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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240359, 2022. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285603

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hymenaea martiana is a species popularly known in Northeastern Brazil as "jatobá" and used in folk medicine to treat pain and inflammation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of H. martiana. In the present study, we carried out an investigation about the effects of the crude ethanolic extract (Hm-EtOH) and the ethyl acetate fraction (Hm-AcOEt) in models of nociception and inflammation in mice. Chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin) and thermal stimuli (hot plate) were used for the evaluation of antinociceptive activity, while for the anti-inflammatory profile paw edema induced by carrageenan was used, along with leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. The presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples was characterized through HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 and 400 mg.kg-1, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of abdominal contortions and decreased the paw licking time in the formalin test. In the hot plate, the extract increased the latency time of animals. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited significantly the increase in the edema after the administration of carrageenan. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited leukocyte migration in the peritonitis test. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt revealed the presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples. According to the results of this study, both Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be related with the presence of flavonoid in the extracts. The results reinforce the popular use of this plant.


Resumo Hymenaea martiana é uma espécie popularmente conhecida no Nordeste do Brasil como "jatobá" e usada na medicina popular para tratar a dor e a inflamação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória de H. martiana. No presente estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos do extrato etanólico bruto (Hm-EtOH) e da fração acetato de etila (Hm-AcOEt) em modelos de nocicepção e inflamação em camundongos. Foram utilizados estímulos químicos (contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético e teste da formalina) e estímulo térmico (teste da placa quente) para avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva, enquanto no perfil anti-inflamatório foi utilizado o teste do edema de pata induzido por carragenina e migração de leucócitos para a cavidade peritoneal. A presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras foi caracterizada através de análise por CLAE-DAD-EM. Hm-EtOH e o Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 e 400 mg.kg-1, i.p.) reduziram significativamente o número de contorções abdominais e diminuíram o tempo de lambida da pata no teste da formalina. No teste da placa quente, houve aumento do tempo de latência dos animais. Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt inibiram significativamente o aumento do edema após a administração de carragenina, bem como inibiram a migração de leucócitos no teste de peritonite. A análise por CLAE-DAD-EM de Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt revelou a presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, tanto Hm-EtOH quanto o Hm-AcOEt possuem atividades antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória, o que pode estar relacionado à presença do flavonoide. Os resultados reforçam o uso popular desta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Hymenaea , Fabaceae , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carrageenan , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9422, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153527

ABSTRACT

Hyptis crenata, commonly known as "salva-do-Marajó", "hortelã-do-campo", and "hortelãzinha", is used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil as tea or infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. Due to the pharmacological efficacy and the low toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), we decided to investigate the EOHc antiedematogenic effect in experimental models of inflammation. EOHc was administrated orally at doses of 10-300 mg/kg to male Swiss albino mice. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous injection in the right hind paw of inflammatory stimuli (carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin) 60 min after administration of EOHc. EOHc significantly inhibited the induced edema. The inhibitory effect of EOHc on dextran-induced edema extended throughout the experimental time. For the 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses of EOHc, the inhibition was of 40.28±1.70, 51.18±2.69, and 59.24±2.13%, respectively. The EOHc inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced edema started at 10 mg/kg at the second hour (h) and was maintained throughout the observation period. At 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses the inhibition started earlier, from 30 min. At the edema peak of 180 min, 56, 76, and 82% inhibition was observed for 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses, respectively. Additionally, the effect of EOHc on carrageenan-induced paw edema was influenced by the time of administration. The EOHc also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. In conclusion, the EOHc showed a potent effect, both preventing and reversing the edema, consistent with its anti-inflammatory use in folk medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Hyptis/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Brazil , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Carrageenan , Edema/chemically induced , Inflammation/chemically induced
3.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200119, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective 5-Hydroxytryptophan is the precursor compound of serotonin biosynthesis. The oral absorption of 5-Hydroxytryptophan is close to 100% and, unlike serotonin, it crosses the blood-brain barrier freely. 5-Hydroxytryptophan has been used as a food supplement for many years to treat anxiety and depression. Recent studies have shown that 5-Hydroxytryptophan suppresses the pro-inflammatory mediators and is effective in some inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis and allergic asthma. However, the role of 5-Hydroxytryptophan supplements on acute peripheral inflammation has not been investigated yet. In this study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of 5-Hydroxytryptophan was evaluated with a carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in mice. Methods For the investigation of the acute antiinflammatory activity, single oral doses of 5-Hydroxytryptophan (1.5, 5 and 20mg/kg) were given to mice 1.5 hours prior to the carrageenan test. For chronic activity, the same oral doses were administered daily for two weeks prior to the carrageenan test on the 14th day. To induce inflammation, 0.01mL of 2% carrageenan was injected into the paws of mice. Results Supplementation with 5-Hydroxytryptophan significantly reduced inflammation in a dose-independent manner which was irrespective of the duration of exposure (per cent inhibition in acute experiments was 35.4%, 20.9%, 24.0%, and per cent inhibition in chronic experiments was 29.5%, 35.3%, 40.8% for the doses of 1.5, 5, and 20mg/kg, respectively). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate for the first time that 5-HTP supplements have the potential of suppressing the measures of acute peripheral inflammation. It is suggested that, apart from several diseases where serotonin is believed to play an important role, including depression, patients with inflammatory conditions may also benefit from 5-HTP.


