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1.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(1): 6-13, jan.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969855

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares são a maior causa de morbimortalidade no mundo. A prevenção primária, por meio do diagnóstico precoce, é necessária para possibilitar o tratamento adequado e controlar a evolução da doença, reduzindo a mortalidade e os gastos em saúde pública. Correlacionar aterosclerose em artéria carótida (avaliada pelo Eco Doppler) e disfunção ventricular esquerda (avaliada pelo ecocardiograma), além de correlacionar tais achados com o risco cardiovascular dos pacientes estudados. Método: Foram analisados 286 prontuários de pacientes que realizaram os exames Eco Doppler carotídeo e ecocardiograma transtorácico. Os dados analisados foram: presença de placa aterosclerótica e grau de estenose, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e presença de alterações contráteis difusas ou segmentares do ventrículo esquerdo. Resultados: Dos 238 laudos de Eco Doppler carotídeo, 18 tinham estenose maior que 70% em artéria carótida e 14 destes apresentavam alteração contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo (p = 0,045). Dos pacientes que tinham risco cardiovascular muito alto, 61 apresentavam estenose em artéria carótida (p < 0,001); 51 pacientes com risco cardiovascular muito alto apresentavam alteração contrátil (p < 0,001). Dos 266 laudos de ecocardiograma, 37 registravam fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida. Desses, 25 tinham risco cardiovascular muito alto (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Houve relação positiva entre estenose de artéria carótida, redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e alteração contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo (difusa ou segmentar) com risco cardiovascular muito alto. Também foi possível correlacionar a estenose carotídea com alteração contrátil, apesar deste estudo não demonstrar correlação entre estenose carotídea e redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Primary prevention, through early diagnosis, is necessary to enable proper treatment and control disease progression, reducing mortality and public health expenditures. Objective: Correlate carotid artery atherosclerosis (evaluated by Doppler echocardiography) and left ventricular dysfunction (evaluated by echocardiography) and to correlate the findings with the patients' cardiovascular risk. Method: A total of 286 medical records of patients who underwent carotid Doppler echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed. The data analyzed were: presence of atherosclerotic plaque and degree of stenosis, left ventricular ejection fraction and presence of diffuse or segmental left ventricular contractile disorders. Results: Of the 238 reports of carotid Doppler echocardiography, 18 had stenosis greater than 70% in the carotid artery and 14 of those had left ventricular contractile disorders (p = 0.045). Of the patients with very high cardiovascular risk, 61 had carotid artery stenosis (p < 0.001); 51 patients with very high cardiovascular risk had contractile disorders (p < 0.001). Of the 266 echocardiography reports, 37 had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Of these, 25 had very high cardiovascular risk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between carotid artery stenosis, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular (diffuse or segmental) contractile disorder with very high cardiovascular risk. It was also possible to correlate carotid stenosis with contractile disorder, although this study did not demonstrate any correlation between carotid stenosis and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Echocardiography/methods , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Primary Prevention/methods , Stroke Volume , Vertebral Artery , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(4): 618-625, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973768

ABSTRACT

Abstract Severe carotid atherosclerotic disease is responsible for 14% of all strokes, which result in a high rate of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, advances in clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases have resulted in a significant decrease in mortality due to these causes. To review the main studies on carotid revascularization, evaluating the relationship between risks and benefits of this procedure. The data reviewed show that, for a net benefit, carotid intervention should only be performed in cases of a periprocedural risk of less than 6% in symptomatic patients. The medical therapy significantly reduced the revascularization net benefit ratio for stroke prevention in asymptomatic patients. Real life registries indicate that carotid stenting is associated with a greater periprocedural risk. The operator annual procedure volume and patient age has an important influence in the rate of stroke and death after carotid stenting. Symptomatic patients have a higher incidence of death and stroke after the procedure. Revascularization has the greatest benefit in the first weeks of the event. There is a discrepancy in the scientific literature about carotid revascularization and/or clinical treatment, both in primary and secondary prevention of patients with carotid artery injury. The identification of patients who will really benefit is a dynamic process subject to constant review.


Resumo A doença aterosclerótica carotídea grave é responsável por 14% de todos os acidentes vasculares cerebrais (AVC), que refletem em uma alta taxa de morbimortalidade. Nos últimos anos, os avanços no tratamento clínico das doenças cardiovasculares geraram um decréscimo importante na mortalidade por estas causas. Revisar principais estudos que dizem respeito à revascularização carotídea avaliando a relação entre risco e beneficio deste procedimento. Os dados encontrados indicam que o procedimento só deve ser realizado se houver um risco periprocedimento menor que 6% em pacientes sintomáticos para que haja beneficio líquido na intervenção carotídea. O tratamento clínico reduziu significativamente o benefício líquido da revascularização na prevenção de AVC em pacientes assintomáticos. Registros que refletem a prática diária demonstram que a angioplastia carotídea esta associada a um risco periprocedimento mais elevado. O volume anual de procedimentos por operador e a idade dos pacientes têm uma importante influência nas taxas de AVC e morte pós angioplastia. Pacientes sintomáticos têm uma maior incidência de AVC e morte após procedimento. A revascularização tem o maior benefício nas primeiras semanas do evento. Existem discrepâncias na literatura científica com relação à revascularização carotídea e/ou tratamento clínico, tanto na prevenção primária quanto secundária de pacientes com lesão carotídea. A identificação do paciente que realmente será beneficiado é um processo dinâmico sujeito a constante revisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stents , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Angioplasty/methods , Risk Assessment , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Stroke/etiology
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(3): 365-372, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756518

