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1.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 42(8): 454-459, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137861

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Streptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen in neonates and pregnant women. Neonatal invasive infections due to S. agalactiae are life-threatening and preventive strategies for this challenge of human have become a concern. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of rectovaginal colonization, related risk factors and antibiotic resistance pattern of S. agalactiae among pregnant women in Iran. Methods The present study was performed on 240 pregnant women. Vaginal and rectal swabs were obtained from all of the women and then were transferred to the laboratory. The isolation and identification of S. agalactiae was performed by standard microbiological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ermB and mefA genes in erythromycin-nonsusceptible isolates. Results Out of 240 pregnant women, 16 cases (6.7%) were colonized by S. agalactiae. There is no significant association between demographic-obstetric factors and maternal S. agalactiae colonization in the pregnant women. Linezolid, vancomycin and ampicillin were the most effective antibiotics against S. agalactiae. The ermB gene was present in 6 (35.29%) S. agalactiae isolates. However, the mefA gene was not detected in any of the isolates. Conclusion Given the relatively significant prevalence of S. agalactiae colonization in the pregnant women in the present study and the risk of serious neonatal infections, the screening of pregnant mothers for the bacteria seems necessary. Our findings highlight the importance of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis during pregnancy for the prevention of early onset S. agalactiae-neonatal infection and comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rectum/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Vagina/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Carrier State/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Iran , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 590-597, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897021

ABSTRACT

Abstract Globally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and the environment may act as reservoirs for the spread of MRSA to patients and other HCWs. Screening and eradication of MRSA colonization is an effective method of reducing the MRSA infection rate. There are limited data on the prevalence of MRSA among Iranian HCWs. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Databases (from January 2000 to July 2016). Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat V2.2) software. The meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among HCWs were 22.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-26.6] and 32.8% (95% CI: 26.0-40.4) respectively. The high rate of nasal MRSA carriage among Iranian HCWs has been attributed to poor compliance to hand hygiene, injudicious use of antibiotics, and ineffective infection control and prevention measures. The rational use of antibiotics plus strict infection control are the main pillars for controlling multidrug resistant microorganisms such as MRSA in the hospital setting. These measurements should be applied nationally.


Subject(s)
Humans , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Carrier State/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Iran/epidemiology
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(3): 274-277, jun. 2017.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038370

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes/Objetivo. Describir el perfil epidemiológico de la portación nasal de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), su resistencia a antibióticos y la presencia de los genes de leucocidina de Panton-Valentine (LPV) y mecA en niños en edad escolar que viven en zonas de gran altitud del sudoeste de China. Métodos. En el estudio transversal, se analizaron hisopados nasales de estudiantes a fin de detectar S. aureus. Se realizó la prueba de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP) para identificar los genes de LPV y mecA. Resultados. Del total de 314 niños, se detectó S. aureus en el 5,10% (16/314). La resistencia de las cepas aisladas a la penicilina, eritromicina, clindamicina, rifampicina y cefoxitina fue del 100%, 81,3%, 81,3%, 0,0% y 6,3%, respectivamente. Ninguna de las cepas mostró resistencia a la vancomicina. Se detectó la expresión del gen mecA en 3 cepas aisladas, y 10 cepas aisladas dieron resultado positivo para el gen de LPV. Conclusión. Se detectó S. Aureus en el 5,10% (16/314) de la población del estudio; el 0,96% (3 /314) presentó S. Aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM). Además, se detectó la expresión de los genes de LPV y mecA en 10 y 3 cepas aisladas, respectivamente.


Background/Aim. To describe the epidemiological profile of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains, its antibiotic resistance and mecA and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes presence, in school children residing in high altitude areas of Southwestern China. Methods. The cross sectional study screened nasal swabs taken from students for S. aureus. PCR was performed to identify mecA and PVL genes. Results. Of the total 314 children 5.10% (16/314) was detected S. aureus. The resistance of isolated strains to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampicin and cefoxitin was 100%, 81.3%, 81.3%, 0.0%, and 6.3% respectively. No strains demonstrated resistance to vancomycin; expression of mecA gene was detected in 3 isolates and 10 isolates were PVL-positive. Conclusion. S. aureus was detected in 5.10% (16/314) of the study population; 0.96% (3/314) had methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA); expression of the mecA and PVL genes were detected in 3 and 10 isolates respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carrier State/microbiology , Nose/microbiology , Altitude , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Leukocidins/genetics
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 179-183, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842837

