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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927895


Objective: To investigate the repair effect and JNK/NF-κB,SOX9 mechanisms of vibration exercise with different frequencies on articular cartilage in rats with early knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Forty-eight adult male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups(n=8):model control group(MC),high frequency vibration group 1 (GP1,60 Hz),high frequency vibration 2 group (GP2,40 Hz),medium frequency vibration group (ZP,20 Hz),minor frequency group(DP,10 Hz)and normal control group(NC). Except for NC group,the rats in each group were made into early knee osteoarthritis model after six weeks of knee joint cavity injection of papain solution and 2% mixture l-cysteine on the 1st,4 th and 7th day. Each exercise group was subjected vibration to 40 minutes a day with amplitude of 2~5 mm and 5 days a week. Four weeks later, the articular cartilage of the lateral femoral condyle of the both back leg knee joints were detected by HE staining,serine O staining and Mankin scores for morphological observation. The expression levels of JNK,NF-κB p65 and Sox9 mRNA in articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle were detected by RT-qPCR,and the protein expressions of JNK,NF-κB p65 and Sox9 were detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with the NC group,the Mankin score in other groups was significantly higher (P<0.01). Compared with the MC group,the Mankin score of each vibration group was significantly lower(P<0.05),the mRNA and protein expressions of JNK and NF-κB p65 in each vibration training group were significantly lower (P<0.01),the expressions of Sox9 mRNA and protein in vibration training group were increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the higher frequency group,the Mankin score,the mRNA and protein expressions of JNK and NF-κB p65 of lower frequency group were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01). But the expressions of Sox9 mRNA and protein were significantly higher (P< 0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Vibration exercise of different frequencies may present varying degrees of cartilage repair impact in rats with early knee osteoarthritis,and the cartilage repair by low-frequency vibration training is better than that by high-frequency vibration. This can be one of the mechanisms on controlling collagen synthesis by down-regulating JNK/NF-κB expression and increasing SOX9 activity of OA articular cartilage.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 4 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SOX9 Transcription Factor , Vibration
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939852


The progressive destruction of condylar cartilage is a hallmark of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA); however, its mechanism is incompletely understood. Here, we show that Kindlin-2, a key focal adhesion protein, is strongly detected in cells of mandibular condylar cartilage in mice. We find that genetic ablation of Kindlin-2 in aggrecan-expressing condylar chondrocytes induces multiple spontaneous osteoarthritic lesions, including progressive cartilage loss and deformation, surface fissures, and ectopic cartilage and bone formation in TMJ. Kindlin-2 loss significantly downregulates the expression of aggrecan, Col2a1 and Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4), all anabolic extracellular matrix proteins, and promotes catabolic metabolism in TMJ cartilage by inducing expression of Runx2 and Mmp13 in condylar chondrocytes. Kindlin-2 loss decreases TMJ chondrocyte proliferation in condylar cartilages. Furthermore, Kindlin-2 loss promotes the release of cytochrome c as well as caspase 3 activation, and accelerates chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro and TMJ. Collectively, these findings reveal a crucial role of Kindlin-2 in condylar chondrocytes to maintain TMJ homeostasis.

Animals , Mice , Aggrecans/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Chondrocytes/pathology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Temporomandibular Joint/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 32(6): 418-428, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886206


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) against osteoarthritis (OA) and preliminarily discuss the osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and RANK expression in a rat OA model. Methods: Thirty-six 6-week-old Male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group(CON), OA-induction group(OA), COS intervention group(n=12/group). At 4 weeks after the operation, COS (50 ul) intervention weekily for consecutive 5 weeks. The OA and CON groups received an injection of 50 ul physiological saline. At death, 11 weeks following surgery, cartilage was harvested and total RNA and protein were extracted. Both the morphological changes of the cartilage were observed and harvested the total RNA and protein. Meanwhile, the expression of OPG, RANKL and RANK in cartilage were determined. Results: The expression of OPG and RANKL were both enhanced in the cartilage of the OA model. Compared with the OA group, COS treatment improved the cartilage damage (both extent and grade). Furthermore, the COS group showed highly OPG and lower RANKL. Simultaneously, COS treatment upregulated the ratio of OPG/RANKL and downregulated the RANKL/RANK. Conclusion: Chitosan oligosaccharides may be used as a unique biological agent to prevent and treat osteoarthritis, and this effect is associated with modulation of the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand.

