativamente diferentes al basal.


The aim of this study was compared the amount of residual fluoride after application of sodium fluoride varnish 5% and application offluoride varnish with phosphate tricalcium 5% in children from 2 to 5 years old. Unstimulated saliva was collected of 24 children who hadaccess to fluoridate salt daily and used children´s tooth pastes containing 550ppm F. The first salivary sample was collected as a base lineand the following were taken at different intervals after making the application of fluoride varnish (15; 30; 60 minutes; 24; 48; 72; 96;168 hours).Children were grouped in two groups according of type of varnish containing fluoride going to be applied. A total of 216samples were obtained, 96 samples from Duraphat® and 96 samples from ClinproTM WV 3M ESPE. The lab analyzes wereconducted in the Department of Biochemistry at the Faculty of Dentistry, Bauru (FOB), University of Sao Paulo. An Orion 9409electrode and a microelectrode coupled to a potentiometer Orion EA 940 analyzed the samples prior dissemination of samples with themethod of work. The fluoride concentration was statistically significant after 24 (p<0.001); 48 (p=0.003); 96 (p<0.001) y 168 hours(p<0.001) for both products. We used Shapiro Wilks and T student test for statistical analysis. Both products showed an increased inresidual fluoride in saliva during the 15; 30 and 60 minutes, however, both showed not differences that baseline levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Fluorides, Topical/analysis , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Saliva/chemistry , Brazil , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/classification , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Fluorides, Topical/metabolism , Data Interpretation, Statistical
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(6): 562-570, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-769813

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this randomized, cross-over, in situ study was to determine the remineralization of demineralized dentin specimens after the application of a 10% fluoride (F-) or a 1% chlorhexidine–1% thymol (CHX–thymol) varnish. Material and Methods Twelve individuals without current caries activity wore removable appliances in the lower jaw for a period of four weeks. Each appliance contained four human demineralized dentin specimens fixed on the buccal aspects. The dentin specimens were obtained from the cervical regions of extracted human third molars. After demineralization, half the surface of each specimen was covered with a nail varnish to serve as the reference surface. The dentin specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: F-, CHX–thymol, and control (no treatment). Before the first treatment period and between the others, there were washout periods of one week. After each treatment phase, the changes in mineral content (vol% µm) and the lesion depths (µm) of the dentin slabs were determined by transverse microradiography (TMR). Data analysis was accomplished by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Results The medians (25th/75th percentile) of integrated mineral loss were 312.70 (203.0-628.7) for chlorhexidine varnish, 309.5 (109.8-665.8) for fluoride varnish, and -346.9 (-128.7 - -596.0) for the control group. The medians (25th/75th percentile) of lesion depth were 13.6 (5.7-34.5) for chlorhexidine varnish, 16.5 (5.6-38.1) for fluoride varnish, and -14.2 (-4.5- -32.9) for the control group. Use of the 10% F- or 1% CHX–1% thymol varnishes resulted in significantly decreased mineral loss and lesion depth in dentin when compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences among the test groups. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the effect of the treatment of demineralized dentin with 10% F- or 1% CHX–1% thymol is better than without any treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Dentin/drug effects , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Thymol/administration & dosage , Tooth Demineralization/drug therapy , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Drug Combinations , Microradiography , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Braz. oral res ; 28(spe): 1-5, 14/01/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704641

ABSTRACT

The anticaries effect of fluoride (F) toothpaste containing 1100 µg F/g in reducing enamel demineralization is well established, but its effect on dentine has not been extensively studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that toothpaste containing a high F concentration is necessary to remineralize root dentine lesions, suggesting that a 1100 µg F/g concentration might not be high enough to reduce root dentine demineralization, particularly when dentine is subjected to a high cariogenic challenge. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate in situ the effect of F toothpaste, at a concentration of 1100 µg F/g, on dentine demineralization. In a crossover and double-blind study, conducted in two phases of 14 days, six volunteers wore a palatal appliance containing four slabs of bovine root dentine whose surface hardness (SH) was previously determined and to which a 10% sucrose solution was applied extra-orally 8×/day. Volunteers used a non-F toothpaste (negative control) or F toothpaste (1100 µg F/g, NaF/SiO2) three times a day. On the 10th and 14th days of each phase, two slabs were collected and SH was determined again. Dentine demineralization was assessed as percentage of SH loss (%SHL). The effect of toothpaste was significant, showing lower %SHL for the F toothpaste group (42.0 ± 9.7) compared to the non-F group (62.0 ± 6.4; p < 0.0001), but the effect of time was not significant (p > 0.05). This pilot study suggests that F toothpaste at 1100 µg F/g is able to decrease dentine caries even under a high cariogenic challenge of biofilm accumulation and sugar exposure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Tooth Demineralization/drug therapy , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Over Studies , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Tooth Root/drug effects
11.
Braz. oral res ; 28(spe): 1-7, 14/01/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704644

