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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 123-130, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with superficial middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction may have concomitant lenticulostriate artery (LSA) territory infarction. We investigated the mechanisms thereof and the outcomes of patients with superficial MCA territory infarction according to the presence or absence of LSA involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with first-ever infarction in the unilateral superficial MCA territory were included in this study. They were divided into the superficial MCA only (SM) group and the superficial MCA plus LSA (SM+L) group. RESULTS: Of the 398 patients, 84 patients (21.1%) had LSA involvement (SM+L group). The SM+L group more frequently had significant stenosis of the proximal MCA or carotid artery and high-risk cardioembolic sources. Stroke severity and outcomes were remarkably different between the groups. The SM+L group showed more severe neurologic deficits (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score 10.8±7.1 vs. 4.0±5.0, p2) at 3 months was more common in the SM+L group (64.3% vs. 15.9%, p<0.001). During a mean follow-up of 26 months, 67 patients died. All-cause (hazard ratio, 2.246) and stroke (hazard ratio, 9.193) mortalities were higher in the SM+L group than the SM group. In multivariate analyses, LSA involvement was an independent predictor of poor functional outcomes and stroke mortality. CONCLUSION: LSA territory involvement is predictive of poor long-term outcomes in patients with superficial MCA territory infarction.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/mortality , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Multivariate Analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/mortality
2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(5): 365-370, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829750

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare three different surgical approaches for combined coronary and carotid artery stenosis as a single stage procedure and to assess effect of operative strategy on mortality and neurological complications. Methods: This retrospective study involves 136 patients who had synchronous coronary artery revascularization and carotid endarterectomy in our institution, between January 2002 and December 2012. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical technique used. Group I included 70 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with on-pump technique, group II included 29 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with off-pump technique, group III included 37 patients who had coronary revascularization with on-pump technique followed by carotid endarterectomy under aortic cross-clamp and systemic hypothermia (22-27ºC). Postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results: Overall early mortality and stroke rate was 5.1% for both. There were 3 (4.3%) deaths in group I, 2 (6.9%) deaths in group II and 2 (5.4%) deaths in group III. Stroke was observed in 5 (7.1%) patients in group I and 2 (6.9%) in group II. Stroke was not observed in group III. No statistically significant difference was observed for mortality and stroke rates among the groups. Conclusion: We identified no significant difference in mortality or neurologic complications among three approaches for synchronous surgery for coronary and carotid disease. Therefore it is impossible to conclude that a single principle might be adapted into standard practice. Patient specific risk factors and clinical conditions might be important in determining the surgical tecnnique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Combined Modality Therapy , Stroke/mortality
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 57(3): 323-327, May-June 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-591361

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de estenose carotídea (EC) e os possíveis preditores de mortalidade em indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM) eletiva. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte que incluiu 393 candidatos à CRM. Todos os pacientes realizaram ultrassonografia com Doppler em cores de artérias carótidas antes da CRM e foram seguidos durante a internação quanto à morbidade e mortalidade. A EC foi considerada clinicamente relevante quando > 50 por cento. Um p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Regressão logística foi realizada para definir preditores independentes de mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de EC foi de 17,4 por cento. Após regressão logística, EC > 50 por cento (p = 0,001) e insuficiência renal crônica (IRC) (p = 0,03) foram preditores, independentes de mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: EC mostrou ter uma prevalência elevada na amostra estudada e, conjuntamente com a IRC, foi preditor, independente de mortalidade.