Animals , Male , Rats , Oligosaccharides/pharmacology , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Chitosan/pharmacology , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(2): 162-173, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844218


Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is frequently diagnosed and managed in primary care; it is characterized by loss of articular hyaline cartilage, which is a unique connective tissue that physiologically lacks blood vessels. Articular cartilage survives in a microenvironment devoid of oxygen, which is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α). HIF-1α is considered the main transcriptional regulator of cellular and developmental response to hypoxia. To date, the relevance of HIF-1α in the assessment of cartilage has increased since its participation is essential in the homeostasis of this tissue. Taking into account the new emerging insights of HIF-1α in the scientific literature in the last years, we focused the present review on the potential role of HIF-1α signaling pathway in OA development, especially in how some genetic factors may influence the maintenance or breakdown of articular cartilage.

Resumo A osteoartrite (OA) é a forma mais comum de artrite e frequentemente é diagnosticada e gerenciada na atenção primária; é caracterizada por perda da cartilagem articular hialina, um tecido conjuntivo único que fisiologicamente carece de vasos sanguíneos. A cartilagem articular sobrevive em um microambiente desprovido de oxigênio, que é regulado pelo fator induzível por hipóxia-1α (HIF-1α). O HIF-1α é considerado o principal regulador transcricional da resposta celular e de desenvolvimento à hipóxia. Na atualidade, a relevância do HIF-1α na avaliação da cartilagem tem aumentado, já que a sua participação é essencial na homeostase desse tecido. Considerando as novas perspectivas emergentes do HIF-1α na literatura científica nos últimos anos, foca-se a presente revisão no potencial papel da via de sinalização do HIF-1α no desenvolvimento da OA, especialmente no modo como alguns fatores genéticos podem influenciar na manutenção ou ruptura da cartilagem articular.

Humans , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/physiology , Osteoarthritis/physiopathology , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1063-1070, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762916


Damage to cartilage causes a loss of type II collagen (Col-II) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). To restore the original cartilage architecture, cell factors that stimulate Col-II and GAG production are needed. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and transcription factor SOX9are essential for the synthesis of cartilage matrix, chondrocyte proliferation, and phenotype maintenance. We evaluated the combined effect of IGF-I and SOX9 transgene expression on Col-II and GAG production by cultured human articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection and cotransfection were performed using two mammalian expression plasmids (pCMV-SPORT6), one for each transgene. At day 9 post-transfection, the chondrocytes that were over-expressing IGF-I/SOX9 showed 2-fold increased mRNA expression of the Col-II gene, as well as a 57% increase in Col-II protein, whereas type I collagen expression (Col-I) was decreased by 59.3% compared with controls. The production of GAG by these cells increased significantly compared with the controls at day 9 (3.3- vs 1.8-times, an increase of almost 83%). Thus, IGF-I/SOX9 cotransfected chondrocytes may be useful for cell-based articular cartilage therapies.