RESUMO Objetivo O 5-hidroxitriptofano (5-HTP) é o composto precursor da biossíntese da serotonina. A absorção oral do 5-HTP é próxima a 100% e, ao contrário da serotonina, atravessa a barreira hematoencefálica livremente. O 5-HTP tem sido usado como suplemento alimentar por muitos anos na ansiedade e na depressão. Estudos recentes demonstraram que o 5-HTP suprime os mediadores pró-inflamatórios e é eficaz em algumas doenças inflamatórias, como artrite e asma alérgica. No entanto, o papel dos suplementos de 5-HTP na inflamação periférica aguda ainda não foi investigado. Neste estudo, a atividade anti-inflamatória in vivo do 5-HTP foi avaliada por meio do teste de edema de pata induzido por carragenina em ratos. Métodos Para a atividade aguda, doses orais únicas de 5 -HTP (1,5, 5 e 20 mg/kg) foram dados aos ratos 1,5 horas antes do teste da carragenina. Para a atividade crônica, as mesmas doses orais foram dadas cada dia durante duas semanas antes do teste da carragenina no 14º dia. 0,01ml da carragenina a 2% foi injetado nas patas dos ratos a fim de induzir a inflamação. Resultados A suplementação com 5-HTP reduziu significativamente a inflamação de uma maneira independente da dose, que foi independente da duração da exposição (por cento de inibição em experimentos agudos; 35,4%, 20,9%, 24,0% e por cento de inibição em experimentos crônicos; 29,5%, 35,3%, 40,8% para as doses de 1.5, 5 e 20 mg/kg respectivamente). Conclusão Nossas conclusões demonstram pela primeira vez que os suplementos de 5-HTP têm potencial para suprimir os sintomas de inflamação periférica aguda. É sugerido que, além de várias doenças em que se acredita que a serotonina tem uma função importante, incluindo a depressão, os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias também podem se beneficiar do 5-HTP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carrageenan , 5-Hydroxytryptophan/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Edema/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 507-513, dez 5, 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358030

ABSTRACT

A dor miofascial orofacial vem sendo tratada com analgésicos, anti-inflamatórios, relaxantes musculares, fisioterapia, laserterapia e placas oclusais. Contudo, muitas vezes, tais condutas falham em amenizar o quadro doloroso, havendo a necessidade de testar outras estratégias de tratamento. Metodologia: Uma opção para avaliação experimental dessas terapias seria o teste de dor induzido pela carragenina, associado ao teste de avaliação do limiar nociceptivo, originalmente desenvolvido para avaliar a ação de drogas nas patas de roedores. Sendo assim, o presente estudo analisou a nocicepção causada pela carragenina em masseteres de ratos, através do teste de Von Frey, correlacionando-a com alterações teciduais produzidas por esta droga. A carragenina foi injetada no músculo masseter de ratos, enquanto o grupo controle recebeu soro fisiológico. O limiar nociceptivo foi mensurado com um analgesímetro digital antes da administração da carragenina e 5 horas, 1, 3 e 7 dias após o seu uso. Decorridos 8 dias da intervenção, os animais foram eutanasiados, sendo seus masseteres encaminhados para processamento histológico e coloração H&E. Resultados: Observou-se uma diminuição do limiar da resposta nociceptiva em todos os períodos no grupo com carragenina, quando comparado com o grupo controle, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante nas 5 horas. A análise histológica do grupo experimental mostrou a presença de espaços perimisial e endomisial alargados e preenchidos por uma matriz com alguns linfócitos, muitos macrófagos e raros mastócitos. Conclusão: Os resultados indicaram que a associação de uma droga inflamatória com o método Von Frey pode ser uma opção para o estudo do efeito de terapias de dor miofascial.


