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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Cyprinidae , Soybeans , Seafood , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.


Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Carps , Textile Industry , Rivers , Fatty Acids
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Carps , Pakistan , Bacteria , Ponds , Incidence
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245199, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355853

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


Resumo A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Pakistan , Water , Ponds , Fisheries
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249913, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aeromonas hydrophila is a cause of infectious disease outbreaks in carp species cultured in South Asian countries including Pakistan. This bacterium has gained resistance to a wide range of antibiotics and robust preventive measures are necessary to control its spread. No prior use of fish vaccines has been reported in Pakistan. The present study aims to develop and evaluate inactivated vaccines against local strain of A. hydrophila in Pakistan with alum-precipitate as adjuvant. The immunogenic potential of vaccine was evaluated in two Indian major carps (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) and a Chinese carp (Grass carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were vaccinated intraperitoneally followed by a challenge through immersion. Fish with an average age of 4-5 months were randomly distributed in three vaccinated groups with three vaccine concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml and a control group. Fixed dose of 0.1ml was applied to each fish on 1st day and a booster dose at 15 days post-vaccination (DPV). Blood samples were collected on 14, 28, 35, 48 and 60 DPV to determine antibody titers in blood serum using compliment fixation test (CFT). Fish were challenged at 60 DPV with infectious A. hydrophila with 108 CFU/ml through immersion. Significantly higher levels of antibody titers were observed from 28 DPV in all vaccinated groups as compared to those in the control group. In challenge experiment the average RPS (relative percent survivability) was 71% for groups vaccinated with 109 and 1010 CFU/ml and 86% for 108 CFU/ml. Vaccine with 108 CFU/ml induced highest immune response followed by 109 and 1010 CFU/ml. The immune response of L. rohita and C. idella was better than that of C. mrigala. In general, normal histopathology was observed in different organs of vaccinated fish whereas minor deteriorative changes were found in fish vaccinated with higher concentrations of the vaccine.


Resumo Aeromonas hydrophila é uma causa de surtos de doenças infecciosas em espécies de carpas cultivadas em países do sul da Ásia, incluindo o Paquistão. Essa bactéria ganhou resistência a uma ampla gama de antibióticos, e medidas preventivas robustas são necessárias para controlar sua disseminação. Nenhum uso anterior de vacinas para peixes foi relatado no Paquistão. O presente estudo tem como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar vacinas inativadas contra cepa local de A. hydrophila no Paquistão com precipitado de alúmen como adjuvante. O potencial imunogênico da vacina foi avaliado em duas carpas principais indianas (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) e uma carpa chinesa (Grass Carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Os peixes foram vacinados por via intraperitoneal, seguido de um desafio por imersão. Peixes com idade média de 4-5 meses foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos vacinados com três concentrações de vacina de 108, 109 e 1010 unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) / ml e um grupo de controle. Foi aplicada dose fixa de 0,1ml em cada peixe no 1º dia e dose de reforço 15 dias pós-vacinação (DPV). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em 14, 28, 35, 48 e 60 DPV para determinar os títulos de anticorpos no soro sanguíneo usando o teste de fixação de elogio (CFT). Os peixes foram desafiados a 60 DPV com infecciosa A. hydrophila com 108 CFU / ml por imersão. Níveis significativamente mais elevados de títulos de anticorpos foram observados em 28 DPV em todos os grupos vacinados, em comparação com aqueles no grupo de controle. Na experiência de desafio, o RPS médio (sobrevivência percentual relativa) foi de 71% para os grupos vacinados com 109 e 1010 CFU / ml e 86% para 108 CFU / ml. A vacina com 108 UFC / ml induziu a maior resposta imune seguida por 109 e 1010 UFC / ml. A resposta imune de L. rohita e C. idella foi melhor do que a de C. mrigala. Em geral, histopatologia normal foi observada em diferentes órgãos de peixes vacinados, enquanto pequenas alterações deteriorantes foram encontradas no grupo de controle e nos peixes vacinados com concentrações mais altas da vacina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Fish Diseases/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines , Aeromonas hydrophila , Alum Compounds , Immersion
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242897, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350299

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish's total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.


