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J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-16, nov. 23, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437225


Background: Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) would cause alterations in organs/systems of exposed individuals or their progeny. Objetive: To identify and analyze the main published findings on the effects of exposure to EDCs on teeth, cartilage, and bone. Material and Methods: Two databases were analyzed: Medline and Web of Science. Only observational studies analyzing the effect of EDCs on mineralized tissues published since 2006 were included in the study. Results: 25 articles were selected, most of them involving EDCs pesticides, plasticizers, or personal care products, highlighting organochlorine compounds, bisphenols, phthalates, dioxins, parabens, and perfluoroalkyls. Thirty-six per cent of the studies reported an accumulation of EDCs in teeth or bones, while 64% reported alterations in their development or morphology, mainly at the bone level, primarily affecting their mineral density and size, as well as that of the bones of exposed individuals or their progeny. The type of effect observed was related to the EDCs analyzed, and it seemed to depend on variables such as age, sex, ethnicity/race, and even the metabolic status of the individuals in the different species analyzed. No evidence associated with effects on cartilage was found. Conclusion: EDCs in the environment, at work, or at home, under different exposure routes, are capable of accumulating in teeth and bone, particularly affecting the latter. It is necessary to study the effect of EDCs on mineralized tissues in agro-industrial areas, especially on teeth.

Antecedentes: Los Químicos Disruptores Endocrinos (EDCs) causarían alteraciones en órganos/sistemas de individuos expuestos, o su progenie. Objetivo: Identificar y analizar los principales hallazgos publicados sobre el efecto de la exposición a EDCs en dientes, cartílago y hueso. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron dos bases de datos: Medline y Web of Science, incluyendo solo estudios observacionales publicados desde el 2006, analizando el efecto de los EDCs sobre tejidos mineralizados. Resultados:25 artículos fueron seleccionados, siendo la mayoría de los EDCs pesticidas, plastificantes o productos de cuidado personal, destacando los compuestos Organo-clorados, Bisfenoles, Ftalatos, Dioxinas, Parabenos y los Perfluoroalquilos. Un 36% de los estudios reportaron un acúmulo de EDCs en dientes o huesos, mientras que un 64% informaron de alteraciones en su desarrollo o morfología, particularmente a nivel de huesos, afectando principalmente su densidad mineral y su tamaño, así como el de los individuos expuestos o su progenie. El tipo de efecto observado tuvo relación con el EDCs analizado, pareciendo depender de variables tales como edad, sexo, etnia/raza e incluso el estado metabólico de los individuos, en las diferentes especies analizadas. No se encontraron evidencias asociadas a efectos en el cartílago. Conclusión: Los EDCs en el medio ambiente, ámbito laboral o doméstico, bajo distintas rutas de exposición, son capaces de acumularse en diente y hueso, afectando particularmente a este último. Es necesario estudiar el efecto de los EDCs en los tejidos mineralizados en zonas agroindustriales, particularmente a nivel de dientes.

Humans , Tooth/drug effects , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Cartilage/drug effects , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Fluorocarbons , Bioaccumulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936344


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy of GelMA hydrogel loaded with bone marrow stem cell-derived exosomes for repairing injured rat knee articular cartilage.@*METHODS@#The supernatant of cultured bone marrow stem cells was subjected to ultracentrifugation separate and extract the exosomes, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis and Western blotting of the surface markers. The changes in rheology and electron microscopic features of GelMA hydrogel were examined after loading the exosomes. We assessed exosome release from the hydrogel was detected by BCA protein detection method, and labeled the exosomes with PKH26 red fluorescent dye to observe their phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells. The effects of the exosomes alone, unloaded hydrogel, and exosome-loaded hydrogel on the polarization of RAW264.7 cells were detected by q-PCR and immunofluorescence assay. We further tested the effect of the exosome-loaded hydrogel on cartilage repair in a Transwell co-culture cell model of RAW264.7 cells and chondrocytes in a rat model of knee cartilage injury using q-PCR and immunofluorescence assay and HE and Masson staining.@*RESULTS@#GelMA hydrogel loaded with exosomes significantly promoted M2-type polarization of RAW264.7 cells (P < 0.05). In the Transwell co-culture model, the exosome-loaded GelMA hydrogel significantly promoted the repair of injured chondrocytes by regulating RAW264.7 cell transformation from M1 to M2 (P < 0.05). HE and Masson staining showed that the exosome-loaded hydrogel obviously promoted cartilage repair in the rat models damage.@*CONCLUSION@#GelMA hydrogel loaded with bone marrow stem cell-derived exosomes can significantly promote the repair of cartilage damage in rats by improving the immune microenvironment.

