Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e037, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001598


Abstract: Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique, based on the application of a constant low-intensity electric current to facilitate the release of a variety of drugs, whether ionized or not, through biological membranes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of iontophoresis using different electric current intensities on the uptake of fluoride in dental enamel with artificial caries lesions. In this in vitro operator-blind experiment, bovine enamel blocks (n = 10/group) with caries-like lesions and predetermined surface hardness were randomized into 6 groups: placebo gel without fluoride applied with a current of 0.8 mA (negative control), 2% NaF gel without application of any current, and 2% NaF gel applied with currents of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mA. Cathodic iontophoresis was applied for 4 min. The concentration of loosely bound fluoride (calcium fluoride) and firmly bound fluoride (fluorapatite) was determined. The results were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Iontophoresis at 0.8 mA, combined with the application of fluoridated gel (2% NaF), increased fluoride uptake in enamel with caries-like lesions, as either calcium fluoride or fluorapatite.

Animals , Cattle , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Iontophoresis/methods , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Apatites/analysis , Surface Properties/drug effects , Calcium Fluoride/analysis , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Disease Models, Animal , Electricity , Hardness/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180514, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012510


Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves hydroalcoholic extracts on viability and metabolism of a microcosm biofilm and on enamel demineralization prevention. Methodology: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. The biofilm was daily-treated with the extracts for 1 min. At the end, it was analyzed with respect to viability by fluorescence, CFU counting and extracellular polysaccharides (phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay) and lactic acid (enzymatic assay) production. The demineralization was measured by TMR. The data were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). Results: M. urundeuva All. at 100, 10 and 0.1 μg/mL and Q. grandiflora Mart. at 100 and 0.1 μg/mL reduced biofilm viability similarly to positive control (chlorhexidine) and significantly more than the negative-vehicle control (35% ethanol). M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 μg/mL were able to reduce both lactobacilli and mutans streptococci CFU counting, while Q. grandiflora (1000 and 1.0 μg/mL) significantly reduced mutans streptococci CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts were unable to significantly reduce extracellular polysaccharides and lactic acid productions neither the development of enamel carious lesions. Conclusions: The extracts showed antimicrobial properties on microcosm biofilm, however, they had no effect on biofilm metabolism and caries protection.

Animals , Male , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Biofilms/drug effects , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Myrtales/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Lactobacillus/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975890


Abstract The use of antimicrobial agents is an efficient method to prevent dental caries. Also, nanometric antibacterial agents with wide antibacterial spectrum and strong antibacterial effects can be applied for prevention of dental caries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) composite on the progression of artificial enamel caries in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. Material and Methods: Enamel specimens from bovine incisors were divided into eight treatment groups (n = 13), as follows: group 1 was inoculated with S. mutans grown in Brain Heart Infusion containing 1% sucrose (1% BHIS), as negative control; groups 2-4 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different rGO/Ag concentrations (0.08, 0.12, 0.16 mg/mL) + 1% BHIS; group 5-7 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different agents (0.16 mg/mL reduced graphene oxide, 0.16 mg/mL silver nanoparticles, 10 ppm NaF) + 1% BHIS; group 8 was mixed with 1% BHIS, without inoculation. Artificial enamel carious lesions were produced by S. mutans biofilm model for 7 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze roughness and morphology of the enamel surface. Polarized light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to measure the lesion depth and the relative optical density (ROD) of the demineralized layer. Results: Compared with the control groups, the rGO/Ag groups showed: (a) reduced enamel surface roughness; (b) much smoother and less eroded surfaces; (c) shallower lesion depth and less mineral loss. Conclusion: As a novel composite material, rGO/Ag can be a promising antibacterial agent for caries prevention.

Animals , Cattle , Silver/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Graphite/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Disease Progression , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180044, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975876


Abstract Radiation-related caries are one the most undesired reactions manifested during or after head and neck radiotherapy. Fluoride application is an important strategy to reduce demineralization and enhance remineralizaton. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the topical application of fluoride during irradiation on dental enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Thirty molars were randomly divided into three groups: Non-irradiated (NI), Irradiated (I), Irradiated with fluoride (IF). Each group was subdivided according to the presence or absence of pH-cycling (n=5). In the irradiated groups, the teeth received 70 Gy. The enamel's chemical composition was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (organic matrix/mineral ratio - M/M and relative carbonate content - RCC). Vickers microhardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) were evaluated at three depths (surface, middle and deep enamel). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the enamel's morphology. Results: The FTIR analysis (M/M and RCC) showed significant differences for irradiation, pH-cycling and the interaction between factors (p<0.001). Without pH-cycling, IF had the lowest organic matrix/mineral ratio and relative carbonate content. With pH-cycling, the organic matrix/mineral ratio increased and the relative carbonate content decreased, except for IF. VHN was influenced only by pH-cycling (p<0.001), which generated higher VHN values. ANOVA detected significant differences in E for irradiation (p<0.001), pH-cycling (p<0.001) and for the interaction between irradiation and pH-cycling (p<0.001). Increased E was found for group I without pH-cycling. With pH-cycling, groups I and IF were similar, and showed higher values than NI. The SEM images showed no morphological changes without pH-cycling. With pH-cycling, fluoride helped to maintain the outer enamel's morphology. Conclusions: Fluoride reduced mineral loss and maintained the outer morphology of irradiated and cycled enamel. However, it was not as effective in preserving the mechanical properties of enamel. Radiotherapy altered the enamel's elastic modulus and its chemical composition.

