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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 69-77, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179284

ABSTRACT

According to data from studies, antioxidant herbal compounds are, likely to have a useful role in reducing the harmful effects of environmental pollutants and toxic chemicals that most people are exposed to. Cadmium is one of the toxic elements that accumulate in many organs, especially in kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crocin on the expression of PKHD1 and KLLN genes in cadmium-treated rats.In this experimental study, 40 adults male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into the following groups: control group received normal saline, cadmium group (15mg/kg), crocin group (20mg/kg) and cadmium group daily fed with crocin at a dose of 20 mg/kg.After eight weeks of treatment, rats were dissected, and kidney tissues were removed for evaluation of PKHD1 and KLLN gene expression by real time method. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significant difference between groups was P<0.05.Our results showed an increase in PKHD1 gene expression and a decrease in KLLN gene expression in kidney tissue in the cadmium group compared to the control group (P <0.001).Also, a significant decrease in PKHD1 gene expression (P <0.001) and an increase in KLLN gene expression P <0.05) were observed in the tissues of all cadmium-treated rats compared to cadmium.Crocin consumption can have a protective effect against the impaired expression of PKHD1 and KLLN cadmium-induced apoptotic pathway.


Diversos estudios sugieren que compuestos antioxidantes de hierbas tienen un papel útil en la reducción de los efectos nocivos de los contaminantes ambientales y los químicos tóxicos a los que está expuesta la mayoría de las personas. El cadmio es uno de los elementos tóxicos que se acumulan en muchos órganos, especialmente en los riñones. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto de la crocina en la expresión de los genes PKHD1 y KLLN en ratas tratadas con cadmio.En este estudio experimental, 40 ratas Wistar macho adultas (200-250 g) se dividieron aleatoriamente en los siguientes grupos: el grupo de control recibió solución salina normal, el grupo de cadmio (15 mg / kg), el grupo de crocina (20 mg / kg) y el grupo de cadmio alimentado diariamente con crocina a una dosis de 20 mg / kg.Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, se disecaron las ratas y se extrajeron los tejidos renales para evaluar la expresión de los genes PKHD1 y KLLN mediante un método en tiempo real. Los datos se analizaron mediante ANOVA de una vía y la diferencia significativa entre los grupos fue P <0,05.Nuestros resultados mostraron un aumento en la expresión del gen PKHD1 y una disminución en la expresión del gen KLLN en el tejido renal en el grupo de cadmio en comparación con el grupo de control (P <0,001).Además, se observó una disminución significativa en la expresión del gen PKHD1 (P <0,001) y un aumento en la expresión del gen KLLN P <0,05) en los tejidos de todas las ratas tratadas con cadmio en comparación con el cadmio.El consumo de crocina puede tener un efecto protector contra la expresión alterada de la vía apoptótica inducida por cadmio PKHD1 y KLLN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cadmium/therapeutic use , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901101, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054681

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To determine the efficacy of norbixin-based poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) membranes for Achilles tendon repair. Methods: Thirty rats were submitted to total tenotomy surgery of the right Achilles tendon and divided into two groups (control and membrane; n = 15 each), which were further subdivided into three subgroups (days 7, 14, and 21; n = 5 each). Samples were analyzed histologically. Results: Histological analysis showed a significant reduction in inflammatory infiltrates on days 7, 14 (p < 0.0001 for both), and 21 (p = 0.0004) in the membrane group compared to that in the control group. There was also a significant decrease in the number of fibroblasts in the control group on days 7, 14 (p < 0.0001), and 21 (p = 0.0032). Further, an increase in type I collagen deposition was observed in the membrane group compared to that in the control group on days 7 (p = 0.0133) and 14 (p = 0.0107). Conclusion: Treatment with norbixin-based PHB membranes reduces the inflammatory response, increases fibroblast proliferation, and improves collagen production in the tendon repair region, especially between days 7 and 14.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Polyesters/pharmacology , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Achilles Tendon/drug effects , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Tenotomy/methods , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Reference Values , Regeneration/drug effects , Achilles Tendon/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/drug effects , Collagen Type III/analysis , Collagen Type III/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 347-358, jul. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008172

ABSTRACT

Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), commonly known as Sapodilla, is widely known for its delicious fruit. Various parts of this plant are also used in folk medicine to treat a number of conditions including fever, pain, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhage and ulcers. Scientific studies have demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anti-hypercholesteremic, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities in several parts of the plant. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of phenolic compounds including protocatechuic acid quercitrin, myricitrin, catechin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, etc. as main constituents of the plant. Several fatty acids, carotenoids, triterpenes, sterols, hydrocarbons and phenylethanoid compounds have also been isolated from M. zapota. The present review is a comprehensive description focused on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of M. zapota.


Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), comúnmente conocida como Sapodilla, es ampliamente conocida por su delicioso fruto. Variadas partes de esta planta se usan en medicina popular para tratar una serie de afecciones, como fiebre, dolor, diarrea, disentería, hemorragia y úlceras. Estudios científicos han demostrado actividad analgésica, antiinflamatoria, antioxidante, citotóxica, antimicrobiana, antidiarreica, antihipercolesterolémica, antihiperglucémica y hepatoprotectora en diferentes partes de la planta. Los estudios fitoquímicos han revelado la presencia de compuestos fenólicos que incluyen ácido protocatechúico, quercitrina, miricitrina, catequina, ácido galico, ácido vanílico, ácido cafeico, ácido sirínico, ácido cumárico, ácido fúnico y ácido ferúlico como componentes principales de la planta. Varios ácidos grasos, carotenoides, triterpenos, esteroles, hidrocarburos y compuestos feniletanoides también han sido aislados de M. zapota. La presente revisión es una descripción exhaustiva centrada en las actividades farmacológicas y los constituyentes fitoquímicos de M. zapota.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Manilkara/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Saponins/isolation & purification , Saponins/pharmacology , Sterols/isolation & purification , Sterols/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Carotenoids/isolation & purification , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Sapotaceae/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 32 p.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361457

ABSTRACT

Microalgae, photosynthetic microorganisms, are rich in lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, as well as carotenoids, which are antioxidants that may protect human body from various diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, vision-related diseases such as macular degeneration and certain types of cancer. These natural pigments have applications in the pharmaceutical (nutraceutical), food (coloring, functional food, and supplements), and cosmetics industries (e.g. sunscreen), as well as in aquaculture (animal feed). The Dunaliella salina microalga can synthesize 10% of dry weight in ß-carotene (orange pigment, pro-vitamin A activity) under high light intensity and nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, among other stress conditions. The first chapter of this thesis presents a review focused on microalgae carotenoids: culture systems, mode of operation, and applications. In this bibliographic survey, the advantages of microalgae cultivation in relation to traditional sources (higher plants) were discussed, as well as a discussion of the main cultivation systems and their importance in cell growth. This review presented a critical analysis of the different operational regimes like batch, fed-batch, semi-continuous and continuous. Relevant information on the most important world producers of microalgae carotenoids were presented. Chapter II presents the development of a modified method of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for rapid extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina cultivated in tubular photobioreactor, with subsequent development of a rapid chromatographic screening method using a C4 column for separation of geometric isomer of ß-carotene. The use of benzene as extraction solvent and water with 50% acetone as dispersant provided the best condition for the extraction of this carotenoid. In HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), employing mobile phase composed of methanol and water (95:5, v/v), it was possible to detect/quantify ß-carotene at 14 min (retention time). Besides the short analysis time (<20 min), by the miniaturized extraction (< 10 mL organic waste) this method abide by green chemistry analytical principles. It is known that nitrogen, phosphorus, as well as carbon and vitamins are vital elements for the growth of microalgae, also determining the biochemical composition of biomass. In this sense, Chapter III presents the study of the influence of different amounts of sodium nitrate (1N = 75 mg L-1; 1.5N = 112.5 mg L-1, and 3N = 225 mg L-1) and phosphate monobasic dehydrate (1P = 5.65 mg L-1, 1.5P = 8.47 mg L-1, and 3P = 16.95 mg L-1) in seawater-based f/2 medium on the growth of Dunaliella salina and ß-carotene biosynthesis, by continuous process with different replenishment proportions (R = 20% and 80%). Best results of cell productivity were obtained by semicontinuous process (mean values of Px up to 6.7 x 104 cells mL-1 d-1 with medium 1N:1P; R =20%) in comparison with batch process cultivation. Maximum cell density (Xm) obtained in this work was not dependent of R, but the best results were obtained when using medium 1.5N:1.5P (mean values up to 5.6 x 105 cells mL-1 with R =80%) instead of 1N:1P. The content of ß-carotene in the cells, in general, was higher in cells grown in medium 1N:1P (mean yield values up to 57.5 mg g-1 with R =80%) in comparison with medium 1.5N:1.5P. The cultivation of D. salina with media 3N:3P led to a long lag phase, followed by decrease in cell density and cell lysis. The use of a tubular photobioreactor contributed to successfully cultivate this microalga without contamination by protozoa. The cultivation of Dunaliella salina in tubular photobioreactor with the use of 12:12 photoperiod was appropriate, as well as to induce carotenogenesis, in the second stage, by increasing the light intensity and absence of pH control


