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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. Methods We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. Results Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. Conclusion There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar na ressonância magnética a prevalência das diferentes lesões ligamentares do tornozelo e do pé, bem como de fraturas não diagnosticáveis radiograficamente, em pacientes com queixa de entorse do tornozelo. Métodos Foram incluídos no estudo 180 pacientes consecutivos, com história de entorse do tornozelo, atendidos em um serviço de Atenção Primária no período de 12 meses. Os achados dos exames de ressonância magnética foram catalogados e descritos. Resultados Aproximadamente 92% dos pacientes apresentaram algum tipo de lesão na ressonância. Dentre as injúrias observadas, estavam 379 lesões ligamentares, 9 lesões osteocondrais, 19 lesões tendíneas e 51 fraturas. Apenas 14 ressonâncias magnéticas (7,8%) não mostraram qualquer tipo de lesão. Observamos relação positiva entre lesões do complexo lateral, sindesmose e medial. No entanto, houve correlação negativa entre lesões ligamentares do tornozelo e aquelas do mediopé. Conclusão Foi alta a ocorrência de lesões secundárias à entorse. Apontamos correlação entre as lesões ligamentares laterais com as sindesmodais e do deltoide. Não notamos relação entre as lesões do deltoide e da sindesmose, e nem entre as ligamentares laterais e a subtlalar. Também não foram observadas relações entre as lesões do tornozelo e as do mediopé.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Ankle Injuries/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Prevalence , Ankle Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Lateral Ligament, Ankle/injuries , Middle Aged
2.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 27(3): 136-145, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1129258

ABSTRACT

Las estructuras intraarticulares, como el cartílago, el ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) y los meniscos tienen un potencial de cicatrización limitado una vez que se lesionan. Un mayor conocimiento de las ciencias básicas y el advenimiento de las terapias biológicas han creado un gran interés en la utilización de diferentes estrategias de aumentación, cuyo objetivo es facilitar el proceso de cicatrización de dichas estructuras de la rodilla. Nuestro propósito es presentar una revisión de los conceptos actuales sobre las terapias biológicas en artroscopía de rodilla.Se realizó una revisión de la literatura que incluyó búsquedas en las bases de datos PubMed, Medline, Embase y Cochrane, utilizando las siguientes palabras clave: terapias biológicas, lesión del LCA, lesión meniscal, lesión del cartílago articular, PRP, BMAC, Bio-Ortopedia y Ortobiológicos.Se ha reportado que la utilización de técnicas biológicas de aumentación, incluidas el plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP), la médula ósea concentrada (BMAC) y otras terapias celulares para lesiones del cartílago articular, del LCA y de los meniscos podría facilitar el proceso de cicatrización con resultados clínicos prometedores.Podemos concluir que, efectivamente, existe un creciente interés en la utilización de terapias biológicas en las lesiones de rodilla con resultados clínicos heterogéneos, pero promisorios. Se necesitan estudios adicionales, randomizados, prospectivos, controlados y comparativos para determinar la eficacia real de las diferentes estrategias de aumento biológico en el entorno clínico


Intra-articular structures such as articular cartilage, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and menisci have limited healing potential after injury. The greater knowledge of the basic sciences and the advent of biological therapies have created a great interest in the use of different augmentation strategies, whose objective is to facilitate the healing process of these knee structures.To present a current concept review on the use of biological therapies in knee arthroscopy.A literature review was performed that included searches of the PubMed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: Biological therapies, ACL tears, meniscal tears, articular cartilage injury, PRP, BMAC, Bio-Orthopaedics and Orthobiologics.It has been reported that the use of biological augmentation techniques, including Platelet rich plasma (PRP), bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), and other cellular therapies for injuries to articular cartilage, ACL, and menisci, could facilitate the healing process with promising clinical results.There is a growing interest in the use of biological therapies in knee injuries with heterogeneous but promising clinical results. Additional, randomized, prospective, controlled, and comparative studies are needed to determine the true efficacy of different biological augmentation strategies in the clinical setting


Subject(s)
Arthroscopy , Biological Therapy , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Tibial Meniscus Injuries , Knee Injuries
3.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(3): 296-308, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1020345