Resumo Cyprinus carpio é o membro da família cyprinidae comumente chamada de carpa comum. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a população de cérebros de carpa comum selvagem (sistema fluvial) e em cativeiro (criação em incubatório). Um total de trinta amostras (15 do incubatório e 15 do rio Swat) foram coletadas. Todos os espécimes foram examinados no Laboratório de Parasitoloy, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Malakand. Os resultados indicaram que a população selvagem era maior em tamanho e peso do cérebro em comparação com a população criada em incubatório. As amostras de peixes coletadas em ambiente de cativeiro (incubatório) estavam apresentando mais peso e comprimento em comparação com a população selvagem de carpas comuns. O valor médio do peso total dos peixes de incubação 345 ± 48,68 e o valor médio do peso do cérebro de peixes criados em incubadoras 0,28 ± 0,047. O valor médio do peso corporal total dos peixes selvagens 195,16 ± 52,58 e o valor médio do peso do cérebro dos peixes selvagens são 0,45 ± 0,14. A presente pesquisa apela para o fato de que peixes em condições ambientais dependentes possuem cérebros maiores em tamanho em comparação com sua população em cativeiro, isso se deve ao uso e desuso do cérebro em suas necessidades ambientais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Cyprinidae , Brain , Rivers
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238096, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278519

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pakistan is the country with mega freshwater fish diversity of native and alien species. In the presence of enormous native fishes varies species of exotic fishes have been introduced into the freshwater bodies of Pakistan which are competing with native freshwater fish fauna and making them deprive of food and habitat as well. Intentional or accidental introductions of animals, plants and pathogens away from their native niche is considered as major leading problem for biodiversity of invaded habitat. Three years study (from January 2017 to December 2019) was conducted in freshwater bodies of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Study was designed to know exotic species impacts on the distribution of native species of fishes. During current survey a total of 68 (indigenous and exotic) fish species belonging to 14 families were recorded from head Qadirabad, head Baloki, Islam headworks and Rasul barrage. Statistical analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1.41) at both Rasul barrage and Islam headworks but, invasive species were present in very less number in these study sites i.e. Oreochromis mozambicus, O. niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenophryngdon idella, Cyprinus carpio and H. molitrix. The diversity index showed that comparatively low diversity was present in both area head Qadirabad (1.30) and head Baloki (1.4) due to high pressure of invasive species. Direct observation of species and statistical analysis showed that aliens' species produced negative impact on the local fish fauna diversity, evenness, and numbers. It is concluded that many factors are impacts on the diversity of native fishes, but alien (invasive) species also play a major role to reduction of native species, because aliens' species produce competition for native species. So it is urgent need to analysis the aliens and native food web and roosting sites in Pakistan, in future.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país com ampla diversidade de espécies nativas e exóticas de peixes de água doce. Contudo, diversas espécies de peixes exóticos estão sendo introduzidas nos corpos de água doce paquistanês, as quais estão competindo com a fauna nativa de peixes, tornando-os privados de alimento e habitat. A introdução intencional ou acidental de animais, plantas e patógenos fora de seu nicho nativo é considerada o principal problema da biodiversidade do habitat recém-invadido. Assim, foi realizado um estudo de três anos, de janeiro de 2017 a dezembro de 2019, em corpos de água doce na província de Punjab, Paquistão. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida para conhecer os impactos de espécies exóticas na distribuição de espécies nativas de peixes. Durante a pesquisa, foi registrado um total de 68 espécies de peixes (nativas e exóticas), pertencentes a 14 famílias, nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad, Baloki e Islam e na barragem de Rasul. A análise estatística mostrou que o índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener foi mais alto (1,41) na barragem Rasul (RB) e na nascente do rio Islam (IH); e que a maioria das espécies introduzidas estava presente em um número muito menor, isto é, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio e Hypophthalmichthy smolitrix nessa área de estudo. Por outro lado, o índice Shannon-Wiener mostrou que a diversidade estava baixa nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad (1,30) e Baloki (1,4) em razão da alta pressão de espécies invasoras. A observação direta das espécies e a análise estatística indicaram que as espécies invasoras produziram impacto negativo na diversidade, uniformidade e números de peixes da fauna local. Conclui-se que muitos fatores impactam na diversidade de peixes nativos, mas as espécies exóticas (invasoras) também desempenham um papel importante na redução das espécies nativas, em razão da competição existente entre elas. Portanto, é urgente uma análise futura das espécies invasoras e da teia alimentar nativa no Paquistão..