Humans , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cariostatic Agents/radiation effects , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Random Allocation , Fluorides, Topical/radiation effects , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 599-605, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974199


Abstract The occurrence of caries lesions adjacent to restorations is a serious problem in Dentistry. Therefore, new antimicrobial restorative materials could help to prevent recurrent carious lesions. This study evaluated the effect of a new glass ionomer cement (Ion Z) on the viability of a microcosm biofilm and on the development of enamel demineralization. Enamel samples were filled with the following materials (n=9): A) Ion-Z (FGM Ltda); B) Maxxion R (FGM Ltda); C) Ketac Fil Plus (3M ESPE) and D) no restoration (control). The samples were then exposed to human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (1:50) containing 0.2% sucrose for 14 days. The live and dead bacteria were quantified by fluorescence using a confocal laser-scanning microscope. The enamel demineralization was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn test (p<0.05). Ion Z induced a higher percentage of dead bacteria (60.96±12.0%) compared to the other groups (Maxxion R: 39.8±6.7%, Ketac Fil Plus: 43.7±9.71% and control 46.3±9.5%). All materials significantly reduced the average mineral loss compared to control (Ion-Z 25.0±4.2%vol, Maxxion R 23.4±8.0%vol, Ketac Fil Plus 30.7±7.7 and control 41.2±6.6%vol). Ion-Z was the only material able to significantly improve the mineral content at the surface layer (Zmax: 63.5±18.2%vol) compared to control (38.9±11.3%vol). Ion-Z shows antimicrobial potential, but its anti-caries effect was similar to the other materials, under this model.

Resumo A ocorrência de lesões de cárie adjacentes a restaurações é um sério problema na Odontologia. Portanto, novos materiais restauradores antimicrobianos poderiam ajudar a prevenir as lesões cariosas recorrentes. Este estudo avaliou o efeito de um novo cimento de ionômero de vidro (Ion Z) sobre a viabilidade de um biofilme microcosmo e o desenvolvimento da desmineralização do esmalte. Amostras de esmalte foram restauradas com os seguintes materiais (n=9): A) Ion-Z (FGM Ltda); B) Maxxion R (FGM Ltda); C) Ketac Fil Plus (3M ESPE) e D) sem restauração (controle). As amostras foram submetidas a uma mistura de saliva humana com saliva de McBain (1:50) contendo sacarose a 0,2% por 14 dias. As bactérias vivas e mortas foram quantificadas por fluorescência usando um microscópio confocal de varredura à laser. A desmineralização do esmalte foi analisada usando microradiografia transversal (TMR). Os dados foram submetidos aos testes ANOVA/Tukey ou Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn (p<0,05). O Ion Z induziu uma porcentagem mais elevada de bactérias mortas (60,96 ± 12,0%) comparado aos outros grupos (Maxxion R: 39,8 ± 6,7%, Ketac Fil Plus: 43,7 ± 9,71% e controle 46,3 ± 9,5%). Todos os materiais reduziram significativamente a perda mineral média em relação ao controle (Ion-Z 25,0 ± 4,2% vol, Maxxion R 23,4 ± 8,0% vol, Ketac Fil Plus 30,7 ± 7,7% vol e controle 41,2 ± 6,6% vol). O Ion-Z foi o único material capaz de melhorar significativamente o conteúdo mineral na camada superficial (Zmax: 63,5 ± 18,2% vol) em comparação com o controle (38,9 ± 11,3% vol). Ion-Z mostrou potencial antimicrobiano, mas seu efeito anti-cárie foi semelhante aos outros materiais, sob este modelo.