Myofascial orofacial pain has been treated with analgesics, anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants, physiotherapy, laser therapy and occlusal plaques. However, many times, such behaviors fail to alleviate the painful condition, with the need to test other treatment strategies. Methodology: An option for experimental evaluation of these therapies would be the pain test induced by carrageenan associated with the nociceptive threshold assessment test, originally developed to assess the action of drugs on the rodents' feet. Thus, the present study analyzed the nociception caused by carrageenan in rat masseter using the Von Frey test, correlating it with tissue changes produced by this drug. Carrageenan was injected into the masseter muscle of rats, while the control group received saline. The nociceptive threshold was measured with a digital analgesometer before administration of carrageenan and 5 hours, 1, 3 and 7 days after its use. After 8 days of the intervention, the animals were euthanized, and their masseters were sent for histological processing and H&E staining. Results: There was a decrease in the nociceptive response threshold in all periods in the group treated with carrageenan when compared to the control group, with a statistically significant difference at 5 hours. Histological analysis of the experimental group showed the presence of enlarged perimisial and endomisial spaces, filled by a matrix with some lymphocytes, many macrophages and rare mast cells. Conclusion: Results indicated that the association of an inflammatory drug with the Von Frey method may be an option for studying the effect of therapies on myofascial pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Carrageenan , Nociception , Myofascial Pain Syndromes , Physical Therapy Modalities , Occlusal Splints , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Muscle Relaxants, Central
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 57-65, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089300

ABSTRACT

Abstract Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring is a species popularly known as "jericó", and used in folk medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. This study aimed to investigate in mice the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the hexane (Sc-Hex) and chloroform (Sc-CHCl3) fractions (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) obtained by partition of crude ethanol extract from S. convoluta. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the fractions was performed. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that the Sc-Hex and the Sc-CHCl3 were positive for the presence of flavonoids, anthracene derivatives, quinones, triterpenes and steroids. Inhibition of writhing was observed for fractions tested. The Sc-Hex at all doses tested was effective in reducing the nociceptive behavior produced by formalin only in the second phase. However, the Sc-CHCl3 decreased the paw licking time in the first and second phases. In the hot plate no significant effect was observed for any fraction. In the rota-rod test, treated mice did not demonstrate any significant motor performance changes. In the carrageenan-induced pleurisy, Sc-CHCl3 (200 mg/kg) reduced cell migration to the pleural cavity. These results reveal the antinociceptive properties of S. convoluta , which support, in part, its traditional use, since the fractions did not presented significant activity in the inflammatory response profile. We further verify that this antinociceptive effect could be by activation of nociceptive peripheral pathway.


Resumo Selaginella convoluta é uma espécie popularmente conhecida como "jericó", e usada na medicina popular como analgésica e anti-inflamatória. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar em camundongos as atividades antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória das frações hexânica (Sc-Hex) e clorofórmica (Sc-CHCl3) (100, 200 e 400 mg/kg) obtidas por partição do extrato etanólico bruto de S. convoluta . A análise fitoquímica preliminar das frações foi realizada. A atividade antinociceptiva foi avaliada pelos testes de contorções abdominais, formalina e placa quente. A atividade anti-inflamatória foi avaliada usando pleurisia induzida por carragenina. O teste do rota-rod foi utilizado para avaliar a coordenação motora. A triagem fitoquímica preliminar mostrou que Sc-Hex e Sc-CHCl3 apresentaram reação positiva para a presença de flavonoides, derivados antracênicos, quinonas, triterpenos e esteroides. A inibição das contorções foi observada para as frações testadas. Sc-Hex em todas as doses testadas foi efetivo na redução do comportamento nociceptivo produzido pela formalina somente na segunda fase. No entanto, Sc-CHCl3 diminuiu o tempo de lambida da pata na primeira e segunda fases. Na placa quente, nenhum efeito significativo foi observado para qualquer fração. No teste do rota-rod os camundongos tratados não demonstraram mudanças significativas na coordenação motora. Na pleurisia induzida por carragenina, Sc-CHCl3 (200 mg/kg) reduziu a migração celular para a cavidade pleural. Estes resultados revelam a propriedade antinociceptiva de S. convoluta, justificando, em parte, seu uso tradicional, uma vez que os extratos não apresentaram atividade significativa no perfil de resposta inflamatória. Verificamos ainda que esse efeito antinociceptivo mostrou-se ligado à ativação da via periférica nociceptiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Selaginellaceae , Pain , Plant Extracts , Carrageenan , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(10): e10204, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132473