ABSTRACT

Una significativa cantidad de adultos jóvenes activos sufre lesiones condrales focales. Estas lesiones, si no se tratan, pueden progresar hacia la artrosis, que es una de las principales enfermedades musculoesqueléticas debilitantes y de gran carga económica que afectan a toda sociedad. Pese a los tratamientos quirúrgicos disponibles para la reparación de defectos condrales focales sintomáticos que mejoran la calidad de vida a mediano plazo, hay un mayor riesgo de progresión hacia la artrosis prematura. Los tratamientos biológicos (células madre, bioingeniería tisular) han avanzado a grandes pasos en los últimos años. La bioingeniería es un área que ha progresado en la regeneración de cartílago articular y que potencialmente podría progresar en el terreno de tratamientos articulares, promoviendo la regeneración y evitando la degeneración. Las células madre y los hidrogeles pueden proveer un tejido símil biológico de comportamiento dinámico-funcional equivalente que induce la regeneración tisular al ser degradado y reemplazado gradualmente. El abordaje consiste en colocar un hidrogel precursor o un biomaterial tridimensional impreso dentro del defecto condral por ocupar para inducir la regeneración. Esta revisión se focaliza en el uso actual y futuro de hidrogeles y bioimpresión tridimensional para la regeneración de cartílago articular en el tratamiento de lesiones condrales focales y proporciona datos preliminares de dos estudios piloto en animales. Nivel de Evidencia: V


A significant number of young active adults are affected by focal chondral lesions. These lesions, if left untreated, will progress to osteoarthritis (OA). OA is one of the main debilitating musculoskeletal diseases and leads to a high economic and social burden. Despite surgical cartilage repair for focal chondral lesions, which improve patient-reported outcomes at short- and mid-term, there is a risk of early OA progression. Biological treatments (i.e., stem-cell therapy, bioengineering) have made great progress in the last years. Tissue engineering is an evolving field for articular cartilage repair which could potentially be used for the treatment of focal chondral lesions, promoting regeneration and preventing joint surface degeneration. Stem cells and hydrogels may provide a functional, dynamic and biologically equivalent tissue that promotes tissue regeneration while being gradually degraded and replaced. The standard approach to tissue engineering consists in delivering cells within a hydrogel or a three-dimensional printed biomaterial scaffold into the chondral lesion to induce regeneration. This review focuses on the current and future use of hydrogels and tissue scaffold bioprinting for the treatment of focal chondral lesions, and provides preliminary data from two pilot animal studies. Level of Evidence: V


Subject(s)
Humans , Regeneration , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate/therapeutic use , Tissue Engineering , Polymerization , Bioprinting
4.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 26(3): 83-87, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1048246

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la actualidad existen diferentes métodos y técnicas de preservación articular. La utilización de una matriz de atelocolágeno combinada con microperforaciones otorga un soporte adecuado para la inducción de la condrogénesis a partir de las células mesenquimales provenientes de la médula ósea. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es describir la técnica quirúrgica y presentar los resultados de una serie de pacientes con lesiones condrales severas, tratados con microperforaciones asociado a una matriz de atelocolágeno. Material y Método: Se evaluaron los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente por lesión de cartílago grado IV de más de 3 cm2 a los que se le aplicó matriz de atelocolágeno combinado con microperforaciones. El mínimo seguimiento fue de 24 meses. En pacientes con deseje o inestabilidad asociada se realizaron procedimientos combinados en el mismo acto quirúrgico. Describimos la técnica quirúrgica, resultados funcionales pre y postoperatorios con las escalas de Lysholm, IKDC y Escala Visual Análoga (EVA) del dolor fueron. Se realizó una evaluación radiográfica. Analizamos las complicaciones del procedimiento. Resultado: Fueron operados 12 pacientes. A uno se le realizó un reemplazo articular de su rodilla a los 10 meses de la cirugía y fue considerado falla con finalización del seguimiento. Once fueron evaluados clínicamente, nueve hombres y dos mujeres, con una edad promedio de 48 años y seguimiento promedio de 34 meses. Ocho procedimientos en cóndilo interno, 2 en cóndilo externo y 4 en tróclea. La mediana de la escala de IKDC pre/post operatorio fue 41/55 (p 0.016), Lysholm 35/82 (p 0.004) y EVA 9/3 (p 0.002). La evaluación radiológica no evidenció cambios degenerativos. Se registró 1 artrofibrosis post operatoria. Conclusión: En nuestra serie, el tratamiento con atelocolágeno combinado con microperforaciones mejoró la clínica de los pacientes con lesión severa del cartílago articular de rodilla. Tipo de trabajo: Serie de casos Nivel de Evidencia: IV