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Introduced Species , Pakistan , Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Fishes , Fresh Water
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 285-290, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153367

ABSTRACT

Synthetic androgens (male hormones) administered to fish nursery are being used in aquaculture to avoid sexual differentiation and unwanted spawning at the eggs or the first feeding fry stage of fish. Present trial was conducted with the aim to produce male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by egg immersion technique. Through this little insight, the effect of different hormone concentrations (17α-methyltestosterone @ HC:150, 300, 450 and 600 µgl-1) with immersion times (IT: 24, 48 and 72 hrs) and their interaction effect (HC x IT) on the hatching percentage of Cyprinus carpio eggs, percent survival and percent of male's production was evaluated specifically. Results showed that egg hatching percentage decreased with increased IT likewise, survival of treated fry was affected by increasing the IT (P<0.001). The main interaction effect of HC x IT showed that the highest percent of male individuals (95%) was obtained at 450-600 µgl-1 HC for 72 hrs IT, followed by 88-92.50% at 150-300 µgl-1 HC for 72-hrsof IT, 87.50% at 48-hrs of IT for rest of the hormone treatments, and lowest 47.50% was recorded in control (P<0.05). Increased percent male of Cyprinus carpio was obtained with increasing HC across all ITs. It was observed that the immersion treatment at 600µgl-1 for 72 hours was more effective to change the sex ratio of pre hatch Cyprinus carpio. A comparative outlook made from this experimental trial that sex induction of Cyprinus carpio by eggs immersion using synthetic male steroid hormone is an alternative safe technique of fish sex reversal in contrast to oral administration of hormone in fish feed.


Andrógenos sintéticos (hormônios masculinos) administrados ao viveiro de peixes estão sendo usados ​​na aquicultura para evitar a diferenciação sexual e a desova indesejada nos ovos ou no primeiro estágio de alimentação dos peixes. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir carpa comum masculina (Cyprinuscarpio) pela técnica de imersão em ovos. Com essa pequena percepção, o efeito de diferentes concentrações hormonais (17α-metiltestosterona @ HC: 150, 300, 450 e 600 µgl-1) com tempos de imersão (IT: 24, 48 e 72 horas) e seu efeito de interação (HC x IT) na porcentagem de eclosão dos ovos de Cyprinuscarpio, a porcentagem de sobrevivência e a porcentagem da produção masculina foram avaliadas especificamente. Os resultados mostraram que a porcentagem de incubação de ovos diminuiu com o aumento da TI da mesma forma, a sobrevivência dos alevinos tratados foi afetada pelo aumento da TI (P <0,001). O principal efeito de interação do HC x IT mostrou que o maior percentual de indivíduos do sexo masculino (95%) foi obtido com 450-600 µgl-1 HC por 72 horas de TI, seguido por 88-92,50% com 150-300 µgl-1 HC para 72 horas de TI, 87,50% às 48 horas de TI para o restante dos tratamentos hormonais, e 47,50% mais baixos foram registrados no controle (P <0,05). A porcentagem aumentada de macho de Cyprinuscarpio foi obtida com o aumento do HC em todas as TIs. Observou-se que o tratamento de imersão a 600µgl-1 por 72 horas foi mais efetivo na alteração da razão sexual do Cyprinuscarpio antes da eclosão. Uma perspectiva comparativa feita a partir deste ensaio experimental de que a indução sexual de Cyprinuscarpio por imersão de ovos usando hormônio esteróide masculino sintético é uma técnica alternativa segura de reversão do sexo em peixes, em contraste com a administração oral de hormônio na alimentação de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Carps/physiology , Androgens/pharmacology , Methyltestosterone/administration & dosage , Sex Ratio , Aquaculture , Immersion
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888223