ABSTRACT

Several isatin derivatives have shown important biological activities, which have attracted interest from researchers. For this reason, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the isatin derivative (Z)-2-(5-chloro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-N-phenyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide (COPHCT) in mice. Three doses of this compound were tested: 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and the zymosan-induced air pouch model. The evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through the formalin test and the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test. The paw edema assay demonstrated that all doses of the compound showed a significant reduction of the edema in the second hour evaluated, but a better response was observed in the fourth hour. The zymosan-induced air pouch model indicated that the compound, in all doses, significantly reduced leukocyte migration and total protein concentration levels. In the formalin test, the doses 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg of COPHCT showed activity only in the second phase, with reduction in paw pain time of 73.61, 79.46, and 73.85%, respectively. The number of abdominal writhings decreased with the increasing dose, but only 5.0 mg/kg COPHCT exhibited a significant response, with a reduction of 24.88%. These results demonstrated the ability of this compound to interfere in the anti-inflammatory activity of edema, vascular permeability, and cell migration. In addition, its possible antinociceptive effect may be related to the dose used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Isatin/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Carrageenan , Edema
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102643

ABSTRACT

This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.


Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
8.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(3): 49-57, Set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1022381

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar la actividad antiinflamatoria y antinociceptiva de la metformina en un evento agudo de inflamaciónedema y dolor inducido en roedor. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 198 ratones hembras. Se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio con la prueba de edema plantar inducido por carragenina en 64 ratones y, para evaluar el efecto sobre el dolor, se utilizó la prueba de placa caliente e inmersión de la cola, con 64 y 70 ratones, respectivamente. En ambos casos se tuvieron grupos controles, placebo y experimentales. Para el análisis se emplearon las pruebas de Shapiro-Wilk, de ANOVA de una cola, de Tukey y correlación de Pearson. Resultados: En el edema de la pata por carragenina, los grupos metformina 50 y 150 mg/kg presentaron efecto antiinflamatorio a la segunda y tercera hora. En la prueba de placa caliente, los grupos metformina 100, 200 y 250 mg/kg presentaron efecto analgésico en la segunda y cuarta hora. En la prueba de inmersión de cola, los grupos metformina 100, 150, 200 y 250 mg/kg presentaron efecto analgésico desde el minuto 15 hasta terminar el experimento; además, el grupo metformina 150 mg/kg tuvo efecto estadísticamente equivalente al grupo control de morfina 10 mg/kg. Conclusiones: Se demuestra la actividad antiinflamatoria y antinociceptiva aguda de metformina a diferentes dosis, en modelos experimentales con ratones.


Objective: To analyze the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of metformin in an acute event of inflammation-edema and pain induction in rodents. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-eight (198) female mice were used. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in 64 mice using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, and the antinociceptive effect was assessed in 64 and 70 mice using the hot plate test and the tail immersion test, respectively. In both cases, there were control, placebo and experimental groups. For the analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test, one-way ANOVA test, Tukey test and Pearsonian coefficient of correlation were used. Results: In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, the metformin 50 and 150 mg/kg groups showed an antiinflammatory effect at the second and third hours. In the hot plate test, the metformin 100, 200 and 250 mg/kg groups showed an antinociceptive effect at the second and fourth hours. In the tail immersion test, the metformin 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg groups showed an antinociceptive effect from minute 15 until the end of the experiment. In addition, the metformin 150 mg/kg group had a statistically equivalent effect to the morphine 10 mg/kg control group.


Subject(s)
Mice , Metformin , Pain , Carrageenan , Central Nervous System , Inflammation
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17870, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039075

ABSTRACT

Mefenamic acid (MFA) is a hydrophobic drug with low dissolution rate. This study aimed to develop stable and reproducible aqueous formulations of MFA using liposomes as drug carriers. The drug entrapment, particles size and drug release profiles, and stability and reproducibility of the liposomes were determined. In addition, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined in rats via the oral and intraperitoneal routes of administration. Also, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of these liposomes was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats. MFA-DDC based liposomes demonstrated a drug entrapment efficacy of 93.6%, particles size of 170.9 nm, and polydispersity index of 0.24 which were not statistically affected when stored in room and refrigerated temperatures for at least 4 weeks. The MTD of the intraperitoneally administrated MFA-loaded liposomes was 20 mg MFA/kg, whereas for those of oral administrations, it was up to 80 mg MFA/kg. Intraperitoneal dose (80 mg MFA/kg) of MFA-DDC liposomes induced extrapyramidal symptoms associated with significant elevation in serum potassium and muscle enzymes. Moreover, significant inhibition of paw edema was demonstrated by the oral and intraperitoneal routes. These findings suggest that MFA-DDC based liposomes are an effective formulation of MFA and recommend the use of bioequivalence assessments with commercial formulations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Mefenamic Acid/analysis , Ditiocarb/analysis , Liposomes/agonists , In Vitro Techniques , Carrageenan
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741650

