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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.


Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 727-733, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285209

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A incidência de reestenose da artéria coronária após o implante de um stent não farmacológico é mais baixa que na angioplastia com balão; no entanto, ainda apresenta altas taxas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar novos indicadores de risco para reestenose de stent usando ultrassonografia das carótidas que, em conjunto com indicadores já existentes, ajudariam na escolha do stent. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo prospectivo transversal incluindo 121 pacientes consecutivos com doença arterial coronariana que foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea com angiografia nos 12 meses anteriores. Após os casos de reestenose de stent serem identificados, os pacientes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia de carótidas para avaliar a espessura da camada íntima média e placas ateroscleróticas. Os dados foram analisados por regressão múltipla de Cox. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados: A idade mediana dos pacientes foi de 60 anos (1º quartil = 55, 3º quartil = 68), e 64,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A angiografia coronária mostrou que 57 pacientes (47,1%) apresentaram reestenose de stent. Cinquenta e cinco pacientes (45,5%) apresentaram placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas e 54,5% apresentaram placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa. Dos pacientes que apresentaram placas ecolucentes, 90,9% apresentaram reestenose do stent coronário, e daqueles com placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa, 10,6% apresentaram reestenose de stent. A presença de placas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas aumentou o risco de reestenose de stent coronário em 8,21 vezes (RR=8,21;IC95%: 3,58-18,82; p<0,001). Conclusões: A presença de placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes na artéria carótida constitui um preditor de risco de reestenose de stent coronário e deve ser considerada na escolha do tipo de stenta ser usado na angioplastia coronária.


Abstract Background: The incidence of restenosis of the coronary artery after a bare-metal stent implant has been lower than in simple balloon angioplasty; however, it still shows relatively high rates. Objective: The aim of this study was to find new risk indicators for in-stent restenosis using carotid ultrasonography, that, in addition to the already existing indicators, would help in decision-making for stent selection. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional prospective study including 121 consecutive patients with chronic coronary artery disease who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with repeat angiography in the previous 12 months. After all cases of in-stent restenosis were identified, patients underwent carotid ultrasonography to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerosis plaques. The data were analyzed by Cox multiple regression. The significance level was set a p<0.05. Results: Median age of patients was 60 years (1st quartile = 55, 3rd quartile = 68), and 64.5% of patients were male. Coronary angiography showed that 57 patients (47.1%) presented in-stent restenosis. Fifty-five patients (45.5%) had echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and 54.5% had echogenic plaques or no plaques. Of patients with who had echolucent plaques, 90.9% presented coronary in-stent restenosis. Of those who had echogenic plaques or no plaques, 10.6% presented in-stent restenosis. The presence of echolucent plaques in carotid arteries increased the risk of coronary in-stent restenosis by 8.21 times (RR=8.21; 95%CI: 3.58-18.82; p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery constitutes a risk predictor of coronary instent restenosis and should be considered in the selection of the type of stent to be used in coronary angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Restenosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Stents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Middle Aged
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1560-1565, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134478

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Aunque la radiografía panorámica no es una prueba de diagnóstico inicial para detectar la aterosclerosis carotídea, no podemos ignorar su valor al ver estas lesiones como hallazgos incidentales que pueden ser grandes aliados en el diagnóstico temprano y la prevención de eventos vasculares graves. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de calcificaciones en la bifurcación de la arteria carótida en las radiografías panorámicas de rutina como principio diagnóstico, así como su relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en individuos brasileños. Se analizaron 449 exámenes de radiografía panorámica de la base de datos del Departamento de Radiología de la Facultad de Odontología de Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brasil. Después de obtener mediciones de la presión arterial e información sobre el tabaquismo y las enfermedades sistémicas, fue buscado en la radiografía panorámica la presencia o ausencia de la masa radiopaca en las regiones de las vértebras cervicales C3-C4. En el caso de una imagen sugestiva de ateroma, se realizó una radiografía anteroposterior para confirmar el diagnóstico. Aplicamos la prueba estadística de Chi-cuadrado con distribución normal y muestras independientes y aleatorias con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. La confirmación de calcificaciones carotideas se produjo en el 8,5 % de la población de estudio (38 casos). No encontramos ninguna relación entre la presencia de calcificaciones con el tabaquismo, con el sexo o con datos previos de antecedentes familiares. Sin embargo 49,1 % de los casos estaban por encima de sesenta años y tenía asociación significativa con la hipertensión (P = 0,006). El mayor riesgo se presenta en pacientes ancianos hipertensos y, por lo tanto, hacemos hincapié en la importancia de una observación minuciosa de las radiografías panorámicas en la búsqueda de cualquier alteración de la anatomía normal y si es así, proceder con la derivación lo antes posible para un diagnóstico concluyente por parte de un especialista, pudiendo así ayudar en la prevención de episodios vasculares graves.