ABSTRACT

In order to study the effect of light with different wavelengths on the motion behavior of carp robots, phototaxis experiment, anatomical experiment, light control experiment and speed measurement experiment were carried out in this study. Blue, green, yellow and red light with different wavelength were used to conduct phototaxis experiments on carp to observe their movement behavior. By dissecting the skull bones of the carp to determine the appropriate location to carry the light control device, we independently developed a light control carrying device which was suitable for any illumination intensity environment. The experiment of the light-controlled carp robots was carried out. The motion behavior of the carp robot was checked by using computer binocular stereo vision technology. The motion trajectory of the carp robot was tracked and obtained by applying kernel correlation filter (KCF) algorithm. The motion velocity of the carp robot at different wavelengths was calculated according to their motion trajectory. The results showed that carps' sensitivity to different light changed from strong to weak in the order of blue, red, yellow and green, so that using light with different wavelengths to control the speed of the carp robot has certain laws to follow. A new method to avoid brain damage in carp robots control can be provided in this study.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Animals , Carps , Motion , Phototaxis , Robotics
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200187, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plant based protein sources are one of the best, cost effective and easily available protein sources being used in fish feed. But due to a lower number of micro-biota in fish gut plant meal based diets cannot be digested and absorbed well in fish body. Probiotics were supplemented at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 gkg-1 levels in fish feed for formulating one control and five test diets. In this study, three replicates of each treatment were used and number of fingerlings was 15 in each replicate. The C. carpio (common carp) fingerlings were fed at 5% of live wet weight on their prescribed diet twice daily. The results revealed that supplementation of probiotics in corn gluten meal based diets significantly (p<0.05) improved growth performance, carcass composition and hematological parameters. Most optimum values of growth performance parameters were noted at 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplemented diet. C. carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal based diet supplemented with 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics indicated significant (p<0.05) improvements in crude protein (17g) crude fat (9g) and gross energy (3 kcalg-1) whereas higher red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) was also recorded in fish blood when fed 2 gkg-1 probiotics level diet. From these results, it was concluded that 2 gkg-1 probiotics supplementation in corn gluten meal based diet is optimum for improving growth performance, body composition and hematology of C. carpio fingerlings.


Subject(s)
Body Composition/physiology , Carps , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Hematology , Zea mays
11.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(3): 1-8, sep.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347060

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Realizar el aislamiento del virus de la viremia primaveral de la carpa (SVCV) en ejemplares de carpa común (Cyprinus carpió), evaluar su crecimiento en diferentes tipos de células, así como la supervivencia viral a diferentes temperaturas. Materiales y métodos. Diez carpas de entre 400 500 gramos de una laguna del centro de México fueron procesadas para el diagnóstico de SVCV mediante aislamiento en cultivo de células y RT-PCR semianidado. El virus obtenido se inoculó en células EPC, BF-2, CHSE-214 y RTG-2 para determinar diferencias de crecimiento de SVCV. Además, se evaluó la supervivencia del virus conservado a temperatura ambiente (TA 20-25°C), refrigeración (REF 4°C) y congelación (CONG -80°C) hasta once meses. Los órganos internos se procesaron para análisis histológico. Resultados. Los peces analizados no presentaron signos externos sugestivos de enfermedad, pero interna e histopatológicamente se observaron lesiones sugestivas de infección sistémica. SVCV fue aislado en células EPC y BF-2 y confirmado por RT-PCR semianidado. SVCV únicamente indujo CPE en células EPC y BF-2 y fue negativo en RTG-2 y CHSE-214. El virus conservado a TA perdió viabilidad después de cuatro meses post infección (mpi), siendo total a seis mpi; mientras REF y CONG fueron estables durante los once meses de estudio. Conclusiones. La infección subclínica por SVCV fue confirmada en carpas que presentaron lesiones histológicas asociadas a esta infección. SVCV únicamente causó CPE en células EPC y BF-2 y el virus conservó su viabilidad a 4°C y -80°C hasta once meses; mientras que a TA se perdió en seis meses.