ABSTRACT

Inula helenium L. is rich source of eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones, mainly alantolactone and isoalantolactone, which have the various pharmacological functions. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide (NO) production of hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions from I. helenium and investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of hexane fraction of I. helenium (HFIH) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Quantification of alantolactone and isoalantolactone from HFIH was carried out for the standardization by multiple reaction monitoring using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. HFIH significantly inhibited inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein as well as their downstream products NO and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, HFIH suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activity by decreasing the translocation of p65 to the nucleus. The in vivo study further confirmed that HFIH attenuated the paw edema induced by carrageenan in an acute inflammation model. These findings suggest that HFIH may be useful as a promising phytomedicine for inflammatory-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Carrageenan , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Edema , Inflammation , Inula , Lactones , Methylene Chloride , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Staphylococcal Protein A , Water
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(1): 1-12, 2 abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912753

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the dietary supplementation with essential oil of Lippia alba on the hemato-immunological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) submitted to acute inflammation induced by carrageenin injection in the swim bladder. For a period of 45 days, 96 fish were divided in four treatments in triplicate, as follows: fish fed supplemented diet with essential oil of L. alba (4 mL kg-1 dry ration) injected with carrageenin; fish fed supplemented diet with cereal alcohol injected with carrageenin; fish fed unsupplemented diet with essential oil injected with carrageenin; fish fed unsupplemented diet and noninjected. Cortisol levels, erythrogram, leukogram and the inflammatory infiltrate were analyzed 6 h after inflammatory stimulus. Carrageenin-injected fish showed acute inflammatory reaction in the swim bladder characterized by higher infiltrate of neutrophils and monocytes. The circulating neutrophils number was significantly higher in fish fed L. alba when compared to other treatments. No difference in cortisol levels was found. For dose, time and administration form tested, supplementation with essential oil of L. alba did not present anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, influence of dietary supplementation was observed on the neutrophils number after induced aerocystitis highlighting its immunomodulatory characteristic.(AU)


O presente estudo avaliou a suplementação dietária com óleo essencial de Lippia alba sobre os parâmetros hemato-imunológicos em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidas à inflamação aguda induzida por carragenina na bexiga natatória. Pelo período de 45 dias, 96 peixes foram divididos em quarto tratamentos em triplicata: a) peixes suplementados com óleo esencial de L. alba (4 mL kg-1 de ração) injetados com carragenina; b) peixes suplementados com álcool de cereais injetados com carragenina; peixes não suplementados com óleo essencial injetados com carragenina; c) peixes não suplementados não injetados. Os níveis de cortisol, eritrograma, leucograma e o infiltrado inflamatório foram analisados seis horas após o estímulo inflamatório. Peixes injetados com carragenina apresentaram reação inflamatória aguda na bexiga natatória caracterizada por maior infiltrado de neutrófilos e monócitos. O número de neutrófilos circulantes foi significativamente maior nos peixes suplementados com L. alba quando comparado aos outros tratamentos. Não houve diferença nos níveis de cortisol. Para a dose, o tempo e a forma de administração testada, a suplementação com óleo essencil de L. alba não apresentou atividade anti-inflamatória. Por outro lado, foi constatada influência da suplementação dietária no número de neutrófilos após a aerocistite enfatizando a sua característica imunomoduladora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cichlids/blood , Cichlids/immunology , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Air Sacs , Carrageenan/administration & dosage , Inflammation/therapy , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 185-194, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886919