As microalgas, micro-organismos fotossintetizantes, são ricas em lipídios, ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, carboidratos, proteínas, vitaminas, além de carotenoides que são antioxidantes com potencial de proteger o organismo humano de várias doenças incluindo a obesidade, doenças cardiovasculares, doenças relacionadas à visão como a degeneração macular e certos tipos de câncer, entre outras. Esses pigmentos naturais têm aplicações em indústrias farmacêuticas (nutracêuticos), alimentícias (colorantes, alimentos funcionais e suplementos) e de cosméticos (exemplo: filtro solar) e na aquacultura (ração animal). A microalga Dunaliella salina é capaz de sintetizar, sob alta intensidade luminosa e limitação de nutrientes como fontes de fósforo e nitrogênio, dentre outras condições de estresse, 10 % do peso seco em ß-caroteno (pigmento laranja com atividade pró-vitamina A). Assim, neste trabalho, numa primeira etapa, foi feita uma revisão da literatura abordando a produção de carotenoides por microalgas, bem como sua aplicação. Nesse levantamento bibliográfico abordou-se, dentre outros assuntos, as vantagens do cultivo de microalgas em relação as fontes tradicionais (plantas superiores), assim como uma discussão dos diferentes sistemas de cultivos e sua importância no crescimento celular. Esse review apresentou uma análise crítica dos principais regimes operacionais como batch, fed-batch, semicontínuo e contínuo. Apresentou-se também informações relevantes sobre os mais importantes produtores mundiais de carotenoides de microalgas. Numa segunda etapa, foi desenvolvido um método modificado de microextração líquido-líquido dispersivo modificado (DLLME) para a rápida extração de ß-caroteno de Dunaliella salina cultivada em fotobiorreatores tubulares, com subsequente desenvolvimento de método cromatográfico em uma coluna C4 para a separação do isômero geométrico de ß-caroteno. A extração ótima de ß-caroteno foi obtida com benzeno como solvente extrator e água com 50% de acetona como dispersante. Empregando uma fase móvel composta por metanol e água (95:5, v/v) em HPLC, foi possível a detecção/quantificação de ß-caroteno com 14 minutos de tempo de retenção. Além dos tempos curtos de análises (<20 min), pela extração em volume reduzido (< 10 mL resíduos orgânicos) este método obedece aos princípios da química verde. Sabe-se que nitrogênio, fósforo, assim como carbono e vitaminas são elementos vitais para o crescimento das microalgas e também exercem influência na composição bioquímica da biomassa. Assim, na terceira etapa deste trabalho, estudou-se a influência das quantidades de nitrato de sódio (75 mg L-1, denominado 1N; 112,5 mg L-1, denominado 1,5N; 225 mg L-1, denominado 3N) e de fosfato monobásico dihidratado (5,65 mg L-1, denominado 1P; 8,47 mg L-1, denominado 1,5P; 16,95 mg L-1, denominado 3P) em meio f/2, que tem como base a água do mar, no crescimento e na síntese de ß-caroteno da Dunaliella salina por processo semicontínuo, com uso de frações de corte (R) de 20% e 80%. Foram obtidas produtividades celulares mais elevadas em processos semicontínuos do que em processo descontínuo, com produtividades médias de até 6,7 x 104 células mL-1 d-1 (meio 1N:1P; R =20%). A máxima concentração celular (Xm) obtida neste trabalho não foi dependente de R. Os melhores resultados de Xm foram obtidos quando se usou meio 1,5N:1,5P em vez de meio, com 1N:1P, com valores médios de até 5,6 x 105 células m L-1 (R =80%). O conteúdo de ß-caroteno nas células, de maneira geral, foi maior nas células cultivadas em meio 1N:1P do que no meio 1,5N:1,5P, com valores até 57,5 mg g-1 (R =80%). O cultivo de D. salina com o meio 3N:3P levou a uma longa fase lag, seguida por uma diminuição na concentração celular e sua lise. O cultivo de células em um fotobiorreator tubular contribuiu para um crescimento celular sem contaminação por protozoários. O cultivo de Dunaliella salina em fotobiorreator tubular com o uso de fotoperíodo 12:12 foi apropriado, assim como induzir a carotenogênese, no segundo estágio, por meio do aumento da intensidade luminosa e ausência de controle de pH