ABSTRACT Objective. To perform the isolation of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in common carp (Cyprinus carpió) and evaluate its growth in different cell types and viral survival at different temperatures. Materials and methods. Ten carps of between 400-500 grams of a lagoon in central Mexico were processed for diagnosis of SVCV by isolation in cell culture and by RT-PCR. The virus obtained was inoculated into EPC, BF-2, CHSE-214 and RTG-2 cells to determine differences in virus growth; the survival of virus stored at room temperature (TA 20-25°C), refrigeration (REF 4°C) and freezing (CONG -80°C) up to eleven months was also evaluated. Internal organ samples were processed for histological analysis. Results. The fish analyzed did not show external signs suggestive of disease but internally and histopathologically lesions suggestive of systemic infection were observed. SVCV was isolated in EPC and BF-2 cells and confirmed by semi-nested RT-PCR. SVCV only induced CPE in EPC and BF-2 cells and was negative in RTG-2 and CHSE-214. The virus conserved at TA lost viability after four months post-infection (mpi), being total at six mpi; while REF and CONG were stable during the eleven months. Conclusions. Subclinical SVCV infection was confirmed in carp that presented histological lesions associated with this infection; SVCV only caused CPE in EPC and BF-2 cells; and the virus kept in refrigeration and at -80°C retained its viability up to eleven months; while TA was lost in six months.


Subject(s)
Animals , Viremia , Carps , Fishes , Infections
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879216

ABSTRACT

In order to accurately implant the brain electrodes of carp robot for positioning and navigation, the three-dimensional model of brain structure and brain electrodes is to be proposed in the study. In this study, the tungsten electrodes were implanted into the cerebellum of a carp with the aid of brain stereotaxic instrument. The brain motor areas were found and their three-dimensional coordinate values were obtained by the aquatic electricity stimulation experiments and the underwater control experiments. The carp brain and the brain electrodes were imaged by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging instrument, and the three-dimensional reconstruction of carp brain and brain electrodes was carried out by the 3D-DOCTOR software and the Mimics software. The results showed that the brain motor areas and their coordinate values were accurate. The relative spatial position relationships between brain electrodes and brain tissue, brain tissue and skull surface could be observed by the three-dimensional reconstruction map of brain tissue and brain electrodes which reconstructed the three-dimensional structure of brain. The anatomical position of the three-dimensional reconstructed brain tissue in magnetic resonance image and the relationship between brain tissue and skull surface could be observed through the three-dimensional reconstruction comprehensive display map of brain tissue. The three-dimensional reconstruction model in this study can provide a navigation tool for brain electrodes implantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Carps , Electrodes , Electrodes, Implanted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 651-658, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001484

ABSTRACT

Abstract The organoleptic evaluation and proximate analysis of Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio were determined in fresh fish and when refrigerated at two different temperatures (-21 °C and 4 °C) for a period of six weeks. A panel of twelve trained judges evaluated the color (live), texture, softness and flavor of fish meat after two minutes' steam cooking. Average score revealed a general decline in organoleptic properties such as color, texture, freshness, and taste of C. gariepinus and C. carpio stored at two temperatures compared to the fresh fish. Proximate analysis revealed a more decrease in crude protein and lipid contents and increase in ash content in C. gariepinus and C. carpio at the two storage temperatures compared to the fresh fish muscle. Moisture content decreased in the fish muscle samples of both the fish species stored at -21 °C but increased in the 4 °C stored samples. pH of fish was found to increase in the two stored temperatures. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the organoleptic and proximate composition of the ice stored and fresh C. gariepinus and C. carpio, the same temperature and between the two different temperatures. The quality of fish muscle stored at 4 °C deteriorated faster than that of the -21 °C. Thus, storage temperature and duration have adverse effects on the nutritional quality of fish meat.


Resumo A avaliação organoléptica e a análise aproximada de Clarias gariepinus e Cyprinus carpio foram determinadas em peixe fresco e refrigerado a duas temperaturas diferentes (-21 °C e 4 °C) por um período de seis semanas. Um painel de doze juízes treinados avaliou a cor (ao vivo), textura, maciez e sabor da carne de peixe após dois minutos de cozimento a vapor. O escore médio revelou um declínio geral nas propriedades organolépticas, como cor, textura, frescor e sabor de C. gariepinus e C. carpio armazenados a duas temperaturas em comparação com o peixe fresco. A análise imediata revelou uma maior diminuição nos teores de proteína bruta e lipídios e aumento no teor de cinzas em C. gariepinus e C. carpio nas duas temperaturas de armazenamento em comparação com o músculo do peixe fresco. O teor de umidade diminuiu nas amostras de músculo de peixe de ambas as espécies de peixes armazenadas a -21 °C, mas aumentou nas amostras armazenadas a 4 °C. O pH dos peixes aumentou nas duas temperaturas armazenadas. Houve diferenças significativas (P <0,05) na composição organoléptica e próxima do gelo armazenado e fresco C. gariepinus e C. carpio, a mesma temperatura e entre as duas temperaturas diferentes. A qualidade do músculo do peixe armazenado a 4 °C deteriorou-se mais rapidamente do que a temperatura de -21 °C. Assim, a temperatura e duração do armazenamento têm efeitos adversos na qualidade nutricional da carne de peixe.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Carps , Food Quality , Food Preservation/methods , Refrigeration/standards , Cold Temperature , Fish Products/analysis , Fish Products/standards , Meat/analysis , Meat/standards
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786633