SUMMARY: Although panoramic radiography is not an initial diagnostic test for detecting carotid atherosclerosis, we cannot ignore its value in viewing these lesions as incidental findings that can be great allies in early diagnosis and prevention of serious vascular events. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of calcifications in the bifurcation of the carotid artery on routine panoramic radiographs as a diagnostic principle, as well as its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilians. We analyzed 449 panoramic radiography exams from the database of the Department of Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil. After obtaining blood pressure measurements and information on smoking and systemic diseases, the researcher observed on the panoramic radiograph, the presence or absence of the radiopaque mass in the regions of the cervical vertebrae C3-C4. In the case of a suggestive image of atheroma, an anteroposterior radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The Chi-square test of normal distribution for independent and random samples with a 95 % confidence interval was applied to the data. Confirmation of carotid calcifications occurred in 8.5 % of the study population (38 cases). We did not find any relationship between the presence of calcifications with smoking, sex or previous family history. However, 49.1 % of cases occurred above sixty years old and there was a significant relationship with hypertension (P = 0.006). The greatest risk was presented in elderly and hypertensive patients, so we highlight the importance of a thorough observation by the dentist of panoramic radiographs to detect any alteration of the normal anatomy and in the positive case, proceed with the referral as soon as possible for a conclusive diagnosis by a specialist, being able to thus assist in the prevention of severe vascular episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Chi-Square Distribution , Confidence Intervals , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 564-570, July 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135653

ABSTRACT

In ultrasonography, the bi-dimensional mode (B-mode) allows the morphological and morphometric evaluation of several types of organs and tissues, while the Doppler mode allows the hemodynamic evaluation. In humans, the Doppler evaluation is routinely used in the assessment of important arteries and veins, such as the carotid arteries and jugular veins, with significant differences between genres and sides. However, in veterinary medicine, this diagnostic method is not yet well established in the evaluation of the carotid arteries, with only few reports in domestic horses. This study aims to compare the right and left common carotid arteries of domestic horses and mules using bi-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound evaluation. The common carotid arteries from 10 domestic horses (five males and five females) and 10 mules (five males and five females) were evaluated. The following variables were measured at three different portions (cranial, middle and caudal): diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), resistivity index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak of systolic velocity (pSV) and final diastolic velocity (fDV). No significant differences were observed in the bi-dimensional variables (diameter and IMT) between the common carotid arteries of horses and mules, regardless of gender (p>0.05). In Doppler mode, there were no significant differences between carotid values in male and female horses (p> 0.05). In the mules, it was only possible to observe differences between the RI and PI values (p<0.05), being higher on the left side (0.81 and 2.04 respectively), and the fDV (p<0.05) higher, on the right side (14.35) in males. As for females, there was only in fDV (p<0.05), with the upper right side (23.16). Diameters and IMT do not differ between sides in horses and mules in B-mode ultrasound. Spectral Doppler in horses does not differ between sides, regardless of gender. As for mules, males differ in RI, PI and fDV between sides, while females differ only in fDV.(AU)


Na ultrassonografia, o modo bidimensional (modo B) permite a avaliação morfológica e morfométrica de vários tipos de órgãos e tecidos, enquanto o modo Doppler permite a avaliação hemodinâmica. Em humanos, a avaliação com Doppler é usada rotineiramente na avaliação de artérias e veias importantes, como as artérias carótidas e veias jugulares, com diferenças significativas entre gêneros e lados. No entanto, em medicina veterinária, este método diagnóstico ainda não está bem estabelecido na avaliação das artérias carótidas, com apenas poucos relatos em equinos domésticos. Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar as artérias carótidas comuns direita e esquerda de equinos e mulas domésticos, utilizando a avaliação bidimensional (modo B) e por ultrassonografia Doppler espectral. Avaliaram-se as artérias carótidas comuns de 10 equinos domésticos (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas) e 10 mulas (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas). As seguintes variáveis foram medidas em três porções diferentes (cranial, médio e caudal): diâmetro, espessura íntima-média (IMT), índice de resistividade (RI), índice de pulsatilidade (PI), pico de velocidade sistólica (pSV) e velocidade diastólica final (fDV). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis bidimensionais (diâmetro e IMT) entre as artérias carótidas comuns de cavalos e muares, independentemente do gênero (p>0,05). No modo Doppler, não houve diferenças significativas entre os valores para carótidas em equinos machos e fêmeas (p>0,05). Nos muares, só foi possível observar diferenças entre os valores de RI e PI (p<0,05), sendo maiores no lado esquerdo (0,81 e 2,04 respectivamente), e o fDV (p<0,05) superior no lado direito (14,35) nos machos. Quanto as fêmeas, houve apenas no fDV (p<0,05), sendo o lado direito superior (23,16). Os diâmetros e IMT não diferem entre os lados em equinos e muares na ultrassonografia modo B. Já o Doppler espectral nos equinos não difere entre os lados, independentemente do gênero. Quanto aos muares, os machos diferenciam no IR, IP e fDV entre os lados, enquanto as fêmeas apenas para fDV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Equidae/anatomy & histology , Horses/anatomy & histology , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 496-499, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127090

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), derived from 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be a good indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To assess the correlation between AASI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without hypertension. Material and Methods Cross sectional study in 28 diabetic patients aged 49 ± 7 years (40% women). AASI was calculated as 1 minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure, using ABPM data. ABPM was measured in the arm using an oscillometric device. ABI was calculated as the ratio between ankle and brachial systolic blood pressure. CAVI was derived from pulse wave velocity using the Vasera VS-1000 device. Correlations were calculated using a bivariate Spearman correlation. Results The mean values for AASI, ABI, baPWV and CAVI were 0.39 ± 0.14, 1.14 ± 0.09, 15.15 ± 2.71 m/s and 7.60 ± 1.90, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between AASI and ABI (r = -0.491, p < 0.01). Conclusions In these diabetic patients, there was an association between AASI, an arterial stiffness marker and ABI, an indicator for the presence of atherosclerosis.