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Methods:From January 2010 to December 2012, 519 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed prospectively. The sample was divided into two groups: patients with stroke per and postoperative were allocated in Group GS (n=22) and the other patients in the group CCONTROL (n=497). The following variables were compared between the groups: gender, age, carotid stenosis > 70%, diabetes on insulin, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral arteriopathy, unstable angina, kidney function, left ventricular function, acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Ischemic stroke was defined as symptoms lasting over 24 hours associated with changes in brain computed tomography scan. The variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test, Chi square, Student’s t-test and logistic regression.Results:Stroke occurred in 4.2% of patients and the risk factors statistically significant were: carotid stenosis of 70% or more (P=0.03; OR 5.07; IC 95%: 1.35 to 19.02), diabetes on insulin (P=0.04; OR 2.61; IC 95%: 1.10 to 6.21) and peripheral arteriopathy (P=0.03; OR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.08 to 6.28).Conclusion:Risk factors for ischemic stroke were carotid stenosis of 70% or more, diabetes on insulin and peripheral arteriopathy.


ResumoObjetivo:O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os fatores de risco para acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca.Métodos:Entre janeiro de 2010 e dezembro de 2012, foram analisados prospectivamente 519 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos: os pacientes com acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico (AVEi) trans e pós-operatório foram alocados no grupo GAVEi (n=22) e os demais pacientes no grupo CControle (n=497). As seguintes variáveis foram comparadas entre os grupos: sexo, idade, estenose carotídea >70%, diabetes em uso de insulina, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, arteriopatia periférica, função renal, angina instável, função do ventrículo esquerdo, infarto agudo do miocárdio recente, hipertensão arterial pulmonar, uso de circulação extracorpórea. Acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico foi definido como presença de sintomas de duração maior que 24 horas associados à alteração em tomografia de crânio. As variáveis foram comparadas, por meio do teste exato de Fisher, Qui quadrado, teste t de Student e regressão logística.Resultados:Verificou-se a ocorrência de acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico em 4,2% dos pacientes e os fatores de risco estatisticamente significativos foram: estenose carotídea de 70% ou mais (P=0,03; OR 5,07; IC 95%: 1,35 a 19,02), diabetes em uso de insulina (P=0,04; OR 2,61; IC 95%: 1,10 a 6,21) e arteriopatia periférica (P=0,03; OR 2,61; IC 95%: 1,08 a 6,28).Conclusão:Foram fatores de risco para acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico: estenose carotídea de 70% ou mais, presença de diabetes em uso de insulina e presença de arteriopatia periférica.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Perioperative Period , Stroke/etiology , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Logistic Models , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/mortality , Treatment Outcome
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 366-378, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726786

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El accidente cerebrovascular es la segunda causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en el mundo, y más de 85 % es de origen isquémico. Objetivo. Evaluar en un modelo de infarto cerebral por embolia arterial el efecto de la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, sobre la respuesta neuronal, los astrocitos y la microglia. Materiales y métodos. Se sometieron ratas Wistar a embolia de la arteria carótida y a tratamiento con meloxicam y atorvastatina, administrados por separado y conjuntamente, a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se evaluó la reacción de las proteínas COX-2, GFAP y OX-42 en las neuronas, los astrocitos y la microglia mediante inmunohistoquímica y estudios morfológicos y de densitometría. Los datos obtenidos se evaluaron por medio de un análisis de varianza y de pruebas no paramétricas de comparación múltiple. Resultados. La isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial incrementó significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción de los astrocitos y la microglia, en tanto que la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, la redujeron. La isquemia produjo acortamiento de las proyecciones de los astrocitos, engrosamiento celular, ruptura de las expansiones protoplásmicas (clasmatodendrosis) y cambios morfológicos en la microglia propios de diversas etapas de actividad. En las zonas circundantes del foco se incrementó la reacción inmunológica de la COX-2 y se redujo en el foco isquémico, en tanto que el meloxicam y la atorvastatina redujeron significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción inmunológica en la zona circundante del foco, restableciendo la marcación de la ciclooxigenasa en el foco isquémico. Conclusión. La combinación de meloxicam y atorvastatina atenúa la respuesta de los astrocitos y la microglia en el proceso inflamatorio posterior a la isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial, reduciendo la degeneración neuronal y restableciendo el equilibrio morfológico y funcional del tejido nervioso.