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). All fishes collected in 5 lakes were examined with the artificial digestion method. More than 10 species, i.e., Metagonimus spp., Pygidiopsis summa, Centrocestus armatus, Metorchis orientalis, M. taiwanensis, Clinostomum complanatum, Echinostoma spp., Stictodora spp., Diplostomum sp. and Diplostomid No. 1. by Morita (1960), of DTM were detected in fishes from 5 coastal lakes in Gangwon-do. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 52 (41.3%) out of 126 sea rundace, Tribolodon hakonensis, from 5 lakes, and their density was 14.6 per fish infected. P. summa metacercariae were detected in 48 (84.2%) out of 57 mullets from 5 lakes, and their density was 316 per fish infected. C. armatus metacercariae were detected in 7 (14.6%) T. hakonensis and 3 (15.0%) Tridentiger brevispinis from Hyang-ho, and 5 (19.2%) Acanthogobius flavimanus from Gyeongpo-ho. Stictodora spp. metacercariae were found in 4 fish species, i.e., Tridentiger obscurus, Tridentiger trigonocephalus, Chelon haematocheilus, and Acanthogobius lactipes, from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 15 C. complanatum metacercariae were detected in 2 (9.1%) crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from Songji-ho. M. taiwanensis metacercariae were found in T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho and Gyeongpo-ho and in Pseudorasbora parva from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 11 M. orientalis metacercariae were detected in 3 (6.3%) T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho. From the above results, it was confirmed that various species of DTM are infected in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Carps , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Korea , Lakes , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea , Smegmamorpha
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 980-988, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876722

ABSTRACT

O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi alcançado com a divisão da pesquisa em dois experimentos: (1) aperfeiçoar o protocolo de congelação utilizando água de coco em pó (ACP-104) como diluente para a criopreservação seminal de carpa comum; (2) avaliar o efeito da suplementação das vitaminas C (ácido ascórbico) ou E (α-tocoferol) sobre os melhores diluidores testados no experimento 1 na qualidade do sêmen pós-descongelado da espécie. Para o experimento 1, foram formados oito pools de sêmen, provenientes de 14 machos selecionados. As amostras seminais coletadas foram avaliadas quanto à motilidade total, à velocidade, ao percentual de espermatozoides normais e à vitalidade espermática antes e depois da criopreservação seminal. Esta foi realizada em meio ACP-104 acrescido de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), ou etilenoglicol (EG), ou glicerol, ou metanol, todos à concentração de 10%, diluídos em 1:3 (sêmen:diluidor). As amostras foram, então, congeladas em vapor de nitrogênio líquido em dry shipper e estocadas em nitrogênio líquido (-196°C). Para o experimento 2, foram formados oito pools provenientes da coleta de sêmen de 15 machos. As amostras seminais foram avaliadas seguindo as mesmas análises do experimento 1, acrescentando-se a duração da motilidade total. A criopreservação seminal utilizou-se do meio ACP-104 acrescido de DMSO ou EG, suplementado ou não com vitamina C ou E. Os melhores resultados encontrados no experimento 1 foram obtidos com o DMSO e o EG. Estes não diferiram significativamente entre si para a motilidade total (24% e 28%; P>0,05) e a normalidade espermática (32% e 26%; P>0,05), respectivamente. Para o experimento 2, o EG suplementado com vitamina E produziu significativamente resultados superiores de motilidade total, normalidade espermática e duração da motilidade em relação ao DMSO, concluindo-se que o EG deve ser, portanto, o crioprotetor de escolha a ser utilizado com o ACP-104 suplementado ou não com vitamina E.(AU)