OBJECTIVE: To identify carotid stenosis (CS) prevalence and potential mortality predictors in individuals undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Cohort study including 393 scheduled for CABG. All patients underwent a color Doppler ultrasound study of the carotid arteries prior to CABG and were assessed for morbidity and mortality over the hospitalization. CS was considered clinically relevant when if > 50 percent. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Logistic regression was used to define mortality independent predictors. RESULTS: CS prevalence was 17.4 percent. Following logistic regression analysis, CS > 50 percent (p = 0.001) and chronic renal failure (CRF) (p = 0.03) remained as mortality independent predictors. CONCLUSION: CS showed a high prevalence in the study sample and together with CRF was a mortality independent factor.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Carotid Stenosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Prevalence , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Regression Analysis , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
5.
J. vasc. bras ; 7(4): 298-307, dez. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-506101

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: A aterosclerose carotídea apresenta alta prevalência populacional e associação com vários fatores de risco, contribuindo para altos índices de morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a freqüência e associação da aterosclerose de carótidas extracranianas com: idade, sexo, hipertensão arterial, doença coronária isquêmica, tabagismo, diabetes melito tipo 2, obesidade, doença arterial oclusiva periférica, acidente vascular cerebral, oclusão carotídea, espessamento médio-intimal e acotovelamento. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas as artérias carótidas extracranianas, bilateralmente, de 367 indivíduos (132 homens e 235 mulheres) com idade média de 63 anos (35 a 91 anos) por anamnese, semiologia clínica e ultra-sonografia. A possibilidade da associação entre aterosclerose carotídea representada por placas ateromatosas inespecíficas com estenose > 10 por cento, ateromatose discreta e difusa com estenose < 10 por cento e os fatores de risco enunciados foi analisada estatisticamente pelo odds ratio e seus intervalos de confiança de 95 por cento. RESULTADOS: A freqüência da aterosclerose carotídea foi de 52 por cento, e do espessamento médio-intimal, de 30,2 por cento. Houve associação entre a aterosclerose (ateromatose discreta e difusa e placas ateromatosas inespecíficas) com idade > 64 anos, acidente vascular cerebral, obesidade e tabagismo. Considerando-se somente estenoses carotídeas > 60 por cento, houve associação com idade > 64 anos, oclusão carotídea e doença coronária. O espessamento médio-intimal apresentou associação com idade > 64 anos, acotovelamento, oclusão carotídea, hipertensão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial < 0,9. CONCLUSÃO: A aterosclerose carotídea apresentou alta freqüência populacional (52 por cento) e associação com idade, obesidade, acidente vascular cerebral, coronariopatia e tabagismo.


BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in the population and its frequent association with several risk factors contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and association of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis with age, sex, hypertension, ischemic coronary disease, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, carotid occlusion, intima-media thickness and kinking. METHODS: The carotid and bilateral extracranial arteries of 367 individuals (132 males and 235 females), with a mean of 63 years of age (35-91 years) were evaluated via anamnesis, clinical semiology and ultrasonography. The possible association between carotid atherosclerosis, represented by unspecific atheromatous plaques with stenosis > 10 percent or discrete and diffuse atheromatosis with stenosis < 10 percent and the risk factors listed above was statistically analyzed by the odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95 percent. RESULTS: The frequency of carotid atherosclerosis and intima-media thickness was, respectively, 52 and 30.2 percent. There was an association between atherosclerosis types and age (> 64 years), stroke, obesity and smoking. When only carotid stenosis > 60 percent was considered, there was an association with age (> 64 years), carotid occlusion and coronary disease. Intima-media thickness was associated with age (> 64 years), kinking, carotid occlusion, hypertension and ankle-brachial index < 0.9. CONCLUSION: Carotid atherosclerosis is highly prevalent in the population (52 percent) and is associated with age, obesity, stroke, coronary disease, and smoking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Risk Factors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176538

ABSTRACT

This study examined intima-media thickness and arterial plaque occurrence in the carotid and brachial arteries in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. The study compared 25 CAPD patients with 25 normotensive age- and sex-matched controls. Intima-media thickness and presence of plaque in carotid and brachial artery were measured three times using high-resolution B-mode echocardiography. Left ventricular mass was calculated using the Penn Convection equation. Blood samples were obtained to assess levels of phosphorus, total calcium, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, and lipid profiles. Compared to the control group, CAPD patients had greater mean carotid and brachial intima-media thickness, and a higher proportion of subjects with calcified plaques. The left ventricular mass index was higher in CAPD patients with carotid artery calcified plaques compared to CAPD patients without carotid artery calcified plaques. CAPD patients with such plaque were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus, higher C-reactive protein levels and a lower 2-yr survival rate. The present study showed an high prevalence of carotid calcification in CAPD patients and those with such calcification had a greater incidence of diabetes mellitus, higher C-reactive protein levels and left ventricular mass index, and a lower survival rate.