Introduction: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the first cause of disability in the world, with more than 85% of the cases having ischemic origin. Objective: To evaluate in an embolism model of stroke the effect of atorvastatin and meloxicam on neurons, astrocytes and microglia. This evaluation was done administering each medication individually and in association. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were subjected to carotid arterial embolism and treatment with meloxicam and atorvastatin at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of COX-2 protein, GFAP and OX-42 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia by densitometric and morphological studies. Data were evaluated by variance analysis and non-parametric multiple comparison. Results: Cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism increased significantly the reactivity of microglia and astrocytes (p<0.001), whereas it was reduced by atorvastatin, meloxicam and their association. Ischemia produced astrocytic shortening, cellular thickening, protoplasmic rupture expansions (clasmatodendrosis) and microglial morphological changes characteristic of various activity stages. In perifocal areas, immunoreactivity of COX-2 was increased and in the ischemic focus it was reduced, while meloxicam and atorvastatin significantly reduced (p<0.001) perifocal immunoreactivity, restoring the marking of cyclooxygenase in the ischemic focus. Conclusion: These results suggest that the meloxicam-atorvastatin association attenuates astrocytic and microglial response in the inflammatory process after cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism, reducing neurodegeneration and restoring the morphological and functional balance of nervous tissue .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intracranial Embolism/complications , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin , /analysis , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Biomarkers , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/pathology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Heptanoic Acids/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inflammation , Intracranial Embolism/pathology , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/pathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/analysis , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(4): 297-303, out. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690575

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Cerca de 30% dos AVE perioperatórios da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM) são decorrentes de lesões carotídeas, sem redução de risco confirmada por intervenção perioperatória. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o impacto da doença carotídea e a intervenção perioperatória nos pacientes submetidos à CRM. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo observacional, avaliando 1.169 pacientes com idade > 65 anos submetidos à CRM entre janeiro de 2006 e dezembro de 2010, acompanhados, em média, por 49 meses. Todos foram submetidos à ultrassonografia de carótidas prévia à CRM. Definiu-se doença carotídea quando lesão > 50%. O desfecho primário foi composto pela incidência de AVE, acidente isquêmico transitório (AIT) e óbito por AVE. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da doença carotídea foi de 19,9% dos pacientes. A incidência do desfecho primário entre portadores e não portadores foi de 6,5% e 3,7%, respectivamente (p = 0,0018). Nos primeiros 30 dias, ocorreram 18,2% dos eventos. Relacionaram-se a doença carotídea: disfunção renal (OR 2,03, IC95% 1,34-3,07; p < 0,01), doença arterial periférica (OR 1,80, IC95% 1,22-2,65; p < 0,01) e infarto do miocárdio prévio (OR 0,47, IC95% 0,35-0,65; p < 0,01). Quanto ao desfecho primário, foram associados AIT prévio (OR 5,66, IC95% 1,67-6,35; p < 0,01) e disfunção renal (OR 3,28, IC95% 1,67-6,45; p < 0,01). Nos pacientes com lesão > 70%, a intervenção carotídea perioperatória apresentou incidência de 17% no desfecho primário contra 4,3% na conduta conservadora (p = 0,056) sem diferença entre abordagens percutânea e cirúrgica (p = 0,516). CONCLUSÃO: A doença carotídea aumenta o risco para AVE, AIT ou morte por AVE na CRM. Entretanto, a intervenção carotídea não foi relacionada à redução do desfecho primário.


BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of perioperative CVA of myocardial revascularization surgery (MRS) are a result of carotid injuries, without reduction of risk confirmed by perioperative intervention. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the impact of carotid disease and perioperative intervention in patients subjected to MRS. METHODS: Observational, retrospective study, evaluating 1169 patients aged > 69 years undergoing MRS from January, 2006 and December, 2010, monitored, on average, for 49 months. All patients were subjected to ultrasonography of carotids before MRS. It was defined as carotid disease when lesion > 50%. The primary outcome was composed of CVA incidence, transitory ischemic accident (TIA) and death due CVA. RESULTS: Prevalence of carotid disease was of 19.9% of patients. The incidence of primary outcome between unhealthy and healthy patients was of 6.5% and 3.7%, respectively (p = 0.0018). In the first 30 days, there were 18.2% of events. Were related to carotid disease: renal dysfunction (OR 2.03, IC95% 1.34-3.07; p < 0.01), peripheral arterial disease (OR 1.80, IC95% 1.22-2.65; p < 0.01) and previous myocardial infarction (OR 0.47, IC95% 0.35-0.65; p < 0.01). Regarding the primary outcome, were associated the previous TIA (OR 5.66, IC95% 1.67-6.35; p < 0.01) and renal dysfunction (OR 3.28, IC95% 1.67-6.45; p < 0.01). In patients with lesion >70%, perioperative carotid intervention demonstrated an incidence of 16% in primary outcome compared to 4.3% in conservatory treatment (p = 0.056) with no difference between percutaneous and surgical approaches (p = 0.516). CONCLUSION: Carotid disease increases the risk of CVA, TIA or death due to CVA in MRS. However, the carotid intervention was not related to reduction of primary outcome.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Carotid Artery Injuries/complications , Myocardial Revascularization/adverse effects , Stroke/etiology , Carotid Artery Injuries/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality , Perioperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 21(2): 159-164, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-681950