Animals , Rats , Bone Marrow Cells , Cartilage , Chondrocytes , Exosomes , Hydrogels/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 925-942, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927755


Cartilage has poor self-recovery because of its characteristics of no blood vessels and high extracellular matrix. In clinical treatment, physical therapy or drug therapy is usually used for mild cartilage defects, and surgical treatment is needed for severe ones. In recent years, cartilage tissue engineering technology provides a new way for the treatment of cartilage defects. Compared with the traditional surgical treatment, cartilage tissue engineering technology has the advantages of small wound and good recovery. The application of microcarrier technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds further expands the function of scaffolds and promotes cartilage regeneration. This review summarized the main preparation methods and development of microcarrier technology in recent years. Subsequently, the properties and specific application scenarios of microcarriers with different materials and functions were introduced according to the materials and functions of microcarriers used in cartilage repair. Based on our research on osteochondral integrated layered scaffolds, we proposed an idea of optimizing the performance of layered scaffolds through microcarriers, which is expected to prepare bionic scaffolds that are more suitable for the structural characteristics of natural cartilage.

Cartilage , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Technology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 689-696, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357130


Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a chronic, progressive and irreversible degradation of the joint surface associated with joint inflammation. The main etiology of ankle OA is post-traumatic and its prevalence is higher among young and obese people. Despite advances in the treatment of fractures around the ankle, the overall risk of developing posttraumatic ankle OA after 20 years is almost 40%, especially in Weber type B and C bimalleolar fractures and in fractures involving the posterior tibial border. In talus fractures, this prevalence approaches 100%, depending on the severity of the lesion and the time of follow-up. In this context, the current understanding of the molecular signaling pathways involved in senescence and chondrocyte apoptosis is fundamental. The treatment of ankle OA is staged and guided by the classification systems and local and patient conditions. The main problems are the limited ability to regenerate articular cartilage, low blood supply, and a shortage of progenitor stem cells. The present update summarizes recent scientific evidence of post-traumatic ankle OA with a major focus on changes of the synovia, cartilage and synovial fluid; as well as the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical implications, treatment options and potential targets for therapeutic agents.

Resumo A osteoartrite (OA) é caracterizada por uma degradação crônica, progressiva e irreversível da superfície articular, associada a inflamação articular. A principal etiologia da OA do tornozelo é pós-traumática e sua prevalência é maior entre os jovens e obesos. Apesar dos avanços no tratamento das fraturas ao redor do tornozelo, o risco geral de desenvolver OA pós-traumática do tornozelo após 20 anos do trauma é de quase 40%; especialmente nas fraturas bimaleolares de Weber tipo B e C e fraturas envolvendo a borda tibial posterior. Nas fraturas do tálus, essa prevalência se aproxima de 100%, dependendo da gravidade da lesão e do tempo de seguimento. Nesse cenário, é fundamental a compreensão atual das vias de sinalização moleculares envolvidas na senescência e apoptose dos condrócitos. O tratamento da OA do tornozelo é estagiado e guiado pelos sistemas de classificação, condições locais e do paciente. Os principais problemas são a limitada capacidade de regeneração da cartilagem articular, o baixo suprimento de sangue e a escassez de células-tronco progenitoras. A presente atualização resume evidências científicas básicas recentes da OA póstraumática do tornozelo, com foco principal nas alterações metabólicas da sinóvia, da cartilagem e do líquido sinovial. Epidemiologia, fisiopatologia, implicações clínicas, e opções de tratamento são também discutidas.

Humans , Osteoarthritis/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/therapy , Synovial Fluid , Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular , Prevalence , Fractures, Bone , Ankle Fractures , Ankle/physiopathology
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 470-477, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341162


Abstract Objective The aim of our study is to analyze the clinical and functional results obtained using autologous chondrocytes embedded in a fibrin scaffold in knee joint injuries. Methods We included 56 patients, 36 men and 20 women, with a mean age 36 years. Six of the patients were professional athletes, with single knee injuries that were either chondral or osteochondral (43 chondral, 9 osteochondral, 2 cases of osteochondritis dissecans and 2 osteochondral fractures), 2 to 10 cm2 in size and ≤ 10 mm deep, with no signs of osteoarthritis. The location of the injury was in the patella (8), the medial femoral condyle (40) and lateral femoral condyle (7) and one in the trochlea. The mean follow-up was 3 (range: 1-6) years. The clinical course was assessed using the Cincinnati and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS) scores, 6 and 12 months after surgery. The paired Student t-test was used to compare pre-and postoperative results. Results Six months after the implant, patients resumed their everyday activities. On the assessment scores, their condition was improving in comparison with their presurgical state (p < 0.05). They were also able to carry out their sporting activities more easily than prior to surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusion The seeding of chondrocytes in fibrin may provide a favorable microenvironment for the synthesis of extracellular matrix and improved the clinical condition and activity of the patients 1 year after surgery.

Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do nosso estudo é analisar os resultados clínicos e funcionais do tratamento de lesões nas articulações do joelho com condrócitos autólogos embebidos em arcabouço de fibrina. Métodos O estudo foi realizado com 56 pacientes (36 homens e 20 mulheres) com idade média de 36 anos; 6 indivíduos eram atletas profissionais. Os pacientes apresentavam lesões únicas, condrais ou osteocondrais (43 condrais, nove osteocondrais, 2 casos de osteocondrite dissecante e duas fraturas osteocondrais) no joelho, com 2 a 10 cm2 de tamanho e ≤ 10 mm de profundidade, sem sinais de osteoartrite. As lesões estavam localizadas na patela (8), no côndilo femoral medial (40), no côndilo femoral lateral (7) e na tróclea (1). O período médio de acompanhamento foi de 3 anos (faixa de 1-6 anos). A evolução clínica foi avaliada pelos escores de Cincinnati e Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS), 6 e 12 meses após a cirurgia. O teste t de Student pareado foi utilizado para comparação dos achados pré e pós-operatórios. Resultados Os pacientes retomaram suas atividades diárias 6 meses após o implante. Os escores avaliados demonstraram a melhora em comparação ao estado pré-cirúrgico (p < 0,05). Além disso, os pacientes conseguiram realizar suas atividades esportivas com mais facilidade do que antes da cirurgia (p < 0,05). Conclusão A cultura de condrócitos em fibrina pode proporcionar um microambiente favorável para a síntese de matriz extracelular e melhorar a condição clínica e a atividade dos pacientes 1 ano após a cirurgia

Humans , Male , Female , Fibrin , Cartilage , Chondrocytes , Scaphoid Bone , Knee
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 434-439, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285705


Abstract Introduction Tympanoplasty is the surgical procedure aimed at the reconstruction of the tympanic membrane and restoration of the sound conducting mechanism. It can be performed with several types of access and grafts and is considered successful when it achieves complete closure of the tympanic perforation and sound conduction improvement. Objective To describe the prevalence of successful closure of tympanic perforations and auditory results of endoscopic tympanoplasty with an inlay tragus cartilage graft. Methods Retrospective study developed at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with central tympanic perforations and intact ossicular chains operated with endoscopic tympanoplasty with inlay tragus cartilage graft were included. The neo-tympanum integrity index was evaluated, and the preoperative and postoperative auditory parameters were compared using the paired Student's t-test. Results We identified 83 endoscopic tympanoplasties with inlay cartilage, of which 63 (76 %) had an intact neo-tympanum and 20 (24 %) had residual perforations. The preoperative air-bone gap was, on average, 18 ± 8.9 dBHL, and the postoperative 11 ± 10 dBHL (p = 0.0005), showing reduction in 71 % and complete recovery in 27 %. The mean preoperative speech recognition threshold was 35 ± 13.5 and the postoperative SRT was 27 ± 14.4 (p = 0.0002). The preoperative tritonal mean was 34 ± 14.3 and the postoperative was 24 ± 15 (p = 0.0002). Conclusion In this series, endoscopic tympanoplasties with inlay tragus cartilage graft showed a 76 % prevalence of complete closure of the tympanic perforation, with significant improvement in the auditory parameters.

Resumo Introdução Timpanoplastia é o procedimento cirúrgico voltado para a reconstrução da membrana timpânica e restauração do mecanismo condutor do som. Pode ser executada através de diversos tipos de acesso e de enxertos e é considerada bem-sucedida quando obtém fechamento completo da perfuração timpânica e melhoria na condução sonora. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência de sucesso no fechamento completo das perfurações timpânicas e os resultados auditivos das timpanoplastias endoscópicas com enxerto de cartilagem de tragus inlay. Metodologia Estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido em hospital terciário de referência. Pacientes com perfurações timpânicas centrais e com cadeias ossiculares íntegras submetidos a timpanoplastias endoscópicas com enxerto de cartilagem de tragus inlay foram incluídos. Foram avaliados o índice de integridade do neotímpano e os parâmetros auditivos pré e pós-operatórios foram comparados com o teste t de Student pareado. Resultados Foram identificadas 83 timpanoplastias endoscópicas com cartilagem inlay, 63 (76%) obtiveram neotímpano íntegro e 20 (24%), perfurações residuais. O gap aéreo-ósseo pré-operatório foi, em média, 18 ± 8,9 dBNA e o pós-operatório 11 ± 10 dBNA (p = 0,0005), sofreu redução em 71% e recuperação completa em 27%. O SRT pré-operatório médio foi 35 ± 13,5 e o pós-operatório 27 ± 14,4 (p = 0,0002). A média tritonal pré-operatória foi 34 ± 14,3 e a pós-operatória 24 ± 15 (p = 0,0002). Conclusão Nesta casuística, as timpanoplastias endoscópicas com cartilagem de tragus inlay apresentaram fechamento completo da perfuração timpânica em 76% dos casos, com melhoria significativa dos parâmetros auditivos.

Humans , Tympanoplasty , Cartilage , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals, University
São Paulo; s.n; 20210523. 75 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1369753


