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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200512, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153288

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Chips from orange-fleshed sweet potato have a good acceptability. Drying process showed retention of carotenoids total content. Chips from drying or frying process showed high resistant starch content.


Abstract There is currently a great demand for industrialized products with functional properties, together with the increase in consumption of roots and sweet potato products. Sweet potatoes have a high content of resistant starch, while only the orange-fleshed roots also have a high content of carotenoids. Due to these, this work aimed to produce orange-fleshed sweet potato chips, by two processes: drying oven and immersion frying. The chips were evaluated for the content of resistant starch and carotenoids in nature and chips sweet potatoes, and evaluations of the physical attributes and sensory analysis of the chips. The drying process retained a greater content of total carotenoids. Fried chips can be considered high resistant starch content, even with a decrease in the content after this processing; they also showed more intense coloring and pleasant texture. There was a statistical difference between the varieties only regarding the content of carotenoids and resistant starch. Thereby, it can be concluded that the chips of both processing have good technological and functional qualities, and that the frying process presented best hardness which led to greater acceptability and purchase intention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Starch/analysis , Solanum tuberosum , Carotenoids/analysis , Ipomoea batatas , Taste/physiology , Consumer Behavior , Food Handling
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741

ABSTRACT

It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.


Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(5): 526-531, Sep.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903807

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Asociar la ingesta de flavonoides y carotenoides con el nivel en leche materna del anión superóxido, como marcador de estrés oxidativo. Material y métodos: Durante el periodo 2013-2015 se estudió a 100 mujeres lactantes de Córdoba (Argentina), dentro los primeros seis meses posparto; se evaluaron sus datos sanitarios, ingesta alimentaria y nivel lácteo del anión con regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: La ingesta de flavonoides, carotenoides provitamínicos y carotenoides no provitaminas fue de 72 (61) mg/día, 1 813 (1657) µg/día y 5 427 (3664) µg/día, respectivamente. El anión se asoció con la ingesta de flavanoles (RM=1.081; IC95 1.001-1.167) y flavanonas (RM=1.025; IC95 1.001-1.048). No se observó este efecto con otros flavonoides ni con los carotenoides. Conclusiones: La ingesta de flavanoles y flavanonas aumenta el riesgo de oxidación láctea, lo cual es relevante para realizar recomendaciones dietéticas.


Abstract: Objective: To associate the intake of flavonoids and carotenoids with the breast milk level of superoxide anion, as an oxidative stress marker. Materials and methods: 100 women from Cordoba (Argentina), who breastfed within the first postpartum 6 months, were studied during the 2013-2015 period, by evaluating their sanitary data, food intake and anion level in milk with multiple logistic regression. Results: The intake of flavonoids, provitamin A carotenoids and non-provitamin carotenoids was 72 (61) mg/d, 1813 (1 657) µg/d y 5427 (3 664) µg/d, respectively. The anion was associated with the intake of flavanols (OR=1.081; CI95 1.001-1.167) y flavanones (OR=1.025; CI95 1.001-1.048). This effect was not seen with other flavonoids and carotenoids. Conclusions: Intake of flavanols and flavanones increases milk oxidation risk, which is relevant to develop diet recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Flavonoids/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Superoxides/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Argentina , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress , Flavanones/analysis , Anions/analysis
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 463-470, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912583

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of the essential oil and carotenoid content of the parasitic plant Cuscuta mitraeformis are described for the first time. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS revealing nonanal (24.6%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (16.5%) and eugenol (7.5%). The total carotenoid content (130 mg 100 g-1 FW) was determined by HPLC-DAD. The carotenoid fraction contained ß-carotene (76.4 mg 100 g-1 FW) and lutein (18.9 mg 100 g-1 FW) as the most abundant compounds. A weak antioxidant activity was observed by the essential oil against DPPH radical (IC50, 1.4 mg mL-1), whereas a strong antioxidant activity was determined for the carotenoid fraction (IC50, 60.1 µg mL-1). The essential oil inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Erwinia carotovora with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 122.5, 184.5, 234.2 µg mL-1, respectively.


La composición química del aceite esencial y el contenido de carotenoides de la planta parásita Cuscuta mitraeformis se describen por primera vez. El aceite esencial fue analizado por GC-FID y GC-MS siendo el nonanal (24.6%) el constituyente principal seguido del timol (16.5%) y el eugenol (7.5%). El contenido total de carotenoides (130 mg 100 g-1 PF) fue determinado por HPLC-DAD. La fracción de carotenoides contuvo ß-caroteno (76.4 mg 100 g-1 PF) y luteína (18.9 mg 100 g-1 PF) como compuestos mayoritarios. Fue observada una actividad antioxidante débil por parte del aceite esencial frente al radical DPPH (IC50, 1.4 mg mL-1), mientras que una fuerte actividad antioxidante fue determinada para la fracción de carotenoides (IC50, 60.1 µg mL-1). El aceite esencial inhibió el crecimiento de Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato y Erwinia carotovora con una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 122.5, 184.5, 234.2 µg mL-1, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cuscuta/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carotenoids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
5.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 81-88, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780041