ABSTRACT

Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Dentistry , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/adverse effects , Fluorides/adverse effects , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology
12.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 2(3): 158-166, dic. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727904

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a natural non-caloric sweetener, withmore sweetness than sucrose, without adverse effects, which has demonstrated to have multiples benefits to the systemic health and recently to the oral health. This review’s objective is to describe anti-cariogenic and anti-periodontophatics properties of its extracts. Results: Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the most important glycosides of the Stevia and none is cariogenic. In vitro researches have shown that Stevia extracts have anti-bacterial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus acidophilus, organisms that are closely related to the production and development of tooth decay. In vivo and in vitro it has been observed that the production of bacterial acids decrease attributing it a low acidogenic potential and a lesser effect of the demineralization of the enamel in comparison with others sweeteners. Furthermore, in vivo it has been proved an anti-plaque effect mainly due to a decrease in the production of bacterial insoluble polymers. These characteristics in combination with antiinflammatory properties could result potentially effective in the treatment of periodontal diseases in significant numbers, as it has been observed in studies conducted in animals. Conclusion: Stevia presents properties that potentially are anti-caries and anti periodontal diseases. However, in vivo studies are necessary to confirm these assumptions and provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms of action of this plant and the components involved. Notwithstanding, with the existing background, this sweetener can be postulated as a potential therapeutic complement in the odontological care, especially in patients that present base conditions such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure.


Introducción: Stevia rebaudiana bertoni es un edulcorante natural no calórico, con mayor dulzor que la sacarosa, sin efectos adversos, que ha demostrado tener múltiples beneficiosos para la salud sistémica y recientemente para la salud oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir propiedades anticariogénicas y antiperiodontopáticas de sus extractos. Resultados: Esteviósido y rebaudiósido A son los glicósidos más importantes de Stevia y ninguno es cariogénico. Estudios in vitro han demostrado que extractos de Stevia presentan actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus y Lactobacillus acidophillus, organismos estrechamente relacionados en la producción y desarrollo de caries. In vivo e in vitro se ha observado que disminuye la producción de ácidos bacterianos atribuyéndosele un bajo potencial acidogénico y un menor efecto de desmineralización del esmalte en comparación con otros edulcorantes. Además, in vivo se ha comprobado un efecto antiplaca principalmente debido a una disminución en la producción de polímeros insolubles bacterianos. Estas características, más sus propiedades antiinflamatorias y cicatrizantes, podrían resultar potencialmente efectivas en el tratamiento de enfermedades periodontales en cifras significativas, como se ha observado en estudios desarrollados en animales. Conclusión: Stevia presenta propiedades potencialmente anti-caries y anti-enfermedades periodontales. Sin embargo, son necesarios estudios in vivo que confirmen estos postulados y proporcionen una mayor comprensión de sus mecanismos de acción y de los componentes que intervienen. No obstante, con los antecedentes existentes, se puede postular a este edulcorante como un potencial complemento terapéutico en la atención odontológica, sobre todo en pacientes que presentan condiciones de base como obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/therapy , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Sweetening Agents/administration & dosage , Periodontitis/therapy , Stevia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Periodontium
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 235-240, May-Jun/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681875