A cartilagem de Meckel é uma estrutura transitória embrionária presente durante os estágios iniciais da formação da mandíbula, localizada em toda sua extensão e dividida em três porções, anterior, intermediária e posterior. O enfoque deste trabalho foi direcionado à elucidação do destino final da porção intermediária por meio de um estudo temporal sequenciado. Por isso, foi investigado a presença de células de reabsorção e a presença de fibras colágenas, bem como da proteína óssea osteopontina (OPN) na cartilagem de Meckel na região do germe do 1º molar inferior e no seu entorno. Foram utilizados fetos de ratos Wistar em períodos gestacionais pré-estabelecidos, G18 a G21 (grupos de dias intrauterinos), bem como P0 e P1 (recém-nascidos) para remoção das cabeças. Em sequência, os espécimes foram fixados em solução de formaldeído 4% + glutaraldeído 0,1% com tampão fosfato 0,1M, descalcificados em EDTA 4,13%, desidratados em concentrações crescentes de etanol e incluídos em parafina. As amostras foram coradas em hematoxilina e eosina (HE) e tricrômico de Mallory para análise histológica. Adicionalmente, os grupos G19 a P0 foram submetidos à reação histoquímica de TRAP para determinação da presença de células clásticas. Além disso, os grupos G21 e P0 (dia do nascimento) passaram por reações de imunomarcação para análise da expressão de OPN. Foi observado a degeneração gradual da cartilagem com a observação de mudanças estruturais, a justaposição de células clásticas na superfície da cartilagem por reação histoquímica TRAP a partir do G21, o aparecimento de colágeno tipo I nas fases terminais da degeneração, assim como a marcação positiva para a osteopontina na superfície de G21 e em todo o remanescente da cartilagem de Meckel no grupo P0. O estudo apontou um processo de degeneração da cartilagem com evidências de formação de matriz mineralizada de natureza óssea, a qual foi reabsorvida por células clásticas, sugerindo a ossificação da porção intermediária da cartilagem de Meckel.

Osteoclasts , Cartilage , Osteopontin , Mandible
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 326-332, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288672


Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to quantify the urinary concentration of the C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-II collagen (CTX-II) biomarker in patients who suffered an isolated ACL injury, and to compare the concentrations found in this population with a control group of patients with no metabolic changes in the knee that could lead to cartilage degeneration. Methods A cross-sectional pilot study was performed in two groups: patients with ACL tears and a control group (each group with 10 male subjects, with an age range between 18 and 35 years, and body mass index below 30 kg/m2). In both groups, urine concentrations of a biomarker related to the degradation of type-II collagen (CTX-II) was measured. For the group with ACL tears, a temporal relationship between the time after the injury and the amount of the biomarker was also examined. Results There were significant differences in the concentrations of urinary CTX-II between the ACL group and the control group (p = 0.009). No significant relationship was observed between the time after the injury and the quantity of the biomarker. Conclusions Patients with ACL injury had higher concentrations of urinary CTX-II biomarker than those with no ACL injury (p = 0.009). However, there was no correlation between the concentration of this biomarker and the elapsed time after the injury (p≥ 0.05).

Resumo Objetivo Quantificar a concentração urinária do biomarcador telopeptídeo C de ligação cruzada de colágeno de tipo II (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-II collagen, CTX-II) em casos de lesão isolada do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA), e comparar as concentrações observadas nessa população com um grupo controle composto por pacientes sem alterações metabólicas no joelho que possam levar à degeneração da cartilagem. Métodos Este é um estudo piloto transversal com dois grupos: pacientes com ruptura do LCA e grupo controle (cada grupo era composto por 10 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com 18 a 35 anos de idade, e índice de massa corporal inferior a 30 kg/m2). Nos dois grupos, as concentrações urinárias de um biomarcador relacionado à degradação do colágeno de tipo II (CTX-II) foram medidas. No grupo com ruptura do LCA, a relação entre o tempo pós-lesão e a quantidade do biomarcador também foi analisada. Resultados Houve diferenças significativas nas concentrações urinárias de CTX-II entre o grupo LCA e o grupo controle (p = 0,009). Não foi observada relação significativa entre o tempo de lesão e a quantidade do biomarcador. Conclusões Pacientes com lesão do LCA apresentaram maiores concentrações urinárias do biomarcador CTX-II do que aqueles sem lesão do LCA (p = 0,009). No entanto, não houve correlação entre a concentração desse biomarcador e o tempo decorrido após a lesão (p≥ 0,05).

Humans , Osteoarthritis , Patients , Biomarkers , Cartilage , Pilot Projects , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 305-309, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285679


Abstract Introduction Various graft materials have been used in the tympanoplasty technique. Cartilage grafts are being used increasingly in recent years. Objective The aim of this study was to present the comparative outcomes of the perichondrium-preserved palisade island graft technique previously defined by ourselves. Methods We retrospectively compared the hearing and graft success rates in 108 patients with chronic otitis media, who had undergone cartilage tympanoplasty, where both island and perichondrium-preserved palisade graft techniques were used. Results The success rates among the study and the control groups with regard to graft take were 97% and 93%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the postoperative mean pure tone values, improvement in air-bone gaps and reduction in air-bone gaps to under 20 dB. However, better results were observed in the study group. Conclusion The perichondrium-preserved palisade island graft technique is an easy method with high graft success rates and hearing outcomes.

Resumo Introdução Vários materiais de enxerto têm sido usados na realização de timpanoplastias. Nos últimos anos, os enxertos de cartilagem têm sido cada vez mais usados. Objetivo Apresentar os resultados comparativos da técnica de enxerto de cartilagem em ilha associada e paliçada preservado em pericôndrio previamente descrita pelos autores. Método Foram comparadas retrospectivamente as taxas de sucesso auditivo e na "pega" do enxerto em 108 pacientes com otite média crônica, submetidos a timpanoplastia com cartilagem, na qual foram usadas ambas as técnicas, de enxerto em ilha e paliçada preservado em pericôndrio. Resultados As taxas de sucesso entre os grupos de estudo e controle em relação à "pega" do enxerto foram de 97% e 93%, respectivamente. Não foi observada diferença significante entre os grupos em relação aos valores médios dos tons puros, melhoria do gap ou redução do aéreo-ósseo para menos de 20 dB no pós-operatório. No entanto, melhores resultados foram observados no grupo de estudo. Conclusão A técnica de enxerto em ilha associada e paliçada preservado em pericôndrio é um métodofácil, com altas taxas de sucesso tanto do enxerto quanto dos resultados auditivos.