Antecedentes El índice de rigidez arterial ambulatorio (AASI), derivado del monitoreo ambulatorio de presión arterial de 24 h (MAPA), puede ser un buen indicador de rigidez arterial. Objetivo Evaluar la correlación entre el AASI y la velocidad de onda de pulso braquial (VOP), el índice tobillo-brazo (ITB) y el índice vascular cardio-tobillo (CAVI) en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 sin hipertensión arterial. Material y Métodos Estudio transversal en 28 pacientes con diabetes de 49 ± 7 años (40% mujeres). El AASI se calculó como 1 menos la pendiente de regresión de la presión arterial diastólica sobre la sistólica, usando datos del MAPA de 24 h, el cual se midió en el brazo, usando un dispositivo oscilométrico. El ITB se calculó como la razón entre la presión arterial sistólica del tobillo sobre la del brazo. El CAVI se derivó de la velocidad de onda de pulso medida con el dispositivo Vasera VS-1000. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación bivariada de Spearman. Resultados Los valores de AASI, VOP, ITB y CAVI fueron 0.39 ± 0.14, 1.14 ± 0.09, 15.15 ± 2.71 m/s y 7.60 ± 1.90, respectivamente. Hubo una correlación negativa significativa entre AASI e ITB (r = -0.491, p < 0.01). Conclusiones Hay una asociación entre AASI, un marcador de rigidez arterial e ITB, un indicador de aterosclerosis, en estos pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arteries/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Ankle/blood supply , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Ankle Brachial Index , Pulse Wave Analysis
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 419-430, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128360

ABSTRACT

A ultrassonografia convencional e o Doppler espectral nas artérias carótidas comuns em equinos e muares são considerados escassos, diferentemente do que ocorre na medicina humana. Este trabalho propôs comparar as artérias carótidas comuns de equinos e muares por ultrassonografia modo-B e Doppler espectral, além de verificar as diferenças dessas variáveis entre os gêneros desses animais e a relação com a massa corpórea. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: massa corpórea, diâmetros das artérias, espessura da camada íntima-média (EIM), índice de resistividade (IR), índice de pulsatilidade (IP), velocidade sistólica (VS), velocidade diastólica (VD) e velocidade média (VM). Salvo a massa corpórea, esses parâmetros foram obtidos de três regiões (cranial, médio e caudal) e submetidos à análise conjuntamente. Os diâmetros das artérias carótidas comuns são diferentes entre equinos e muares, com valores menores nos equinos. O IR, o IP, a VS e a VM diferiram entre equinos e muares, sendo maiores nos equinos, e a VD superior nos muares. Não foi observada diferença das variáveis do modo-B e Doppler entre gêneros nos equinos, diferentemente dos muares, cujos machos apresentaram valores maiores do diâmetro, do IR e do IP, mas menores da VS e da VM. A massa corpórea não influenciou as variáveis do modo-B, independentemente do gênero, mas apresenta correlação significativa nas variáveis do modo Doppler. As artérias carótidas comuns de equinos e muares são diferentes pelos exames ultrassonográficos modo-B e Doppler espectral. O gênero não influencia no modo-B e no Doppler nos equinos, porém influencia parcialmente nos muares. A massa corpórea de equinos e de muares, independentemente do gênero, não tem associação com as variáveis do modo-B, apenas com o Doppler.(AU)


Conventional ultrasound and spectral Doppler in the common carotid arteries in horses and mules are considered scarce, different from human medicine. The aim of this study was to compare the common carotid arteries of horses and mules by B-mode ultrasonography and spectral Doppler ultrasonography, as well as to verify the differences of these variables between their genders and the relation with body mass. The following parameters were evaluated: body mass, artery diameter, intima-media thickness (EIM), resistivity index (IR), pulsatility index (IP), systolic velocity (VS), diastolic velocity (VD) and average velocity (VM). Besides the body mass, the other variables were obtained from three regions (cranial, medium and caudal) and analyzed together. The diameters of the common carotid arteries are different between horses and mules, being smaller in horses. The IR, IP, VS and VM differed between horses and mules, being higher in the horses, but the VD was higher in mules. No difference in the variables in B-mode and Doppler between gender were observed in horses, different from mules, in which the diameters, IR and IP values were higher in males and the VS and VM was higher in females. Body mass did not influence B-Mode, both for horses and mules. A significant correlation was observed for Doppler. The common carotid arteries of horses and mules are different by ultrasound scans B-mode and spectral Doppler. Gender does not influence the B-Mode and Doppler variables in horses, but can in mules. The body mass of horses and mules, regardless of gender, is not associated with B-mode variables, but with Doppler variables.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Carotid Arteries/physiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Equidae/anatomy & histology , Horses/anatomy & histology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1080-1088, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879239