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a source of neonatal infection, colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of pregnant women. Routine screening for maternal GBS in late pregnancy and consequent intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of early-onset GBS neonatal infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR, compared to culture (gold standard), in GBS colonization screening of pregnant women, and to establish the prevalence of GBS colonization among this population. METHODS: Vaginal introitus and perianal samples were collected from 204 pregnant women, between the 35th and 37th weeks of pregnancy, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University of Caxias do Sul General Hospital between June 2008 and September 2009. All samples were cultured after enrichment in a selective medium and then assayed by culture and PCR methods. RESULTS: The culture and PCR methods yielded detection rates of vaginal/perianal GBS colonization of 22.5% and 26%, respectively (sensitivity 100%; specificity 95.6%; positive and negative predictive values 86.8% and 100%, respectively). A higher prevalence of GBS colonization was detected in the combined vaginal and perianal samples by both culture and PCR assay analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a faster and more efficient method for GBS screening, allowing for optimal identification of women who should receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent newborn infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vagina/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 225-230, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775131

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Female , Male , Arthrodermataceae/classification , Arthrodermataceae/isolation & purification , Carrier State/veterinary , Hair/microbiology , Tinea/veterinary , Arthrodermataceae/growth & development , Carrier State/microbiology , Culture Media/chemistry , Microbiological Techniques , Microscopy , Mycological Typing Techniques , Pigments, Biological , Turkey , Tinea/microbiology
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(4): 322-327, dic. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140875

ABSTRACT

Los portadores asintomáticos de meningococos en hospitales son un factor de riesgo (FR) para adquirir la enfermedad meningocócica. La frecuencia de portadores de meningococos fue determinada a través de colecta orofaríngea en personal de un hospital de Brasil (n = 200). La prevalencia de portadores fue del 9% (IC del 95%, 5-13%). Los FR asociados al estado de portador fueron los siguientes: edad promedio 26,5 años, sexo masculino, hábito de frecuentar bares y número de personas/casa. Entre las 18 cepas de meningococos aisladas, 14 eran no agrupables (NG), 3 correspondieron al serogrupo B y una al 29E. La frecuencia de los serotipos y serosubtipos fue heterogénea, con un ligero predominio de los serotipos 4 y 7 y de los serosubtipos P1.7 y P1.5. La mayoría de las cepas (n=13) fueron sensibles a los antimicrobianos estudiados. El gen ctrA fue identificado por PCR en 9 (64,3%) de las 14 cepas NG, lo que sugiere virulencia en la mayoría de las cepas NG aisladas. Por lo tanto, se requiere una vigilancia constante de estos portadores asintomáticos


Asymptomatic meningococcus carriers in hospitals is a risk factor for acquiring meningococcal disease. Meningococcal carrier (MC) frequency was investigated in oropharyngeal swab samples collected from 200 staff members at a teaching hospital from Brazil. MC prevalence was 9% (95% CI 5­13%). Risk factors associated with MC were: mean age of 26.5 years, male gender, bar attendance frequency and number of persons/house. Of 18 isolated meningococcal strains, 14 were non-groupable (NG), 3 corrresponded to serogroup B and 1 to serogroup 29E. The frequency of serotypes and serosubtypes was heterogenous, with a slight predominance of serotypes 4 and 7 and serosubtypes P1.7 and P1.5. Most strains (n=13) were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested. The ctrA gene (PCR) was identified in 9 (64.3%) of the 14 NG strains, suggesting virulence in most of the NG isolated strains. Therefore, a constant surveillance of these asymptomatic carriers is required


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carrier State/microbiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Neisseria meningitidis/classification
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 898-905, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764588

ABSTRACT

A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carrier State/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Leprosy/diagnosis , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Carrier State/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Leprosy/epidemiology , Mycobacterium leprae/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 755-759, Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-763097

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzaetype b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m) old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558) and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379) and 53.9% (636/1,179), respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558) of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379) and 0.4% (5/1,179) among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099) and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608) compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491). The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Carrier State/immunology , Haemophilus Infections/prevention & control , Haemophilus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Haemophilus influenzae type b/immunology , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Ampicillin Resistance/immunology , Bacterial Capsules/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Chloramphenicol Resistance/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae type b/classification , Immunization Schedule , Mass Vaccination , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 551-555, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749710