Humans , Tympanoplasty , Tympanic Membrane Perforation/surgery , Cartilage/transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hearing , Hearing Tests
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(2): 188-192, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249356


Resumo Introdução: O enxerto de extensão caudal é geralmente um enxerto de cartilagem que se sobrepõe à margem caudal do septo nasal. Uma combinação do enxerto de extensão caudal e a técnica de tongue-in-groove é usada para estabilizar a base nasal, definir a projeção da ponta e refinar a relação alar-columelar. Objetivo: Apresentar algumas novas modificações na colocação dos enxertos de extensão caudal na rinoplastia. Método: Revisão retrospectiva de um banco de dados prospectivamente coletado de 965 pacientes que se submeteram a rinosseptoplastia de junho de 2011 a julho de 2015. Desses, 457 pacientes necessitaram de enxerto de extensão caudal e foram incluídos no estudo. O seguimento mínimo foi de 13,2 meses, com tempo médio de seguimento de 17,4 meses. Resultados: Na maioria dos casos, a comparação das fotografias antes e após a cirurgia foi satisfatória e apresentou melhora do contorno. Pequenas deformidades foram detectadas em 41 pacientes e 11 pacientes necessitaram de cirurgia de revisão. Conclusão: Com essas modificações, o cirurgião pode usar o enxerto de extensão caudal mesmo em desvios angulares do septo caudal. Vários métodos têm sido propostos para correção do desvio septo-caudal.

Rhinoplasty , Nose Deformities, Acquired , Cartilage/transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Nasal Septum/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921929


Osteoarthritis(OA) is one of the most common joint diseases. As Chinese society enters the age of aging, the incidence of OA has been soar year by year, and research on its pathogenesis has been continuously valued by researchers. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were responsible for the construction of OA inflammatory networks. It was also found that the overexpression of proteases, mainly matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS), was the direct cause of OA cartilage deficiency. What's more, signaling pathways such as stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and Wnt, chondrocytic senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), chondrocyte apoptosis and autophagy, and estrogen all play significant roles in OA pathogenesis. This paper extensively reviews the research literature relevant to the pathogenesis of OA in recent years, and systematically expounds the pathogenesis of OA from two aspects:molecular level and cell level. At the end of the paper, we discussed and predicted some potential directions in the future clinical diagnosis and treatment of OA.

Humans , Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular , Chondrocytes , Interleukin-1beta , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942436


Objective: To investigate the curative effect of rib cartilage framework supporting combined with local flap grafting for correction of cryptotia. Methods: Fourteen cases (nineteen ears) were corrected by rib cartilage framework supporting combined with local flap grafting method from January 2017 to March 2019. Part of the 7th rib cartilage was carved into a scalloped cartilage piece, which was implanted on the retroauricular cartilage to release and expand the deformed cartilage. A "M" incision was designed on the retroauricular skin to make the local flap grafting. Results: All corrected auricles were followed up for four months to three year and abtained satisfactory and stable appearance. In one case, the edge of the helix was broken two weeks after the operation, and well healed after repairing. Conclusions: The rib cartilage framework supporting combined with local flap grafting method can fully correct the deformity of cryptotia, and the long-term effect is satisfied. It can be an important complement to the classic methods.

Humans , Cartilage , Ear, External/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Ribs , Surgical Flaps
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155006


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the regeneration of mandibular cartilage defect after implantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSC) over platelet rich fibrin (PRF) as scaffold. Material and Methods: 20 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups consisting of: a control group featuring untreated mandibular defects (C), experimental groups whose mandibular defects were implanted with hUCMSC (E1), mandibular defects implanted with PRF (E2), mandibular defects implanted with hUCMSC and PRF scaffold (E3). The subjects were sacrificed after six weeks of observation for immunohistochemical examination in order to evaluate the expression of Ki67, Sox9, FGF 18, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, in addition to histology examination to evaluate chondrocyte number and cartilage thickness. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis (ANOVA). Results: The implantation of hUCMSC and PRF scaffold proved capable of regenerating mandibular cartilage defect through the expression of FGF 18, Sox9, Ki67, chondrosis counts, type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and cartilage thickness. The regeneration were significantly higher in group E3. Conclusion: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in platelet rich fibrin scaffold proved capable of regenerating mandibular cartilage defect.