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) with and without fluoride (F) on the concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and F in hydroxyapatite (HA). Synthetic HA powder (0.15 g) was suspended (n=6) in solutions (75 mL) of TMP at 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, 6.0%, 8.0% and 10% concentrations in the presence and absence of 100 ppm F and subjected to a pH-cycling process. The precipitates were filtrated, dried at 70° C for 24 h and ground onto a fine powder. The concentrations of F (KOH (CaF2) and HCl (FA) soluble), Ca (Arsenazo III), and P (molybdate method) in HA were determined. The Ca P, and Ca/P ratio data were subjected to Tukey's test and the F data were subjected to Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). The addition of TMP to the samples reduced F deposition to 98% (p<0.001). The groups containing 100 ppm F and 0.4% or 0.6% TMP exhibited a higher Ca concentration than the group containing only 100 ppm F (p<0.05). Furthermore, the HA treated with 0.2% and 0.4% TMP and 100 ppm F showed a higher Ca/P ratio than the other groups (p<0.001). In conclusion, TMP at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations combined with F seemed to be able to precipitate HA with low solubility. However, especially at high concentrations, TMP interferes with F deposition on HA.


Este estudo avaliou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) com e sem fluoreto (F) nas concentrações de cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P) e F na hidroxiapatita (HA). Pó de HA sintético (0,15 g) foi suspenso (n=6) em soluções (75 mL) de TMP com concentrações de 0%, 0,1%, 0,2%, 0,4%, 0,6%, 0,8%, 1,0%, 2,0%, 4,0%, 6,0%, 8,0% e 10% na presença ou na ausência de 100 ppm F e foram submetidas ao processo de ciclagem de pH. O precipitado foi filtrado seco a 70°C por 24 h e triturado em um pó fino. As concentrações de F (solúvel em KOH: CaF2, e em HCl: FA), Ca (Arsenazo III) e P (método do molibdato) foram determinadas na HA. Os dados de Ca, P e de proporção Ca/P foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey e os dados de F ao teste Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). A adição de TMP reduziu a deposição de F em 98% (p<0,001). Os grupos contendo 100 ppm F e TMP 0,4% e 0,6% apresentaram maiores concentrações de Ca do que o grupo contendo somente 100 ppm F (p<0,05). Além disso, a HA tratada com 0,2% e 0,4% de TMP e 100 ppm F apresentou maiores proporções Ca/P em relação aos demais grupos (p<0,001). Em conclusão, TMP nas concentrações de 0,2%, 0,4% e 0,6% quando associado ao F é capaz de precipitar uma HA com menor solubilidade. Entretanto, especialmente em altas concentrações, TMP interfere com a deposição de F na HA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Durapatite/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Chemical Precipitation , Crystallization , Calcium/analysis , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Durapatite/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorides/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Phosphorus/analysis , Polyphosphates/administration & dosage , Solubility , Temperature , Time Factors
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 253-257, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681877

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 µgF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 µgF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 µgF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%∆Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %∆Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p<0.05). The mineral gain (%SH and %∆Z) was higher for toothpastes diluted in saliva (p<0.05), except for the 450 µgF/g dentifrice with Cacit/TMP (p>0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito de um dentifrício com reduzida concentração de fluoreto (450 µgF/g, NaF) associado ao citrato de cálcio (Cacit) e trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) na remineralização do esmalte. Blocos de esmalte bovino tiveram sua superfície de esmalte polida seqüencialmente para determinação da dureza de superfície. Após o desenvolvimento de lesões artificiais de cárie, os blocos selecionados através da dureza de superfície foram submetidos a ciclagem de remineralização e tratamento diário com suspensões de dentifrícios (diluição em água deionizada ou saliva artificial): placebo, 275, 450, 550 e 1.100 µgF/g e com dentifrício comercial (controle positivo, 1.100 µgF/g). Ao término, determinou-se a dureza de superfície e em secção longitudinal, para cálculo da variação da dureza de superfície (%SH) e do conteúdo mineral (%∆Z). O fluoreto presente no esmalte também foi determinado. Os dados de %SH, %∆Z e fluoreto foram submetidos a análise de variância a dois critérios seguido pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). O ganho mineral (%SH e %∆Z) foi maior para os dentifrícios diluídos em saliva (p<0,05), exceto para os dentifrícios 450 µg F/g com Cacit/TMP (p>0,05). Os dentifrícios 450 Cacit/TMP e controle positivo apresentaram resultados semelhantes (p>0,05) quando diluídos em água. Uma relação dose-resposta foi observada entre a concentração de fluoreto nos dentifrícios e o fluoreto presente no esmalte, independente da diluição. Concluiu-se que é possível melhorar a capacidade de remineralização de dentifrícios com reduzida concentração de fluoreto pela adição de compostos orgânico (Cacit) e inorgânico (TMP) com afinidade a hidroxiapatita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium Citrate/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dental Caries/physiopathology , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentifrices/analysis , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Minerals/analysis , Placebos , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Water/chemistry
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(2): 142-146, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675659