Humans , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Collagen Type II/biosynthesis , Glycosaminoglycans/biosynthesis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Matrilin Proteins/biosynthesis , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Transfection/methods , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Collagen Type II/analysis , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Gene Expression , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Matrilin Proteins/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , Spectrophotometry
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(4): 574-579, Oct.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-770488


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the effects of physical exercise on cartilage histomorphometry in osteoporosis-induced rats subjected to immobilization. Methods We used 36 Wistar rats that were separated into six groups: G1, G2 and G3 submitted to pseudo-oophorectomy, and G4, G5 and G6 submitted to oophorectomy. After 60 days at rest, G2, G3, G5 and G6 had the right hind limbs immobilized for 15 days, followed by the same period in remobilization, being free in the box to G2 and G5, and climb ladder to G3 and G6. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, their tibias bilaterally removed and submitted to histological routine. Results There was significant increase in thickness of the articular cartilage (F(5;29)=13.88; p<0.0001) and epiphyseal plate (F(5;29)=14.72; p<0.0001) as the number of chondrocytes (F(5;29)=5.11; p=0.0021) in ovariectomized rats, immobilized and submitted to exercise. In the morphological analysis, degeneration of articular cartilage with subchondral bone exposure, loss of cellular organization, discontinuity of tidemark, presence of cracks and flocculation in ovariectomized, immobilized and free remobilization rats were found. In ovariectomized and immobilized remobilization ladder rats, signs of repair of the cartilaginous structures in the presence of clones, pannus, subcortical blood vessel invasion in the calcified zone, increasing the amount of isogenous groups and thickness of the calcified zone were observed. Conclusion Exercise climb ladder was effective in cartilaginous tissue recovery process damaged by immobilization, in model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy in rats.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar os efeitos do exercício físico sobre a histomorfometria da cartilagem de ratas induzidas à osteoporose e submetidas à imobilização. Métodos Foram utilizadas 36 ratas Wistar separadas em seis grupos: G1, G2 e G3 submetidas à pseudo-ooforectomia e G4, G5 e G6, à ooforectomia. Após 60 dias em repouso, G2, G3, G5 e G6 tiveram o membro posterior direito imobilizado por 15 dias, seguido pelo mesmo período em remobilização, sendo livres na caixa para G2 e G5, e de subida em escada para G3 e G6. Ao final do experimento, as ratas foram eutanasiadas, e suas tíbias foram retiradas bilateralmente e submetidas à rotina histológica. Resultados Houve aumento significativo de espessura da cartilagem articular (F(5;29)=13,88; p<0,0001) e da placa epifisária (F(5;29)=14,72; p<0,0001), bem como do número de condrócitos (F(5;29)=5,11; p<0,0021) em ratas ooforectomizadas, imobilizadas e submetidas ao exercício em escada. Nas análises morfológicas, verificaram-se degeneração da cartilagem articular com exposição de osso subcondral, perda da organização celular, descontinuidade da tidemark, presença de fissuras e floculações em ratas ooforectomizadas, imobilizadas e com remobilização livre. Nas ratas ooforectomizadas, imobilizadas e com remobilização em escada, observaram-se sinais de reparação das estruturas cartilaginosas com presença de clones, pannus, invasão de vasos sanguíneos subcorticais na zona calcificada, aumento da quantidade de grupos isógenos e espessura da zona calcificada. Conclusão O exercício físico de subida em escada mostrou-se efetivo no processo de recuperação do tecido cartilaginoso danificado pela imobilização, em modelo de osteoporose por ooforectomia em ratas.

Animals , Female , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Immobilization/adverse effects , Motor Activity/physiology , Osteoporosis/therapy , Tibia/pathology , Cell Count , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Chondrocytes/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Growth Plate/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/pathology , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(10): 863-870, Oct. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761606