ABSTRACT

RESUMO No Nordeste do Brasil é bastante comum e variado o uso da coroa-de-frade (Melocactus spp.). Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar diversas análises em cladódios de coroa-de-frade [Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelburg], para que possamos compreender as razões estes usos. Os cladódios foram coletados na cidade de Campina Grande e levados ao Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, onde foram feitas as seguintes análises: peso, altura, diâmetro, cor, umidade, acidez, pH, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos, tanto na epiderme quanto no parênquima aquífero. Os resultados mostraram que a epiderme tem uma acidez elevada e mais ácido ascórbico, e um pH mais baixo em comparação com o parênquima aquífero. O conteúdo de carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos, foram diferentes nas partes estudadas. A epiderme apresentou sempre maiores quantidades de carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos em relação ao parênquima aquífero, nas três plantas estudadas, indicando que a maior parte da defesa da planta acontece neste tecido. Mais estudos são necessários com técnicas mais precisas, para identificar os componentes bioativos desta espécie.


ABSTRACT In Northeast Brazil, the use of melon cactus (Melocactus spp.) is quite common and varied. Thus, the present study aimed to perform various analyzes in cladodes of melon cactus [Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelburg], to understand the reasons for the use of this species. The cladodes were collected in the city of Campina Grande and taken to the Food Engineering Laboratory of the Federal University of Campina Grande, where we performed the following analyses: mass, height, diameter, color, moisture, acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, both in the epidermis and in the aquifer parenchyma. The results showed that the epidermis has a higher acidity, ascorbic acid content and lower pH compared to the aquifer parenchyma. The contents of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, were different from the both parts analyzed. The epidermis always had greater quantities of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds than the aquifer parenchyma for the three plants, showing that most of the plant defense takes place in this tissue. Further studies, with more accurate techniques, are needed to identify the bioactive components of this species.


Subject(s)
Cactaceae/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Groundwater , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Plant Stems/classification
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1703-1710, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-768153

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilização de minerais orgânicos e do licopeno em rações para poedeiras sobre o desempenho zootécnico e a qualidade dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 288 poedeiras, distribuídas em DIC em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (fontes de minerais x níveis de licopeno), com seis tratamentos, seis repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. As rações experimentais foram: minerais inorgânicos (MI) sem a adição de licopeno; MI com a adição de licopeno (400mg/kg); MI com a adição de licopeno (800mg/kg); minerais orgânicos (MOR) sem a adição de licopeno; MOR com a adição de licopeno (400mg/kg); MOR com a adição de licopeno (800mg/kg). Foram avaliados: consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, massa dos ovos, conversão alimentar (kg/kg e kg/dz), peso do ovo, porcentagens de casca, albúmen e gema, espessura da casca, gravidade específica, unidade Haugh, índice e coloração de gema, pH do albúmen e da gema. Os minerais orgânicos aumentam o consumo de ração quando associados a níveis de 0 e 800mg de licopeno. A associação de 400mg de licopeno com minerais inorgânicos aumenta o consumo de ração. A adição de minerais orgânicos ou de 400mg de licopeno às rações melhora a porcentagem de postura e massa dos ovos de poedeiras com 58 semanas de idade. A coloração de gema é mais acentuada para as fontes inorgânicas em relação às orgânicas e mais acentuada em rações com 800mg de licopeno. A unidade Haugh é maior em rações sem licopeno e com minerais inorgânicos e em rações com 400mg de licopeno e com minerais orgânicos. Rações com fonte orgânica associada a 800mg de licopeno proporcionam maior unidade Haugh em relação a fonte orgânica sem licopeno.


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the use of organic minerals and lycopene in the diet of laying hens on performance and egg quality. 288 hens were used, distributed in DIC in a factorial 2 x 3 (mineral sources x lycopene levels) with six treatments and six replicates of eight birds per experimental unit. The experimental diets were: inorganic minerals (MI) without the addition of lycopene; MI with the addition of lycopene (400mg/kg); MI with the addition of lycopene (800mg/kg); minerals organic (MOR) without addition lycopene; MOR with the addition of lycopene (400mg/kg); MOR with the addition of lycopene (800mg/kg). The following parameters were evaluated: feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion (kg/kg and kg/dz), egg weight, percentage shell, albumen and yolk, shell thickness specific gravity, unit Haugh, index and yolk color, pH of albumen and yolk. The organic minerals increase the feed intake when combined at levels of 0 and 800mg of lycopene. The combination of 400mg of lycopene with inorganic minerals increases feed intake. The addition of organic or mineral 400mg lycopene in diets improves egg production and egg weight of hens at 58 weeks of age. The yolk color is more pronounced for inorganic sources in relation to organic and more pronounced in diets with 800mg of lycopene. The Haugh unit is higher in lycopene free diets and diets with inorganic mineral and 400mg of lycopene and organic minerals. Diets with organic source associated with 800mg of lycopene provide higher Haugh units for organic source without lycopene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carotenoids/analysis , Chickens/metabolism , Dietary Minerals/analysis , Eggs/analysis , Animal Feed , Food Quality
7.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(3): 579-590, July-Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766315