Animals , Rats , Cartilage , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Regenerative Medicine , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/microbiology , Platelet-Rich Fibrin/microbiology , Immunohistochemistry , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Indonesia/epidemiology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 36-42, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253018


BACKGROUND: For more than a decade, water-soluble, eco-friendly, biocompatible, and low-toxicity fluorescent nanomaterials have received considerable attention for their numerous in vivo and in vitro applications in biomedical imaging, disease diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Owing to their tunable photoluminescence properties, carbon-based luminescent nanomaterials have shown great potential in bioimaging, photocatalysis, and biosensing among other applications. RESULTS: Marine environments provide excellent resources for the fabrication of these nanomaterials, because many marine organisms contain interesting trigger organic compounds that can be used as precursors. Herein, we synthesize multi-color emissive carbon dots (CDs) with an intrinsic photoluminescence quantum yield of 20.46%. These nanostructures were achieved through the one-step hydrothermal treatment of marine polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate, obtained from shark cartilage, in aqueous solution. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrate the low toxicity of our marine resource-derived CDs in zebrafish, and provide an initial assessment of their possible use as a bioimaging agent. Notably, the newly synthesized CDs localize in the intestines of zebrafish larvae, thereby indicating their biocompatibility and potential use as in vivo dyes.

Animals , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Sharks , Carbon/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Zebrafish , Carbon/toxicity , Cartilage , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Luminescence , Nanostructures , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Coloring Agents/chemistry
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 483-489, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132618


Abstract Introduction Elevation of tympanomeatal flap is one of the basic steps of tympanoplasty. A satisfactory level of anatomic and functional success can be achieved by using different grafts with limited tympanomeatal flap elevation. Objectives We aimed to compare the anatomic and functional success of tragal cartilage perichondrium and temporal muscle fascia in cases of endoscopic type 1 tympanoplasty performed with limited tympanomeatal flap elevation. Methods In total, 81 cases (33 females, 48 males, mean age 22.1<±<10.1 years, interval 18-49 years) which underwent transcanal endoscopic type 1 tympanoplasty with limited elevation of tympanomeatal flap were included the present study. All cases were divided into two groups as tragal cartilage perichondrium (group A) and temporal muscle fascia (group B). The comparison of the groups were made considering the pre- and postoperative air-bone gap and the tympanic membrane status. Results There was no statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B in preoperative and in postoperative air-bone gap values (p<=<0.608 and 0.529, respectively). In Group A and B, postoperative air-bone gap values demonstrated significant decrease compared to the preoperative values (p<=<0.0001). Group A and group B did not demonstrate significant differences between postoperative improvements of air-bone gap values (p<=<0.687). Graft retention success was 92.6% in group A while it was 90.0% in group B. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of graft retention success (p<=<0.166). Conclusion In accordance with the results of this study, we believe that both tragal cartilage perichondrium and temporal muscle fascia, and also in limited tympanomeatal flap elevation in endoscopic tympanoplasty are all eligible for result in safe and successful surgery.

Resumo Introdução O descolamento do retalho timpanomeatal é uma das etapas básicas da timpanoplastia. Um nível satisfatório de sucesso na restauração anatômica e funcional pode ser alcançado com o uso de diferentes enxertos e descolamento limitado do retalho timpanomeatal. Objetivos Comparar os resultados anatômicos e funcionais entre o uso de pericôndrio de cartilagem tragal e de fáscia do músculo temporal em timpanoplastias endoscópicas tipo 1 feitas com descolamento limitado do retalho timpanomeatal. Método Foram incluídos no estudo 81 pacientes (33 mulheres, 48 homens, média de 22,1 ± 10,1 anos, variação de 18-49 anos), submetidos a timpanoplastia endoscópica transcanal tipo 1 com descolamento limitado do retalho timpanomeatal. Todos os casos foram divididos em dois grupos: pericôndrio da cartilagem tragal (grupo A) e fáscia do músculo temporal (grupo B). Na comparação dos grupos consideraram-se o gap aéreo-ósseo, pré e pós-operatório, e a condição da membrana timpânica. Resultados Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos A e B no pré e pós-operatório (p = 0,608 e 0,529, respectivamente). Nos grupos A e B, os valores do gap aéreo-ósseo no pós-operatório demonstraram redução significante em relação aos valores pré-operatórios (p = 0,0001). Os grupos A e B não demonstraram diferenças significantes entre as medidas pré e pós-operatórias dos valores dos gaps (p = 0,687). O sucesso da retenção do enxerto foi de 92,6% no grupo A, enquanto no grupo B foi de 90,0%, não ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos (p = 0,166). Conclusão De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, acreditamos que tanto o pericôndrio da cartilagem tragal como a fáscia do músculo temporal, usados com descolamento limitado do retalho timpanomeatal na timpanoplastia endoscópica, são elegíveis para uma cirurgia segura e bem-sucedida.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tympanoplasty , Temporal Muscle , Cartilage , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tympanic Membrane Perforation , Fascia
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(2): e787, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126811