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The N-salicyloyltryptamine (NST) is an indole derivative compound analogue to the alkaloid N-benzoyltryptamine. In the present study, the antiedematogenic activity of NST was investigated in animal models. Firstly, the acute toxicity for NST was assessed according to the OECD Guideline no. 423. The potential NST-induced antiedematogenic activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, as well as by dextran-, compound 48/80-, histamine-, serotonin-, capsaicine-, and prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema in mice. The effect of NST on compound 48/80-induced ex vivo mast cell degranulation on mice mesenteric bed was investigated. No death or alteration of behavioral parameters was observed after administration of NST (2000 mg/kg, i.p.) during the observation time of 14 days. The NST (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the carrageenan-induced edema from the 1st to the 5th hour (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The edematogenic activity induced by dextran, compound 48/80, histamine, serotonin, capsaicin, and prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by NST (100 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout the observation period (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The pretreatment with NST (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) attenuates the compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). Thus, the inhibition of both mast cell degranulation and release of endogenous mediators are probably involved in the NST-induced antiedematogenic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Tryptamines/pharmacology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/drug effects , Time Factors , Carrageenan , Tryptamines/toxicity , Salicylates/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Inflammation Mediators , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/chemically induced , Hindlimb , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/toxicity
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 26-34, Mar. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022610

ABSTRACT

Background: A new ι-carrageenase-producing strain was screened from mangroves and authenticated as Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora ASY5 in our laboratory. The potential application of this new strain was evaluated. Results: Medium compositions and culturing conditions in shaking flask fermentation were firstly optimized by single-factor experiment. ι-Carrageenase activity increased from 0.34 U/mL to 1.08 U/mL after test optimization. Optimal fermentation conditions were 20°C, pH 7.0, incubation time of 40 h, 15 g/L NaCl, 1.5% (w/v) yeast extract as nitrogen source, and 0.9% (w/v) ι-carrageenan as carbon source. Then, the crude ι-carrageenase was characterized. The optimum temperature and pH of the ι-carrageenase were 40°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzymatic activity at 35­40°C for 45 min retained more than 40% of the maximum activity. Meanwhile, The ι-carrageenase was inhibited by the addition of 1 mmol/L Cd2+ and Fe3+ but increased by the addition of 1 mmol/L Ag+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, and Al3+. The structure of oligosaccharides derived from ι-carrageenan was detected using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ι-carrageenase degraded ι-carrageenan, yielding disaccharides and tetrasaccharides as main products. Conclusions: The discovery and study of new ι-carrageenases are beneficial not only for the production of ι-carrageenan oligosaccharides but also for the further utilization in industrial production.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Pseudoalteromonas/enzymology , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/biosynthesis , Temperature , Carbon/metabolism , Carrageenan/biosynthesis , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Nitrogen/metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758841

ABSTRACT

Respiratory inflammation is a frequent and fatal pathologic state encountered in veterinary medicine. Although diluted bee venom (dBV) has potent anti-inflammatory effects, the clinical use of dBV is limited to several chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study was designed to propose an acupoint dBV treatment as a novel therapeutic strategy for respiratory inflammatory disease. Experimental pleurisy was induced by injection of carrageenan into the left pleural space in mouse. The dBV was injected into a specific lung meridian acupoint (LU-5) or into an arbitrary non-acupoint located near the midline of the back in mouse. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by analyzing inflammatory indicators in pleural exudate. The dBV injection into the LU-5 acupoint significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced increase of pleural exudate volume, leukocyte accumulation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, dBV acupoint treatment effectively inhibited the production of interleukin 1 beta, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha in the pleural exudate. On the other hand, dBV treatment at non-acupoint did not inhibit the inflammatory responses in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The present results demonstrate that dBV stimulation in the LU-5 lung meridian acupoint can produce significant anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced pleurisy suggesting that dBV acupuncture may be a promising alternative medicine therapy for respiratory inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Animals , Bee Venoms , Bees , Carrageenan , Complementary Therapies , Exudates and Transudates , Hand , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta , Leukocytes , Lung , Mice , Peroxidase , Pleurisy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Veterinary Medicine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812402

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a gastric retention floating system for Brucea javanica oil, composed of alginate and carrageenan, was prepared using ionotropic gelation. Parameters for floatability, drug load, encapsulation efficiency, bead morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo gastric retention were evaluated. The optimized formulation via Box-Behnken design consisted of 1.7% alginate (W/V), 1.02% carrageenan (W/V), 1.4% CaCO (W/V), and a gelling bath of pH 0.8. The alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil beads had a porous structure and exhibited up to 24 h of in vitro floatability with a load capacity of 45%-55% and an encapsulation efficiency of 70%-80%. A 6-h sustained release was observed in vitro. The beads had a prolonged gastric retention (> 60% at 6 h) in fasted rats, compared to non-floating beads (15% at 6 h), as measured by gamma scintigraphy with single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPET/CT). In conclusion, the alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil system showed enhanced oil encapsulation efficiency, excellent floating and gastric retention abilities, and a favorable release behavior.