We aimed to investigate the effects of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antibody (ATNF) on cartilage and subchondral bone in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (n=8); anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)+normal saline (NS) group (n=8); and ACLT+ATNF group (n=8). The rats in the ACLT+ATNF group received subcutaneous injections of ATNF (20 μg/kg) for 12 weeks, while those in the ACLT+NS group received NS at the same dose for 12 weeks. All rats were euthanized at 12 weeks after surgery and specimens from the affected knees were harvested. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and Mankin score assessment were carried out to evaluate the cartilage status and cartilage matrix degradation. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the cartilage molecular metabolism. Bone histomorphometry was used to observe the subchondral trabecular microstructure. Compared with the rats in the ACLT+NS group, histological and Mankin score analyses showed that ATNF treatment reduced the severity of the cartilage lesions and led to a lower Mankin score. Immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses revealed that ATNF treatment reduced the ACLT-induced destruction of the subchondral trabecular microstructure, and decreased MMP-13 expression. ATNF treatment may delay degradation of the extracellular matrix via a decrease in MMP-13 expression. ATNF treatment probably protects articular cartilage by improving the structure of the subchondral bone and reducing the degradation of the cartilage matrix.

Animals , Female , Adalimumab/pharmacology , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Arthroplasty, Subchondral , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Hindlimb/pathology , Hindlimb/surgery , Immunohistochemistry , Injury Severity Score , /drug effects , /metabolism , Osteoarthritis/surgery , Protective Factors , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 217-221, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748919


RATIONALE: The changes in body position can cause changes in lung function, and it is necessary to understand them, especially in the postoperative upper abdominal surgery, since these patients are susceptible to postoperative pulmonary complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess the vital capacity in the supine position (head at 0° and 45°), sitting and standing positions in patients in the postoperative upper abdominal surgery. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and January 2009 in a hospital in Salvador/BA. The instrument used to measure vital capacity was analogic spirometer, the choice of the sequence of positions followed a random order obtained from the draw of the four positions. Secondary data were collected from the medical records of each patient. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 30 subjects with a mean age of 45.2 ± 11.2 years, BMI 20.2 ± 1.0 kg/m2. The position on orthostasis showed higher values of vital capacity regarding standing (mean change: 0.15 ± 0.03 L; p = 0.001), the supine to 45 (average difference: 0.32 ± 0.04 L; p = 0.001) and 0° (0.50 ± 0.05 L; p = 0.001). There was a positive trend between the values of forced vital capacity supine to upright posture (1.68 ± 0.47; 1.86 ± 0.48; 2.02 ± 0.48 and 2.18 ± 0.52 L; respectively). CONCLUSION: Body position affects the values of vital capacity in patients in the postoperative upper abdominal surgery, increasing in postures where the chest is vertical. .

JUSTIFICATIVA: As alterações no posicionamento corporal podem ocasionar mudanças na função respiratória e é necessário compreendê-las, principalmente no pós-operatório abdominal superior, já que os pacientes estão suscetíveis a complicações pulmonares pós-operatórias. OBJETIVO: Verificar a capacidade vital nas posições de decúbito dorsal (cabeceira a 0° e 45°), sentado e em ortostase em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal superior. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, feito entre agosto de 2008 e janeiro de 2009, em um hospital na cidade de Salvador (BA). O instrumento usado para mensuração da capacidade vital (CV) foi o ventilômetro analógico e a escolha da sequência das posições seguiu uma ordem aleatória obtida a partir de sorteio das quatro posições. Os dados secundários foram colhidos nos prontuários de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 30 indivíduos com idade média de 45,2 ± 11,2 anos e IMC 20,2 ± 1,0 kg/m2. A posição em ortostase apresentou valores maiores da CV em relação à sedestração (média das diferenças: 0,15 ± 0,03 litros; p = 0,001), ao decúbito dorsal a 45° (média das diferenças: 0,32 ± 0,04 litros; p = 0,001) e 0° (0,50 ± 0,05 litros; p = 0,001). Houve um aumento positivo entre os valores de CVF do decúbito dorsal para a postura ortostática (1,68 ± 0,47; 1,86 ± 0,48; 2,02 ± 0,48 e 2,18 ± 0,52 litros; respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: A posição do corpo afeta os valores da CV em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal superior, com aumento nas posturas em que o tórax encontra-se verticalizado. .