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to estimate the intake of toothpaste fluoride used by children aged 2 to 6 years (n=87) treated at a hospital of a medium-sized city (Campina Grande, PB) in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics of families and children's toothbrushing were collected from questionnaire-based interviews with parents/guardians, and the amount of fluoride used during toothbrushing was estimated using a precision scale for assessment of the risk of dental fluorosis, considering a cutoff value of 0.07 mgF/kg body weight/day. Fluoride content in the toothpastes was analyzed using a specific fluoride electrode. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (α=0.05). Considering the use of the derice, the risk of fluorosis in the children was 19.5%. There was significant association (p<0.05) between the risk of fluorosis, brushing frequency, type of derice and who performed the child's oral hygiene. It was concluded that a high percentage of children in the studied sample used toothpaste inappropriately and were at risk of developing dental fluorosis.


Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar a ingestão de flúor de derícios utilizados por crianças de 2 a 6 anos de idade (n=87) atendidas em um hospital de médio porte (Campina Grande, PB) na região nordeste do Brasil. Os dados envolveram características sócio-demográficas e escovação dentária das crianças através de uma entrevista com formulário específico, aplicado aos pais/responsáveis, e a quantidade de flúor utilizada na escovação da criança, por meio de balança de precisão, para avaliação do risco de fluorose dentária, considerando o ponto de corte 0,07 mgF/kg peso corporal/dia. O conteúdo de flúor nos cremes dentais foi analisado utilizando eletrodo específico. Os dados foram trabalhados sob a forma de estatística descritiva e inferencial usando o testes do Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Exato de Fisher (α= 0,05). Levando-se em consideração o uso do derício, o risco de fluorose das crianças pesquisadas foi 19,5%. Houve associação significativa entre o risco de fluorose, a frequência de escovação, o tipo de derício e quem realiza a higiene bucal da criança (p<0,05). Concluiu-se que elevada parcela das crianças usavam o derício de forma inadequada e apresentaram risco de fluorose. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Beverages , Body Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Educational Status , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology , Income , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Marital Status , Oral Hygiene/methods , Parents , Risk Factors , Toothbrushing/instrumentation , Toothbrushing/methods , Toothpastes/analysis , Water Supply
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(6): 629-634, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662419

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the influence of fluoride on cell viability and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9 secreted by preosteoblasts. Preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 murine cell line) were cultured in MEM medium supplement with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) and nucleosides/ribonucleosides without ascorbic acid. Adherent cells were treated with different concentrations of F (as sodium fluoride-NaF) in medium (5 x 10-6 M, 10-5 M, 10-4 M and 10-3 M) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h at 37ºC, 5% CO2. Control cells were cultivated in MEM only. After each period, preosteoblast viability was assessed by MTT assay. MMP-2 and -9 activities were performed by gel zymography. Also, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was quantified by colorimetry in all experimental groups. It was shown that cultured cells with the highest dose of F (10-3 M) for 96 h decreased preosteoblast viability while lower doses of F did not alter it, when compared to untreated cells. No differences were observed in ALP activity among groups. Moreover, compared to control, the treatment of cells with F at low dose slightly increased MMP-2 and -9 activities after 24 h. It was concluded that F modulates preosteoblast viability in a dose-dependent manner and also may regulate extracellular matrix remodeling.