Subject(s)
Alginates , Chemistry , Animals , Biological Availability , Brucea , Chemistry , Carrageenan , Chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gastric Mucosa , Metabolism , Glucuronic Acid , Chemistry , Hexuronic Acids , Chemistry , Microspheres , Plant Oils , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773613

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a gastric retention floating system for Brucea javanica oil, composed of alginate and carrageenan, was prepared using ionotropic gelation. Parameters for floatability, drug load, encapsulation efficiency, bead morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo gastric retention were evaluated. The optimized formulation via Box-Behnken design consisted of 1.7% alginate (W/V), 1.02% carrageenan (W/V), 1.4% CaCO (W/V), and a gelling bath of pH 0.8. The alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil beads had a porous structure and exhibited up to 24 h of in vitro floatability with a load capacity of 45%-55% and an encapsulation efficiency of 70%-80%. A 6-h sustained release was observed in vitro. The beads had a prolonged gastric retention (> 60% at 6 h) in fasted rats, compared to non-floating beads (15% at 6 h), as measured by gamma scintigraphy with single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPET/CT). In conclusion, the alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil system showed enhanced oil encapsulation efficiency, excellent floating and gastric retention abilities, and a favorable release behavior.


Subject(s)
Alginates , Chemistry , Animals , Biological Availability , Brucea , Chemistry , Carrageenan , Chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gastric Mucosa , Metabolism , Glucuronic Acid , Chemistry , Hexuronic Acids , Chemistry , Microspheres , Plant Oils , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curcumin is traditionally used as an herbal medicine. We explored the efficacy of intrathecal curcumin in relieving both postoperative and inflammatory pain and elucidated the mechanisms of action of curcumin interacting with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid receptors at the spinal level. METHODS: Experimental pain was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats via paw incision or injection of intraplantar carrageenan. After examination of the effects of intrathecal curcumin on the pain, GABA and opioid receptor antagonists were intrathecally administered to explore the involvement of GABA or opioid receptors on the effect of curcumin. Additionally, the expression levels of the GABA and opioid receptors were assessed. RESULTS: Intrathecal curcumin reduced the withdrawal threshold of both incisional surgery- and carrageenan injection-induced nociception. Intrathecal GABA and opioid receptor antagonists reversed the curcumin-mediated antinociception. Incisional surgery decreased the levels of the GABA receptors mRNA, but little changed the levels of the opioid receptors mRNA. Carrageenan injection increased the levels of the opioid receptors mRNA, but not the GABA receptors mRNA levels. Intrathecal curcumin increased or decreased the levels of GABA receptors mRNA and opioid receptors mRNA in the spinal cords of incised or carrageenan-injected rats, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal curcumin was effective to postoperative and inflammatory pain and such antinociception of curcumin was antagonized by both GABA and opioid receptor antagonists. Also, intrathecal curcumin altered the levels of GABA and opioid receptors. Thus, spinal GABA and opioid receptors may, respectively, be directly or indirectly involved when curcumin alleviates postoperative and inflammatory pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrageenan , Curcumin , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Male , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociception , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, Opioid , RNA, Messenger , Spinal Cord
18.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(4): 423-430, Oct. - Dec. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-878455

ABSTRACT

The seaweeds are bio-resource rich in sulfated and neutral polysaccharides. The tropical seaweed species used in this study (Solieria filiformis), after dried, shows 65.8% (w/w) carbohydrate, 9.6% (w/w) protein, 1.7% (w/w) lipid, 7.0% (w/w) moisture and 15.9% (w/w) ash. The dried seaweed was easily hydrolyzed under mild conditions (0.5 M sulfuric acid, 20 min.), generating fermentable monosaccharides with a maximum hydrolysis efficiency of 63.21%. Galactose and glucose present in the hydrolyzed were simultaneously fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae when the yeast was acclimated to galactose and cultivated in broth containing only galactose. The kinetic parameters of the fermentation of the seaweed hydrolyzed were Y(P/S) = 0.48 ± 0.02 g.g−1, PP = 0.27 ± 0.04 g.L−1.h−1, η = 94.1%, representing a 41% increase in bioethanol productivity. Therefore, S. filiformis was a promising renewable resource of polysaccharides easily hydrolyzed, generating a broth rich in fermentable monosaccharides for ethanol production.