ABSTRACT

Lycopene, a carotenoid and potent antioxidant is found in large quantities in tomatoes. Lycopene combats diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and different types of cancer, including prostate cancer. However, its topical use in emulsion form for the combat of skin aging is under-explored. The aim of the present study was to develop an emulsion containing lycopene extracted from salad tomatoes and evaluate its cytotoxicity, stability, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and phytocosmetic permeation. The developed cosmetic comprised an oil phase made up of shea derivatives and was evaluated in terms of its physiochemical stability, spreadability, thermal analysis, rheological behavior, microbiological quality, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, cutaneous permeation and retention. The results demonstrate that this phytocosmetic is stable, exhibits satisfactory rheological behavior for a topical formula and is a promising product for combating skin aging.


Licopeno é um carotenóide com potente atividade antioxidante encontrado em grande quantidade no tomate e usado no combate a diversas doenças como doenças cardiovasculares e diferentes tipos de cânceres, incluindo o câncer de próstata. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver uma emulsão contendo extrato de licopeno obtido do tomate salada e avaliar a citotoxicidade do extrato, a estabilidade, o comportamento reológico, atividade antioxidante e permeação do fitocosmético. O cosmético foi desenvolvido utilizando fase oleosa contendo derivados de Karité e submetido à avaliação da estabilidade físico-química, espalhabilidade, análise térmica, comportamento reológico, qualidade microbiológica, citotoxicidade, atividade antioxidante e testes de permeação e retenção cutânea. Os resultados demonstraram que o fitocosmético é estável, apresenta comportamento reológico desejável para uma formulação tópica e é um produto promissor para ser utilizado no combate à aceleração do envelhecimento cutâneo.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/analysis , Emulsions/classification , Skin Aging , Antioxidants/classification , Lycopersicon esculentum
8.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(3): 637-642, July-Sept. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766326

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of crocin on gastric mucosal lesions caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into sham, I/R, I/R + crocin pretreatment and crocin alone groups. To induce I/R lesions, the celiac artery was clamped for 30 min, and the clamp was then removed to allow reperfusion for 3 h. Crocin-pretreated rats received crocin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to the induction of I/R injury. Samples of gastric mucosa were collected to quantify the protein expression of caspase-3, an apoptotic factor, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a pro-inflammatory protein, by Western blot. Pretreatment with crocin decreased the total area of gastric lesions and decreased the protein expression levels of caspase-3 and iNOS induced by I/R injury. Our findings showed a protective effect of crocin in gastric mucosa against I/R injury. This effect of crocin was mainly mediated by reducing the protein expression of iNOS and caspase-3.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito protetor da crocina em lesões da mucosa gástrica causadas por isquemia-reperfusão (I/R) em ratos. Trinta e dois ratos machos aleatoriamente divididos em grupos de ratos normais, operados como controle, I/R. I/R + pré-tratamento com crocina e crocina sozinha. Para induzir lesões I/R, a artéria celíaca foi grampeada durante 30 minutos e, em seguida, o grampo foi removido para permitir a reperfusão por 3 h. Ratos com pré-tratamento com crocina receberam crocina (15 mg/kg, ip) 30 minutos antes da indução do dano I/R. Amostras de mucosa gástrica foram coletadas para qiuantificar a expressão da proteína da caspase-3, o fator apoptótico, e óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS), uma proteína anti-inflamatória, pela técnica de Western Blot. O pré-tratamento com crocina diminuiu a área total de lesões gástricas e a expressão de níveis de caspase-3 e iNOS induzidas pelo dano I/R. Nossos resultados mostraram o efeito protetor da crocina na mucosa gástrica contra o dano I/R. Este efeito foi mediado, principalmente, por diminuição da expressão das proteínas iNOS e caspase-3.