ntroduction: Different surgical approaches are currently available to treat knee chondral defects. The technique used in this article combines microfractures with the use of an injectable atelocollagen matrix (Cartifill). The matrix covers the defect and improves the mechanical stability of the blood clot and maintains the chondrogenic progenitor cells and growth factors in the defective area. The aim of our study is to evaluate and describe the results in a series of patients treated with atelocollagen matrix and microfractures. Material and Methods: All patients treated with atelocollagen matrix due to a cartilage lesion with a minimum follow-up of 24 months were evaluated. Patients undergoing associated surgeries (osteotomies, meniscectomies, mosaicplasty, ligament reconstruction) in the same surgical procedure were included in the study. Clinical function was assessed before and after surgery with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Lysholm score and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Radiographic control was requested according to availability. Results: Twelve patients met the inclusion criteria. Three women. Average age of 50 years. Eight applications in medial condyle, 2 in lateral condyle and 4 in trochlea. One post-operative arthrofibrosis was recorded. One of the patients underwent an articular replacement of his knee 10 months after the surgery with finalization of follow-up. The pre / post-operative average was 39/52 (IKDC), 37/76 (Lysholm) and 8.5 / 3.5 (VAS). Conclusion: In our series, atelocollagen matrix combined with microfractures improved the clinical symptoms of patients with severe knee articular cartilage injury. However, a better selection of patients who require this procedure should be applied in future interventions. Type of Study: Case Series. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Adult , Middle Aged , Arthroscopy/methods , Cartilage, Articular/surgery , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Collagen/therapeutic use , Chondrocytes/transplantation , Tissue Engineering/methods , Knee Injuries/surgery
5.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 83(2): 107-112, jun. 2018. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-956425

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trasplante osteocondral autólogo es una alternativa quirúrgica en lesiones focales del cartílago articular. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar una serie de 62 pacientes tratados con trasplante osteocondral autólogo de rodilla y un seguimiento promedio de ocho años. Materiales y Métodos: Se evaluó retrospectivamente a 62 pacientes operados entre 2001 y 2014. Se incluyeron pacientes con lesión focal de cartílago sometidos a un trasplante osteocondral autólogo aislado o asociado a otros procedimientos quirúrgicos, con un seguimiento mínimo de dos años. Para las evaluaciones se emplearon las escalas de Lysholm y de Kellgren-Lawrence, y el puntaje IKDC. Se evaluó a 45 hombres y 17 mujeres (edad promedio 36 años). La localización de las lesiones era: cóndilo interno (35), cóndilo externo (12), rótula (12) y combinadas (3). A 42 pacientes se los sometió a un trasplante osteocondral autólogo aislado y a 20, a uno asociado a otro procedimiento. Resultados: El valor promedio en la escala de Lysholm al momento de la evaluación fue 80,1 y el IKDC fue de 66,7. No hubo diferencias significativas en las escalas de Lysholm e IKDC entre los grupos con trasplante osteocondral autólogo aislado y asociado a otro procedimiento. En 30 pacientes evaluados con radiografía, se observó una inclusión satisfactoria del taco óseo. En nuestra serie de pacientes, las evaluaciones clínicas mostraron resultados satisfactorios. Conclusión: El trasplante osteocondral autólogo para tratar lesiones osteocondrales es un procedimiento con un alto grado de satisfacción y buenos resultados funcionales en pacientes con lesiones focales del cartílago articular. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Introduction: Osteochondral autograft transplantation is a surgical alternative for osteochondral defects of the knee. The aim of this study was to analyze a series of 62 patients treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation of the knee and an average follow-up of 8 years. Methods: A total of 62 patients treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation between 2001 and 2014 were evaluated. Patients with focal osteochondral lesions who underwent osteochondral autograft transplantation alone or associated with another procedure and a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Lysholm score, IKDC, and Kellgren- Lawrence radiographic scale were used. Forty-five men and 17 women (average age 36 years) were evaluated. Lesions were localized in medial condyle (35), lateral condyle (12), patella (12), and three were combined. Forty-two patients underwent isolated osteochondral autograft transplantation while 20 patients underwent associated surgical procedures. Results: Mean Lysholm score was 80.1 and IKDC score was 66.7. There were no significant differences in the Lysholm and IKDC scores between groups. Radiographic results demonstrated complete graft incorporation in 30 patients. Clinical evaluation revealed satisfactory results. Conclusion: Osteochondral autograft transplantation to treat osteochondral lesions is a procedure with a high clinical satisfaction and good functional results in patients with focal osteochondral lesions. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Adult , Osteochondritis/surgery , Transplantation, Autologous , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Knee Joint/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction
6.
Clinics ; 73: e562, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new histological scoring system for use in a partial-thickness cartilage repair animal model. Although previous papers have investigated the regeneration of articular cartilage, the good results achieved in small animals have not been replicated in large animal models or humans, possibly because of the frequent use of models with perforation of the subchondral bone plates. Partial-thickness lesions spare the subchondral bone, and this pattern is the most frequent in humans; therefore, new therapies should be tested using this model. However, no specific histological score exists to evaluate partial-thickness model results. METHODS: Histological sections from 30 ovine knees were reviewed to develop a new scoring system. The sections were subjected to H&E, Safranin O, and Masson's trichrome staining. RESULTS: This paper describes a new scoring tool that is divided into sections in detail: repair of tissue inside the lesion, cartilage around the lesion and degenerative changes at the base of the lesion. Scores range from 0 to 21; a higher score indicates better cartilage repair. DISCUSSION: Unlike existing tools, this new scale does not assign points for the positioning of a tidemark; we propose evaluation of the degenerative changes to the subchondral bone and calcified cartilage layer. It is necessary to remove the whole joint to access and study the evolution of the lesion as well as the surrounding tissue. CONCLUSION: This article emphasizes the importance of a partial-thickness animal model of cartilage repair and presents a new histological scoring system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Regeneration/physiology , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Biopsy , Bone and Bones/physiology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Sheep , Cartilage Diseases/physiopathology , Cartilage Diseases/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Chondrocytes/physiology , Chondrocytes/pathology , Hindlimb
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1251-1258, set.-out. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-878757