JUSTIFICACIÓN: Las alteraciones en el posicionamiento corporal pueden ocasionar cambios en la función respiratoria y es necesario comprenderlas, principalmente en el postoperatorio abdominal superior, ya que los pacientes son susceptibles a complicaciones pulmonares postoperatorias. OBJETIVO: Verificar la capacidad vital en las posiciones de decúbito dorsal (cabeza a 0° y 45°), sentado y en ortostasis en pacientes en el postoperatorio de cirugía abdominal superior. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado entre agosto de 2008 y enero de 2009, en un hospital en la ciudad de Salvador (BA). El instrumento usado para la medición de la capacidad vital (CV) fue el espirómetro analógico y la elección de la secuencia de las posiciones siguió un orden aleatorio que se obtuvo a partir de un sorteo de las 4 posiciones. Los datos secundarios fueron extraídos de las historias clínicas de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: La muestra se compuso de 30 individuos con edades medias de 45,2 ± 11,2 años e IMC de 20,2 ± 1 kg/m2. La posición en ortostasis presentó valores mayores de CV con relación a la posición sedente (media de las diferencias: 0,15 ± 0,03 L; p = 0,001), al decúbito dorsal a 45° (media de las diferencias: 0,32 ± 0,04 L; p = 0,001) y a 0° (0,50 ± 0,05 L; p = 0,001). Hubo un aumento positivo entre los valores de CV forzada del decúbito dorsal para la postura ortostática (1,68 ± 0,47; 1,86 ± 0,48; 2,02 ± 0,48 y 2,18 ± 0,52 L, respectivamente). CONCLUSIÓN: La posición del cuerpo afecta los valores de la CV en pacientes durante el postoperatorio de cirugía abdominal superior, con aumento en las posturas en las que el tórax está verticalizado. .

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Models, Biological , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Oncostatin M/pharmacology , Oncostatin M/therapeutic use , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Signal Transduction
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 96-100, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742557


Hernán Alessandri M.D. was an astounding clinician and a leading medical educator, born in Santiago in 1900 where he died in 1980. He received his medical degree at the University of Chile in 1923, became Professor of Clinical Medicine in 1932, Full Professor and Chair of Internal Medicine in 1944. At the Hospital del Salvador, in Santiago, he chaired a teaching Department and a Clinical Service that was an example for its academic environment and dedication to patients and students. From 1958 to 1962 he was Dean of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, conducting a reform of teaching curricula and organizing medical residency programs for the training of specialists, originally started in his own Service in 1952. The American College of Physicians awarded him the first foreign Honorary Membership. He was a founding Member of the Chilean Academy of Medicine (1964). In 1973 the University of Chile awarded him the Emeritus Professor status. He was considered by his peers, alumni and patients a brilliant clinician and an exceptional medical educator. Since 1980 a Social and Teaching Foundation bears his name and in 2014, with the occasion of the XXXV Chilean Congress of Internal Medicine, the Sociedad Médica de Santiago-Chilean Society of Internal Medicine created an annual lecture to render tribute to distinguished physicians and his name was one of the two selected to inaugurate them.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis, Knee/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Osteoarthritis, Knee/complications , Osteoarthritis, Knee/metabolism , Pain/etiology , Pain/genetics , Pain/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism
Clinics ; 66(8): 1431-1436, 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598400


INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days. RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17. CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

Animals , Cattle , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Collagen/analysis , Proteoglycans/analysis , Cell Count , Cell Survival , Culture Techniques , Cartilage, Articular/chemistry , Cartilage, Articular/cytology , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Collagen/metabolism , Proteoglycans/metabolism , Time Factors
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(1): 127-144, Mar. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539320


In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

Body Fluids/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Models, Biological , Biological Transport , Biomechanical Phenomena , Porosity , Static Electricity
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 36(3): 256-260, jul. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-522456


OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da injeção repetida de betametasona na concentração de proteoglicanos da cartilagem articular do joelhos normais de coelhos californianos de ambos os sexos. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram randomizados em oito grupos de dez animais cada. Três grupos controle (injeção ou não de solução salina isotônica) e cinco grupos de estudo - doses terapêuticas, repetidas ou não, de betametasona injetadas no joelho direito de cada coelho, com intervalos semanais. Após oito dias da última injeção prevista, cortes histológicos da cartilagem das áreas de apoio dos platôs tibiais foram corados com hematoxilina e eosina para análise por microscopia óptica, e com safranina O para a pesquisa da quantidade de proteoglicanos. A intensidade da coloração da safranina O foi quantificada em aparelho de histomorfometria, composto por microscópio Olympus BX 50 e microcomputador com software Image Pro-plus 4.5Ò. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças nos animais que tiveram seus joelhos injetados com betametasona uma, duas e quatro vezes quando comparados com os grupos controle. Nos animais que receberam seis e oito aplicações a intensidade da coloração com safranina O reduziu-se significativamente (p < 0,05) quando comparada tanto com grupos controle quanto com os outros de estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível demonstrar redução da concentração de proteoglicanos na matriz cartilaginosa articular dependente do efeito deletério cumulativo das repetidas injeções intra-articulares de betametasona.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated injections of betamethasone on proteoglycan concentration in the articular cartilage of normal knees of Californian rabbits of both sexes. METHODS: Eighty animals were randomly divided into eight groups of ten animals each. Three control groups (saline solution injected or not) and five study groups - therapeutical doses, repeated or not, of betamethasone injected into the right knee of each animal at weekly intervals. After eight days from the last injection, sections of articular cartilage from tibial plateaus collected from weight-bearing surfaces were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy analysis and with safranin O for the proteoglycan content assay. The staining intensity of safranin O was quantified by histomorphometry using an Olympus BX 50 microscope and a microcomputer with the Image Pro-plus 4.5Ò software. RESULTS: Animals receiving one, two and four betamethasone injections showed no differences when compared to normal controls. Animals receiving six and eight injections had a significant decrease in safranin O staining intensity (p < 0.05) as compared to the control groups and the other study groups. CONCLUSION: A decrease in the concentration of articular cartilage proteoglycans dependent on repeated betamethasone injection was effectively demonstrated.

Animals , Female , Male , Rabbits , Betamethasone/administration & dosage , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Knee Joint/drug effects , Knee Joint/metabolism , Proteoglycans/drug effects , Proteoglycans/metabolism , Betamethasone/pharmacology , Colorimetry , Computers , Injections, Intra-Articular/statistics & numerical data
Rio de Janeiro, RJ; s.n; 2008. 88 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-496041


Funcionalmente, a cartilagem da articulação têmporo-mandibular assemelha-se à cartilagem da articulação do joelho por possuírem lubrificação para resistir à fricção e fornecerem proteção às forças mecânicas externas. Entretanto, o efeito das forças de tensão sobre as cartilagens dessas duas articulações ainda permanece obscura. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, as alterações metabólicas nos condrócitos extraídos do tecido cartilaginoso do côndilo mandibular e do joelho de suínos, decorrentes da aplicação de forças mecânicas, em relação à síntese de DNA e de proteoglicanos (PTG). Além disso, foi verificada a expressão de colágeno tipo II e de agrecanos no RNAm dos condrócitos dessas duas articulações, tempo-dependente do cultivo celular, utilizando-se a análise quantitativa de PCR em tempo real. Os condrócitos foram submetidos às forças mecânicas de tração de 2 kPa (3 porcento de alongamento), 5 kPa (7 porcento de alongamento) e 10 kPa (12 porcento de alongamento), em uma freqüência de 30 ciclos/min. durante 12 e 24 horas. Os resultados demonstraram que os condrócitos do côndilo mandibular quando submetidos às forças de 2 kPa e de 5 kPa, apresentaram um aumento estatisticamente significativo da síntese de DNA e de PTG, em 12 h. (p < 0,01) e em 24 h. (p < 0,05). Exceto o aumento da síntese de DNA do grupo submetido à força de 5 kPa que durante 24h. não foi estatisticamente significativo (p > 0,05). A força de 10 kPa causou uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na síntese de DNA e de PTG nos condrócitos do côndilo mandibular, em ambos os tempos de ensaio mecânico (p < 0,01). Por outro lado, os condrócitos do joelho apresentaram um aumento na síntese de DNA e de PTG quando submetidos à todas as magnitudes de força de tração...