Subject(s)
Calcinosis/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/mortality , Korea/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
7.
J. vasc. bras ; 3(4): 323-330, dez. 2004. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-404922

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and long-term outcomese of combined coronary artery bypass grafting and carotid endartectomy performed in our Institute.Methods: From January 1992 to Apri1 2004, 158 patients with a mean age of 66.3 years (range 42-81) underwent combined carotid endartectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting. Selection criteria were symptomatic ot asymptomatic 70-99 por cento carotid stenosis and unstable coronary symptoms or coronary anatomy judged to preclude safe endarterectomy. Carotid duplex scanning was introduced as a routine screening test from 1996 for patients candidate to coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients presenting fop carotid endartectomy were subjected to further cardiological study only if deemed to be at high cardiac risk. Results: Perioperative mortality was 5.7 por cento. Causes of death were: myocardial infarction with multiorgan failure (four patients),irreversible left ventricular fibrillation (three patients) and low ejection syndrome complicated by stroke and ventricular fibrillation (two patients). The perioperative stroke cate was 1.3 por cento. Mean follow-up was 49 months (range 1-138): 22 patients were lost at follow-up and of remaining 136 patients 21 (15.4 por cento) died. Causes of late mortality were: eight myocardial infarctions, tive cancers, six congestive heartfailure and two abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Late stroke rate was 2.2 por cento (two patients with contralateral stroke and one with ipsilateral stroke). One asymptomatic carotid occlusion and three [ carotid restenosis were also observed. Discussion: The low stroke cate observed in our series suggest the use of combined carotid endartectomy and coronary artery bypassgrafting in patients with significant symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis that need myocardial revascularization. Poor len-ventricular function, unstable angina and bilateral carotid artery stenosis, account for the high perioperative mortality associated with this approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Endarterectomy, Carotid/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Myocardial Revascularization
8.
J. vasc. bras ; 3(3): 197-205, set. 2004. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-404077

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados da endarterectomia da artéria carótida em pacientes com oclusão da carótida contralateral, revisando-os e comparando-os com os resultados da literatura corrente.Métodos: De janeiro de 1993 a junho de 2003, foram realizadas 663 endarterectomias da artéria carótida, sendo que em 61 pacientes (9,2 por cento) havia oclusão da carótida contralateral. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (73,8 por cento), com idade média de 68,2 anos. Hipertensão arterial (70,4 por cento) e tabagismo (72,1 por cento) eram os principais fatores de risco para doença cerebrovascular. Cinqüenta e um pacientes (83,6 por cento) tinham síntomas neurológicos pré-operatórios, sendo a maioria deles correspondente à carótida com estenose (55 por cento). Todos os pacientes relatados foram submetidos a endarterectomia convencional da artéria carótida. Utilizaram-se shunt interno e remendo em 88,5 por cento e 96,2 por cento dos pacientes, respectivamente. Resultados: Dentre as complicações cirúrgicas, dois pacientes (3,3 por cento) necessitaram reexploração cirúrgica por sangramento com hematoma da ferida operatória. Ocorreram três infartos agudos do miocárdio (4,9 por cento), um acidente vascular cerebral(1,6 por cento) e três óbitos (4,9 por cento), sendo dois de origem cardíaca e um resultante de acidente vascular cerebral. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstrou que a endarterectomia da artéria carótida realizada em pacientes com oclusão da carótida contralateral apresenta mortalidade neurológica de apenas 4,9 por cento, uma percentagem bem inferior à taxa de 14,3 por cento do estudo NASCET, publicado em 1991. A revisão da literatura, publicada a partir da década de 90, evidencia índices de morbimortalidade bem inferiores àqueles relatados pelo estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Endarterectomy, Carotid/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/mortality
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