ABSTRACT

A reconstituição da cartilagem articular danificada por doenças de desenvolvimento, trauma e osteoartrite tem sido um grande desafio na veterinária. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o uso da cartogenina, uma molécula capaz de induzir diferenciação de células mesenquimais em condrócitos, associado ou não à técnica de microfratura na reparação de defeitos condrais induzidos na tróclea femoral de equinos. Foram utilizados seis equinos pesando em média (±DP) 342±1,58kg, com idade de 7,2±1,30 anos e escore corporal de 7,1±0,75, os quais foram submetidos à videoartroscopia para indução da lesão condral de 1cm2 na tróclea lateral do fêmur e à realização da técnica de microperfuração do osso subcondral de ambos os joelhos. Foram realizadas quatro aplicações semanais com 20µM de cartogenina intra-articular em um dos joelhos (grupo tratado) e solução de ringer com lactato na articulação contralateral (grupo controle). Os animais foram submetidos a avaliações física, radiográfica, ultrassonográfica, por um período de 60 dias. Não houve qualquer diferença estatística entre as articulações tratadas e as controle. A terapia com cartogenina, segundo protocolo utilizado, não produziu melhora clínica em lesões osteocondrais induzidas e tratadas com microperfurações na tróclea lateral do fêmur em equinos.(AU)


Articular cartilage reconstruction is still a challenge in Veterinary Medicine. The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of kartogenin, a small molecule that promotes chondrocyte differentiation, in the repair of induced chondral defects pretreated with subchondral drilling. Six horses with a mean (± SD) weight of 342 ± 1.58Kg, aging 7.2 ± 1.30 years, and with a mean 7.1 ± 0.75 body score condition were used. In both stifles, a 1cm2 chondral defect was induced in the lateral femoral trochlea followed by treatment with subchondral drilling. Four intra-articular injections with kartogenin (20mM) were performed weekly in one stifle (treated group). The same procedure using saline solution was performed in the contralateral joint (control group). Clinical, radiographic, ultrasound evaluations were performed for a period of 60 days. No statistical differences were detected between groups in any of the studied variables. Although kartogenin has shown to improve articular cartilage repair in laboratory animal models, the same was not observed in this equine model. In conclusion, the kartogenin therapy, according to the used protocol, did not promote any clinical benefit in equine femoral trochlear defects pretreated with subcondral drilling.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthroplasty, Subchondral/veterinary , Cartilage, Articular/diagnostic imaging , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Horses/injuries , Hyaline Cartilage/surgery , Osteoarthritis/veterinary
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 272-278, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787563