ABSTRACT

In clinic, intima and media thickness are the main indicators for evaluating the development of atherosclerosis. At present, these indicators are measured by professional doctors manually marking the boundaries of the inner and media on B-mode images, which is complicated, time-consuming and affected by many artificial factors. A grayscale threshold method based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering is therefore proposed to detect the intima and media thickness in carotid arteries from B-mode images in this paper. Firstly, the B-mode images are clustered based on the GMM, and the boundary between the intima and media of the vessel wall is then detected by the gray threshold method, and finally the thickness of the two is measured. Compared with the measurement technique using the gray threshold method directly, the clustering of B-mode images of carotid artery solves the problem of gray boundary blurring of inner and middle membrane, thereby improving the stability and detection accuracy of the gray threshold method. In the clinical trials of 120 healthy carotid arteries, means of 4 manual measurements obtained by two experts are used as reference values. Experimental results show that the normalized root mean square errors (NRMSEs) of the estimated intima and media thickness after GMM clustering were 0.104 7 ± 0.076 2 and 0.097 4 ± 0.068 3, respectively. Compared with the results of the direct gray threshold estimation, means of NRMSEs are reduced by 19.6% and 22.4%, respectively, which indicates that the proposed method has higher measurement accuracy. The standard deviations are reduced by 17.0% and 21.7%, respectively, which indicates that the proposed method has better stability. In summary, this method is helpful for early diagnosis and monitoring of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Normal Distribution , Ultrasonography
9.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 126-132, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1009412

ABSTRACT

A doença aterosclerótica tem evolução lenta, o que dá a oportunidade de intervir no estilo de vida e até farmacologicamente na tentativa de aumentar a expectativa de vida livre de eventos. Para esse fim, habitualmente utilizam-se modelos de estratificação de risco baseada em modelos clássicos, como os critérios de Framingham, mas há um número representativo de eventos que acontecem em casos considerados de baixo risco. As principais dúvidas surgem nos casos considerados de risco intermediário, e, nessa situação, os exames de imagem podem auxiliar a identificar e tratar adequadamente casos de maior gravidade. Habitualmente, as avaliações são feitas por ultrassom das artérias carótidas (ACa) e pela medida do escore de cálcio por tomografia, cada um com suas particularidades e limitações técnicas. O desempenho dos métodos depende, em grande parte, do equipamento disponível e da expertise da equipe médica envolvida. Contudo, há claras vantagens da pesquisa de placas nas ACa e da quantificação da calcificação nas artérias carótidas (CAC) sobre a avaliação da espessura médio intimal (IMT - do inglês intima-media thickness), enquanto a pesquisa do grau de calcificação coronariana é recomendada em recentes diretrizes internacionais. Ao mesmo tempo, persistem algumas dúvidas se os exames têm desempenho distinto na estratificação de risco de infarto e acidente vascular cerebral


Atherosclerotic disease is a slowly progressive condition, thereby providing the opportunity to intervene in the patient's lifestyle, and even pharmacologically, in an attempt to increase event-free life expectancy. To this end, risk stratification models based on classic criteria such as the Framingham criteria are generally used to stratify the individual patient risk, but there is a considerable number of events that occur in cases considered low risk. The main uncertainty arises in cases considered intermediate risk, and in these situations, imaging tests can help identify and appropriately treat cases of greater severity. The assessments are generally performed using carotid artery ultrasound and the measurement of calcium score by computed tomography, with each method having its own particularities and technical limitations. The performance of the methods largely depends on the available equipment and the expertise of the medical staff involved. However, there are clear advantages of plaque research in carotid arteries (ACA) and of the quantification of calcification in the carotid arteries (CAC) over the evaluation of intima - medial thickness (IMT), while investigation of the degree of coronary calcification is recommended in recent international guidelines. Meanwhile, questions remain as to whether the techniques perform differently in the risk stratification of infarction and stroke


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Quality of Life , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Myocardial Infarction
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 221-229, Mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002801

ABSTRACT

Visual inspection of ultrasound examination for assessment of echogenicity and echotexture of blood vessel tissues is a technique routinely used in medical practice in humans. However, simple visual inspection can lead to poor quality diagnoses and errors. The use of grayscale histogram (GSH) analysis has proved to be an efficient technique to quantify the region of interest, allowing minimization of image interpretation errors. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the echogenicity and echotexture of the walls of the common carotid arteries of healthy female horses and mules using the GSH technique and correlate them with age, body mass, and vessel diameters. B-mode ultrasound examinations were performed in the left and right common carotid arteries in three regions (cranial, middle, and caudal) in 11 horses and 11 healthy mules. The GSH of the animals showed heterogeneous walls, but did not differentiate statistically between female horses and mules. The Mean variable of the middle right, middle left and caudal right sides showed differences, more significant in the mules. On the middle right side, the Min variable was different, higher in the mules. On the middle and caudal left side, the variables Max and Mode showed higher values in the mules. For the mules, the age factor presented negative correlation with the Mean, Mode,, Mode(Count), and Mode(Count)/Count(%) variables, and the body mass factor presented negative correlation with the Mode, Mean and Max variables. For the female horses, the body mass factor showed positive correlation with the Mean and Mode variables. Echogenicity of the carotid artery walls differed between female horses and mules, whereas echotexture was heterogeneous and statistically similar among the animals. The age and body mass factors inversely influenced the echogenicity of the mules, but were not significant in the female horses, in which only the body mass factor positively influenced echogenicity.(AU)