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O tipo de proteção cerebral utilizado durante o implante de stent carotídeo é controverso em idosos. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os resultados dos dispositivos de proteção embólica cerebral (PEC), proximal e distal, em pacientes > 70 anos de idade, por meio da ressonância magnética ponderada de difusão (RM-PD). MÉTODOS: Entre 2008 e 2011, 60 pacientes com indicação de stent carotídeo foram randomizados para PEC com Mo.Ma® ou Angioguard®, dos quais 26 tinham > 70 anos de idade. Os resultados da RM-PD realizada antes e 48 horas após o procedimento foram avaliados por neuro­logista independente e cego para o tipo de PEC utilizado. Foram analisados o número de novos focos isquêmicos, sua localização e o tamanho. RESULTADOS: Novos focos isquêmicos cerebrais foram encontrados em 8/12 (66,7%) pacientes do grupo Mo.Ma® e em 12/14 (85,7%) pacientes do grupo Angioguard® (P = 0,37). A maioria das lesões (> 90%) era ipsilateral à artéria tratada em ambos os grupos, e o tamanho das lesões foi < 0,5 cm na maioria dos casos. O número de lesões por paciente foi menor com o dispositivo Mo.Ma® (mediana [variação]: 3 [1 a 8] lesões vs. 15 [2 a 76] lesões; P < 0,001). Todos os pacientes que tiveram mais de 40 lesões pertenciam ao grupo Angioguard®. CONCLUSÕES: Mesmo utilizando PEC (proximal ou distal), novas lesões isquêmicas foram observadas em ambos os grupos em pacientes idosos. Proporcionalmente maior número de pacientes com Angioguard® teve novos focos isquêmicos se comparados aos pacientes do grupo Mo.Ma®. O dispositivo de PEC Mo.Ma® parece diminuir o número de lesões por paciente.


BACKGROUND: The type of cerebral protection used during carotid stenting in the elderly is controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the results of proximal and distal cerebral embolic protection devices (EPDs), in patients > 70 years through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). METHODS: Between 2008 and 2011, 60 patients with indication for carotid stenting were randomized to EPD with Mo.Ma® or Angioguard®, of which 26 patients were > 70 years of age. Results of DW-MRI performed before and 48 hours after the procedure were evaluated by an independent neurologist blinded to the type of EPD used. New ischemic lesions, their localization and size were analyzed. RESULTS: New cerebral ischemic lesions were found in 8/12 (66.7%) patients in the Mo.Ma® group and 12/14 (85.7%) patients in the Angioguard® group (P = 0.37). The vast majority of the lesions (> 90%) were ipsilateral to the treated artery in both groups and the size of the lesions was < 0.5 cm in most cases. The number of lesions per patient was lower with the Mo.Ma® device (median [variation]: 3 [1 to 8] lesions vs 15 [2 to 76] lesions; P < 0.001). All of the patients with more than 40 lesions were in the Angioguard® group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of EPDs (proximal or distal), new ischemic lesions were observed in both groups in elderly patients. A proportionately larger number of patients with Angioguard® had new ischemic lesions when compared to those with Mo.Ma®. The Mo.Ma® device seems to decrease the number of lesions per patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cerebral Angiography/methods , Cerebral Angiography , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Aged , Stents , Angioplasty/methods , Risk Factors
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(6): 561-565, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633921

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad aterosclerótica asintomática de la arteria carótida interna extracraneal alcanza una prevalencia de hasta el 12.5%. La angioplastia carotídea todavía no ha demostrado ser lo suficientemente segura y eficaz para prevenir el ACV isquémico en estos pacientes. Estudios aleatorizados demostraron que la endarterectomía carotídea es superior al tratamiento médico en cuanto a reducción del riesgo de ACV isquémico si es realizada por equipos con tasas de complicaciones (ACV o muerte) menores que 3%. Sin embargo, los pacientes evaluados en estos estudios comenzaron a reclutarse hace más de 25 años, cuando la utilización de antiagregantes plaquetarios era menor que la actual, el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial era menos efectivo y todavía no se usaban estatinas como componentes fundamentales de los esquemas de prevención vascular. La optimización de la calidad del tratamiento médico en las últimas décadas ha llevado a una significativa reducción del riesgo de ACV en pacientes no intervenidos quirúrgicamente. En base a estas observaciones y con la excepción de casos específicos, el tratamiento médico es la opción terapéutica de elección en pacientes con enfermedad aterosclerótica carotídea extracraneal asintomática.