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o reparo da cartilagem hialina equina, por meio de análises macroscópica (através de videoartroscopia) e histológica (através de fragmentos de biopsia), em defeitos condrais induzidos na tróclea lateral do fêmur tratados pela técnica de microperfurações subcondral associada ou não com administração intra-articular de cartogenina. Foram utilizados seis equinos pesando em média (±DP) 342±1,58 kg, com a idade aproximada de 7,2±1,30 anos e escore corporal de 7,1±0,75, que foram submetidos a videoartroscopia para indução da lesão condral de 1 cm2 na tróclea lateral do fêmur e realização da técnica de microperfuração do osso subcondral de ambos os joelhos. Foram realizadas quatro aplicações semanais com 20 μM de cartogenina intra-articulares em um dos joelhos (grupo tratado) e solução de ringer com lactato na articulação contralateral (grupo controle). Após o período de 60 dias, foram feitas as avaliações macroscópicas, através de videoartroscopias, e histológicas, através de biopsia. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nos escores macroscópicos e histológicos para reparação condral entre animais dos grupos tratados e não tratados (P>0,05). De modo geral, a porcentagem média de cartilagem hialina no tecido de reparo (17,5%) foi condizente com a literatura internacional usando outros tipos de perfuração condral. Entretanto, não se observaram diferenças estatísticas entre grupos (P>0,05). A terapia com cartogenina, segundo protocolo utilizado, não produziu melhora do processo cicatricial em lesões condrais induzidas e tratadas com microperfurações na tróclea lateral do fêmur em equinos.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the joint cartilage repair by macroscopic (via arthroscopy) and histological (biopsy fragments) analyses in chondral defects induced into equine femoral trochlea treated by microperforation associated with or without intra-articular administration of kartogenin. Six horses weighing 342±1.58 kg (mean ± SD), aged approximately 7.2±1.30 years and with a body condition score of 7.1±0.75, were used. The horses underwent arthroscopy for induction of 1-cm2 chondral lesions in lateral femoral trochlea immediately treated by microperforation of the subchondral bone of both knees. Four weekly intra-articular injections of kartogenin (20μM) in one knee (treated group) and Ringer lactate solution in the contralateral joint (control group) were performed during the postoperative period. After 60 days, macroscopic evaluations were performed by video-arthroscopy, and biopsy samples of the repair tissue were taken for histopathological healing evaluation. No significant change was observed in macroscopic and histological scores for chondral healing between treated and untreated groups (P>0.05). The overall mean percentage of hyaline cartilage in both groups (17.5%) was consistent with other international studies using other types of chondral microperforation; however, no statistical differences were observed between groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, the therapy with kartogenin, according to the used protocol, did not produce any macroscopic and histological healing improvement in induced chondral lesions treated with microperforations in equine femoral trochlea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Self Renewal/physiology , Hyaline Cartilage/surgery , Hyaline Cartilage/pathology , Horses/surgery , Cartilage, Articular/surgery , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Osteoarthritis/veterinary , Histological Techniques/veterinary
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1063-1070, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762916