Subject(s)
Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Rats/classification , Reperfusion Injury , Carotenoids/analysis , Caspase 3/analysis , Gastritis/prevention & control
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1217-1227, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753684

ABSTRACT

Phlegmariurus is the only genus of Lycopodiaceae with the species grouped in 22 informal groups. Species level relationships within Phlegmariurus are poorly understood and their circumscriptions require a thorough molecular and morphological review. A detailed study of morphology and anatomy of caulinar axes, lycophylls and sporangia of Phlegmariurus phylicifolius was carried out in order to contribute to the elucidation of species circumscription in the informal group Phlegmariurus phlegmaria. Small pieces of caulinar axes bearing trophophylls, sporophylls and sporangia were fixed, dehydrated, Histowax (paraffin) embedded, sectioned in a rotatory microtome, and stained using the common Safranin O-Fast Green technique; handmade cross sections were also made and stained with the same technique. P. phylicifolius includes slender, pendulous plants up to 40cm long. Shoots heterophyllous, in the basal divisions ca. 10-20(-25)mm in diameter including the trophophylls, then abruptly constricted to (l-) 1.5-2(-2.5)mm in diameter including the imbricate, reduced sporophylls. Trophophylls are borne in alternating whorls of three, or decussate, subdecussate, or alternate, widely spaced in alternate leaved caulinar axes portions, perpendicular to the caulinar axes to falcately ascending, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, with flat to slightly revolute margins. Each lycophyll is supplied by a single central vascular bundle, connected to a protoxylem pole in the stele. At the site of leaf-trace departure, no leaf (lycophyll) gap is present. Caulinar axes excluding leaves 0.7-1.2mm thick at the base, upward tapering to ca. 0.5mm. Caulinar axes present unistratified epidermis and endodermis, the cortex is characterized by the presence of a trabecular structure of lisigenous origin formed in the parenchimatous tissue next to the endodermis. The vascular tissue occupies the central part of the caulinar axes, forming a plectostele of subradiate organization, with five poles of protoxylem. The epidermal cells present sinuous anticlinal walls; invaginations in the inner side of external periclinal wall of the epidermal cells could be probably adaptive morphological feature of a water deficient environment. Leaves of constricted terminal divisions are decussate, or subdecussate, continuously or discontinuously sporangiate, appressed, abaxially rounded to carinate, widely lanceolate to widely ovate or subcordate, acute to mucronate or cuspidate, shorter than the sporangia. Each sporangium originates from a group of epidermal cells, axilar to the sporophylls. The cell walls of epidermal cell of the sporangia are Huperzioideae type. The morphological studies of trophophylls contribute to confirm the differences between P. phylicifolius and P. subulatus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 1217-1227. Epub 2014 September 01.


Phlegmariurus es el único género de Lycopodiaceae con las especies reunidas en 22 grupos informales. Las relaciones a nivel de especie dentro de Phlegmariurus están pobremente estudiadas y la circunscripción de las mismas requiere profundos exámenes moleculares y morfológicos. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio detallado de la morfología y la anatomía de ejes caulinares, licofilos y esporangios de P. phylicifolius, con el fin de contribuir al esclarecimiento en la delimitación de las especies en el grupo Phlegmariurus phlegmaria. Segmentos de ejes caulinares con trofofilos, esporofilos y esporangios fueron fijados, deshidratados, incluidos en Histowax (parafina), cortados con un micrótomo rotatorio y coloreados usando la técnica tradicional Safranina O-Verde Rápido; además se hicieron cortes a mano alzada y se colorearon con la misma técnica. P. phylicifolius incluye plantas colgantes y péndulas de hasta 40cm de longitud. Los ejes son heterofilos, de aproximadamente 10-20(-25)mm de diámetro en las divisiones basales incluyendo los trofofilos, luego abruptamente reducidos a (l-) 1.5-2(-2.5)mm de diámetro incluyendo los esporofilos reducidos e imbricados. Los trofofilos están dispuestos en anillos alternantes de a tres, o decusados, subdecusados o alternos, dispuestos en forma espaciada en los ejes caulinares, perpendiculares al tallo hasta falcadamente ascendentes, lanceolados a lineal-lanceolados, con márgenes lisos o levemente revolutos. Cada licofilo está provisto de un haz vascular simple y central, conectado a un polo de protoxilema de la estela y sin laguna foliar. Los tallos poseen un ancho de 0.7-1.2mm en la base, excluyendo los licofilos, estrechándose hasta cerca de 0.5mm hacia el ápice. Los ejes caulinares presentan una epidermis uniestratificada y endodermis, la corteza se caracteriza por la presencia de una estructura trabecular de origen lisígeno formada en el tejido parenquimático próximo a la endodermis. El tejido vascular ocupa la parte central del eje caulinar, formando una plectostela de organización subradiada, con cinco polos de protoxilema. Las células epidérmicas presentan paredes anticlinales sinuosas; las invaginaciones en la cara interna de la pared periclinal externa podrían ser probablemente un característica morfológica adaptativa a un ambiente con períodos de sequía. Las hojas de las porciones apicales son decusadas o subdecusadas, con esporangio de disposición continua o discontinua, adpresas, abaxialmente redondeadas a carinadas, ampliamente lanceoladas a ovadas o subcordadas, ápice agudo a mucronado o cuspidado, más corto que el esporangio. Cada esporangio se origina de un grupo de células epidérmicas, en la axila de los esporofilos con el eje caulinar. Las paredes celulares de las células epidérmicas del esporangio son de tipo Huperzioideae. El estudio de la morfología de los trofofilos contribuye a confirmar las diferencias entre P. phylicifolius y P. subulatus.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/analysis , Lycopodiaceae/cytology , Sporangia/cytology , Spores/cytology , Lycopodiaceae/chemistry , Lycopodiaceae/classification , Lycopodiaceae/growth & development , Sporangia/chemistry , Sporangia/classification , Sporangia/growth & development , Spores/chemistry , Spores/classification , Spores/growth & development
10.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali) and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi') grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. RESULTS: The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 µg in irrigated and 6952 µg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacihaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 µg and 15251 µg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than ß-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Vitamins/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Prunus/metabolism , Agricultural Irrigation/methods , Fruit/metabolism , Turkey , Vitamin A/analysis , Vitamin E/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Crops, Agricultural/classification , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , beta Carotene/analysis , Prunus/growth & development , Lycopene , Fruit/growth & development
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1003-1013, sep. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-688455