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured/metabolism , Aquaculture/classification , Microalgae/metabolism , Data Collection/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Culture , Cell Enlargement , Antioxidants/adverse effects
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 956-963, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886179

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the topical effects of Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) in induced myositis in rats. Methods: Thirty six male rats divided into three groups: Control group (C), induced myositis group (MI) and induced myositis group reated with Mauritia flexuosa L. (MT). After inducing myositis with 1% acetic acid, was topically applied 0.5 ml of Mauritia flexuosa L.extract on the posterior region of the right gastrocnemius muscle in animals belonging to group MT, for 7 and 14 days. Results: The neutrophil number there was statistically significant difference, after 7 and 14 days, between groups C and MI (p <0.001) (p<0.01). The group MT there was a significant difference in relation to MI group in both experimental times with (p<0.001). The number of fibroblasts in the 14 days showed that when comparing the groups M and MT the differences were also significant (p<0.001). As for the DLL, in 7 days, there was a significant difference between group C and MI group (p <0.001). When considering the MT group, there was a significant difference in relation to the MI group (p <0.001). Conclusion: The extract of Mauritia flexuosa L. leaves lessened acute and chronic inflammation, increased fibroblast proliferation and reduced macroscopically edema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Carotenoids/administration & dosage , Arecaceae/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Myositis/drug therapy , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Administration, Topical , Rats, Wistar , Acetic Acid , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Myositis/chemically induced
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(1): 54-62, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887892

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Crocin is reported to have a wide range of biological activities such as cardiovascular protection. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crocin and voluntary exercise on miR-126 and miR-210 expression levels and angiogenesis in the heart tissue. Methods: Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, exercise, crocin, and exercise-crocin. Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Akt, ERK1/2 protein levels, miR-126 and miR-210 expression were measured in the heart tissue. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect CD31 in the heart tissue. Results: Akt and ERK1/2 levels of the heart tissue were higher in crocin treated group and voluntary exercise trained group after 8 weeks. Combination of crocin and exercise also significantly enhanced Akt and ERK1/2 levels in the heart tissue. MiR-126, miR-210 expression and CD31 in the heart increased in both crocin and voluntary exercise groups compared with control group. In addition, combination of exercise and crocin amplified their effect on miR-126 and miR-210 expression, and angiogenesis. Conclusion: Crocin and voluntary exercise improve heart angiogenesis possibly through enhancement of miR-126 and miR-210 expression. Voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with crocin could have beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease.


Resumo Fundamentos: A crocina tem uma vasta gama de atividades biológicas, tais como a proteção cardiovascular. Estudos epidemiológicos recentes demonstraram que o exercício reduz a morbidade e a mortalidade cardiovasculares na população em geral. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da crocina e do exercício voluntário nos níveis de expressão miR-126 e miR-210 e na angiogênese no tecido cardíaco. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: controle, exercício, crocina e exercício-crocina. Os animais receberam a administração oral de crocina (50 mg/kg) ou realizaram exercício voluntário sozinhos ou em conjunto durante 8 semanas. Os níveis de proteína Akt, ERK1/2, e a expressão de miR-126 e miR-210 foram medidos no tecido cardíaco. O método imunohistoquímico foi utilizado para detectar CD31 no tecido cardíaco. Resultados: Os níveis de Akt e ERK1/2 do tecido cardíaco foram maiores no grupo tratado com crocina e no grupo de exercício voluntário após 8 semanas. A combinação de crocina e exercício também aumentou significativamente os níveis de Akt e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco. A expressão de MiR-126, miR-210 e CD31 no coração aumentou tanto em no grupo de crocina como no grupo de exercício voluntário em comparação com o grupo de controle. Além disso, a combinação de exercício e crocina amplificou seu efeito na expressão de miR-126 e miR-210 e angiogênese. Conclusão: A Crocina e o exercício voluntário melhoram a angiogênese cardíaca possivelmente através do aumento da expressão de miR-126 e miR-210. O exercício voluntário e a suplementação dietética com crocina podem ter efeitos benéficos na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , MAP Kinase Signaling System
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 194-202, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837694