ABSTRACT

Damage to cartilage causes a loss of type II collagen (Col-II) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). To restore the original cartilage architecture, cell factors that stimulate Col-II and GAG production are needed. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and transcription factor SOX9are essential for the synthesis of cartilage matrix, chondrocyte proliferation, and phenotype maintenance. We evaluated the combined effect of IGF-I and SOX9 transgene expression on Col-II and GAG production by cultured human articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection and cotransfection were performed using two mammalian expression plasmids (pCMV-SPORT6), one for each transgene. At day 9 post-transfection, the chondrocytes that were over-expressing IGF-I/SOX9 showed 2-fold increased mRNA expression of the Col-II gene, as well as a 57% increase in Col-II protein, whereas type I collagen expression (Col-I) was decreased by 59.3% compared with controls. The production of GAG by these cells increased significantly compared with the controls at day 9 (3.3- vs 1.8-times, an increase of almost 83%). Thus, IGF-I/SOX9 cotransfected chondrocytes may be useful for cell-based articular cartilage therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Collagen Type II/biosynthesis , Glycosaminoglycans/biosynthesis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Matrilin Proteins/biosynthesis , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Transfection/methods , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Collagen Type II/analysis , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Gene Expression , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Matrilin Proteins/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , Spectrophotometry
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 770-777, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the histological response of damaged osteochondral tissue in the femoral condyles of rabbits after repairing the wounds with sugar cane biopolymer gel - compared to the control group. METHODS: The study investigated 16 New Zealand rabbits, at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. In all the animals, a lesion of 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm deep was induced in each right and left femoral condyle. Each animal has provided both knees, divided into medial and lateral condyle, resulting in 64 samples. 32 knees were divided into two groups: Right knee, medial and lateral condyles, filled with biopolymer; Left knee, medial and lateral condyles, unfilled. The anatomical specimens were removed, and subjected to histological techniques and morphometric and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In all the periods of the group under study an inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells and mononuclear cells was found, while in the control group there was early healing produced by fibroblasts and few mononuclear cells with statistical significance between groups. CONCLUSION: The biopolymer gel caused an inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells and mononuclear cells while the control group there was cicatrization mediated by fibroblasts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Biopolymers/therapeutic use , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Femur/injuries , Saccharum/chemistry , Wound Healing/drug effects , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Femur/pathology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gels/therapeutic use , Giant Cells/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clinics ; 69(10): 694-698, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730462

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration) and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Knee Injuries/therapy , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Gels/therapeutic use , Knee Injuries/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing
12.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 20(4): 114-117, dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743152

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones osteocondrales en la rodilla representan un problema frecuente en la práctica médica. Estas llevan a la degeneración del cartílago hialino con la consecuente artrosis, causa importante de dolor y discapacidad. En los últimos años se han desarrollado múltiples técnicas para tratar estas lesiones. El sistema de transferencia osteocondral autólogo (OATS) ha sido descrito para el tratamiento de estos defectos focales en los cóndilos femorales; sin embargo, su aplicación real en la patela es todavía un tema de controversia. Una correcta selección de los pacientes en conjunto con una técnica quirúrgica adecuada son fundamentales para el resultado exitoso de esta cirugía. Nuestro objetivo es describir la técnica quirúrgica y los aspectos involucrados en el sistema de transferencia osteocondral autólogo para lesiones condrales focales de la patela.


Osteochondral injuries in the knee are a common problem in medical practice. These lead to the degeneration of the hyaline cartilage and the consequent osteoarthritis, a major cause of pain and disability. In recent years several techniques have been developed to treat these injuries. The osteochondral autologous transfer system (OATS) has been described for the treatment of these defects on the femoral condyles, however its actual implementation in the patella is not yet clear. Patient selection and adequate surgical technique are fundamental to a successful surgery. Our objective is to describe the surgical technique and aspects involved in the osteochondral autograft transfer system for isolated chondral injuries of the patella.


Subject(s)
Humans , Knee Joint/surgery , Arthroscopy/methods , Cartilage, Articular/surgery , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage/transplantation , Osteochondritis/surgery , Patella/surgery , Patella/injuries , Transplantation, Autologous/methods
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(5): 340-345, May 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674153

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Yttrium/therapeutic use , Zirconium/therapeutic use , Collagen Type II/analysis , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Regeneration/drug effects , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 19(3): 134-139, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695021

ABSTRACT

El presente artículo revisa la evaluación imagenologica de las lesiones del cartílago articular con énfasis en su estudio por resonancia magnética, discutiendo la utilidad de las secuencias convencionales y los estudios avanzados de RM que permiten detectar lesiones condrales incipientes intrasustancia, previo a la ulceración de su superficie.