The reported prevalence of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial internal carotid artery is up to 12.5%. Carotid angioplasty has not yet proven safe and effective enough to prevent ischemic stroke in these patients. Randomized studies showed that carotid endarterectomy is superior to medical therapy in reducing the risk of ischemic stroke when performed by surgical teams with complication rates (stroke or death) of less than 3%. However, recruitment of these patients began more than 25 years ago, when the use of antiplatelet agents was lower than today, the treatment of hypertension was less effective than currently, and statins were not considered as key components of vascular prevention strategies. Optimizing the quality of medical treatment in recent decades has led to a significant reduction in stroke risk in patients not undergoing surgery. Based on these observations and with the exception of specific cases, medical therapy is the treatment of choice for patients with asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial carotid arteries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Diseases/therapy , Asymptomatic Diseases , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Risk Factors
10.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 19(2): 194-199, jul. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-595235

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tratamento endovascular da doença aterosclerótica carotídea vem evoluindo continuamente, embora possam ocorrer complicações embólicas ou isquêmicas, mesmo com o uso dos sistemas de proteção cerebral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os resultados de uma série inicial de pacientes que utilizaram o sistema de reversão de fluxo durante angioplastia carotídea. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, não-randomizado, não-controlado, realizado em um único centro. Foram incluídos pacientes assintomáticos com lesão > 70% ou sintomáticos com lesão > 50% em artéria carótida interna. Foi utilizado o sistema de reversão de fluxo, com pré-dilatação em casos selecionados e uso de stents de células abertas em todos os casos. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de acidentes vasculares encefálicos (AVEs) maiores e menores, ataques isquêmicos transitórios (AITs), infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) e óbito até 30 dias pós-procedimento. Resultados: Entre setembro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011 foram realizadas angioplastias carotídeas em 17 pacientes, a maioria do sexo masculino (70,6%), com médiade idade de 66,7 + 8 anos, sendo 17,6% diabéticos. Cerca de metade dos pacientes era sintomática, 5 pacientes tinham história de AVE prévio (29,4%) e 3, de AIT (17,7%) prévio. Sucesso técnico foi obtido em 100% dos casos. Houve um caso de óbito (5,9%), 24 horas após o procedimento, em paciente de alto risco cirúrgico tratado na fase evolutiva de IAM por apresentar AITs de repetição. Não ocorreram casos de AVE maior ou menor ou AIT durante o período de acompanhamento. Conclusões: Neste estudo, o sistema dereversão de fluxo mostrou ser eficiente e seguro em pacientes submetidos a angioplastia carotídea.


Background: The endovascular treatment of carotid atherosclerotic disease has continuously evolved, although ischemic or embolic complications may occur even with the use of cerebral protection systems. This study was aimed at evaluating the perioperative results of an initial series of patients using the flow reversal system during carotid angioplasty. Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized, non-controlled, singlecenterstudy. Asymptomatic patients with lesions > 70% or symptomatic patients with lesions > 50% in the internal carotid artery were included. The flow reversal system was used with pre-dilation in selected cases and open-cell stents were used in all cases. We evaluated the occurrence of major and minor strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and death within 30 days after the procedure. Results: Between September 2010 and February 2011 carotid angioplasty was performed in 17 patients, most of them male (70.6%), with mean age of 66.7 +8 years, of which 17.6% were diabetic. Approximately half of the patients were symptomatic, 5 patients had a prior history of stroke (29.4%) and 3 had TIA (17.7%). Technical success was achieved in 100% of the patients. There was one death (5.9%), 24 hours after the procedure in a high surgical risk patient treated in the evolution phase of an AMI due to repetitive TIAs. There were no cases of major or minor strokes or TIAs during the follow-up. Conclusions: In our study, the flow reversal system proved to be effective and safe in patients undergoing carotid angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Angioplasty/methods , Angioplasty , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Stents , Stroke/complications , Stroke/mortality , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 26(2): 258-263, abr.-jun. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although the overall complication rate has been decreased significantly in recent years, stroke is a severe complication after coronary bypass operations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of carotid artery disease on the results of patients under CABG operation. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, 1,978 patients under CABG operation were studied in Shariati Hospital between April 2002 and March 2006. The patients who had only valve replacement or non-CABG procedure were excluded from this study. As part of preoperative evaluation, carotid duplex ultrasonography scans were performed. In order to estimate the degree of carotid arteries stenosis, ultrasound imaging measurement and velocity criteria were considered. The patients were classified into three groups: those with no significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) (moderate) group A, those with significant stenosis (sever) group B and those with the occluded ICA (critical) group C. Finally, all data were analyzed by SPSS software. Statistical analyses were performed using the following testes; chi-square, Fisher exact and Student's t tests. RESULTS: The distribution of the 1,978 patients undergoing CABG operation were as follows: group A = 1,938, group B = 30, and group C = 10. The results of the evaluations show that perioperative stroke rates were 1.2 percent (24 patients) in group A, 0.4 percent (eight patients) in group B and 0.3 percent (six patients) in group C (P<0.0001). Furthermore, perioperative mortality rates for groups A, B and C were 0.1 percent (two patients), 0.3 percent (five patients) and 0.4 percent (seven patients), respectively (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The stroke and mortality in patients undergoing CABG are increased when ICA occlusion is present.