ABSTRACT

Thalassiosira pseudonana is a marine Bacillariophyta commonly used as live feed in mariculture. The growth rate and biochemical composition of microalgae are highly influenced by environmental factors such as, irradiance and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three irradiances (60, 120 and 180μE/m².s) and two culture media (Algal and Humus) on growth and biochemical composition of this diatom. The microalga was grown semicontinuously at a daily renewal rate of fresh media of 30%, 37‰ salinity, 25±1ºC and constant aeration (200mL/min). The cell densities (cel/mL) and contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and fatty acids, showed significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments. During steady-state phase, the maximal cell density, and lipid and carbohydrate contents were of 4.62x10(6)cel/mL, 20.3±2.28% and 16.6±2.43%, respectively, and were achieved in Humus medium at 180μE/m².s. Moreover, highest protein contents (45.0±5.05%) and total carotenoids (0.5±0.01%) were obtained in Algal medium at 180μE/m².s. Chlorophyll a (0.93±0.04%) was higher at low irradiances in Algal medium. In both media, the fatty acids unsaturation degree was lower with increasing irradiance, being eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 (EPA) most represented (6.20%) in Algal medium at 60μE/m².s. This strain of T. pseudonana showed multiple physiological responses to changes in culture conditions, and may be cultivated with an alternative medium, which reduced the operating costs and allowed a high nutritional biomass production value for animals under culture.


Thalassiosira pseudonana es utilizada como alimento en acuicultura, pero su valor nutricional está influenciado por las condiciones de crecimiento. Sistemas semicontinuos, en fase de estabilización, con tres irradiancias (60, 120 y 180μE/m².s) y dos medios de cultivo (Algal y Humus) fueron las condiciones en las que se determinó el crecimiento y componentes bioquímicos de T. pseudonana. En Humus a 180μE/m².s se obtuvieron las máximas densidades celulares (entre 3.86 y 4.62x10(6)cel/mL) y mayores concentraciones de lípidos y carbohidratos, con porcentajes de 20.3±2.28 y 16.6±2.43, respectivamente. A 180μE/m².s en Algal se observaron los mayores valores de proteínas (45.0±5.05) y carotenoides totales (0.5±0.01). El contenido de clorofila a fue favorecido por baja intensidad de luz, principalmente en Algal, con máximos de 0.9±0.04%. El grado de insaturación de los ácidos grasos disminuyó por incremento de la irradiancia en ambos medios, estando mayoritariamente representados por el ácido eicosapentaenoico, 20:5 n-3 (AEP), con porcentajes máximos (6.20%) en Algal a 60μE/m².s. Los resultados muestran múltiples respuestas fisiológicas de T. pseudonana frente a cambios en las condiciones de crecimiento, las cuales pueden ser aprovechadas para mejorar su valor nutricional como alimento de organismos cultivados, utilizando medios de cultivo alternativos, que disminuyan los costos en la producción microalgal.


Subject(s)
Culture Media/pharmacology , Diatoms/chemistry , Diatoms/growth & development , Carbohydrates/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Culture Media/chemistry , Diatoms/radiation effects , Fatty Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Proteins/analysis
12.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 72(2): 165-169, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-729375

ABSTRACT

Carotenoid analysis is inherently challenging, requiring the analysts’ expertise and attention to manydetails. To guarantee the reliability of carotenoid data generated in our laboratory, aside from methoddevelopment, optimization and validation, periodic evaluation of the analysts’ performance is carried out.This paper reports the results obtained in one of our evaluations, using a certified reference material. Fiveanalysts with varying experience in carotenoid analysis participated. The same liquid chromatograph andstandard curves were used, restricting the evaluation to the analysts’ performance. The HPLC methodconsisted of extraction with acetone, partition to petroleum ether, saponification with 10 % methanolicKOH, washing with water, concentrating in a rotary evaporator, drying with nitrogen, dissolving inacetone, separation, identification and quantification. The z-score for each carotenoid was calculated.There was very good agreement in terms of the carotenes and b-cryptoxanthin for the five analysts. Forlutein and zeaxanthin, the analyst with little experience in carotenoid analysis obtained lower values,but the z-scores were still satisfactory. One analyst who had experience only with carotene analysis alsogot lower concentrations for the xanthophylls. This was due to the fact that ethyl ether was not used inpartitioning the carotenoids from the extracting solvent to petroleum ether.