A técnica de avaliação da ecogenicidade e ecotextura dos tecidos dos vasos sanguíneos por inspeção visual do exame de ultrassonografia, já é uma prática da rotina médica em humanos. No entanto, a simples visualização manual pode induzir à erros e diagnósticos de pouca qualidade. O uso de análise por histograma em escala de cinza (HEC) tem se demostrado uma eficiente técnica para quantificar a região avaliada, permitindo minimizar erros de interpretação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e comparar a ecogenicidade e ecotextura das paredes das artérias carótidas comuns das fêmeas equina e muares hígidos usando a técnica de HEC, e correlacioná-las com a idade, massa corpórea e diâmetros dos vasos. Exames de ultrassonografia modo-B foram realizados nas artérias carótidas comuns esquerda e direita em três regiões (cranial, médio e caudal) em 11 fêmeas equina e 11 muares hígidos. O HEC dos animais apresentou paredes heterogêneas, mas não diferenciaram estatisticamente entre fêmeas equinas e muares. A variável Mean do lado direito médio, esquerdo médio e caudal apresentou diferenças, sendo maiores nos muares. No lado direito médio, o Min foi diferente, sendo superior nos muares. Já para o lado esquerdo médio e caudal, as variáveis Max e Mode apresentaram valores maiores nos muares. Para os muares, o fator idade apresentou correlação negativa com Mean, Mode, Mode (Count) e Mode(Count)/Count (%) e o fator massa corpórea apresentou correlação negativa com Mode, Mean e Max. Para as fêmeas equinas o fator massa corpórea apresentou correlação positiva com Mean e Mode. A ecogenicidade das paredes das artérias carótidas diferiram entre fêmeas equina e muares, já a ecotextura foi heterogênea e semelhante estatisticamente entre os animais. A idade e a massa corpórea influenciaram inversamente na ecogenicidade dos muares, enquanto que nas fêmeas equina a idade não foi significativa, apenas a massa corpórea influenciou positivamente com a ecogenicidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Equidae/anatomy & histology
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 75-81, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990068

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Carotid stenosis usually results from the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery wall and is an important risk factor for ischemic cerebral vascular accident (CVA). This study describes the importance of diagnostic imaging exams used in dentistry for the early identification of atheroma plaques in the extracranial and intracranial internal carotid artery. A male patient was referred to a radiology clinic to perform panoramic radiography (PR) and a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to develop treatment plan options. In the PR and CBCT a radiopaque image, suggestive of atheroma in the extracranial internal carotid artery, was observed on the right side. The diagnosis was confirmed by color DOPPLER ultrasonography. In the CBCT, the presence of calcifications in the intracranial internal carotid artery was also observed. Diagnostic imaging exams used in dentistry allow the identification of asymptomatic individuals, facilitating early intervention and consequent reduction in the risk of ischemic CVA.


RESUMEN: La estenosis carotídea generalmente es consecuencia de la acumulación de placa aterosclerótica en la pared de la arteria carótida y es un factor de riesgo importante para el accidente cerebral vascular (ACV) isquémico. Este estudio describe la importancia de los exámenes de diagnóstico por imágenes utilizados en odontología para la identificación precoz de placas de ateroma en la arteria carótida interna, a nivel extracraneal e intracraneal. Un paciente masculino fue remitido a una clínica de radiología para realizar una radiografía panorámica (RP) y tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (TCHC) para analizar opciones de tratamiento. En el RP y TCHC se observó una imagen radiopaca, sugestiva de ateroma en la arteria carótida, extracraneal, en el lado derecho. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por ultrasonido DOPPLER color carotídeo. En el TCHC, también se observó la presencia de calcificaciones en la arteria carótida interna, intracraneal. Los exámenes de imagenología diagnóstica utilizados en odontología permiten la identificación de individuos asintomáticos, lo que facilita la intervención temprana y la consiguiente reducción en el riesgo de ACV isquémico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Radiography, Panoramic , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Stroke/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(1): 75-84, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990231

ABSTRACT

As age increases, changes in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology occur, even in the absence of disease. Thus, studies of vessel hemodynamics are considered primordial to detect any cardiovascular changes. The objective of this study has been to describe the parameters of B-mode and spectral Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of the common carotid arteries of 11 equine and 11 mules, and correlate with age, body mass and neck circumferences. The diameters, intima - media thickness (IMT), resistivity index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), systolic velocity (SV), diastolic velocity (DV), maximum velocity (MV), vascular flow index (VFI), body mass, age, circumference and neck length. Ultrasonographic variables were evaluated in three different region called cranial, middle and caudal. Equine females presented higher values regarding the body mass, age and neck length, as compared to the neck circumferences of the animals, those of the mules were superior. The age of the mules had a positive correlation with the body mass, diameter and neck circumferences, it has a negative correlation between age and vessel diameters. The body mass of the mules had a positive correlation with age and vessel diameters, and with vessel diameters and neck circumferences in equine females. The RI and PI variables had a positive correlation with body mass for mules, and with age for equine females. The DV had a negative correlation with body mass for both equine and mule females. Regarding the variables MV and VFI, age correlated negatively for mules, while it was not significant for equine females. It found a difference between equine females and mules in the correlations performed, with body mass, age, neck circumferences and between B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography variables.(AU)