OBJETIVO: Embora a taxa de complicação geral tenha diminuído significativamente em anos recentes, o acidente vascular cerebral é uma complicação grave após operações de revascularização do miocárdio. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a influência da doença da artéria carótida nos resultados de pacientes submetidos à operação de revascularização do miocárdio (CABG). MÉTODO: Em um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, 1.978 pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio foram estudados no Shariati Hospital, entre abril de 2002 e março de 2006. Os pacientes que tiveram apenas substituição da valva ou um procedimento sem revascularização do miocárdio foram excluídos do estudo. Como parte da avaliação pré-operatória, foram realizados exames com ultrassonografia Doppler dupla (dúplex) de artéria carótida. Na estimativa do grau de estenose das artérias carótidas, foram considerados critérios de mensuração de imagem de ultrassom e de velocidade. Os pacientes foram classificados em três grupos: aqueles sem estenose significativa (moderada) da artéria carótida interna, grupo A; aqueles com estenose significativa (grave), grupo B; e aqueles com oclusão (crítica) da artéria carótida interna, grupo C. Finalmente, todos os dados foram analisados usando-se o programa SPSS. Análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando-se os testes do qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e t de Student. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.978 pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio, 1.938 eram do grupo A, 30 do grupo B e 10 do grupo C. Os resultados das avaliações mostraram que as taxas de acidente vascular cerebral perioperatórias foram de 1,2 por cento (24 pacientes) no grupo A, 0,4 por cento (oito pacientes) no grupo B e 0,3 por cento (seis pacientes) no grupo C (P < 0,0001). Além do mais, as taxas de mortalidade perioperatórias para os grupos A, B e C foram 0,1 por cento (dois pacientes), 0,3 por cento (cinco pacientes) e 0,4 por cento (sete pacientes), respectivamente (P < 0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: O acidente vascular cerebral e a mortalidade em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio aumentam quando há oclusão da artéria carótida interna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Stroke/etiology , Cohort Studies , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis , Preoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/adverse effects , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28043

ABSTRACT

We attempted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis in Korea. Twenty thousand seven hundred twelve individuals who underwent carotid artery ultrasonography for health screening between March 2005 and March 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. The population was divided into four groups, according to the degree of stenosis, as Group A, below 29%; Group B, 30% to 49%; Group C, 50% to 74%; Group D, above 75%. The medical records of the individuals were investigated, and Fisher's exact test, chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and a binary logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of carotid stenosis was Group B, 5.5%; Group C, 0.9%; Group D, 0.1%. Old age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease were significantly higher in Groups C and D (P = 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, 0.048, and 0.001, respectively). Among the males aged over 65 yr, the prevalence of carotid stenosis > or = 50% and > or = 30% were 4.0% and 18.2%, respectively. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is not uncommon in Korea. Carotid ultrasonography is necessary for people with above-listed risk factors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
13.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 23(supl.2): 856-868, 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-615621

ABSTRACT

El síndrome isquémico ocular es caracterizado por síntomas y signos oculares secundarios a la estenosis severa y prolongada ipsilateral de la arteria carótida interna extracraneal o de la arteria carótida común, ocasionalmente, se ha asociado a la oclusión de la arteria oftálmica. En general, se considera un diagnóstico poco usual y constituye la tercera causa más común de glaucoma neovascular con pobre pronóstico visual. Hallazgos oculares incluyen disminución progresiva de la visión, inflamación del segmento anterior, neovascularización del iris y del ángulo iridocorneal, glaucoma neovascular y retinopatía por hipoperfusión periférica. Describimos un paciente con severa estenosis carotídea ipsilateral y disminución progresiva de la visión por la isquemia ocular. Se realiza una revisión sobre el manejo de esta condición tan controversial


Ocular ischemic syndrome is characterized by ocular symptoms and signs that are secondary to prolonged and severe ipsilateral stenosis of extracranial internal carotid artery or of the common carotid artery; occasionally, ipsilateral ophthalmic artery obstruction can also be responsible. It is generally considered as an unusual diagnosis, and the 3rd most common cause in neovascular glaucoma with poor visual prognosis. Ocular findings include gradual onset of decreased vision, inflammation of the anterior segment, iris and iridocorneal angle neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma and peripheral hypoperfusion retinopathy. Here is a patient with l severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis and progressive visual loss due to ocular ischemia. A literature review on the best management of this so controversial condition was made