Subject(s)
Task Performance and Analysis , /methods , Carotenoids/analysis , Research/analysis , Research Personnel
13.
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 79-85, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676825

ABSTRACT

The effects of nickel, cobalt, chromium and zinc on the content of vitamins A, E and C, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Hoagland solution Control and heavy metal-treated plants were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Vitamin A, E, and C content were measured in primary leaves by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids were measured in leaves by spectrophotometer. In heavy metal treated plants, the levels of MDA, vitamins A, E and C and carotenoids significantly increased, while chlorophyll content decreased in leaves of seedlings. The results indicate that heavy metals caused an oxidative stress in bean plants. The strongest effect on vitamins A, E and C, MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids was found in plants exposed to nickel, followed by the sequence cobalt > chromium> zinc.


Subject(s)
Malondialdehyde/analysis , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Phaseolus/physiology , Pigments, Biological/analysis , Seedlings/physiology , Vitamins/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Chromium/metabolism , Cobalt/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Nickel/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Vitamin A/analysis , Vitamin E/analysis , Zinc/metabolism
14.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 37(3): 227-244, dez. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670602

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the availability of carotenoids in households located in rural and urban areas of Brazil and in major regions. For the analyzes, we used the results obtained by Morato and Silva (2008) based on microdata from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (?IBGE?) through the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) ? 2002/2003 data and the CES ? 2008/2009 data. The information in the table of the United States Department of Agriculture was adopted for calculation and analysis of carotenoids availability. The nutritional calculations were made possible through the use of the SAS software. The results showed that beta-carotene stood out among the carotenoids, with increased availability in recent years. With regard to alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, the results indicated that Brazilian families had access to limited quantities of such substances. Regarding lycopene, it was possible to observe that this carotenoid showed higher average availability in households located in urban areas, with 64.2% availability increase between the two surveys. The highest available lutein and zeaxanthin were identified in households of the rural areas. Regarding pro-vitamin-A carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), average availability growth was noted in Brazilian households between the two studies. The average availability of carotenoids in Brazilian households was considered reduced despite the increase of 51.8% identified in the interval between the two surveys. The availability of carotenoids for the population, based on the data captured from the CES ? 2008/2009, showed significant increase; however, it is evident that it is not substantial in the Brazilian households.


El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la disponibilidad de carotenoides en los hogares ubicados en las zonas rurales y urbanas de las principales regiones de Brasil. Para el análisis se utilizaron los resultados obtenidos por Morato y Silva (2008) sobre la base de microdatos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística a través de la Encuesta de Presupuestos Familiares (POF) 2002-2003 y datos POF-2008-2009. Para el cálculo y análisis de la disponibilidad de carotenoides se usó la información de la tabla del Departamento de Agricultura de EE.UU. Los cálculos estadísticos se hicieron con el software SAS. Los resultados demostraron que el beta-caroteno se destacó entre los carotenoides, con mayor disponibilidad en los últimos años. Las familias brasileñas tuvieron poco acceso al alfa-caroteno y a la beta-criptoxantina. Se observó, en media, una mayor disponibilidad de licopeno (64,2% de aumento) en los hogares ubicados en zonas urbanas. La luteína y la zeaxantina estuvieron más disponibles en los hogares de las zonas rurales. La disponibilidad de la pro-vitamina A (beta-caroteno, alfa-caroteno, beta-criptoxantina) creció en los hogares brasileños entre los dos estudios. La disponibilidad media de los carotenoides en la población mostró un aumento significativo (51,8% de aumento) en base a los datos de la POF-2008-2009. Sin embargo, a pesar del incremento identificado en el intervalo entre las encuestas, esa disponibilidad no es significativa en los hogares brasileños y se muestra, aún, reducida.