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of lycopene and resveratrol pretreatment on hepatic hyperplasia in partially hepatectomized rats. Methods: The lycopene group and the resveratrol group received 40 mg/kg/day of lycopene or resveratrol, respectively (dissolved in olive oil or in saline solution, respectively) and administered via a gastric tube for 30 days. The partially hepatectomzed (PH) control groups received saline or olive oil via a gastric tube for 30 days, respectively, and the normal control group received no treatment. Liver tissue and intracardiac blood samples were obtained 24, 36 or 48 h after PH. Results: No areas of fibrosis were detected. No significant changes in mitotic index, in the number of apoptosis events or in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were observed. Conclusions: Lycopene and resveratrol pretreatment did not interfere on hepatic hyperplasia in partially hepatectomized rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/surgery , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Mitotic Index
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(9): 723-729, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796042

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of crocin on brain oxidative damage and memory deficits in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral injection of 6-OHDA (16 µg) into the medial forebrain bundle and treated with crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg) for six weeks. The rats were tested for memory performance at six weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, and then were killed for the estimation of biochemical parameters. The increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitrite levels in the hippocampus were observed in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats, which was accompanied by memory deficits in a passive avoidance test at the end of week 6. Moreover, treatment with crocin decreased TBARS and nitrite levels in the hippocampus, and improved aversive memory. The present study conclusively demonstrated that crocin acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in the hippocampus of parkinsonian rats and could improve aversive memory through its properties.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito da crocina no dano oxidativo cerebral e nos déficits de memória em um modelo 6-OHDA de doença de Parkinson. Ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à injeção unilateral de 6-OHDA (16 μg) em MFB e tratados com crocina (30 e 60 mg/kg), durante 6 semanas. Os ratos foram testados quanto ao desempenho da memória 6 semanas após a infusão de 6-OHDA, e, em seguida, foram sacrificados para a estimativa dos parâmetros bioquímicos. O aumento nos níveis de TBARS e de nitrito no hipocampo foram observados em ratos 6-OHDA lesionados, acompanhado por déficits de memória em um teste de esquiva passiva no final da semana 6. Além disso, o tratamento com crocina diminuiu os níveis de nitrito e de TBARS no hipocampo e melhorou a memória aversiva. O presente estudo demonstrou conclusivamente que a crocina age como um antioxidante e um agente anti-inflamatório no hipocampo de ratos parkinsonianos e pode melhorar a memória aversiva através de suas propriedades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Oxidopamine , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Memory/physiology , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis
9.
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2016; 10 (1): 53-61
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178867

ABSTRACT

Background: Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron [Crocus sativus L] and its an-tioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione [GSH] synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant


Materials and Methods: In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes [COCs] from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute [NMRI] mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation [IVM] in the presence of either crocin [5 or 10 microg/ml], 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]-sulfoximine [BSO], or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes [n=631] were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II [Mil] oocytes after IVM [n=240] were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis [2-nitrobenzoic acid] [DTNB]-GSH reductase recycling assay


Results: Supplementation of IVM media with 10 microg/ml crocin significantly [P<0.05] increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of microg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 microg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group


Conclusion: Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential of mouse oocytes. This may occur by its beneficial effect in increasing GSH concentrations in Mil oocytes


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Antioxidants , Oxidative Stress , Oocytes , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Mice , Glutathione
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(5): 422-427, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764116