Com o aumento da idade ocorrem alterações na anatomia e fisiologia cardiovascular, mesmo na ausência de doenças. Assim, os estudos da hemodinâmica dos vasos são considerados primordiais para detectar quaisquer alterações cardiovasculares. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo descrever as variáveis de ultrassonografia modo-B e Doppler espectral na avaliação das artérias carótidas comuns de 11 fêmeas equinas e 11 muares, e correlacionar com idade, massa corpórea e circunferências dos pescoços. Para tais procedimentos foram avaliados os diâmetros, espessura da camada íntima média (EIM), índice de resistividade (IR), índice de pulsatilidade (IP), velocidade sistólica (VS), velocidade diastólica (VD), velocidade máxima (VM), índice de vascularização de fluxo (IVF), massa corpórea, idade, circunferências e comprimentos dos pescoços. As variáveis ultrassonográficas foram avaliadas em três regiões diferentes denominados de crania médio e caudal. As fêmeas equinas apresentaram valores maiores referente ao massa corpórea, idade e comprimento dos pescoços, já em relação às circunferências dos pescoços dos animais, as dos muares foram superiores. A idade dos muares possuiu correlação positiva com a massa corpórea, diâmetro e com as circunferências dos pescoços, com as fêmeas equinas, possui correlação negativa entre idade e os diâmetros dos vasos. A massa corpórea dos muares teve correlação positiva com idade e diâmetros dos vasos, já às fêmeas equinas com diâmetros dos vasos e as circunferências dos pescoços. As variáveis IR e IP tiveram correlação positiva com a massa corpórea para os muares, e com idade para fêmeas equinas. O VD teve correlação negativa com a massa corpórea tanto para as fêmeas equinas quanto nos muares. Já as variáveis VM e IVF, a idade correlacionou negativamente para os muares, enquanto não foi significativo para as fêmeas equinas. Averiguou diferença entre fêmeas equinas e muares nas correlações realizadas, com a massa corpórea, idade, circunferências dos pescoços e entre as variáveis da ultrassonografia modo-B e Doppler.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Carotid Arteries/physiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Equidae/anatomy & histology , Equidae/physiology , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary
13.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998771

ABSTRACT

A prevenção cardiovascular é tema fundamental, pois as doenças cardiovasculares que têm como substrato a aterosclerose, têm grande impacto na morbidade e mortalidade cardiovascular no Brasil e no mundo. Estima-se que 80% dos casos de doença arterial co-ronariana resultam da presença isolada ou em associação a fatores como as dislipidemias, tabagismo, hipertensão arterial, diabetes entre outros. Além disso, biomarcadores como história familiar de aterosclerose precoce, marcadores de inflamação de baixo grau como a proteína C reativa (PCR) e imagem da placa de ateroma (escore de cálcio coronário) ajudam a identificar e reclassificar o risco de doença cardiovascular. Estratégias como check-up cardiovascular ou os dos escores de risco são utilizadas na identificação do indivíduo assintomático com maior risco de desenvolver um evento agudo. O check-upcardiovascular, além de identificar os fatores de risco, inclui exames laboratoriais, testes funcionais e de imagem, o que pode implicar em custos excessivos dos exames que não agregarão valor discriminatório ou de reclassificação do risco cardiovascular. Apesar da escassez de dados, meta-análise recente não observou qualquer diferença na mortali-dade por todas as causas e cardiovascular, quanto à realização ou não dos exames de check-up de rotina. A partir da medicina baseada em evidência, diversos algoritmos foram criados para estratificação, de acordo com a presença dos fatores de risco e calibrados para a população estudada. Esses algoritmos são de simples realização e de baixo custo.A Atualização da Diretriz Brasileira de Dislipidemias e Prevenção da Aterosclerose ­ 2017 mantém a recomendação do uso do Escore Global de Risco na avalição inicial de indiví-duos assintomáticos. A revisão sistemática realizada pelo grupo Cochrane, observou que o uso dos escores de risco na prevenção primária tiveram modesto impacto na redução de eventos cardiovasculares, comparados com a não utilização. Além disso, o uso dos escores clínicos reduziu fatores de risco como colesterol elevado e hipertensão arterial, aumentou a prescrição de hipolipemiantes, anti-hipertensivos e AAS, sem evidência de danos e diminuiu a prevalência de tabagismo. Atualmente, ainda há controvérsias sobre quando e como deve ser feita a avaliação do risco cardiovascular. A literatura é clara em dizer que o uso de testes de forma indiscriminada na população não tem boa relação de custo-eficácia. Entretanto, a avaliação do risco cardiovascular pelos escores clínicos de risco pode identificar indivíduos de maior risco que serão beneficiados pela implementação de tratamentos preventivos.


Cardiovascular disease prevention is a key topic as cases with atherosclerosis as an underlying cause have a considerable impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Brazil and the rest of the world. It is estimated that 80% of coronary artery disease cases result from the individual presence or combination of factors such as dyslipidemias, smo-king, hypertension, diabetes, and others. In addition, biomarkers such as family history of early atherosclerosis, low-grade inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), and atheromatous plaque imaging (coronary calcium score) help identify and reclassify the risk of cardiovascular disease. Strategies such as cardiovascular check-ups or the use of risk scores are used to identify the asymptomatic patient with a higher risk of developing an acute event. Besides identifying risk factors, the cardiovascular check-up also includes laboratory, functional and imaging tests, which may involve excessive costs that will not add discriminatory value or allow the cardiovascular risk to be reclassified. Despite the lack of data, a recent meta-analysis found no difference in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, whether or not routine check-ups were performed. According to evidence-based medicine, several algorithms have been created for stratification, depending on the presence of risk factors and calibrated for a particular study population. These algorithms are both simple and inexpensive. The Update of the Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis Prevention - 2017 recommends using the Global Risk Score in the initial assessment of asymptomatic individuals. A systematic review conducted by the Cochrane group found that the use of risk scores in primary prevention had a modest impact on the reduction of cardiovascular events compared to non-use. Furthermore, the use of clinical scores reduced risk factors such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure, increased lipid-lowering/antihypertensive drug and aspirin prescriptions, with no evidence of harmful side effects, and reduced the prevalence of smoking. There is still controversy as to when and how to assess cardiovascular risk. The literature is clear in stating that the use of indiscriminate testing in the population is not cost effective. However, the evaluation of cardiovascular risk using clinical risk scores can identify higher risk individuals who will benefit from the implementation of preventive treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Prevention/education , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/nursing
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8711, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011600