Humans , Animals , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans , Surface Properties , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Brazil , Cattle , Streptococcus sobrinus , Maleates
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 95 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-884465


Current knowledge supports the application of TiF4 varnish to protect against tooth caries and erosion; however, it is indispensable to know its cytotoxic potential and the mechanism involved on it before applying in patients. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate 1) The cytotoxic effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) varnish compared with sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on murine fibroblast (NIH/3T3), varying the fluoride concentration and time of treatment and 2) The percentage of apoptosis and its mechanism (both mitochondrial mediated by the Bcl-2 family- and death receptorpathways) in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and murine fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) treated with TiF4 varnish compared to NaF varnish for 6 h. Step 1) NIH/3T3 were exposed to NaF or TiF4 varnishes containing 0.95, 1.95 or 2.45% F, for 6, 12 or 24 h. MTT viability (n=6) and Hoescht/PI stain assays (n=3) as well as the cells morphology (HE, only for 24 h, n=3) and stiffness (AFM, only for 2.45% F, 6 or 12 h) were analyzed. Both varnishes, at 1.90 and 2.45% F, reduced cells viability by similar extent (33-86% at 6 h, 35-93% at 12 h, and 87-98% at 24 h) compared to control, regardless of the type of fluoride. TiF4 and NaF (2.45% F) reduced cell stiffness to a similar extent, but only TiF4 differed from control. Step 2) HGF and NIH/3T3 were exposed to NaF or TiF4 (2.45% F) varnishes for 6 h. Cells were examined by the TUNEL method using fluorescence microscope. The caspases-3, -8 and -9 activities were assessed. The cDNA for cytocrome c, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, VDAC-1 and Fas-L was amplified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Bax, Bcl-2 and Fas-L were further detected by western blot. Both fluorides similarly increased the percentage of apoptosis, while they failed in activating caspases-3, -8 and -9 for both types of cells. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome C and VDAC-1 gene expressions were not altered by both fluoride treatments. However, NaF varnish increased the amplification of Fas-L gene for NIH/3T3 and HGF, while TiF4 varnish induced lower Bad/Bcl-2 ratio expression compared to control for NIH/3T3, but not for HGF. No effect of the fluorides was detected in the proteins analysis. TiF4 and NaF have similar cytotoxicity on NIH/3T3, which is dependent on the F concentration and the exposure time. Both fluorides, at the studied conditions, similarly induce a low percentage of apoptosis, with consequent modest activation of Bcl-2 and Fas-L-dependent signaling pathways.(AU)

Conhecimento atual suporta a aplicação de verniz de TiF4 para proteção contra cárie e erosão dentárias; entretanto, é indispensável conhecer o seu potencial citotóxico e o mecanismo envolvido antes de aplicá-lo em pacientes. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar 1) o efeito citotóxico do verniz de tetrafluoreto de Titânio (TiF4) comparado ao fluoreto de sódio (NaF), em fibroblastos NIH/3T3, variando a concentração de fluoreto e o tempo de tratamento 2) a porcentagem de apoptose e seus mecanismos (ambos mitocondrial mediado pela família Bcl-2 e pelo receptor de morte celular) em fibroblastos gengivais humanos (FGH) e fibroblastos murinos (NIH/3T3) tratados com verniz de TiF4 comparado com verniz de NaF por 6 h. Etapa 1) NIH/3T3 foram expostos a vernizes de NaF e TiF4 contendo 0,95, 1,95 ou 2,45% F, por 6, 12 ou 24 h. Ensaios de viabilidade por MTT (n=6) e Hoechst 33342/iodeto de propídeo (n=3) bem como a morfologia (HE, apenas para 24 h, n = 3) e a rigidez celular (MFA, apenas para 2,45% F, 6 ou 12 h) foram realizados. Ambos os vernizes com 1,90 e 2,45% F reduziram a viabilidade das células de forma semelhante (33-86% em 6 h, 35-93% em 12 h e 87-98% em 24 h) em comparação com o controle, independentemente do tipo de fluoreto. TiF4 e NaF (2,45%) reduziram de forma similar a rigidez celular, mas somente TiF4 diferiu do controle no período de 6 h. Etapa 2) FGH e NIH/3T3 foram tratadas com verniz de NaF ou TiF4 por 6h. As células foram examinadas pelo método de TUNEL, usando microscopia de fluorescência. A atividade das caspases -3, -8 e -9 foram avaliadas. O cDNA para citocromo C, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, VDAC-1 e Fas-L foi amplificado e quantificado por PCR em tempo real (qPCR). A expressão das proteínas Bax, Bcl-2 e Fas-L foi quantificada por western blot. Ambos os fluoretos aumentaram de forma semelhante a porcentagem de apoptose, enquanto falharam na ativação de caspases-3, -8 e -9 para ambos tipos celulares. A expressão gênica da relação Bax/Bcl-2, do citocromo C e do VDAC-1 não foram alteradas por ambos fluoretos. No entanto, o verniz NaF aumentou a amplificação do gene Fas-L para ambas as células, enquanto que o verniz TiF4 induziu menor expressão da razão Bad/Bcl-2 em comparação com o controle para NIH/3T3, mas não para FGH. Nenhum efeito foi detectado na análise de proteínas. TiF4 e NaF apresentam citotoxicidade similar em NIH/3T3, a qual é dependente da concentração de F e do tempo de exposição. Ambos os fluoretos, nas condições estudadas, induzem uma baixa porcentagem de apoptose, com consequente modesta ativação das vias de sinalização dependentes de Bcl-2 e Fas-L.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Mice , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival/drug effects , Gingiva/cytology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Microscopy, Fluorescence , NIH 3T3 Cells , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170304, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893680