ABSTRACT

Objectives To compare the effect of the consumption of buriti oil and soybean oil on the metabolism of rats under stress induced by iron overload.Materials and methods A total of 28 rats were randomized into control groups who consumed diet added of soybean (CS) or buriti oil (CB) and gavage with saline and two experimental groups who consumed diet added of soybean (ES) or buriti oil (EB) and daily gavage with iron II sulfate as stress inducer. The fatty acid profile of diets was analyzed. Body weight and diet consumption were evaluated every two days. The lipid profile and liver weight of animals were evaluated at the end of the experiment.Results Diet added of soybean oil showed higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.6%) and diet with buriti oil was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (66.9%). There were no differences in food intake, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol among groups (p > 0.05). However, animals fed with diet supplemented with buriti oil showed intermediate triglyceride levels (CB: 65 mg/dL; EB: 68.7 mg/dL) compared to ES group (102.5 mg/dL). The liver of rats from the CS group had higher weight (2.06 ± 0.2 g) compared to the CB group (1.56 ± 0.1 g).Conclusion Buriti oil consumption was able to minimize some changes related to iron overload.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Iron Overload/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Soybean Oil/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/analysis , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Iron Overload/chemically induced , Liver/metabolism , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Gain
11.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-7, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The liver is an important organ for its ability to transform xenobiotics, making the liver tissue a prime target for toxic substances. The carotenoid bixin present in annatto is an antioxidant that can protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of bixin on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. RESULTS: The animals were divided into four groups with six rats in each group. CCl4 (0.125 mL kg-1 body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally, and bixin (5.0 mg kg-1 body wt.) was given by gavage 7 days before the CCl4 injection. Bixin prevented the liver damage caused by CCl4, as noted by the significant decrease in serum aminotransferases release. Bixin protected the liver against the oxidizing effects of CCl4 by preventing a decrease in glutathione reductase activity and the levels of reduced glutathione and NADPH. The peroxidation of membrane lipids and histopathological damage of the liver was significantly prevented by bixin treatment. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we can conclude that the protective effect of bixin against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 is related to the antioxidant activity of the compound.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carbon Tetrachloride/antagonists & inhibitors , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Carotenoids/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Bixaceae/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione Reductase/drug effects , Transaminases/blood , Liver/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADP/analysis
12.
Clinics ; 68(10): 1350-1357, out. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 μM). Cell proliferation was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of α-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Bleomycin , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Collagen Type I/blood , Collagen Type III/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Endothelin-1/blood , Fibrosis , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scleroderma, Systemic/chemically induced , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/metabolism , Time Factors , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/blood
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Aug; 51(8): 635-645
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149366

ABSTRACT

An elevated level of serum urea and creatinine was observed in doxorubicin (DOX) treated animals indicating DOX-induced nephrotoxicity. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the renal tissue was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities. Administration of lycopene (LycT) extracted from tomato to DOX treated mice showed a significant reduction in serum creatinine and urea levels which were associated with significantly low levels of LPO and significantly enhanced level of GSH and related antioxidant enzymes activity (GPx, GR and CAT) when compared to DOX group. Histopathological analysis revealed severe damage in the renal tissue of DOX treated animals. However, animals pretreated with LycT were observed to have reduced damage. Thus, from present results it may be inferred that lycopene may be beneficial in mitigating DOX induced nephrotoxicity in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Catalase/metabolism , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Female , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 61(3): 233-241, sep. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698146

ABSTRACT

Los antioxidantes naturales presentes en los vegetales y en algunos animales han sido estudiados por su papel en la protección de diversas enfermedades como ciertos tipos de cáncer, enfermedades del corazón y la degeneración macular relacionada con la edad. Evidencia experimental sugiere que estos compuestos son importantes en la protección de macromoléculas biológicas contra el daño oxidativo. La búsqueda de nuevos y más eficientes antioxidantes al parecer va dirigida a los carotenoides, que han demostrado que a través de su consumo puede disminuir la incidencia de ciertas enfermedades. Además representan una fuente de provitamina A, y presentan una actividad antioxidante en la célula al actuar en la neutralización de especies reactivas de oxígeno y nitrógeno producidas como parte del metabolismo celular. Esta publicación tiene como objetivo revisar aspectos básicos y clínicos de investigaciones realizadas que asocian la ingesta de carotenoides con cáncer, enfermedades del corazón y la degeneración macular relacionada con la edad. Primero se identificaron los conceptos básicos sobre el papel que desempeñan los carotenoides en el metabolismo; posteriormente se revisó la evidencia clínica que muestra como la ingesta de carotenoides reducen ciertas enfermedades. Por último se discuten algunos de los resultados de investigaciones.