ABSTRACT

Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amphibians/microbiology , Carrier State/veterinary , Chytridiomycota/isolation & purification , Mycoses/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Brazil , Carrier State/microbiology , Chytridiomycota/genetics , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycoses/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Veterinary Medicine/methods
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 81(3): 307-311, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about the existence and effects of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in adenotonsillar tissue. OBJECTIVE: A clinical study was conducted to assess the existence of Hp in the adenoid and/or adenotonsillar tissues, which were surgically excised due to chronic adenotonsillitis. METHODS: Phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for the detection of Hp and cytotoxin-associated gene as virulence gene were examined in 84 adenotonsillar tissues obtained from 64 patients and patients' serum by using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Hp IgG was detected in 57 (89%) patients' serum. A total of seven tissue samples from 64 patients (10.9%) were found positive for Hp DNA, of which five were adenoids and two were tonsil tissues. All polymerase chain reaction positive samples were also positive for the cytotoxin-associated gene, which is a virulence determinant for the organism. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that children are exposed to Hp at an early age of their life in this province. Hp may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic adenotonsillitis, especially in endemic areas. .


INTRODUÇÃO: Há um debate atual sobre os efeitos da Helicobacter pylori (HpHp) no tecido adenotonsilar. OBJETIVO: Conduzimos um estudo clinico para avaliar a existência de Hp nos tecidos adenoideano e/ou adenotonsilar, os quais foram removidos cirurgicamente em decorrência de adenotonsilite crônica. MÉTODO: No total, 84 amostras de tecido obtidos de 64 pacientes foram analisadas para o gen fosfoglucosamina mutase para a detecção de Hp. Os casos positivos foram a seguir examinados para o gen associado à citotoxina, relacionado à virulência, usando-se o método de Reação de Polimerase em Cadeia (PCR). RESULTADOS: A IgG de Hp foi detectado em 57 (89%) soros de pacientes. Sete amostras de tecido de sessenta e quatro pacientes (10.9%) resultou positivo para o DNA de Hp, das quais cinco eram adenóides e duas eram tecido tonsilar. No PCR todas as amostras foram também positivas para o gen associado à citotoxina, o qual é um determinante de virulência. CONCLUSÃO: Esse estudo sugere que as crianças são expostas ao Hp nos primeiros anos de vida nessa província e que o Hp pode ter um papel na patogênese da adenotonsilite crônica, principalmente em áreas endêmicas. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adenoids/microbiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Palatine Tonsil/microbiology , Adenoids/pathology , Antigens, Bacterial , Bacterial Proteins , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Hypertrophy/microbiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 271-277, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748259

ABSTRACT

Cats are often described as carriers of Pasteurella multocida in their oral microbiota. This agent is thought to cause pneumonia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, gingivostomatitis, abscess and osteonecrosis in cats. Human infection with P. multocida has been described in several cases affecting cat owners or after cat bites. In Brazil, the cat population is approximately 21 million animals and is increasing, but there are no studies of the presence of P. multocida in the feline population or of human cases of infection associated with cats. In this study, one hundred and ninety-one healthy cats from owners and shelters in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for the presence of P. multocida in their oral cavities. Twenty animals were positive for P. multocida, and forty-one strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. The P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes and resistance profile. A total of 75.6% (31/41) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 24.4% (10/41) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA, tbpA or pfhA genes. The frequencies of the other genes tested were variable, and the data generated were used to build a dendrogram showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. The most common resistance profile observed was against sulfizoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Carrier State/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Brazil , Carrier State/microbiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Mouth/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pasteurella Infections/microbiology , Pasteurella multocida/classification , Pasteurella multocida/genetics , Serogroup
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(5): 440-446, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744379

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of silibinin, the principal potential anti-inflammatory flavonoid contained in silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from Silybum marianum seeds, on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes and its potential molecular mechanisms. Silibinin prevented the decrease of insulin-stimulated 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose) uptake and the downregulation of glutamate transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in C2C12 myotubes induced by palmitate. Meanwhile, silibinin suppressed the palmitate-induced decrease of insulin-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, which was reversed by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We also found that palmitate downregulated insulin-stimulated Tyr632 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and up-regulated IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These effects were rebalanced by silibinin. Considering several serine/threonine kinases reported to phosphorylate IRS-1 at Ser307, treatment with silibinin downregulated the phosphorylation of both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ), which was increased by palmitate in C2C12 myotubes mediating inflammatory status, whereas the phosphorylation of PKC-θ was not significantly modulated by silibinin. Collectively, the results indicated that silibinin prevented inhibition of the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway, thus ameliorating palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Age Distribution , Anal Canal/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/microbiology , Multivariate Analysis , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Singapore/epidemiology , Skin/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 68-76, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741248