O objetivo do trabalho foi descrever a disponibilidade de carotenoides nos domicílios localizados nas áreas rurais e urbanas do Brasil e nas grandes Regiões. Para as análises, foram utilizados os resultados obtidos por Morato e Silva (2008) baseados nos microdados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística por meio da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF) 2002-2003 e os dados da POF- 2008-2009. As informações contidas na tabela do United States of Department Agriculture foram adotadas para os cálculos e análise da disponibilidade de carotenoides. Os cálculos nutricionais foram viabilizados por meio da utilização do software SAS. Os resultados mostraram que o betacaroteno se destacou entre os carotenoides, com aumento da disponibilidade nos anos mais recentes. No tocante ao alfacaroteno e a betacriptoxantina, as análises indicaram que as famílias brasileiras tiveram acesso a reduzidas quantidades das referidas substâncias. Em relação ao licopeno, verificou-se que esse carotenoide apresentou maior disponibilidade média nos domicílios localizados nas áreas urbanas, com aumento de 64,2% da disponibilidade entre as duas pesquisas. Os maiores conteúdos disponíveis de luteína e zeaxantina foram identificados nos domicílios das áreas rurais. No que se refere aos carotenoides provitamínicos A (betacaroteno, alfacaroteno, betacriptoxantina), notou-se crescimento da disponibilidade média nos domicílios brasileiros entre os dois estudos. A disponibilidade média de carotenoides totais nos domicílios brasileiros mostrou-se reduzida apesar do aumento de 51,8% identificado no intervalo entre as pesquisas. A disponibilidade de carotenoides para a população apresentou um importante aumento, captado com base nos dados da POF 2008-2009. No entanto, é evidente que se revela pouco expressiva nos domicílios brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Housing , Carotenoids/analysis , Eating
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(4): 381-388, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714893

ABSTRACT

El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es apreciado por sus cualidades nutritivas y ser fuente de compuestos antioxidantes, calcio, fósforo, potasio y hierro, azúcares, ácidos orgánicos, pectinas y flavonoides. En este estudio se determinaron parámetros físicos (peso, tamaño, fuerza compresión, humedad) y químicos (°Brix, acidez titulable, pH, proteína, fibra dietaria, cenizas, minerales y bioaccesibilidad de minerales, pectina, compuestos antioxidantes) del fruto procedente del Estado Aragua, Venezuela, como una contribución para incentivar y diversificar su consumo. La caracterización reflejó que los frutos estaban en estado de madurez para su consumo (°Brix 10,51, pH 3,5, acidez 0,02 g/100 ml y fuerza de compresión 4,32 Kgf/cm2), con rendimiento de pulpa del 74%. Los resultados del análisis de la pulpa madura reflejan un aporte de 30 Kcal/100g, fibra dietaria (4,10g/100g) y valores de fósforo, calcio, magnesio potasio y hierro de 331,32; 21,25; 21,18; 17,03; 7,44 mg/100g respectivamente. Se obtuvo 6,71 y 1,86 % de bioaccesibilidad para calcio y hierro. La pectina extraída (1,00 g/100g) resultó ser de alto metoxilo y alto grado de esterificación. La capacidad antioxidante de la pulpa madura (EC50 de 165 g /g DPPH y poder reductor de 0,07 mmol Fe +2/100g) pudiera atribuirse a la presencia de ácido ascórbico (23,32 mg/100g), licopeno (1,22 mg/100g), compuestos fenólicos (1,39 mg EAG/ g), antocianinas (0,29 mg cianidina/g) y taninos (0,40 mg catequina/ 100g). Los resultados obtenidos pueden ser utilizados para promover los beneficios sobre la salud y sugerir su uso como ingrediente funcional en el desarrollo de productos.


Physical, chemical and bioactive compounds of tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) is appreciated for its excellent nutritional qualities, being considered a good source of antioxidants compounds, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, sugars, organic acids, pectins and flavonoids. In this study, were evaluated physical parameters (weight, size, compression strength and humidity) and chemical (°Brix, titratable acidity, pH, protein, dietary fiber, ash, minerals and their bioaccesibility, pectin, antioxidants compounds) of the fruit from the Aragua State, Venezuela, as a contribution to stimulate and diversify the consumption of the tree tomato. The characterization showed that the fruits were at the ripening stage for consumption (°Brix 10.51, pH 3.5, acidity 0.02 g/100ml and 4.32 Kgf/cm2 compression strength) gave a yield of 74% pulp. The analytical results of the ripped pulp showed a content of 30 Kcal/100g, dietary fiber (4.10g/100g), and minerals such as phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron (331.32, 21.25, 21.18, 17.03 and 7.44 mg/100g, respectively). Bioaccesibility values of 6.71 and 1.86% were reported for calcium and iron. The extracted pectin (1.00 g/100g) was classified as high methoxyl with high degree of esterification. The antioxidant capacity of the ripped pulp (EC50 of 165.00 g /g DPPH and reducing power of 0.07 mmol Fe +2/100g), could be attributed to the presence of ascorbic acid (23.32 mg/100g), lycopene (1.22 mg/100 g), and phenolic compounds (1.39 mg GAE/g), anthocyanins (0.29 mg cyanidin/ g) and tannins (0.40 mg catechin/100g).The results obtained encourage the nutritional benefits and suggest applications as a functional ingredient in food product development.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Solanaceae/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Functional Food/analysis , Nutritive Value , Pectins/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Solanum/chemistry , Tannins/analysis , Venezuela
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(1): 109-115, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622795