La policondritis recidivante es una enfermedad rara caracterizada por la inflamación recurrente del cartílago y otros tejidos en todo el cuerpo. La afectación del oído es la característica más común, pero puede afectar otras áreas del cuerpo, incluidos el cartílago costal, los ojos, la nariz, las vías respiratorias, el corazón, el sistema vascular, la piel, las articulaciones, los riñones y el sistema nervioso. Los signos y síntomas varían de persona a persona según las partes del cuerpo afectadas. La causa subyacente exacta de la policondritis recidivante se desconoce, aunque los científicos sospechan que se trata de una enfermedad autoinmune. Las complicaciones respiratorias (colapso de la tráquea e infecciones) son la causa más común de muerte, seguidas de la afectación cardiovascular. Los objetivos principales del tratamiento son aliviar los síntomas actuales y preservar la estructura del cartílago afectado. Gracias a las mejoras en el tratamiento, en los últimos años las tasas de supervivencia han aumentado, incluso después de 10 años(AU)

Recurrent polychondritis is a rare condition characterized by recurrent inflammation of cartilage and other tissues throughout the body. Ear involvement is the most common feature, but a variety of other areas of the body may be compromised, including costal cartilage, eyes, nose, airways, heart, vascular system, skin, joints, kidneys and nervous system. The signs and symptoms vary from person to person depending on the body parts affected. The exact underlying cause of recurrent polychondritis is unknown; however, scientists suspect it is an autoimmune condition. The main goals of treatment for people with recurrent polychondritis are to alleviate current symptoms and preserve the structure of the affected cartilage(AU)

Humans , Polychondritis, Relapsing/diagnosis , Polychondritis, Relapsing/drug therapy , Polychondritis, Relapsing/therapy , Cartilage , Rare Diseases , Ecuador , Survivorship
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 647-654, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128504


The elastic cartilage is composed by chondroblasts and chondrocytes, extracellular matrix and surrounded by perichondrium. It has a low regeneration capacity and is a challenge in surgical repair. One of obstacles in engineering a structurally sound and long-lasting tissue is selecting the most appropriate scaffold material. One of the techniques for obtaining biomaterials from animal tissues is the decellularization that decreases antigenicity. In this work, alkaline solution was used in bovine ear elastic cartilages to evaluate the decellularization and the architecture of the extracellular matrix. The cartilages were treated in alkaline solution (pH13) for 72 hours and lyophilized to be compared with untreated cartilages by histological analysis (hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff slides). Areas of interest for cell counting and elastic fiber quantification were delineated, and the distribution of collagen and elastic fibers and the presence of non-fibrous proteins were observed. The results demonstrated that the alkaline solution caused 90% decellularization in the middle and 13% in the peripheral region, and maintenance of the histological characteristics of the collagen and elastic fibers and non-fibrous protein removal. It was concluded that the alkaline solution was efficient in the decellularization and removal of non-fibrous proteins from the elastic cartilages of the bovine ear.(AU)

A cartilagem elástica é composta por condroblastos e condrócitos, matriz extracelular e envolta por pericôndrio. Possui uma baixa capacidade de regeneração e é um desafio em reparos cirúrgicos. Um dos obstáculos na engenharia de tecido estruturalmente sólido e de longa duração é a seleção do material de arcabouço mais adequado. Uma das técnicas para obtenção de biomateriais oriundos de tecidos animais é a descelularização, que diminui a antigenicidade. Neste trabalho, foi utilizada solução alcalina em cartilagem elástica auricular bovina para avaliar a descelularização e a arquitetura da matriz extracelular. As cartilagens foram tratadas em solução alcalina (pH13) durante 72 horas e liofilizadas, e comparadas com cartilagens não tratadas por análise histológica (hematoxilina-eosina, tricrômio de Masson e Verhoeff). Foram determinadas as áreas de interesse para contagem celular e quantificação de fibras elásticas, observada a distribuição de colágeno e fibras elásticas e a presença de proteínas não fibrosas. Os resultados demonstraram que a solução alcalina causou 90% de descelularização na região central e 13% na região periférica, manutenção das características histológicas do colágeno e fibras elásticas e remoção das proteínas não fibrosas. Concluiu-se que a solução alcalina foi eficiente na descelularização e retirada de proteínas não fibrosas de cartilagens elásticas da orelha de bovinos.(AU)

Biocompatible Materials , Chondrocytes , Tissue Engineering/veterinary , Elastic Cartilage , Extracellular Matrix , Cattle , Cartilage , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Alkalies
Acta ortop. mex ; 34(1): 27-30, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345081


Resumen: Introducción: El cartílago rotuliano está sometido a altas demandas mecánicas y es una localización muy frecuente de lesiones. No existe consenso en cuanto a su tratamiento. El trasplante osteocondral autólogo puede ser una alternativa para los defectos condrales de pequeño o mediano tamaño con resultados variables en la bibliografía. Nuestro objetivo es analizar los resultados funcionales a mediano plazo de los pacientes con lesiones del cartílago patelar grado III-IV de la International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) tratados en nuestro centro. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo con pacientes menores de 55 años, con un defecto condral patelar sintomático, diámetro menor de 2 cm, grado III-IV de la ICRS tratados mediante trasplante osteocondral autólogo entre los años 2012 y 2018. Se evalúan las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, tamaño de la lesión, faceta afectada, número de cilindros trasplantados, escala de Kujala pre y postoperatoria y escala visual analógica del dolor (EVA) pre y postoperatoria. Resultados: Integramos en nuestro estudio 11 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue de 47 años. La mediana del diámetro del defecto condral 1.3 cm. La mediana de seguimiento 3.9 años (1.84-5.58 años). La mediana del cuestionario Kujala preoperatoria es 33 y asciende a 89 al final del seguimiento (p = 0.003). La mediana de la puntuación EVA preoperatoria es nueve y dos al final del seguimiento (p = 0.003). Conclusión: El trasplante osteocondral autólogo generó una importante mejora subjetiva de la función y del dolor.