The objective was achieved by dividing the research into two experiments: (1) improving the freezing protocol using powdered coconut water (ACP-104) as a diluent for the cryopreservation seminal of common carp; (2) evaluating the effect of supplementation of vitamins C (ascorbic acid) or vitamin E (α-tocoferol) with the best extenders tested in experiment 1 on the quality of post-thawed. For experiment 1, semen pools from 14 selected males were formed. Seminal samples were evaluated for total motility, velocity, percentage of normal sperm and sperm vitality before and after the seminal cryopreservation. This was done in ACP-104 extender plus dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or ethylene glycol (EG), or glycerol or methanol all at concentration 10% diluted in 1:3 (semen:extender). The samples were frozen in vapors of nitrogen into dry shippers and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). For experiment 2, eight pools were formed from the 15 males. The semen samples were evaluated following the same analysis of experiment 1 adding duration of total motility. The sperm cryopreservation was performed in extenders ACP-104 plus DMSO or EG supplemented or not with vitamin C or E. The best results found in Experiment 1 were obtained with DMSO and EG. They do not differ significantly for total motility (24% and 28%; P>0.05) and normal sperm (32% and 26%; P>0.05) respectively. For experiment 2, EG supplemented with vitamin E, produced significantly better results overall motility, sperm normality and duration of motility relative to DMSO. In conclusion, EG should be the cryoprotectant of choice for use with the ACP-104 supplemented or not with vitamin E.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Carps , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Vitamins/administration & dosage
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180602

ABSTRACT

Aspidogastrid trematodes (Subclass Aspidogastrea) are a relatively small group with a characteristic adhesive disc and parasitize in a variety of cold-blooded hosts. Until now, only 2 species in the genus Cotylaspis, i.e., C. coreensis and C. sinensis, have been reported as the aspidogastrid trematode in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). In the present study, we intended to describe a species of aspidogastrids collected from the small intestine of the common carp, Cypri-nus carpio, in a faunistic point of view. Total 51 specimens were collected from a carp caught in Nakdong-gang (River) on May 2015. Some of them were prepared as the specimens for light microscopic observations, and some others were prepared for SEM. They were slightly elongated without head lobes, 2,432×840 μm in average size, and had characteristic adhesive discs with 4 rows and 46 alveoli in average. The ovary was reniform and was located in the posterior-upper part of the body. The single testis was larger than the ovary and was located below the ovary. The uterus was coiled containing numerous eggs and distributed in the posterior 2/3 of the body. The vitellaria were follicular, and distributed from the mid-level of testis to near the posterior end. The morphological characters with dimensions of our specimens were closely identical with those of Aspidogaster ijimai previously described. A new aspidogastrid is added among the Korean trematode fauna by the present study.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Carps , Eggs , Female , Head , Intestine, Small , Korea , Ovary , Ovum , Republic of Korea , Testis , Uterus
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69359

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32–34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Carps , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Goldfish , Metacercariae , Parasites , Poecilia , Prevalence , Spine , Thailand , Zebrafish
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e17003, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bisphenol-A (BPA) belongs to the family of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and it is used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. The reproductive toxicity of BPA is well documented but it also exerts its toxic effects through multiple pathways especially by inducing a state of oxidative stress and causing damage to the vital organs. In the present study, histopathologic and oxidative damage caused by BPA in liver and kidneys of fresh water cyprinid, Ctenopharyngodon idella was evaluated. LC50 of BPA for Ctenopharyngodon idella was determined by probit regression analysis. Fish were exposed to a sublethal concentration of BPA i.e. 3.2 ppm (1/2 LC50) for 14 days. Histologic studies revealed that BPA caused degenerative changes in liver and kidneys and exposure of sublethal concentration of BPA caused oxidative damage in both organs. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased in liver and kidneys of treated group. Catalase activity and reduced glutathione content significantly decreased in the group exposed to BPA compared to control and glutathione-S-transferase activity increased significantly in both organs exposed to the sublethal concentration of BPA. From this study it is concluded that BPA caused toxic effects in fish species by changing oxidative balance and damaging the vital organs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Histological Techniques , Catechol Oxidase/classification , Fishes
19.
Anon.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(3): 193-199, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837866