ABSTRACT

Carotid artery assessment by ultrasound is a non-invasive evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, ultrasound examinations are operator-dependent. In the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), ultrasound images have been acquired from more than 10,000 participants. In this article, we describe the reproducibility of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid plaque detection, and carotid plaque score (defined as the number of arterial sites with plaques) using ELSA-Brasil protocol, in a subset of 118 participants. Two board-certified radiologists and a trained technician read carotid images. We calculated intra- and inter-observer intraclass correlation (ICC) for CIMT values. We also present kappa coefficients for plaque detection and weighted kappa coefficients for carotid plaque score. Participants were aged 58.2±6.6 years, and 60 (50.8%) were men. For common carotid artery CIMT measurements, intra- and inter-observer ICC values were very good to excellent, ranging from 0.90 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.72-0.95) to 0.98 (95%CI: 0.97-0.99). For carotid plaque, intra- (0.96 [95%CI: 0.96-0.96]) and inter- (0.99 [95%CI: 0.99-0.99]) observer weighted kappa coefficients were very good. Intra- and inter-observer Kappa coefficients for the presence of plaques by site were good to very good, ranging from 0.69 to 1.00. In conclusion, we found very good reproducibility for carotid plaque score and CIMT measurements in the ELSA-Brasil at baseline. These results are comparable to the best findings from similar large cohorts that analyzed carotid ultrasound data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Longitudinal Studies , Ultrasonography
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 901-906, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893071

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the carotid bifurcation level in relation with the hyoid bone and mandibular angle. Common carotid artery is the largest artery in the neck, and it gives off two terminal branches, namely external and internal carotid arteries. The bifurcation level of it shows variations, however it is usually situated at the level of C4 vertebra or at the upper border of thyroid cartilage. On the other hand, carotid bifurcation may be situated as low as T3 vertebra, or as high as the level of hyoid bone. In this study, conventional angiographic images of 112 patients were used. The distances of carotid bifurcation to hyoid bone and mandibular angle were measured on those images. In addition, right and left side difference was determined. The distance of carotid bifurcation level to the mandibular angle was measured as 21.26 ± 8.57 mm on the right and 20.25 ± 8.75 mm on the left side in males, and 19.72 ± 8.89 on the right, and 18.5 ± 9.25 mm on the left side in females. Distance between the carotid bifurcation level and hyoid bone ranged 1.94 ± 12.69 mm in female and 3.04 ± 9.00 mm in male on the left side. Having information about the level of carotid bifurcation is important in surgical and radiological procedures for determining the appropriate surgical procedure, and to prevent complications. We believe that the results of this study will shed light to planning of all interventions concerning common carotid artery.


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el nivel de bifurcación carotídea en relación con el hueso hioides y el ángulo de la mandíbula. La arteria carótida común es la arteria más grande del cuello, y tiene dos ramas terminales, las arterias carótidas externa e internas. El nivel de bifurcación muestra variaciones, sin embargo suele situarse a nivel de la cuarta vértebra cervical o en el margen superior del cartílago tiroideo. Por otro lado, la bifurcación carotídea puede estar situada tan baja como a nivel de la tercera vértebra torácica, o tan alta como a nivel del hueso hioides. En este estudio se utilizaron imágenes angiográficas convencionales de 112 pacientes. Se midieron las distancias de la bifurcación carotídea con el hueso hioides y el ángulo de la mandíbula en esas imágenes. Además, se determinó la diferencia entre los lados derecho e izquierdo. La distancia entre el nivel de bifurcación carotídea y el ángulo de la mandíbula se midió, siendo de 21,26 ± 8,57 mm a la derecha y 20,25 ± 8,75 mm en el lado izquierdo, en los hombres, y 19,72 ± 8,89 a la derecha y 18,5 ± 9,25 mm a la izquierda en mujeres. La distancia entre el nivel de bifurcación de la carótida y el hueso hioides osciló entre 1,94 ± 12,69 mm en mujeres y, 3,04 ± 9,00 mm en hombres, en el lado izquierdo. La información sobre el nivel de bifurcación carotídea es importante en los procedimientos quirúrgicos y radiológicos para determinar el procedimiento quirúrgico apropiado y prevenir complicaciones. Creemos que los resultados de este estudio arrojarán luz a la planificación de las intervenciones relacionadas con la arteria carótida común.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/diagnostic imaging
16.
Motriz (Online) ; 23(3): e101738, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895013

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze the relationship between sleep disorder and intima-media thickness. METHOD: Baseline measurements included carotid intima-media thickness, assessed by an ultrasound device; questionnaires about sleep and other behavioral variables; physical activity was measured by pedometer; body fatness was estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry; fasting glucose, lipid profile and C-reactive protein were collected. RESULTS: The occurrence rate of sleep-related disorders was 47% (95%CI= 37.2%-56.7%). Carotid intima-media thickness was related to symptoms of insomnia (r= 0.328 [0.141 to 0.493]) and, after adjustments for potential confounders, the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and insomnia remained statistically significant (ß #946;= 0.121 [95%CI= 0.017; 0.225]). CONCLUSIONS: In young adults, sleep disorder was significantly related to premature increase in carotid intima-media thickness.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder , Exercise , Alcoholism , Body Fat Distribution , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Metabolic Diseases , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(4): 327-332, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780788

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective: To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods: A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results: There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions: CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years.