As algas marinhas são recursos naturais ricos em polissacarídeos sulfatados e neutros. A espécie de macroalga tropical utilizada neste estudo (Solieria filiformis) apresentou teores de carboidratos de 65,8% (m/m), proteínas de 9,6% (m/m), lipídios de 1,7% (m/m), umidade de 7,0% (m/m) e 15,9 % (m/m) de cinzas. A macroalga seca foi facilmente hidrolisada em condições brandas, na presença de ácido sulfúrico 0,5 M, por 20 min, produzindo monossacarídeos fermentáveis com uma eficiência de hidrólise máxima de 63,21%. A galactose e a glicose presentes no hidrolisado foram fermentadas simultaneamente por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, após aclimatação da levedura cultivada em meio contendo apenas galactose como fonte de carbono. Os parâmetros cinéticos da fermentação do hidrolisado algáceo pela levedura aclimatada a galactose foram Y(P/S) = 0,48 ± 0,02 g.g-1, PP = 0,27 ± 0,04 g.L- 1.h-1, η = 94,1%. Portanto, a macroalga S. filiformis se mostrou um recurso renovável promissor como fonte de polissacarídeos facilmente hidrolisados, gerando um meio nutritivo rico em glucose e galactose para a produção de etanol.


Subject(s)
Carrageenan , Cellulose , Fermentation , Galactose , Seaweed , Sulfuric Acids
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 241-248, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331660

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the contribution of prostaglandins to the maintenance of inflammatory pain. Inflammation was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of carrageenan in right hindpaw in rats. Indomethacin (non-selective COX inhibitor) was administered i.pl. 1 h after the carrageenan injection, and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) responding to noxious heat was measured. β-endorphin (β-END) and μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressed in the inflamed site were examined by using immunocytochemistry, ELISA and RT-PCR techniques. The results showed that indomethacin dose-dependently increased PWL to the levels that were above the baseline on the day 2 and 3, referred to as hypoalgesia. The hypoalgesia was abolished by a local injection of the non-selective opioid receptor inhibitor naloxone methiodide. The number of β-END-positive cells, the content of β-END and the expression of MOR mRNA in the inflammatory site of inflammation model rats were all significantly increased by indomethacin. These results reveal a novel mechanism of prostaglandins for the inhibition of inflammation-induced endogenous opioid activity. This study provides further evidence that inhibition of prostaglandins in inflamed site could be a promising therapy for inflammatory pain.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Animals , Carrageenan , Indomethacin , Inflammation , Naloxone , Pain , Prostaglandins , Rats , Receptors, Opioid , beta-Endorphin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285246

ABSTRACT

Bi-yuan-ling granule (BLG) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound composed mainly of baicalin and chlorogenic acid. It has been demonstrated to be clinically effective for various inflammatory diseases such as acute rhinitis, chronic rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms of BLG against these diseases are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of BLG, and examine its protective effects on mouse acute lung injury (ALI). The hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing assay in Kunming mice were adopted to evaluate the pain-relieving effects of BLG. The anti-inflammatory activities of BLG were determined by examining the effects of BLG on xylene-caused ear swelling in Kunming mice, the cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The results showed that BLG at 15.5 mg/g could significantly relieve the pain by 82.5% (P<0.01) at 1 h after thermal stimulation and 91.2% (P<0.01) at 2 h after thermal stimulation. BLG at doses of 7.75 and 15.5 mg/g reduced the writhing count up to 33.3% (P<0.05) and 53.4% (P<0.01), respectively. Additionally, the xylene-induced edema in mice was markedly restrained by BLG at 7.75 mg/g (P<0.05) and 15.5 mg/g (P<0.01). BLG at 5.35 and 10.7 mg/g significantly reduced paw edema by 34.8% (P<0.05) and 37.9% (P<0.05) at 5 h after carrageenan injection. The granulomatous formation of the cotton pellet was profoundly suppressed by BLG at 2.68, 5.35 and 10.7 mg/g by 15.4%, 38.2% (P<0.01) and 58.9% (P<0.001), respectively. BLG also inhibited lung W/D ratio and the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in ALI mice. In addition, the median lethal dose (LD50), median effective dose (ED50) and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of BLG were found to be 42.7, 3.2 and 12.33 mg/g, respectively. All the findings suggest that BLG has significantly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and it may help reduce the damage of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Acute Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Analgesics , Pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Carrageenan , Chlorogenic Acid , Pharmacology , Dinoprostone , Disease Models, Animal , Dosage Forms , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ear , Pathology , Edema , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Pain , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Xylenes
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