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmic Artery/physiopathology , Vision, Low/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/physiopathology , Case Reports
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187252

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) in Korean patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and identify predictive factors of ACAS in patients with PAD. Between 1994 and 2008, 546 patients who underwent bypass surgery due to PAD were identified in a single tertiary teaching hospital. Of those, 409 patients underwent preoperative screening carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDUS). Patients who had an episode of cerebrovascular event or previous carotid artery intervention were excluded and then a retrospective analysis was made of 340 patients. The degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis was determined by the criteria of Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference. To determine the risk factors of ACAS, demographic, coexisting medical condition and lesion characteristics were tested with binary logistic regression model. The prevalence of > or =70% ICA stenosis was 14%. ICA occlusion was detected in 7.1%. Multivariate analysis revealed age >65 yr (OR: 2.610, 95% CI: 1.197-5.691) and coronary artery disease (CAD, OR: 2.333, 95% CI: 1.169-4.657) are predictive factors of > or =70% stenosis. A PAD patient who needs revascularization, particularly, >65 yr or has a concomitant CAD, can be a good candidate of screening CDUS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Chronic Disease , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Demography , Female , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
15.
J. vasc. bras ; 8(4): 307-312, dez. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-543397

ABSTRACT

Contexto: A qualidade e a quantidade de partículas coletadas em filtros de proteção cerebral (FPC) durante angioplastia transluminal percutânea com stent (ATPS) podem esclarecer a importância desses dispositivos no tratamento de estenoses carotídeas. Objetivos: Analisar o conteúdo retido por FPC em pacientes submetidos a ATPS de artéria carótida interna com nova técnica de análise qualiquantitativa. Métodos: O material coletado em 10 FPC durante ATPS da bifurcação da carótida em pacientes com alto risco cirúrgico foi submetido a análise microscópica qualiquantitativa. Fotografias digitais das lâminas com material corado com hematoxilina e eosina foram analisadas com o programa Axio Vision LE Release 4.1, que calculou a área das partículas em micrômetros/metro quadrado (µm²). Resultados: O exame histopatológico evidenciou material em 100 por cento dos filtros consistindo predominantemente de restos hemáticos, cristais de colesterol e cálcio. A área média de fragmentos coletados foi expressiva (1.570.310 µm²), e houve ampla variância desses valores. Conclusões: Os FPC coletam quantidade importante de fragmentos de placas de ateroma, e a grande variância nas quantidades de material coletado pode estar associada com a gravidade da lesão, motivo pelo qual se tornam relevantes estudos que utilizem técnica padronizada para a quantificação desses fragmentos e para a compreensão de seu real significado clínico.


Background: Quality and quantity of the content retained in embolic protection filters (EPFs) used in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting may possibly indicate the importance of EPFs in the management of carotid stenosis. Objectives: To analyze the content retained by EPFs in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the internal carotid artery using a new technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Methods: Material captured in 10 EPFs during percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting in high-surgical-risk patients was examined to determine a qualitative and quantitative microscopic analysis. Digital photographs of the hematoxylin-eosin stained slides were analyzed using the Axio Vision LE Release 4.1 software in order to calculate the particles area in micra/square meter (µm²). Results: Histopathological examination identified particulate debris in 100 percent of the filters including predominantly blood residues, cholesterol crystals, and calcium Quantity of captured fragments was significant (mean of 1,570,310 µm²) with a wide range of these values. Conclusions: Significant quantity of fragments of atheromatous plaques is retained by EPFs and the wide range in the quantity of the retained debris can be associated with the lesion severity; therefore new studies using standardized technique for quantifying these fragments and for better understanding their real clinical meaning are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carotid Arteries , Endarterectomy/methods , Endarterectomy , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Stents
16.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 20(3): 295-309, mayo 2009. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-525329

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se describe una serie clínica de angioplastía y stenting carotideo con sistema de protección distal para el tratamiento de la estenosis significativa del bulbo carotideo en Clínica Las Condes. El análisis de trabajos clínicos multicéntricos, junto a nuestros resultados, permite concluir que la angioplastía y stenting carotideo es una alternativa válida y de bajo riesgo para el tratamiento de la estenosis carotidea significativa.