Resumo Fundamentos: A espessura médio-intimal (EMI) na artéria carótida comum tem se mostrado aumentada em crianças e adolescentes com fatores de risco tradicionais, como obesidade, hipertensão e doença renal crônica, quando comparada à de crianças saudáveis. Objetivos: Avaliar a influência do sexo, idade e índice de massa corpórea (IMC) sobre a EMI em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis entre 1 e 15 anos de idade. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 280 indivíduos saudáveis (sexo masculino, n=175; idade, 7,49±3,57 anos; IMC, 17,94±4,1 kg/m2), que foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a faixa etária: GI, crianças de 1 a 5 anos [n=93 (33,2%); sexo masculino, 57; IMC, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, crianças de 6 a 10 anos [n=127 (45,4%); sexo masculino, 78; IMC, 17,9±3,7 kg/m2]; e GIII, crianças de 11 a 15 anos [n=60 (21,4%); sexo masculino, 40; IMC, 20,9±4,5 kg/m2]. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa nos valores da EMI entre os sexos (masculino, 0,43±0,06 mm; feminino, 0,42±0.05 mm; p=0,243). A EMI não se correlacionou com o IMC na população total ou nos 3 grupos de acordo com o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Crianças entre 11 e 15 anos apresentaram maiores valores de EMI (GI vs. GII, p=0,615; GI vs. GIII, p=0,02; GII vs. GIII, p=0,004). Conclusões: Independentemente de sexo e IMC, a EMI é constante em crianças saudáveis abaixo dos 10 anos de idade, aumentando a partir daí.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Reference Values , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Body Mass Index , Linear Models , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The CHADS2 score, used to predict the risk of ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, has been reported recently to predict ischemic stroke in patients with coronary heart disease, regardless of the presence of AF. However, little data are available regarding the relationship between the CHADS2 score and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on 104 patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent coronary angiography, carotid ultrasound, and transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 60.1 +/- 12.6 years. The CHADS2 score was as follows: 0 in 46 patients (44.2%), 1 in 31 (29.8%), 2 in 18 (17.3%), and > or = 3 in 9 patients (8.7%). The left atrial volume index (LAVi) showed a positive correlation with the CHADS2 score (20.8 +/- 5.9 for 0; 23.2 +/- 6.7 for 1; 26.6 +/- 10.8 for 2; and 30.3 +/- 8.3 mL/m2 for > or =3; p = 0.001). The average carotid total plaque area was significantly increased with CHADS2 scores > or = 2 (4.97 +/- 7.17 mm2 vs. 15.52 +/- 14.61 mm2; p = 0.002). Eight patients experienced cardiovascular or cerebrovascular (CCV) events during a mean evaluation period of 662 days. A CHADS2 score > or = 3 was related to an increase in the risk of CCV events (hazard ratio, 14.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.53 to 58.06). Furthermore, LAVi and the severity of coronary artery obstructive disease were also associated with an increased risk of CCV events. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2 score may be a useful prognostic tool for predicting CCV events in ACS patients with documented coronary artery disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Aged , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Decision Support Techniques , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143638

ABSTRACT

In this study, we characterized cerebral blood flow changes by assessment of blood flow parameters in neck arteries using carotid duplex ultrasonography and predictive factors for these hemodynamic changes. Hemodynamic variables were measured before and during hemodialysis in 81 patients with an arteriovenous access in their arm. Hemodialysis produced significant lowering in peak systolic velocity and flow volume of neck arteries and calculated total cerebral blood flow (1,221.9 ± 344.9 [before hemodialysis] vs. 1,085.8 ± 319.2 [during hemodialysis], P < 0.001). Effects were greater in vessels on the same side as the arteriovenous access and these changes were influenced by arteriovenous access flow during hemodialysis, both in the CCA (r = -0.277, P = 0.015) and the VA (r = -0.239, P = 0.034). The change of total cerebral blood flow during hemodialysis was independently related with age, presence of diabetes, and systemic blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Dizziness/etiology , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143627

ABSTRACT

In this study, we characterized cerebral blood flow changes by assessment of blood flow parameters in neck arteries using carotid duplex ultrasonography and predictive factors for these hemodynamic changes. Hemodynamic variables were measured before and during hemodialysis in 81 patients with an arteriovenous access in their arm. Hemodialysis produced significant lowering in peak systolic velocity and flow volume of neck arteries and calculated total cerebral blood flow (1,221.9 ± 344.9 [before hemodialysis] vs. 1,085.8 ± 319.2 [during hemodialysis], P < 0.001). Effects were greater in vessels on the same side as the arteriovenous access and these changes were influenced by arteriovenous access flow during hemodialysis, both in the CCA (r = -0.277, P = 0.015) and the VA (r = -0.239, P = 0.034). The change of total cerebral blood flow during hemodialysis was independently related with age, presence of diabetes, and systemic blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Dizziness/etiology , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
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