Abstract Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) is known for interacting with enamel reducing demineralization. However, no information is available about its potential antimicrobial effect. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-caries potential of TiF4 varnish compared to NaF varnish, chlorhexidine gel (positive control), placebo varnish and untreated (negative controls) using a dental microcosm biofilm model. Material and Methods A microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel previously treated with the varnishes, using inoculum from human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. All experiments were performed in biological triplicate (n=4/group in each experiment). Factors evaluated were: bacterial viability (% dead and live bacteria); CFU counting (log10 CFU/mL); and enamel demineralization (transverse microradiography - TMR). Data were analysed using ANOVA/Tukey's test or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p<0.05). Results Only chlorhexidine significantly increased the number of dead bacteria (68.8±13.1% dead bacteria) compared to untreated control (48.9±16.1% dead bacteria). No treatment reduced the CFU counting (total microorganism and total streptococci) compared to the negative controls. Only TiF4 was able to reduce enamel demineralization (ΔZ 1110.7±803.2 vol% μm) compared to both negative controls (untreated: ΔZ 4455.3±1176.4 vol% μm). Conclusions TiF4 varnish has no relevant antimicrobial effect. Nevertheless, TiF4 varnish was effective in reducing enamel demineralization under this model.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus/drug effects , Titanium/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Streptococcus/growth & development , Microradiography , Colony Count, Microbial , Random Allocation , Placebo Effect , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects
Braz. dent. j ; 28(6): 738-743, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888700


Abstract Cariostatic treatment has been shown to successfully arrest caries. However, it blackens the carious tooth structure. This study evaluated the effects of an experimental cariostatic agent with silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nano) using microhardness (MH) and microbiological tests. The cariostatic agents tested were: Saforide®, Cariestop®, Ancarie® and Ag-Nano. Sixty-six samples from deciduous enamel were submitted to initial (after pH cycling to obtain initial caries-like lesion) and final (after cariostatic application) MH testing and %MH values were calculated. After longitudinal sectioning, internal (I) MH was evaluated. Strains of Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis in brain-heart infusion culture were treated with the cariostatic agents. Agar diffusion tests (ADTs) were performed and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. The statistical tests used were: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (%MD; ADT; MIC) and ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (I-MH) (p<0.05). The %MH of Saforide® was significantly greater than that of Ag-Nano (p<0.05). Internal MH showed progressive improvement in the enamel remineralization for all cariostatic tested. In ADTs showed greater inhibition of S. mutans, E. faecalis, and E. coli by Saforide® than by Ancarie® and Ag-Nano. Ag-Nano was able to inhibit 100% microorganism growth at a lower concentration than required for the other agents. It was concluded that Ag-Nano treatment promoted remineralization of deciduous tooth enamel with initial caries-like lesion and bactericidal activity.

Resumo O tratamento com cariostático tem demostrado sucesso na paralização da cárie. No entanto, causa escurecimento da estrutura dental cariada. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos de um agente cariostático experimental com nanopartículas de prata (Ag-Nano) através de microdureza (MD) e testes microbiológicos. Os cariostáticos testados foram: Saforide®, Cariestop®, Ancarie® e Ag-Nano. Sessenta e seis amostras de esmalte decíduo foram submetidos a MD inicial (após ciclagem de pH para obtenção da lesão de cárie inicial) e final (após aplicação dos cariostáticos), e os valores da porcentagem (%) de MD foram calculados. Após secção longitudinal, a MD interna (I) foi avaliada. Cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli e E. faecalis foram cultivados em ágar infusão de cérebro e coração (BHI) e submetidos aos cariostáticos testados. Além disso, foram realizados teste de difusão em ágar (TDA) e avaliação da concentração mínima inibitória (CIM) dos cariostáticos. Os testes estatísticos usados foram: Kruskall-Wallis e Dunn (%MD; TDA; CIM) e ANOVA seguido de teste de Tukey (MD-I) (p<0.05). A %MD do Saforide® foi significativamente maior do que a de Ag-Nano (p<0,05). A MD interna apresentou melhora progressiva na remineralização do esmalte para todos os cariostático testados. Os resultados do TDA mostraram que S. mutans, E. faecalis e E. coli sofreram maior inibição pelo Saforide® (p<0,05), em relação ao Ancarie® e Ag-Nano. No entanto, para o teste de CIM o Ag-Nano foi capaz de inibir 100% dos microorganismos, em menor concentração do que os demais cariostaticos. Conclui-se que, o tratamento Ag-Nano foi capaz de promover remineralização do esmalte dental decíduo com lesão de cárie inicial e apresentou atividade bactericida.

Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles , Silver/chemistry , Tooth Remineralization , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Braz. dent. j ; 28(3): 337-345, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888656


Abstract Erosion incidence is increasing and its control is still a challenge in clinical practice. This study evaluated 4% TiF4-gel effects on eroded human dentin subjected to in situ erosive/abrasive episodes. Seventy-two previously eroded dentin slabs (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2.3, 20 min) were allocated to 6 groups (n=12) according to the treatment to be performed during the in situ phase and number of erosive/abrasive cycles, as follows: 4% TiF4-gel applied once (TiF41), twice (TiF42) or three times (TiF43) followed by 1, 2 and 3 erosive/abrasive cycles, respectively. Gel was applied before the beginning of the next cycle. Control groups were subjected to 1 (C1), 2 (C2) and 3 (C3) erosive/abrasive cycles only. A seventh group (n=12) comprised in vitro uneroded samples (UN) subjected to 3 erosive/abrasive cycles. Each cycle corresponded to 2 days of erosive (citric acid 0.5%, pH 2.6, 6x/day) and abrasive (electric toothbrush, 10 s/sample, 1 x/day) challenges. Samples were evaluated under profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Atomic force microscopy images (AFM) were also made (n=3). Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.001) showed that TiF42, which did not differ from TiF41 and TiF43, revealed a significant reduction in surface loss compared to all control groups. TiF41 and TiF43 showed no significant difference from C1, but both groups demonstrated significantly smaller surface loss than C2 and C3. ESEM and AFM micrographs suggested alterations on treated surfaces compared to samples from control groups, showing reduced diameters of dentinal tubules lumens. Therefore, TiF4 was able to reduce the progression of erosive/abrasive lesions.

Resumo A incidência da erosão tem aumentado e o seu controle ainda é um desafio na prática clínica. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos do gel de TiF4 a 4% sobre a dentina humana erodida submetida a episódios erosivos/abrasivos in situ. Setenta e dois fragmentos de dentina previamente erodida (ácido cítrico 0,05 M, pH 2,3, 20 min) foram distribuídas em 6 grupos (n=12) de acordo com o tratamento a ser realizado durante a fase in situ e o número de ciclos erosivos/abrasivos, como descrito a seguir: gel de TiF4 a 4% aplicado uma (TiF41), duas (TiF42) ou três vezes (TiF43) seguido de 1, 2 e 3 ciclos erosivos/abrasivos, respectivamente. As aplicações dos géis foram realizadas antes do início do ciclo erosivo seguinte. Grupos controle foram submetidos a 1 (C1), 2 (C2) e 3 (C3) ciclos erosivos/abrasivos apenas. Um sétimo grupo (n=12) compreendia amostras sem erosão in vitro (UN) submetidas a 3 ciclos erosivos/abrasivos. Cada ciclo correspondia a 2 dias de desafios erosivos (ácido cítrico a 0,5%, pH 2,6, 6x/dia) e abrasivos (escova de dentes elétrica, 10 s/amostra, 1x/dia). As amostras foram avaliadas em perfilômetro e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura Ambiental (MEV). Imagens de microscopia de força atômica (AFM) também foram capturadas (n=3). ANOVA a 2-fatores para medidas repetidas e o teste de Tukey (p<0,001) demonstraram que TiF42, que não diferiu do TiF41 e TiF43, revelou redução significativa na perda de superfície quando comparado a todos os grupos controle. TiF41 e TiF43 não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação ao C1, mas ambos os grupos demonstraram perda de superfície significativamente menor que C2 e C3. Micrografias de MEV e AFM sugeriram alterações nas superfícies tratadas quando comparadas a amostras dos grupos controle, apresentando redução no diâmetro das luzes dos túbulos dentinários. Portanto, o TiF4 foi capaz de reduzir a progressão das lesões erosivas/abrasivas.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dentin/metabolism , Fluorides/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothbrushing , Disease Progression , Gels , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 258-264, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893623


Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI - Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII - Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII - No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Caseins/therapeutic use , Chewing Gum , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Saliva , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Caseins/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Hardness Tests
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(4): 320-323, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842557


Summary Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulin and sialic acid levels in children with dental fluorosis and healthy teeth who live in places with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. Method: Fifty-one (51) healthy children between 6 and 12 years old with no caries were randomly selected from primary schools enrolled in the dental-care program operated by the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The children were divided into two groups: group I comprised 26 children with dental fluorosis [Thylstrup-Fejerskov Dental Fluorosis Index (TFI) = 4] who lived in Isparta (2.7-2.8 ppm), and group II consisted of 25 children without dental fluorosis who were born in low-fluoride areas and had lived in Isparta for only the previous two years. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva were collected and analyzed for fluoride, salivary immunoglobulins and sialic acid levels. Results: Sialic acid level was correlated negatively with age. Levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and secretory immunoglobulin G (sIgG) were higher in children with dental fluorosis compared with those in group II, although these differences were not significant. Conclusion: Increased sIgA and sIgG levels may arrest the progression of caries in subjects with dental fluorosis. Given the risks of dental fluorosis, further studies of the effects of different fluoride levels in drinking water on salivary composition of children with mixed dentition are needed to confirm the results of our study and to provide data for comparison.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Saliva/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/drug effects , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/analysis , Fluorides/pharmacology , Fluorosis, Dental/physiopathology , Reference Values , Saliva/chemistry , Drinking Water/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Sex Factors , Fluoridation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorides/chemistry , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 196-202, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841177


Abstract Decalcification of enamel during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment remains a problem. White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The use of fluoride-containing orthodontic materials has shown inconclusive results on their ability to reduce decalcification. The aims of this investigation were to compare the levels of Streptococcus mutans (SM) in saliva and biofilm adjacent to orthodontic brackets retained with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji ORTHO LC) and a light cured composite resin (Transbond XT), and to analyze the influence of topical application of the 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) on SM counts. In a parallel study design, two groups (n=14/15) were used with random allocation and high salivary SM counts before treatment. Biofilm was collected from areas adjacent to the brackets on teeth 13, 22, 33, and 41. Both saliva and biofilm were collected on the 7th, 21st, 35th, and 49th days after appliance placement. Topical fluoride application was carried out on the 35th day. Bonding with RMGIC did not alter SM counts in saliva or biofilm adjacent to the brackets. On the other hand, the biofilm adjacent to brackets retained with composite resin showed a significant increase in SM counts along the trial period. Topical application of 1.23% APF did not reduce salivary or biofilm SM counts regardless of the bonding material. In conclusion, fluoride topical application did not show efficacy in reducing SM. The use of RMGIC as bonding materials allowed a better control of SM cfu counts in dental biofilm hindering the significant increase of these microorganisms along the trial period, which was observed in the biofilm adjacent to the composite material.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Acrylic Resins/pharmacology , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Orthodontic Brackets/microbiology , Biofilms/drug effects , Aluminum Silicates/pharmacology , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Time Factors , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/pharmacology , Bacterial Load
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e45, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839521


Abstract We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM) and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group): G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV); G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle); G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®); and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum) for 4 weeks. Total cultivable microbiota and SM were counted, and smooth-surface and sulcal caries were scored. PV, CV and GS cytotoxic effects were tested against fibroblasts. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with the Tukey-Kramer test (p ≤ 0.05). Total microbiota and SM counts did not differ among the treatments (p = 0.78), or in relation to the untreated group (p = 0.52). PV reduced development of smooth-surface enamel caries compared with the untreated group (p = 0.0018), with no significant difference from GS (p = 0.92); however, the PV effects were no longer observed when the dentin was affected. Neither PV nor GS prevented enamel sulcal lesion onset, but GS significantly reduced the severity of dentinal sulcal lesions (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in fibroblast viability between PV and GS (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, PV prevented smooth-surface enamel caries and showed low cell toxicity. Nevertheless, due to the high cariogenic challenge, its effects were not sustained throughout the experiment. Further studies are encouraged to establish a protocol to sustain the long-term anti-caries activity of PV in the oral cavity.