ABSTRACT

Sequential statistical methods were used to maximise carotenoid production by a strain of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, isolated from the Brazilian ecosystem. Initially, a factorial 2(5-1) experimental design was used, and the variables were pH and the levels of glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4. The nitrogen source (yeast extract) was the most important variable in enhancing carotenoid production; MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4 had a negative influence. The initial pH had no significant effect on carotenoid and cell productions. We further investigated the effects of glucose and yeast extract effects, using a second-order central composite design (CCD) to optimise carotenoid production, which was adequately approximated with a full quadratic equation obtained from a two-factor-2-level design. The analysis of quadratic surfaces showed that after 5 days of cultivation at 25ºC, the maximum carotenoid concentration (745 µg l-1) was obtained with 15 g l-1 of yeast extract and 20 g l-1 of glucose. The maximum carotenoid production (152 µg g-1) was obtained with 5 g l-1 yeast extract and 10 g l-1 glucose. Carotenoid formation was more sensitive to changes in yeast extract concentration than to changes in glucose concentration. Maximum cell production was achieved with 15-17 g l-1 of yeast extract and 15-20 g l-1 of glucose.


Subject(s)
Cell Enlargement , Carotenoids/analysis , Ecosystem , Fermentation , Glucose/analysis , Glucose/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Methods , Process Optimization , Statistics as Topic
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(1): 126-134, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622797

ABSTRACT

A fractional factorial design 2(5-1) was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch's trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 mg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Chromatography, Liquid , Carotenoids/analysis , Iodopyracet/analysis , Singlet Oxygen/analysis , Thermus/genetics , Thermus/isolation & purification , Yeasts , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Methods
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(3): 1128-1135, July-Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607544

ABSTRACT

In order to find out optimum culture condition for algal growth, the effect of light irradiance and temperature on growth rate, biomass composition and pigment production of Spirulina platensis were studied in axenic batch cultures. Growth kinetics of cultures showed a wide range of temperature tolerance from 20 ºC to 40 ºC. Maximum growth rate, cell production with maximum accumulation of chlorophyll and phycobilliproteins were found at temperature 35 ºC and 2,000 lux light intensity. But with further increase in temperature and light intensity, reduction in growth rate was observed. Carotenoid content was found maximum at 3,500 lux. Improvement in the carotenoid content with increase in light intensity is an adaptive mechanism of cyanobacterium S.platensis for photoprotection, could be a good basis for the exploitation of microalgae as a source of biopigments.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/analysis , Cyanobacteria/growth & development , Chlorophyll/analysis , Phycobiliproteins/analysis , Kinetics , Spirulina/growth & development , Methods , Methods
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(5): 476-488, sept. 2011. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-618830

ABSTRACT

The carotenoids are photosensitive pigments during photosynthesis. The objective of this work was to study the effect on development and accumulation of carotenoids in ligules of Tagetes erecta exposed under two different lighting ambient (with mesh and without mesh of 50 percent). The plant development was evaluated measuring the height of the plant, number of floral buds, the ligules diameter. In adition, the quantification and identification of carotenoids from ligules was done by HPLC. The results showed significant differences (p<0.05) in the height of the plant, number of floral buds and ligules diameter of T. erecta. The group grown without mesh received greater UV radiation and different temperature, that under a mesh. The first conditions lead to a reduction of the ligules diameter and total content of xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin). The plastids ultrastructure in the cells of T. erecta developed with mesh showed the greatest amount of thylakoid membranes and more conspicuous starch granules.


Los carotenoides son pigmentos fotosensibles frente a un exceso de intensidad luminosa durante el proceso de fotosíntesis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el estudio del efecto en el desarrollo de la planta y la acumulación de carotenoides por la exposición a dos diferentes intensidades lumínicas (con y sin malla de sombra al 50 por ciento). Se evaluó el desarrollo de T. erecta en cuanto a la altura de la planta, número de botones florales y el diámetro de las lígulas. Adicionalmente, en las lígulas se cuantificaron e identificaron los carotenoides por HPLC. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p<0.05) en cuanto al desarrollo de las plantas expuestas a mayor radiación UV y temperatura, presentaron reducción del diámetro de las lígulas y disminución en el contenido de Xantófilas totales ( luteína y zeaxantina) con respecto a las cultivadas con malla,. La ultraestructura de los plastidios mostró mayor cantidad de membranas tilacoidales y gránulos de almidón más conspicuos en las células de las plantas de T erecta desarrolladas con malla.


Subject(s)
Calendula/growth & development , Carotenoids/analysis , Lighting , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Culture Media , Calendula/metabolism , Calendula/chemistry , Carotenoids/biosynthesis , Photosynthesis , Pigments, Biological , Plastids , Spectrophotometry , Temperature , Xanthophylls
20.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 67(supl.9)dez. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-567171

ABSTRACT

As características da cor da pele resultam da interação da luz com a epiderme e com a derme. Existem quatro pigmentos importantes na pele normal que afetam a sua cor: melanina, hemoglobina oxigenada, hemoglobina reduzida e vários carotenos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotenoids/analysis , Melanins/analysis , Skin Pigmentation/genetics
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