This article reviews the radiographic evaluation of articular cartilage lesions with emphasis on its magnetic resonance imaging study, we will discuss the usefulness of conventional sequences and advanced MRI studies which allow detection of incipient intrasubstance chondral lesions, prior to the ulceration of its surface.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
15.
Biol. Res ; 46(4): 441-451, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-700406

ABSTRACT

Cartilage has poor regeneration capacity due to the scarcity of endogenous stem cells, its low metabolic activity and the avascular environment. Repair strategies vary widely, including microfracture, autologous or allogenic tissue implantation, and in vitro engineered tissues of autologous origin. However, unlike the advances that have been made over more than two decades with more complex organs, including vascular, cardiac or bone tissues, similar advances in tissue engineering for cartilage repair are lacking. Although the inherent characteristics of cartilage tissue, such as the lack of vascularity and low cellular diversity, suggest that it would be one of the more simple tissues to be engineered, its functional weight-bearing role and implant viability and adaptation make this type of repair more complex. Over the last decade several therapeutic approaches and innovative techniques show promise for lasting and functional regeneration of hyaline cartilage. Here we will analyze the main strategies for cartilage regeneration and discuss our experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cell Differentiation , Chondrocytes/transplantation , Knee Injuries/rehabilitation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Regeneration/physiology , Chondrocytes/cytology , Knee Injuries/pathology , Tissue Engineering
16.
Lima; s.n; 2013. [29] p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1113171

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar si hay reparación de defectos osteocondrales en cóndilos femorales usando cartílago costal e injerto de cresta iliaca autólogos en ratas blancas. Material y métodos: Se experimentó con 60 ratas blancas de entre 110 y 120 gr. Se formaron dos grupos de 30 especímenes cada uno (control y experimental). Al control solo se le hizo la exceresis del cóndilo femoral medial y al grupo experimental, además, se colocó cartílago costal sobre el defecto con injerto de cresta iliaca interpuesto, ambos autólogos. Los especímenes fueron sacrificados a los 60 días y evaluados microscópicamente. Resultados: Se usó el test de t-student. Hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos control y experimental, considerando el puntaje total de las cinco variables estudiadas. Así mismo se encontró diferencia significativa con la variable morfología celular; con las variables metacromasia, regularidad de superficie, grosor del cartílago e integración con el cartílago adyacente, no se encontró diferencia significativa. Conclusiones: No hubo reparación de los defectos osteocondrales amplios de los cóndilos femorales.


Objetive: Determine if osteochondral femoral defect will be repaired using costal cartilage and autologous iliac crest graft in rats. Material: We experimented with 60 white rats of 110 and 120 gr. Two groups of 30 specimens (control and experimental). By controlling onIy the exeresis him the medial femoral condyle and the experimental group, in addition, costal cartilage was placed over the defect with iliac crest graft interposed, both autologous. Specimens were sacrificed at 60 days and evaluated microscopically. Results: It was used student's-t test. There was significant difference between the control and experimental groups, considering the total score of the five variables. Also significant differences were found with variable cell morphology, with metachromasia variables, surface regularity, thickness of cartilage and integration with adjacent cartilage, no significant difference was found. Conclusions: There was no repair of large osteochondral defects of the femoral condyles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cartilage, Articular/surgery , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Animal Experimentation , Transplants , Intervention Studies
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(6): 1483-1490, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-660214

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâmetro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT); e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC). Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adult , Dogs , Chondrocytes/physiology , Chondrocytes , Osteochondritis , Osteochondritis/veterinary , Dogs/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular , Hyaline Cartilage , Stifle/injuries , Stifle
18.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 19(3): 137-139, sept. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674966

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la correlación entre la artro-resonancia magnética (ARM) de cadera y los hallazgos intraoperatorios de la artroscopía de cadera en relación a lesiones labrales y condrales, comparando los resultados en ambos. Material y Metodos: Estudio prospectivo realizado entre mayo y diciembre de 2008. Se incluyeron 30 caderas (28 pacientes: 22 mujeres y 6 hombres), se evaluó, registró y comparó la precisión en diagnóstico de lesiones labrales y condrales con ARM y artroscopía de cadera. Resultados: Los hallazgos de ARM mostraron lesiones labrales en 27 casos y lesiones condrales en 12 casos. Los hallazgos intraoperatorios fueron positivos para 27 lesiones labrales y 27 casos con lesión condral. De lo anterior se desprende una sensibilidad y especificidad de la ARM de 96,3 por ciento y 66,6 por ciento respectivamente para lesiones labrales; y una sensibilidad y especificidad de 40,7 por ciento y 66,6 por ciento para lesiones condrales. Conclusiones: La ARM es un método útil para la evaluación de lesiones labrales y condrales, pero es menos preciso que la artroscopía; esto se cumple principalmente para las lesiones condrales tipo delaminación. Diseno del estudio: Experimental Prospectivo. Nivel de evidencia: II.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hip Joint/pathology , Arthroscopy/methods , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Acetabulum/pathology , Prospective Studies , Femur/pathology , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 77(3): 207-212, jun. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-681109