Natural antioxidant in vegetables, and in some animals have been studied by their action in the protection of a considerable number of diseases, such as, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and age-related macular degeneration. Experimental evidences suggest that these compounds are important for protecting biological macro-molecules against oxidative damage. The search of new and more efficient antioxidants appears to be directed with carotenoids which have demonstrated that their consumption may reduce the incidence of certain diseases. In addition they represent a provitamin A source, and their actual antioxidant activity in the cell by participating in the neutralization of reactive oxygen species, and nitrogen produced, as a part of the cellular metabolism. This paper is focused to review basic and clinical aspects of investigations which have been associated with the intake of carotenoids with cancer, heart diseases, and age-related macular degeneration; the above all, we have tried to identify basic concepts of the role of the carotenoids and their metabolism; after that, we have reviewed clinical evidence that show how the intake of carotenoids reduces certain diseases. Finally, we discuss some of the results of investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Functional Food , Macular Degeneration/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Carotenoids/administration & dosage , Reactive Oxygen Species
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 52(3): 254-265, May-June 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-553746

ABSTRACT

Las recomendaciones dietarias en los últimos años proponen el incremento del consumo de alimentos que contienen fitoquímicos, ya que éstos proveen efectos benéficos para la salud humana y juegan un papel importante en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas. El licopeno, carotenoide responsable del color rojo de los tomates, ha atraído la atención debido a sus propiedades biológicas y fisicoquímicas en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas como cáncer, enfermedades cardiovasculares y neurodegenerativas, e hipertensión, entre otras, en las cuales el estrés oxidativo es un importante factor etiológico. Los antioxidantes, incluyendo al licopeno, interactúan con las especies reactivas del oxígeno, pudiendo mitigar el efecto dañino y jugar un papel significativo en la prevención de dichas enfermedades. Este artículo presenta una revisión de algunos estudios epidemiológicos realizados en los últimos años acerca de los efectos benéficos del licopeno en la salud humana.


In recent years, dietary recommendations have suggested an increase in the consumption of foods that contain phytochemicals that provide benefits to human health and play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. Lycopene -the carotenoid responsible for the red color of tomatoes-has attracted attention because of its physicochemical and biological properties in the prevention of chronic diseases in which oxidative stress is a major etiological factor, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and hypertension, among others. Antioxidants, including lycopene, interact with reactive oxygen species, can mitigate their damaging effects and play a significant role in preventing these diseases. This article presents a review of some epidemiological studies published in recent years on beneficial effects of lycopene in human health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antioxidants , Carotenoids , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/physiology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Carotenoids/physiology , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 58(2): 187-192, jun. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-630302

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar polpas comerciais de açaí, além de correlacionar a contribuição da vitamina C, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos com a atividade antioxidante desses produtos, verificando ainda os parâmetros referentes à qualidade dos produtos obtidos. Foram realizadas análises de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, açúcares, cor, atividade de água, vitamina C, antocianinas totais e carotenóides totais, atividade antioxidante e compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que todos os parâmetros apresentaram diferença significativa entre as marcas não adicionadas de conservante e sacarose. O açaí pode ser considerado uma importante fonte de vitamina C, bem como uma grande fonte de antioxidantes. Em relação à correlação com a atividade antioxidante, somente as antocianinas totais e os carotenóides totais apresentaram correlação positiva e significativa.


Correlation between antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart) comercial pulps. The purpose of this work was to analyze commercial açaí pulp and to correlate the contribution of vitamin C, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds with the antioxidant activity of there products besides the examination of the standard related to the quality of the obtained products. Analysis were made with regard to pH, acidity total, soluble solids, sugars, color, water activity, vitamin C, total anthocyanins, total carotenoids, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. All parameters analyzed showed significative difference among the marks not added with preservatives and sucrose. The açaí fruit can be considered a fair source of vitamin C and good source of natural antioxidants. In regard to the correlation with the antioxidant activity only the total anthocyanins and the total carotenoids presented positive and significative correlation.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Arecaceae/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Anthocyanins/analysis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Chemistry, Physical , Carotenoids/analysis , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/pharmacology
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2008 Feb; 46(2): 108-11
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57305

ABSTRACT

Peripheral neuropathy is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus. It is frequently associated with debilitating pain. The present study was designed to investigate effect of Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, on hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. After 4-weeks of STZ injection, diabetic mice exhibited a significant thermal hyperalgesia cold allodynia, hyperglycemia and loss of body weights as compared with control rats. Chronic treatment of lycopene for 4 weeks significantly attenuated the cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The results emphasize the role of antioxidant such as lycopene as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Cold Temperature , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Hot Temperature , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Male , Pain Threshold/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin
18.
West Indian med. j ; 55(4): 274-278, Sept. 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-472119