Abstract: Introduction: Patellar cartilage is subject to high mechanical requests and is a very frequent location of injuries. There is no consensus on their treatment. Autologous osteochondral transplantation may be an alternative to small to medium-sized condral defects with varying results in the literature. Our goal is to analyze the medium-term functional outcomes of patients with grade III-IV patellar cartilage injuries from the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) treated at our facility. Material and methods: Retrospective study in patients under 55 years of age, with a symptomatic patellar condral defect, diameter less than 2 cm, grade III-IV of ICRS treated by autologous osteochondral transplant between 2012 and 2018. The following variables are evaluated: age, sex, injury size, affected facet, number of transplanted cylinders, pre- and postoperative Kujala score, and pre- and postoperative analog visual pain scale (EVA). Results: Eleven patients integrated into our study. The median age was 47 years. The median diameter of the condral defect 1.3 cm. Median follow-up 3.9 years (1.84-5.58 years). The median of the preoperative Kujala questionnaire is 33 and is 89 at the end of the follow-up (p = 0.003). The median of the preoperative EVA score is 9 and 2 at the end of the follow-up (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Autologous osteochondral transplantation generated a significant subjective improvement in function and pain.

Humans , Patella , Bone Transplantation , Transplantation, Autologous , Cartilage , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-6, 20200101. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130007


Objective: To investigate the prevalence of calcified triticeous cartilage (CTC)-compatible images on digital panoramic radiographs of a significant Brazilian population sample. Methods: In this retrospective study, 2500 digital panoramic radiographs were analyzed by a trained examiner using contrast and brightness adjustments of the Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2015 software. Data were collected and exported for statistical analysis (p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results: The prevalence of CTC-compatible images was 4.5% (61.1% in women and 38.9% in men). The most prevalent age ranged between 51 and 60 years (32.7%), and bilateral occurrence had a higher prevalence (46.9%). Women between the ages of 61 and 70 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of CTC-compatible images (p=0.027). Conclusion: This study showed a low prevalence of CTC-compatible images, which mainly occurred in women close to 70 years of age.

Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de imagens compatíveis com calcificação da cartilagem tritícea (CCT) em radiografias panorâmicas digitais de uma significante amostra populacional brasileira. Métodos: Neste estudo retrospectivo, 2500 radiografias panorâmicas digitais foram analisadas por um examinador treinado utilizando ajustes de contraste e brilho através do software Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2015. Os dados foram coletados e exportados para análise estatística (p<0,05 foi considerado como valor estatisticamente significante). Resultados: A prevalência de imagens compatíveis com CCT foi de 4,5% (61.1% em mulheres e 38.9% em homens). A idade mais prevalente variou entre 51 e 60 anos (32,7%), sendo a ocorrência bilateral a mais comum (46,9%). Mulheres com idade entre 61 e 70 anos apresentaram prevalência significativamente maior de imagens compatíveis com CCT (p=0,027). Conclusão: O presente estudo evidenciou uma baixa prevalência de imagens compatíveis com CCT, que ocorreram, principalmente, em mulheres com idade próxima aos 70 anos.

Calcification, Physiologic , Cartilage , Population , Thyroid Cartilage , Women , Radiography, Panoramic , Prevalence , Men
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786142


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of serum and urine uric acid with severity or activity in knee osteoarthritis (OA).METHODS: A total of 42 patients with knee OA was enrolled, together with 58 healthy controls. Serum uric acid and spot urine uric acid levels were assessed for all patients. The severity and activity of knee OA were assessed by musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) and plain radiography of the knee joint. Ultrasonographic abnormalities in knee OA includedsynovial hypertrophy, suprapatellar effusion, cartilage degradation, and osteophyte formation. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade was used to evaluate radiological progression of knee OA.RESULTS: Patients with K-L grade III had a higher urine uric acid/creatinine ratio compared to those with K-L grade I (p=0.043). Patients with synovial hypertrophy had higher serum uric acid level compared to those without synovial hypertrophy (p=0.016). The urine uric acid/creatinine ratio was higher in patients with cartilage degradation compared to those without cartilage degradation (p=0.022). Serum uric acid was significantly associated with synovial hypertrophy thickness (r=0.375, p=0.018) but not with cartilage thickness after adjusting for age and body mass index. Lower urine uric acid was related with knee OA compared to healthy controls (odds ratio=0.974, 95% confidence interval 0.954~0.994, p=0.013).CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that serum and urine uric acid reflects synovial inflammation based on MSUS and radiographic progression and then is associated with the pathogenesis of knee OA.

Humans , Body Mass Index , Cartilage , Hypertrophy , Inflammation , Knee Joint , Knee , Osteoarthritis , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Osteophyte , Radiography , Ultrasonography , Uric Acid