Functionally, the mandibular condylar cartilage is similar to the ankle articular cartilage, both provides lubrication to resist friction and offers protection against external mechanical loading. However, the effect of tension loadings on these two articular cartilages remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro, the metabolism of the chondrocytes isolated from the cartilage tissues of porcine mandibular condyle and ankle, in response to the tension mechanical forces, related to the syntheses of DNA and proteoglycan (PTG). It was also verified the expression of mRNA type II collagen and aggrecan on the condrocytes of these two joints on culture time-dependent, using a quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The chondrocytes were submitted to tensile mechanical strains of 2 kPa (3 percent elongation), 5 kPa (7 percent elongation) and 10 kPa (12 percent elongation), with a frequency of 30 cycles/min for 12 and 24 hours. The results showed that the condrocytes from mandibular condyle, when submitted to tension forces of 2 kPa and 5 kPa, demonstrated a statistically significant enhancement of DNA and PTG, in 12 h. (p < 0.01) and in 24 h. (p < 0.05). Except the increase of DNA synthesis of the group submitted to the force of 5 kPa during 24 h. that was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The force of 10 kPa caused a statistically significant decrease of DNA and PTG syntheses on the condrocytes of mandibular condyle, in both periods of mechanical stimulation (p < 0.01). On the other side, the condrocytes of ankle showed an increase of DNA and PTG syntheses when subjected to all the magnitudes of tension forces...

Animals , Aggrecans/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Mandibular Condyle , Proteoglycans/metabolism , Knee , Swine , Tensile Strength
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Feb; 44(1): 14-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28046


Interactions of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) are mediated through specific cell surface receptors, belonging to the integrin family of transmembrane proteins. Integrins have been shown to be involved in chondrocyte-matrix interactions in the cartilage. In this study, the status of a matrix glycoprotein fibronectin (FN) and its receptor alpha5beta1 integrin in the articular cartilage in collagen type II-induced experimental arthritis in rats, as well as in synovial fluid from osteoarthritic patients was investigated. Experimental arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of type-II collagen (300 microg/100 g body wt) and Freund's complete adjuvant. Saline-treated animals served as control. Clinical severity was indicated by increase in paw volume. Significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes beta-glucuronidase and beta-hexosaminidase was observed in synovial effusate, serum and cartilage of arthritic animals, when compared to untreated control, indicating dysfunction of cartilage. Changes in FN and alpha5beta1 integrin were studied by ELISA. A progressive increase was observed in the FN level in synovial effusate and cartilage of arthritic animals, when compared to untreated controls. FN levels were also significantly high in synovial fluid of osteoarthritic patients. A significant increase in the levels of alpha5beta1 integrin was found in cartilage of arthritic rats. Parallel changes in FN and alpha5beta1 integrin indicated that alterations in FN and alpha5beta1 integrin in chondrocytes constituted one of the molecular mechanisms during progression of arthritis.

Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Fibronectins/metabolism , Humans , Integrin alpha5beta1/metabolism , Male , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Synovial Fluid/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634287


To investigate the estrogen receptor (ER) expression in cartilage cell in the development of osteoarthritis induced by bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig and to find their relationship. 30 two-month-old female guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15 each): sham operation (control) group and ovariectomized group (OVX); Scanning electorne microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were obtained to analysis the cartilage degeneration of the hind limb knee joint after 6 and 12 weeks of ovariectomy. Dextran-Coated-Charcoal (DCC) was taken to quantitively detect the expression of ER. The serum levels of estrogen and gestone were detected by immune contest assay. The results showed that ER do exist in the cartilages of the guinea pigs, with higher expression in the control group than in OVX group at the same time point (P < 0.05). It was increased also at 12 th week after operation than that of preoperation. The blood serum levels of estrogen and gestone showed a similar tendency to the expression of ER. Joint cartilage degeneration detected by SEM and TEM could be found at 6 th week, but severe degenerative lesions at 12 th week in the OVX group compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The data suggested that bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig lead to severe osteoarthritis which mighgt be related to the lower serum level of estrogen and the downregulation of the expression of ER in the cartilage also.

Cartilage, Articular/cytology , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Estrogens/blood , Osteoarthritis/etiology , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28609


Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease is a disease of the elderly and extremely rare in young individuals. If young people develop CPPD crystal deposition disease, it may be associated with metabolic diseases such as hemochromatosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypophosphatasia, hypomagnesemia, Wilson's disease, hypothyroidism, gout, acromegaly, and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Therefore, in young-onset polyarticular CPPD crystal deposition disease, investigation for predisposing metabolic conditions is warranted. We report a case of a young male patient with idiopathic CPPD crystal deposition disease, who did not have any evidences of metabolic diseases after thorough evaluations. As far as we know, this is the first report of a young male patient presented with idiopathic CPPD crystal deposition disease.

Adult , Humans , Male , Calcium Pyrophosphate/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Diagnosis, Differential , Knee Joint/pathology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Shoulder Joint/pathology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-17587


Interplay of the constituents of the articular cartilage synovial fluid combine and its role was examined through the biochemical and rheological studies on bovine joints. The results showed an inverse relationship between the changes in the hyaluronic acid of synovial fluid and the proteoglycans content in articular cartilage together with alterations in the rheological properties of synovial fluid. The study indicated that the inter-movement of fluid solutes across the cartilage and synovial fluid may have an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis.

Animals , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Cattle , Female , Rheology , Synovial Fluid/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16941


Variations in proteoglycans and water content of the knee joint cartilage were found to occur when the joint was subjected to articulating motion under moderate and high loadings. It was found that at a moderate load of 150 kg there were an increase in the percentage of proteoglycans but the percentage decreased when the joint was articulated at a high loading of 300 kg. It has also been observed that the ratio of water content and the proteoglycans decreased at moderate load, whereas the ratio increased at high load. The observed changes in proteoglycans and water content in extracellular matrix with moderate and high loadings suggested that articular cartilage properties respond to mechanical stresses.

Animals , Body Water/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Cattle , Knee Joint , Proteoglycans/metabolism , Stress, Mechanical
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 53-59, 1990.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20001


The changes of hyaline articular cartilage from rabbits after air exposure were evaluated. The knee joints were exposed to air for periods of thirty minutes to two hours. The animals were killed periodically, at three days, one week and three weeks postoperatively. After sacrifice, the cartilage was removed and prepared for study by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Exposure to room air for thirty minutes produced chondrocyte necrosis in the upper third of the cartilage, and exposure for 60 minutes or longer produced chondrocyte necrosis of the entire thickness of articular cartilage at three days after arthrotomy. But, three weeks after arthrotomy, we could not find any chondrocyte necrosis in any rabbits at varying periods of air exposure. There was no significant change in proteoglycan content between the aired and control cartilage. Clinical Relevance: Exposing cartilage to air can cause transient and reversible cartilage damage. If these changes are not reversible, the orthopedic surgeon should consider avoiding the prolonged exposure of articular cartilage to air, since complete matrix disintegration is known to occur months after chondrocyte necrosis.

Rabbits , Air , Animals , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Hyalin/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron , Necrosis , Time Factors