Neste estudo, buscou-se avaliar a influência do fluoreto (F) na viabilidade celular e atividade das metaloproteinases de matriz (MMP) -2 e -9 secretado pelos pré-osteoblastos. Pré-osteoblastos (linhagem celular MC3T3-E1 murina) foram cultivados em meio MEM suplementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino (FBS) e nucleosídeos/ribonucleosídeos sem ácido ascórbico. Células aderidas foram tratadas com diferentes concentrações de F (na forma de fluoreto de sódio-NaF) em meio (5 x 10-6 M, 10-5 M, 10-4 M e 10-3 M) por 24, 48, 72 e 96 h a 37ºC, 5 % de CO2. Células do grupo controle foram cultivadas apenas em MEM. Após cada período, a viabilidade dos pré-osteoblastos foi avaliada por MTT. A atividade das MMP-2 e -9 foram analisadas pela zimografia. Além disso, a atividade da fosfatase alcalina (FA) foi quantificada por colorimetria em todos os grupos experimentais. Foi demonstrado que as células cultivadas com a maior dose de F (10-3 M) no período de 96 h tiveram sua viabilidade comprometida, enquanto doses mais baixas de F não a alteraram significativamente, quando comparado com células não tratadas. Não foi observada diferença na atividade da FA entre os grupos. Além disso, o tratamento de células com F em baixas doses, comparado ao grupo controle, promoveu um pequeno aumento da atividade das MMP-2 e -9 após 24 h. Pode-se concluir que o F modula a viabilidade de pré-osteoblastos de uma maneira dose-dependente e também pode regular a remodelação da matriz extracelular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , /drug effects , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Cell Adhesion , Cell Culture Techniques , Colorimetry , Culture Media , Carbon Dioxide/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coloring Agents , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Sodium Fluoride/administration & dosage , Temperature , Time Factors , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139956

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received a lot of attention both from clinicians as well researchers. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary premolars were selected and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each: A (artificial saliva), B (CPP-ACP), and C (CPP-ACPF). All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent® at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Three samples were randomly selected from each group after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that group B {CPP-ACP (4.1±1.8)} and group C {CPP-ACPF (4.8±1.2)} had a significantly higher amount of remineralization than group A (1.7±0.7). Conclusion: All the three groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%), CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus®) showed marginally more amount of remineralization than CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse®).


Subject(s)
Bicuspid , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Caseins/administration & dosage , Dental Caries Activity Tests , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/ultrastructure , Drug Combinations , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Humans , Maxilla , Tooth Demineralization/drug therapy , Tooth Demineralization/pathology , Tooth Remineralization/methods
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139950

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: One of the most difficult problems encountered in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance is the control of enamel demineralization around the brackets. Fluoride-releasing bonding adhesives were introduced to aid in the prevention of demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Hence, an in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare demineralization adjacent to the orthodontic bracket and the bond strength using fluoride-releasing adhesive and conventional adhesive. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy extracted premolars were selected for the study and were divided into two groups, each group consisting of 60 teeth. Both groups were further divided into three subgroups consisting of 20 samples each. Samples of subgroups A and B were bonded with two prototypes of fluoride-releasing adhesives (i.e. Rely-a-bond and Tru-bond). Samples of subgroup C (ortho-one) were bonded with conventional non-fluoride-releasing adhesive. Group I samples were subjected to demineralization in an acidic medium (methyl cellulose buffered with acetic acid at a pH of 4.5) for 4 weeks, which were later observed under a stereomicroscope. Group II samples were tested for shear bond strength using the Instron Universal testing machine. Results: Both fluoride-releasing adhesives showed statistically significant lower enamel demineralization around the bracket when compared with the conventional adhesive. There was no statistically significant difference on comparing the demineralization between the two prototypes of fluoride-releasing adhesive. Evaluation of shear bond strength revealed that there was no significant difference between the subgroups. Conclusion: Fluoride-releasing adhesives might aid in the prevention of demineralization adjacent to the orthodontic bracket with acceptable bond strength.