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tejido cartilaginoso articular presenta escasa capacidad regenerativa. Existe alta incidencia de lesiones condrales en la rodilla, especialmente de grado II/III (Outerbridge). El uso combinado de células autólogas cultivadas con membranas biológicas es una posibilidad terapéutica. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las características del desarrollo in vitro de condrocitos humanos sobre una membrana amniocoriónica acelular (MAC) desecada. Materiales y métodos: Entre diciembre de 2010 y diciembre de 2011 se procesaron 16 muestras de cartílago de donante vivo, de las cuales se analizaron siete. Los condrocitos fueron cultivados y amplificados sobre plástico, a partir de lo cual se realizaron los siguientes análisis: interacción entre células y MAC, capacidad de la MAC como matriz para las células y comportamiento de las células cultivadas sobre la MAC. Resultados: Los condrocitos in vitro mostraron cambios fenotípicos en presencia de MAC. Las células fueron capaces de adherirse y permanecer en la región esponjosa de la membrana. La microscopia electrónica de las MAC cultivadas mostró la presencia de células, organelas celulares bien conservadas, retículo endoplásmico y uniones de tipo desmosoma. Conclusiones: Este trabajo muestra la factibilidad de cultivar condrocitos sobre MAC. Las células fueron capaces de adherirse, permanecer y diferenciarse sobre la membrana durante el tiempo del estudio


Subject(s)
Humans , Biocompatible Materials , Chondrocytes , Chorion , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Extracellular Matrix , Tissue Engineering , Knee
20.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 77(1): 57-65, mar. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-649120

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cartílago articular dañado tiene un potencial limitado de reparación. El tratamiento de las lesiones osteocondrales en las zonas de carga de la rodilla representa un desafío. Existen diferentes técnicas de reparación del cartílago cuyo principal objetivo es restaurar la congruencia de la superficie articular. En este trabajo se compararon los resultados clínicos, valorados con el puntaje de la International Cartilage Repair Society con las imágenes de resonancia magnética de los autoinjertos osteocondrales. Materiales y métodos: En un período de 4 años se realizaron 35 trasplantes de tacos osteocondrales autólogos (mosaicoplastia) en pacientes con lesiones del cartílago articular de la rodilla de grado IV de Outerbridge, de hasta 2,5 cm de diámetro. La media de edad de los pacientes fue de 30,5 años. El seguimiento promedio fue de 36 meses. En 12 casos se realizó, en forma conjunta, la reconstrucción del LCA; en un paciente se efectuó una sutura meniscal; en 13 pacientes, una meniscectomía parcial lateral; y en 15 pacientes, una meniscectomía parcial medial. Se diseñó una clasificación en tres grupos (A, B y C) teniendo en cuenta cinco ítems que fueron valorados en la resonancia magnética posoperatoria: grado del relleno del defecto, restauración del radio de curvatura, inclinación del taco, porcentaje del grosor del cartílago implantado con respecto al circundante e integración periférica del hueso subcondral. Resultados: Se obtuvieron resultados buenos a excelentes en el 87,5 por ciento de los pacientes. No se encontró una correlación clínico-radiológica significativa en la evaluación con la resonancia magnética posoperatoria. Conclusiones: La resonancia magnética permite analizar una serie de datos, después de una transferencia osteocondral, que son útiles para controlar el proceso de incorporación del injerto y regeneración del cartílago en la superficie articular. Las pequeñas variaciones en la orientación del taco injertado o las leves irregularidades en la superficie condral del injerto no parecen correlacionarse con resultados clínicos adversos a corto plazo. La resonancia magnética de rodilla con secuencia para cartílago, entre otros estudios, es necesaria para una evaluación más precisa. Se concluyó que la mosaicoplastia es una técnica segura y eficaz para el tratamiento de las lesiones osteocondrales de grado IV, pequeñas, en pacientes jóvenes, con buenos resultados a mediano plazo. Es necesario el seguimiento a largo plazo para observar que estos casos no progresen con el tiempo a la artrosis de rodilla.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Knee Joint/surgery , Knee Joint , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Osteochondritis/surgery , Transplantation, Autologous/methods , Knee Injuries/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Treatment Outcome
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