In this article we describe a case series of carotid angioplasty and stenting with distal protection technique for the treatment of significant carotid bulb stenosis in Clínica Las Condes. The results of past clinical trials, and our case series allow us to conclude that carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative therapy with low risks associated, for the treatment of significant carotid stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angioplasty , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Stents , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129544

ABSTRACT

We report a case of ocular ischemic syndrome accompanied by neovascular glaucoma that was successfully treated with Bevacizumab. A 70-year-old male patient diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma of the left eye 3-4 years prior complained of continuous left eye pain and declining visual acuity despite receiving the latest treatment methods. At the time of admission the patient had no light perception in the left eye and his intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg. Anterior segment and fundus examinations revealed neovascularization of the iris and stenosis of the retinal vessel. Hypofluorescence of the choroid and retinal vessels was observed on fluorescence fundus angiography. Left internal carotid artery stenosis was observed on a brain MRI. Despite being treated with eye solution and oral medication, intraocular pressure was not controlled. After 7 days, we performed an intravitreal Bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05mL injection. One day after the intravitreal Bevacizumab injection, the neovascularization had nearly regressed and intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection produced regression of neovascularization and proved effective for treatment of neovascular glaucoma in this case of ocular ischemic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Eye/blood supply , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Glaucoma, Neovascular/diagnosis , Humans , Injections , Ischemia/complications , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vitreous Body
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129529

ABSTRACT

We report a case of ocular ischemic syndrome accompanied by neovascular glaucoma that was successfully treated with Bevacizumab. A 70-year-old male patient diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma of the left eye 3-4 years prior complained of continuous left eye pain and declining visual acuity despite receiving the latest treatment methods. At the time of admission the patient had no light perception in the left eye and his intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg. Anterior segment and fundus examinations revealed neovascularization of the iris and stenosis of the retinal vessel. Hypofluorescence of the choroid and retinal vessels was observed on fluorescence fundus angiography. Left internal carotid artery stenosis was observed on a brain MRI. Despite being treated with eye solution and oral medication, intraocular pressure was not controlled. After 7 days, we performed an intravitreal Bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05mL injection. One day after the intravitreal Bevacizumab injection, the neovascularization had nearly regressed and intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection produced regression of neovascularization and proved effective for treatment of neovascular glaucoma in this case of ocular ischemic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Eye/blood supply , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Glaucoma, Neovascular/diagnosis , Humans , Injections , Ischemia/complications , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vitreous Body
19.
J. vasc. bras ; 7(4): 298-307, dez. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-506101

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: A aterosclerose carotídea apresenta alta prevalência populacional e associação com vários fatores de risco, contribuindo para altos índices de morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a freqüência e associação da aterosclerose de carótidas extracranianas com: idade, sexo, hipertensão arterial, doença coronária isquêmica, tabagismo, diabetes melito tipo 2, obesidade, doença arterial oclusiva periférica, acidente vascular cerebral, oclusão carotídea, espessamento médio-intimal e acotovelamento. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas as artérias carótidas extracranianas, bilateralmente, de 367 indivíduos (132 homens e 235 mulheres) com idade média de 63 anos (35 a 91 anos) por anamnese, semiologia clínica e ultra-sonografia. A possibilidade da associação entre aterosclerose carotídea representada por placas ateromatosas inespecíficas com estenose > 10 por cento, ateromatose discreta e difusa com estenose < 10 por cento e os fatores de risco enunciados foi analisada estatisticamente pelo odds ratio e seus intervalos de confiança de 95 por cento. RESULTADOS: A freqüência da aterosclerose carotídea foi de 52 por cento, e do espessamento médio-intimal, de 30,2 por cento. Houve associação entre a aterosclerose (ateromatose discreta e difusa e placas ateromatosas inespecíficas) com idade > 64 anos, acidente vascular cerebral, obesidade e tabagismo. Considerando-se somente estenoses carotídeas > 60 por cento, houve associação com idade > 64 anos, oclusão carotídea e doença coronária. O espessamento médio-intimal apresentou associação com idade > 64 anos, acotovelamento, oclusão carotídea, hipertensão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial < 0,9. CONCLUSÃO: A aterosclerose carotídea apresentou alta freqüência populacional (52 por cento) e associação com idade, obesidade, acidente vascular cerebral, coronariopatia e tabagismo.


BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in the population and its frequent association with several risk factors contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and association of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis with age, sex, hypertension, ischemic coronary disease, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, carotid occlusion, intima-media thickness and kinking. METHODS: The carotid and bilateral extracranial arteries of 367 individuals (132 males and 235 females), with a mean of 63 years of age (35-91 years) were evaluated via anamnesis, clinical semiology and ultrasonography. The possible association between carotid atherosclerosis, represented by unspecific atheromatous plaques with stenosis > 10 percent or discrete and diffuse atheromatosis with stenosis < 10 percent and the risk factors listed above was statistically analyzed by the odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95 percent. RESULTS: The frequency of carotid atherosclerosis and intima-media thickness was, respectively, 52 and 30.2 percent. There was an association between atherosclerosis types and age (> 64 years), stroke, obesity and smoking. When only carotid stenosis > 60 percent was considered, there was an association with age (> 64 years), carotid occlusion and coronary disease. Intima-media thickness was associated with age (> 64 years), kinking, carotid occlusion, hypertension and ankle-brachial index < 0.9. CONCLUSION: Carotid atherosclerosis is highly prevalent in the population (52 percent) and is associated with age, obesity, stroke, coronary disease, and smoking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Risk Factors
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