Animals , Female , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Propolis/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Dental Caries/therapy , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e86, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952118


Abstract The effect of a 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF 4 ) varnish on enamel demineralization was evaluated. Twelve volunteers participated in this double-blind, randomized crossover study. Six enamel specimens were positioned in intraoral appliances throughout four treatment stages: 4% TiF 4 varnish (experimental varnish), 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish (Duraphat ® ), placebo varnish, and negative control (deionized water). After 24 h, the varnishes were removed and plaques were allowed to accumulate. A 20% sucrose solution was dripped onto enamel blocks (10x/day). Enamel alterations were analyzed by surface microhardness (SMH), percentage of surface loss (%SML), cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Student's paired t-test was used for SMH analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for %SML and CSMH (∆Z) analyses (p-value=0.05). The TiF 4 varnish group had lower %SML than the placebo and control groups (p=0.044 and p=0.003, respectively), thus showing its capacity to inhibit surface demineralization. TiF 4 and NaF varnishes demonstrated a protective effect against mineral loss on the enamel subsurface. Both were statistically different from the control group when CSMH was analyzed (p=0.000). A titanium dioxide film was observed on enamel surfaces of the TiF 4 group SEM images. EDS confirmed the presence of titanium in all TiF 4 samples. The 4% TiF 4 varnish is a promising compound capable of reacting with enamel to protect it against surface and subsurface demineralization.

Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Double-Blind Method , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies , Dental Enamel/surgery , Hardness Tests
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e2, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839510


Abstract An early childhood carie (ECC) is an extremely destructive form of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of ozone (O3), and the association of sodium fluoride (NaF) with chlorhexidine (CHX) on bacteria related to ECC. Overnight culture of the bacteria was performed. On exponential phase the suspension was adjusted (101-108 CFU/mL). A drop (10μL) of each concentration of bacteria was applied on sheep blood agar plates and treated with O3 (2, 20, 200, and 2,000 ppm); after 18 hours, recovery analysis of CFU verified the reduction of bacterial activity. For NaF-CHX, sterile 96-well plates were prepared and divided into groups: G1 (150 µL TSB); G2 (20 µL of bacteria + 25 µL CHX + 25 µL NaF); and G3 (150 µL TSB + 20 µL of bacteria + 50 µL water). The plates were verified by analysis of the optical density (0, 12, 14, 16, and 18 hours). The data from O3 test were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). For the data from NaF-CHX, the ANOVA 2-way and Bonferroni’s test (p < 0.05) were used. The number of CFU/mL showed death > 3log10 (99.9%) for all bacteria (ozone ≥ 20ppm), while the combination of NaF-CHX was more effective (p < 0.001) compared to each substance tested alone and the control group. The antimicrobial agents tested were able to inhibit all bacteria tested; O3 seemed to be a good alternative for controlling progression of carious lesions, while the association of NaF-CHX showed to be a good antimicrobial with easy and inexpensive application.

Ozone/pharmacology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects
JDB-Journal of Dental Biomaterials. 2016; 3 (2): 214-219
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180268


Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The balance between demineralization and remineralization of the decayed teeth depends on the calcium and phosphate content of the tooth surface. Therefore, if a product such as casein phospho peptides - amorphous calcium phosphate [CPP-ACP] which can significantly increase the availability of calcium and phosphate in the plaque and saliva should have an anti-caries protective effect

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste

Materials and Methods: A total of 25 children aged between 6-9 years were selected for this clinical trial study. At first, 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. In the next step, CPP-ACP paste [GC Corp, Japan] was applied on the tooth surfaces and then the plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Ion meter instrument [Metrohm Co, Swiss] and the amounts of phosphate and fluoride ions were measured by Ion Chromatography instrument [Metrohm Co, Swiss]. Data were analyzed using paired t-test at a p < 0.05 level of significance

Results: There were statistically significant differences in the calcium and phosphate concentration of the saliva and plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. There were also statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the saliva before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste

Conclusions: In this study, the use of the CPP-ACP paste significantly increased the fluoride levels of the plaque and the calcium and phosphate levels of both saliva and plaque. Hence, CPP-ACP paste can facilitate the remineralization of tooth surfaces and is useful for protecting the primary teeth

Child , Humans , Caseins/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Phosphates , Calcium , Fluorides , Saliva , Dental Plaque
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(1): 14-18, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-741594


Objective This study assessed the effect of fluoride varnishes on the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. Material and Methods: Forty-eight enamel and 60 root dentin samples were previously demineralized (0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, 30 min), leading to a baseline and erosive wear of 12.9 and 11.4 µm, respectively. The samples were randomly treated (6 h) with a 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45%F-, pH 1.0), a 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45%F-, pH 5.0), a placebo varnish and no varnish (control). The samples were then subjected to erosive pH cycles (4x90 s/day in 0.1% citric acid, intercalated with artificial saliva) for 5 days. The increment of the erosive tooth wear was calculated. In the case of dentin, this final measurement was done with and without the demineralized organic matrix (DOM). Enamel and dentin data were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests, respectively (p<0.05). Results The TiF4 (mean±s.d: 1.5±1.1 µm) and NaF (2.1±1.7 µm) varnishes significantly reduced enamel wear progression compared to the placebo varnish (3.9±1.1 µm) and control (4.5±0.9 µm). The same differences were found for dentin in the presence and absence of the DOM, respectively: TiF4 (average: 0.97/1.87 µm), NaF (1.03/2.13 µm), placebo varnish (3.53/4.47 µm) and control (3.53/4.36 µm). Conclusion The TiF4 and NaF varnishes were equally effective in reducing the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. .