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the beneficial effect of tomatoes, which are a rich source of lycopene, a relatively new carotenoid known to play an important role in human health. In this study, the lipid peroxidation rate was investigated by estimating malondialdehyde (TBARS) levels of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, GSH-Px, GR, GSH, lipid profile, which includes total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, and glycated haemoglobin HbA1c in (n = 40) the Type 2 diabetic group (n = 40) and an age-matched control group (n = 50). Significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and very high lipid peroxidation rate in the Type 2 diabetic group were observed when compared to controls (p 0.10). These findings suggest that tomato lycopene may have considerable therapeutic potential as an antioxidant but there was no significant lipid lowering effect in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar el efecto beneficioso del tomate como fuente rica en licopeno – un carotenoide relativamente nuevo, del cual se sabe que juega un importante papel en la salud humana. En este estudio, investigamos el índice de peroxidación lipídica, estimando los niveles MDA (TBARS) de las enzimas antioxidantes como SOD, GSH-Px, GR, GSH, el perfil lipídico, que incluye el colesterol total, los triglicéridos, los HDL, LDL, VLDL, y la hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c) en (n = 40) en el grupo diabético tipo 2 (n = 40) y el grupo de control pareado por edad (n = 50). En este estudio, observamos niveles significativamente más bajos de enzimas antioxidantes e índices de peroxidación lipídica muy altos en el grupo diabético tipo 2, en comparación con el grupo control (p < 0.001). Asimismo observamos niveles significativamente más altos de perfil lipídico y hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c) en el grupo diabético al comparársele con el grupo control (p < 0.001).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antioxidants , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , /metabolism , Lipids , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , /physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/drug effects , Time Factors
19.
Rev. nutr ; 19(2): 233-243, mar.-abr. 2006. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-429382

ABSTRACT

A hipovitaminose A acarreta xeroftalmia, cegueira e morte em milhares de crianças no mundo e constitui um dos principais problemas nutricionais de populações de países em desenvolvimento, incluído o Brasil. Embora haja grande disponibilidade de frutas e verduras, fontes de carotenóides no Brasil, a hipovitaminose A constitui um grave problema de saúde pública. A falta de informação da população, no que diz respeito às fontes alimentares e aos fatores que interferem na biodisponibilidade dos carotenóides, citados na literatura, com a "mnemônica" SLAMENGHI são possíveis causas associadas a esta contradição. Os atuais fatores de conversão de carotenóides em retinol são superiores aos antigos fatores, o que pressupõe uma efetividade ainda menor na conversão dos carotenóides na forma ativa da vitamina A e coloca em questão a utilização destes no combate à hipovitaminose A. Esta revisão tem como objetivo relatar o que vem sendo abordado acerca do tema biodisponibilidade e fontes de carotenóides, para possibilitar um melhor posicionamento na utilização dos carotenóides no combate à hipovitaminose A.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Vitamin A Deficiency/diet therapy
20.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2006; 5 (19): 40-50
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-78023

ABSTRACT

The electrophysiological and behavioral studies have shown that saffron extract improves memory and learning skills in ethanol-induced learning behavior impairments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effects of Crocus sativus aqueous extract stigma and its constituents, safranal and crocin, on intact memory and scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats performing the Morris water maze task. The extract and its constituents were injected intraperitoneally to rats one h before training for five consecutive days. During the training period, four trials were carried out each day. On the fifth day of the experiment, the locomotor activity was assessed using open field test. Generally, the aqueous extract [0.0025-0.56 g/kg] of stigma did not decrease the latency time to find the platform. Only a dose of 0.005 g/kg reduced the latency time during five days. Crocin [50 and 200 mg/kg] also did not change the latency time. Safranal [0.2-0.75 ml/kg] increased the time to find the platform. The effects of the extract, crocin and safranal on hyoscine-induced learning deficits were also evaluated [1 and 500 mg/kg hyoscine]. The stigma extract and crocin reduced the deficit effect of hyoscine [in low and high dose] on memory. Safranal [except a dose of 0.2 ml/kg] did not decrease the effect of hyoscine on memory. In the open field activity test, the aqueous extract, crocin and safranal reduced total activity. The co-administration of these agents with hyocine significantly compensated the reduction of locomotor activity in hyosine group alone. On the basis of these results, the Crocus sativus stigma aqueous extract, crocin and safranal did not have effect on intact memory but the extract and crocin inhibited the hyoscine impaired acquisition/performance activity. These agents can be potentially introduced as new drugs in the treatment of cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer's disease


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Cyclohexanes/pharmacology , Flowers , Plant Extracts , Memory/drug effects , Learning Disabilities/chemically induced , Learning/drug effects , Scopolamine , Rats
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