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier State/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Egypt , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Outpatients , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics
15.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 74-78, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741455

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females) aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private preschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312) or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340) in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A high prevalence of malocclusion (81.44%) was found in the sample. LSS females exhibited significantly lower prevalence (72.1%) in comparison to HSS females (84.7%), particularly with regard to Class II (P < 0.0001), posterior crossbite (P = 0.006), increased overbite (P = 0.005) and overjet (P < 0.0001). Overall, malocclusion prevalence was similar between HSS and LSS male children (P = 0.36). Early loss of primary teeth was significantly more prevalent in the LSS group (20.9%) in comparison to children in the HSS group (0.9%), for both males and females (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic background influences the occurrence of malocclusion in the primary dentition. In the largest metropolitan area of the Amazon, one in every five LSS children has lost at least one primary tooth before the age of seven. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da condição socioeconômica na prevalência de má oclusão na dentição decídua em uma população amazônica. MÉTODOS: esse estudo transversal compreendeu 652 crianças, de ambos os sexos, entre 3 e 6 anos de idade. Os indivíduos estavam matriculados na pré-escola na rede privada de ensino (alto nível socioeconômico; n = 312) ou, rede pública (baixo nível socioeconômico; n = 340), em Belém, no Pará. O teste chi-quadrado e estatística binominal foram usados para avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos socioeconômicos, com nível de significância considerado em p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: foi observada uma alta prevalência de má oclusão (81,44%) na amostra examinada. As meninas das escolas públicas exibiram uma prevalência significativamente menor (72,1%) em comparação às das escolas privadas (84,7%), principalmente com relação à prevalência da má oclusão de Classe II (p < 0,0001), mordida cruzada posterior (p = 0,006), sobremordida (p = 0,005) e sobressaliência (p < 0,0001). De maneira geral, a prevalência de má oclusão foi similar entre as crianças do sexo masculino dos dois grupos (p = 0,36). A perda precoce de dente decíduo foi significativamente mais prevalente no grupo com menor nível socioeconômico (20,9%) quando comparada à de crianças nas escolas privadas (0.9%), em ambos os sexos (p < 0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: a condição socioeconômica influencia a ocorrência de má oclusão na dentição decídua. Na maior metrópole da Amazônia, uma em cada cinco crianças do grupo com baixo nível socioeconômico perdeu, no mínimo, um dente decíduo antes dos sete anos. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Carrier State/microbiology , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pneumococcal Infections/diagnosis , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Cohort Studies , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/diagnosis , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumococcal Infections/blood , Pneumococcal Infections/etiology
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1199-1209, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741269

ABSTRACT

Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/veterinary , Escherichia/drug effects , Escherichia/isolation & purification , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Birds , Cluster Analysis , Carrier State/microbiology , Cloaca/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia/classification , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virulence Factors/analysis
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 799-805, July-Sept. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727005

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Health Personnel , Methicillin Resistance , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cancer Care Facilities , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Interviews as Topic , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Saliva/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 857-859, July-Sept. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727014

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the relationship between previous colonization of the oropharynx and development of ventilator-associated pneumonia through the classification of genomic fingerprint pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of both oxacillin-resistant and oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier State/microbiology , Oropharynx/microbiology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Genotype , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Typing , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1083-1088, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727041

ABSTRACT

We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Cross Protection , Leptospirosis/immunology , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Carrier State/microbiology , Carrier State/prevention & control , Kidney/microbiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163478

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococci (GAS) are one of the common pathogens responsible for causing tonsillitis and pharyngitis in both children and young adults. The asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage of GAS in children may lead to spread of respiratory infection in the community. Children aged 5 to 15 years with no signs and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and no history of antibiotic therapy within last two weeks were included in study. Throat swabs collected were cultured on blood agar. GAS was identified by conventional method and serogrouped using latex agglutination assay. GAS was isolated from 7 children, out of 250 children. The carrier rate was 3.6% which correlated well with other South Asian studies. Our study showed the importance of surveillance programme to keep carriers in check.


Subject(s)
Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Child , Hemolysis , Humans , Prevalence , Schools , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus/classification , Streptococcus pyogenes/epidemiology , Streptococcus pyogenes/etiology , Streptococcus pyogenes/microbiology
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