ABSTRACT

O Rio dos Sinos está localizado na região sul do Brasil, possui aproximadamente 190 km de extensão e fornece água para atividades agrícolas, industriais e para o consumo de mais de um milhão de habitantes. Este rio é considerado um dos mais poluídos do Brasil e, portanto, estudos para avaliar a qualidade da água ao longo de sua extensão são necessários. O teste de micronúcleos em eritrócitos de peixes tem sido utilizado com sucesso para detectar a presença de poluentes mutagênicos nos ambientes aquáticos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da água do Rio dos Sinos por meio do teste de micronúcleos em Cyprinus carpio bem como de análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Foram coletadas amostras de água nos trechos superior (Caraá), médio (Parobé) e inferior (Novo Hamburgo) do Rio dos Sinos em dezembro de 2013. As amostras foram transportadas para o laboratório para análise de 14 parâmetros de qualidade da água bem como para a exposição de espécimes de C. carpio por 72h em aquários. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades nucleares nos grupos expostos a água do rio em comparação ao grupo controle. Apenas um parâmetro de qualidade da água foi observado em desacordo com a legislação no trecho superior do rio, enquanto que nos trechos médio e inferior foram seis e cinco parâmetros, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que o Rio dos Sinos apresenta redução da qualidade da água ao longo de sua extensão e indicam ausência de potencial genotóxico no período amostrado.


The Sinos River is located in South of Brazil, it has about 190 km of extension and provides water for agricultural and industrial activities, and for consumption of more than one million inhabitants. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil; therefore, studies aiming to evaluate the water quality along its course are necessary. The micronucleus test in fish erythrocytes has been successful used to detect mutagenic pollutants in the aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Sinos River by the micronucleus test in Cyprinus carpio, as well as physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Water samples were collected in the upper (Caraá municipality), middle (Parobé municipality) and lower (Novo Hamburgo municipality) sections of the Sinos River, in December 2013. The samples were transported to the laboratory for analysis of 14 water quality parameters and for exposure of C. carpio for 72 hours in aquaria. Significant differences in micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities frequencies were not found between the control and the exposed groups. Only one parameter of water quality exceeded the limit of the legislation in the upper section of the river, while in the middle and lower sections, six and five parameters, respectively. These results show that the Sinos River presents a reduction in water quality along its extension and indicates the absence of genotoxic potential in the sampled period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps/abnormalities , Micronucleus Tests/statistics & numerical data , Rivers/microbiology , Water Quality , Brazil/epidemiology , Genotoxicity/analysis , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Chemical Phenomena/methods , River Pollution/analysis , Water Samples
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166319

ABSTRACT

We describe here the mass death of predatory carp, Chanodichthys erythropterus, in Korea induced by plerocercoid larvae of Ligula intestinalis as a result of host manipulation. The carcasses of fish with ligulid larvae were first found in the river-edge areas of Chilgok-bo in Nakdong-gang (River), Korea at early February 2016. This ecological phenomena also occurred in the adjacent areas of 3 dams of Nakdong-gang, i.e., Gangjeong-bo, Dalseong-bo, and Hapcheon-Changnyeong-bo. Total 1,173 fish carcasses were collected from the 4 regions. To examine the cause of death, we captured 10 wondering carp in the river-edge areas of Hapcheon-Changnyeong-bo with a landing net. They were 24.0-28.5 cm in length and 147-257 g in weight, and had 2-11 plerocercoid larvae in the abdominal cavity. Their digestive organs were slender and empty, and reproductive organs were not observed at all. The plerocercoid larvae occupied almost all spaces of the abdominal cavity under the air bladders. The proportion of larvae per fish was 14.6-32.1% of body weight. The larvae were ivory-white, 21.5-63.0 cm long, and 6.0-13.8 g in weight. We suggest that the preference for the river-edge in infected fish during winter is a modified behavioral response by host manipulation of the tapeworm larvae. The life cycle of this tapeworm seems to be successfully continued as the infected fish can be easily eaten by avian definitive hosts.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Air Sacs , Animals , Body Weight , Carps , Cause of Death , Cestoda , Korea , Larva , Life Cycle Stages , Sparganum
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