Subject(s)
Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/therapeutic use , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dental Bonding , Dental Enamel/pathology , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Humans , Orthodontic Brackets/adverse effects , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Resin Cements/chemistry , Resin Cements/therapeutic use , Shear Strength , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Tooth Demineralization/pathology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control
19.
Braz. oral res ; 24(4): 388-393, Oct.-Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569215

ABSTRACT

The effect of a combination of topical fluoridation methods for inhibition of enamel demineralization in the face of a cariogenic challenge has not been clearly established. This in situ crossover study aimed to assess whether the addition of daily use of fluoride mouthrinse (FR) to that of fluoride dentifrice (FD) is equivalent to increasing the frequency of FD application in terms of the effect on enamel demineralization and fluoride content. Over 3 phases of 14 days each, 12 volunteers wore appliances containing enamel blocks exposed to a 20 percent sucrose solution 8 times/day. During each phase the blocks underwent one of the following treatments: 2x/day FD, 2x/day FD + 1x/day FR, and 3x/day FD. The blocks were assessed for hardness and fluoride content. Three x/day FD did not differ from 2x/day + 1x/day FR, however it enhanced demineralization protection when compared to 2x/day FD. All treatments produced an increase in enamel fluoride content compared to no treatment (sound blocks) (p < 0.05), but the differences between them were not significant. The results of this study suggest that the daily use of fluoride mouthrinse combined with that of fluoride dentifrice has similar effects on enamel demineralization and fluoride content when compared to increasing the frequency of fluoride dentifrice use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentifrices/administration & dosage , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Cross-Over Studies , Hardness Tests , Single-Blind Method , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Young Adult
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 28(6): 421-428, Dec. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-573970

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores de risco ou de proteção para a fluorose dentária na dentição permanente de crianças de 6 a 8 anos em um bairro no Município de Fortaleza, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Este estudo de caso-controle incluiu 67 crianças com fluorose nos incisivos superiores e inferiores permanentes erupcionados, conforme o índice de Dean, e 57 controles. A presença de fluorose foi determinada como variável dependente. Os dados acerca das variáveis independentes foram obtidos através de entrevistas com os pais das crianças. O teste exato de Fisher foi utilizado para verificar a existência de associação entre fluorose e as variáveis independentes. Foi calculada a razão de chances (odds ratio, OR) para verificar a associação e a probabilidade de fluorose no grupo-caso, ambos com significância de 95 por cento. RESULTADOS: Houve associação significativa da fluorose com tipo de moradia (própria, alugada ou ocupada), mas não com fonte de água para consumo ou uso de dentifrícios fluoretados e suplementos de flúor. Na análise univariada, o risco de fluorose foi maior em crianças que iniciaram o consumo de leite em pó reconstituído com água antes dos 2 anos de idade (OR = 4,53; IC95 por cento: 1,07 a 26,74) e nas que não mamaram (OR = 6,66; IC95 por cento: 1,61 a 38,62). Na análise multivariada, somente a amamentação apresentou associação com a fluorose (4,54; IC95 por cento: 1,21 a 16,66). CONCLUSÕES: A amamentação se configurou como fator de proteção contra a fluorose. É preciso estabelecer critérios de classificação mais específicos para permitir a investigação de relações entre fluorose e classe socioeconômica.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate protection or risk factors for dental fluorosis in permanent teeth of 6 to 8 year-old children in a neighborhood of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: This case-control study included 57 controls and 67 children with fluorosis affecting superior and inferior incisors teeth as determined by the Dean classification criteria. Presence of fluorosis was considered as the dependent variable. Data concerning independent variables were obtained through interviews with the parents. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations between fluorosis and the independent variables. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to investigate associations and likelihood of fluorosis in the case group, with 95 percent significance level. RESULTS: Fluorosis was significantly associated with type of housing (owned, rented or squatted), but not with the source of drinking water or use of fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride supplements. Univariate analysis showed that the risk of fluorosis was higher in children who began drinking powdered milk mixed with water before 2 years of age (OR = 4.53; IC95 percent: 1.07-26.74) and in those who did not breastfeed (OR = 6.66; IC95 percent: 1.61-38.62). In the multivariate analysis, only breastfeeding was associated with fluorosis (4.54; IC95 percent: 1.21-16.66). CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding was a protection factor against fluorosis. More specific categorization criteria must be established to investigate relationships between fluorosis and socioeconomic class.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Breast Feeding , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Fluoridation , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology , Fluorosis, Dental/prevention & control , Housing , Incisor/chemistry , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Toothpastes/adverse effects , Water Supply/analysis
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