Animals , Cattle , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/drug therapy , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Tooth Demineralization , Treatment Outcome
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 253-257, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681877


The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 µgF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 µgF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 µgF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%∆Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %∆Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p<0.05). The mineral gain (%SH and %∆Z) was higher for toothpastes diluted in saliva (p<0.05), except for the 450 µgF/g dentifrice with Cacit/TMP (p>0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite.

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito de um dentifrício com reduzida concentração de fluoreto (450 µgF/g, NaF) associado ao citrato de cálcio (Cacit) e trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) na remineralização do esmalte. Blocos de esmalte bovino tiveram sua superfície de esmalte polida seqüencialmente para determinação da dureza de superfície. Após o desenvolvimento de lesões artificiais de cárie, os blocos selecionados através da dureza de superfície foram submetidos a ciclagem de remineralização e tratamento diário com suspensões de dentifrícios (diluição em água deionizada ou saliva artificial): placebo, 275, 450, 550 e 1.100 µgF/g e com dentifrício comercial (controle positivo, 1.100 µgF/g). Ao término, determinou-se a dureza de superfície e em secção longitudinal, para cálculo da variação da dureza de superfície (%SH) e do conteúdo mineral (%∆Z). O fluoreto presente no esmalte também foi determinado. Os dados de %SH, %∆Z e fluoreto foram submetidos a análise de variância a dois critérios seguido pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). O ganho mineral (%SH e %∆Z) foi maior para os dentifrícios diluídos em saliva (p<0,05), exceto para os dentifrícios 450 µg F/g com Cacit/TMP (p>0,05). Os dentifrícios 450 Cacit/TMP e controle positivo apresentaram resultados semelhantes (p>0,05) quando diluídos em água. Uma relação dose-resposta foi observada entre a concentração de fluoreto nos dentifrícios e o fluoreto presente no esmalte, independente da diluição. Concluiu-se que é possível melhorar a capacidade de remineralização de dentifrícios com reduzida concentração de fluoreto pela adição de compostos orgânico (Cacit) e inorgânico (TMP) com afinidade a hidroxiapatita.

Animals , Cattle , Calcium Citrate/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dental Caries/physiopathology , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentifrices/analysis , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Minerals/analysis , Placebos , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Water/chemistry
Braz. oral res ; 26(4): 300-305, July-Aug. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640706


Iron (Fe) may have an anticaries effect by specific inhibition of glycosyltransferase (GTF) enzymes of Streptococcus mutans, but this hypothesis has not yet been clarified. In this study, S. mutans biofilms were formed on blocks of bovine dental enamel of a predetermined surface hardness (SH). These biofilms were exposed eight times/day to 10% sucrose, and two times/day they were subjected to one of the following treatments: G1, 0.9% NaCl as a negative control; G2, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive antibacterial control; G3, 0.05% NaF (225 ppm F) as a positive anticaries control; G4, G5, and G6, ferrous sulfate (Fe2+) at concentrations of 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 µg Fe/mL, respectively. The experiment was performed in triplicate and was repeated three times (n = 9). The pH of the culture medium was determined every 24 h as an indicator of the biofilm's acidogenicity. The biofilm formed on each block was collected for determination of the viable bacteria and concentration of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). Enamel SH was again determined and the percentage of SH loss (%SHL) was calculated as an indicator of demineralization. Iron treatment reduced the number of viable bacteria formed in the S. mutans biofilm (p = 0.04), in a dose-dependent manner, and also reduced the enamel's %SHL (p = 0.005). At 100 µg/mL, Fe reduced enamel demineralization as effectively as CHX and NaF (p < 0.05), but it did not inhibit EPS production. In conclusion, the data suggest that the anticaries mechanism of action of Fe may not involve the oxidative inhibition of GTFs.

Animals , Cattle , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Iron/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Tooth Demineralization/drug therapy , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Glycosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Hardness/drug effects , Random Allocation , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(1): 94-98, Jan.-Feb. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618160


Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25 percent) and TMP (0.25 percent) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. RESULTS: The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

Humans , Calcium Citrate/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentifrices/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Random Allocation , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry