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1.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1093-1101, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Naoluo Xintong Decoction (NLXTD) on pyroptosis and angiogenesis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and explore the possible mechanisms in rats with oxygen-glucose deprivation/ reperfusion (OGD/R).@*METHODS@#Rat BMECs with or without caspase-1 siRNA transfection were cultured in the presence of 10% medicated serum from NLXTD-treated rats (or blank serum) and exposed to OGD/R. CCK-8 assay, Transwell chamber assay, and tube formation assay were used to assess proliferation, migration, and tube-forming abilities of the cells. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant was determined using a commercial assay kit, and the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-18 were detected with ELISA. The cellular expressions of pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, NLRP3, Gasdermin D, and angiogenesis-related proteins VEGF and VEGFR2 were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The BMECs showed obvious injuries after OGD/R exposure. Compared with the blank serum, the medicated serum significantly improved the cell viability, migration ability, and lumen-forming ability (P < 0.01) and lowered the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 and the LDH release (P < 0.01) of the cells with OGD/R exposure. Western blotting showed that in the BMECs exposed to OGD/R, the medicated serum strongly upregulated the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 proteins (P < 0.01) and reduced the protein expressions of pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, NLRP3, and Gasdermin D (P < 0.01), and transfection of the cells with caspase-1 siRNA further promoted the expressions of VEGFR2 protein in the cells (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#NLXTD can improve the proliferation, migration, and tube- forming ability and promote angiogenesis of BMECs with OGD/R injury probably by inhibiting the caspase-1/Gasdermin D pathway in pyroptosis, alleviating cell injury, and upregulating the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Endothelial Cells , Caspase 1 , Gasdermins , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Reperfusion Injury , Brain , Angiogenic Proteins , Glucose
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 807-814, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory role of the long non-coding RNA LINC00926 in pyroptosis of hypoxia-induced human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explore the molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#HUVECs were transfected with a LINC00926-overexpressing plasmid (OE-LINC00926), a siRNA targeting ELAVL1, or both, followed by exposure to hypoxia (5% O2) or normoxia. The expression of LINC00926 and ELAVL1 in hypoxia-treated HUVECs was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), and the levels of IL-1β in the cell cultures was determined with ELISA. The protein expression levels of pyroptosis-related proteins (caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1 and NLRP3) in the treated cells were analyzed using Western blotting, and the binding between LINC00926 and ELAVL1 was verified with RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to hypoxia obviously up-regulated the mRNA expression of LINC00926 and the protein expression of ELAVL1 in HUVECs, but did not affect the mRNA expression of ELAVL1. LINC00926 overexpression in the cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, increased IL-1β level and enhanced the expressions of pyroptosis-related proteins (all P < 0.05). LINC00926 overexpression further up-regulated the protein expression of ELAVL1 in hypoxia-exposed HUVECs. The results of RIP assay confirmed the binding between LINC00926 and ELAVL1. ELAVL1 knockdown significantly decreased IL-1β level and the expressions of pyroptosis-related proteins in hypoxia-exposed HUVECs (P < 0.05), while LINC00926 overexpression partially reversed the effects of ELAVL1 knockdown.@*CONCLUSION@#LINC00926 promotes pyroptosis of hypoxia-induced HUVECs by recruiting ELAVL1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1 , ELAV-Like Protein 1 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Pyroptosis , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Cell Hypoxia
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 661-668, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the neuroprotective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Quchi" (LI 11) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the rats with cerebral ischemic reperfusion and the potential mechanism of microglia pyroptosis.@*METHODS@#Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group and an EA group, with 20 rats in each group. The Zea Longa method was employed to establish the rat model of the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MACO/R) in the left brain. In the EA group, since the 2nd day of modeling, EA was given at "Quchi" (LI 11) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) of right side with disperse-dense wave, 4 Hz/20 Hz in frequency and 0.2 mA in current intensity, 30 min each time, once a day for lasting 7 consecutive days. The reduction rate of cerebral blood flow was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry during operation. The neurological function of rats was observed using Zea Longa neurobehavioral score. The cerebral infarction volume was detected by TTC staining method. The microglia positive expression in the ischemic side of the cortex was detected with the immunofluorescence method. Under transmission electron microscope, the ultrastructure of cell in the ischemic cortex was observed. The mRNA expression levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (Caspase-1) and gasdermin D (GSDMD) in the ischemic cortex were detected using real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, in the model group, the reduction rate of cerebral blood flow was increased during operation (P<0.001); Zea Longa neurobehavional score and the percentage of cerebral infarction volume were increased (P<0.001), the numbers of M1-type microglia marked by CD68+ and M2-type microglia marked by TMEM119+ were elevated in the ischemic cortex (P<0.001), the mRNA expression of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1 and GSDMD was increased (P<0.001, P<0.01); the cytomembrane structure was destroyed, with more cell membrane pores formed in the ischemic cortex. Compared with the model group, after intervention, Zea Longa neurobehavioral score and the percentage of cerebral infarction volume were reduced (P<0.05), the number of M1-type microglia marked by CD68+ was reduced (P<0.05) and the number of M2-type microglia marked by TMEM119+ was increased (P<0.05); and the mRNA expression of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1 and GSDMD was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the EA group. Even though the cytomembrane structure was incomplete, there were less membrane pores presented in the ischemic cortex in the EA group after intervention.@*CONCLUSION@#The intervention with EA attenuates the neurological dysfunction and reduces the volume of cerebral infarction in the rats with cerebral ischemic reperfusion. The underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of microglia pyroptosis through modulating NLRP3/Caspase-1/GSDMD axis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Electroacupuncture , Cerebral Infarction/therapy , RNA, Messenger
4.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 252-259, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971392

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory injury of the intestine is often accompanied by symptoms such as damage to intestinal mucosa, increased intestinal permeability, and intestinal motility dysfunction. Inflammatory factors spread throughout the body via blood circulation, and can cause multi-organ failure. Pyroptosis is a newly discovered way of programmed cell death, which is mainly characterized by the formation of plasma membrane vesicles, cell swelling until the rupture of the cell membrane, and the release of cell contents, thereby activating a drastic inflammatory response and expanding the inflammatory response cascade. Pyroptosis is widely involved in the occurrence of diseases, and the underlying mechanisms for inflammation are still a hot spot of current research. The caspase-1 mediated canonical inflammasome pathway of pyroptosis and caspase-4/5/8/11-mediated non-canonical inflammasome pathway are closely related to the occurrence and development of intestinal inflammation. Therefore, investigation of the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms of pyroptosis in intestinal injury in sepsis, inflammatory bowel diseases, infectious enteristic, and intestinal tumor is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammatory injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyroptosis , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Apoptosis , Caspase 1 , Inflammation
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 277-288, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#JieZe-1 (JZ-1), a Chinese herbal prescription, has an obvious effect on genital herpes, which is mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Our study aimed to address whether HSV-2 induces pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells and to investigate the anti-HSV-2 activity of JZ-1 and the effect of JZ-1 on caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis.@*METHODS@#HSV-2-infected VK2/E6E7 cells and culture supernate were harvested at different time points after the infection. Cells were co-treated with HSV-2 and penciclovir (0.078125 mg/mL) or caspase-1 inhibitor VX-765 (24 h pretreatment with 100 μmol/L) or JZ-1 (0.078125-50 mg/mL). Cell counting kit-8 assay and viral load analysis were used to evaluate the antiviral activity of JZ-1. Inflammasome activation and pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells were analyzed using microscopy, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining, lactate dehydrogenase release assay, gene and protein expression, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#HSV-2 induced pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells, with the most significant increase observed 24 h after the infection. JZ-1 effectively inhibited HSV-2 (the 50% inhibitory concentration = 1.709 mg/mL), with the 6.25 mg/mL dose showing the highest efficacy (95.76%). JZ-1 (6.25 mg/mL) suppressed pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells. It downregulated the inflammasome activation and pyroptosis via inhibiting the expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (P < 0.001) and interferon-γ-inducible protein 16 (P < 0.001), and their interactions with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and reducing cleaved caspase-1 p20 (P < 0.01), gasdermin D-N (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.001), and IL-18 levels (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#JZ-1 exerts an excellent anti-HSV-2 effect in VK2/E6E7 cells, and it inhibits caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis induced by HSV-2 infection. These data enrich our understanding of the pathologic basis of HSV-2 infection and provide experimental evidence for the anti-HSV-2 activity of JZ-1. Please cite this article as: Liu T, Shao QQ, Wang WJ, Liu TL, Jin XM, Xu LJ, Huang GY, Chen Z. The Chinese herbal prescription JieZe-1 inhibits caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis induced by herpes simplex virus-2 infection in vitro. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(3): 277-288.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1/metabolism , Inflammasomes/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy
6.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 469-475, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) involved in inflammatory response in sepsis.@*METHODS@#The serum levels of BKCa were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with sepsis (28 cases), patients with common infection (25 cases) and healthy people (25 cases). The relationship between levels of BKCa and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) were analyzed. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In some experiments, a cell model of sepsis was constructed using Nigericin as the second stimulus signal. The mRNA and protein expressions of BKCa in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS (0, 50, 100, 1 000 μg/L) were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. RAW 264.7 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA of BKCa (siRNA-BKCa), and the levels of caspase-1 precursor (pro-caspase-1), interleukin-1β precursor (pro-IL-1β) in cell, and the levels of caspase-1 p20, IL-1β p17 of cell culture medium, and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured by Western blotting. The apoptosis were detected by staining with propidium iodide (PI), the release rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured, and the expression of apoptotic protein Gasdermin D (GSDMD) was measured by Western blotting to evaluate the effect of silencing BKCa on cell pyrosis.@*RESULTS@#The level of serum BKCa in patients with sepsis was significantly higher than that in patients with common infection and health peoples (ng/L: 165.2±25.9 vs. 102.5±25.9, 98.8±20.0, both P < 0.05). In addition, the level of serum BKCa in patients with sepsis was significantly positively correlated with APACHE II score (r = 0.453, P = 0.013). LPS could construct a sepsis cell model by which LPS could promote BKCa expression in mRNA and protein with a concentration-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expressions of BKCa in the cells stimulated by 1 000 μg/L LPS were significantly higher than that in the blank group (0 μg/L) [BKCa mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 3.00±0.36 vs. 1.00±0.16, BKCa/β-actin: 1.30±0.16 vs. 0.37±0.09, both P < 0.05]. Compared with the control group, the ratios of caspase-1 p20/pro-caspase-1 and IL-1β p17/pro-IL-1β in the model group were significantly increased (caspase-1 p20/pro-caspase-1: 0.83±0.12 vs. 0.27±0.05, IL-1β p17/pro-IL-1β: 0.77±0.12 vs. 0.23±0.12, both P < 0.05), however, transfection of siRNA-BKCa induced the decrease both of them (caspase-1 p20/pro-capase-1: 0.23±0.12 vs. 0.83±0.12, IL-1β p17/pro-IL-1β: 0.13±0.05 vs. 0.77±0.12, both P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the number of apoptotic cells, LDH release rate and GSDMD expression in the model group were significantly increased [LDH release rate: (30.60±8.40)% vs. (15.20±7.10)%, GSDMD-N/GSDMD-FL: 2.10±0.16 vs. 1.00±0.16, both P < 0.05], however, transfection of siRNA-BKCa induced the decrease both of them [LDH release rate: (15.60±7.30)% vs. (30.60±8.40)%, GSDMD-N/GSDMD-FL: 1.13±0.17 vs. 2.10±0.16, both P < 0.05]. The mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3 in sepsis cells were significantly higher than those in the control group [NLRP3 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.06±0.17 vs. 1.00±0.24, NLRP3/GAPDH: 0.46±0.05 vs. 0.15±0.04, both P < 0.05]. However, the expression of NLRP3 after siRNA-BKCa transfection was significantly lower than that in model group [NLRP3 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.57±0.09 vs. 2.06±0.17, NLRP3/GAPDH: 0.19±0.02 vs. 0.46±0.05, both P < 0.05]. Compared with the control group, the NF-κB p65 nuclear transfer of sepsis cell were significantly increased (NF-κB p65/Histone: 0.73±0.12 vs. 0.23±0.09, P < 0.05). However, the NF-κB p65 expression in the nucleus were decreased after siRNA-BKCa transfection (NF-κB p65/Histone: 0.20±0.03 vs. 0.73±0.12, P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BKCa is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, and its possible mechanism is to activate NF-κB/NLRP3/caspase-1 signaling pathway to induce inflammatory factor production and cell death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Histones , Caspase 1 , Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Sepsis , RNA, Small Interfering , Caspases
7.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 809-820, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Sepsis is a critical dysregulated host response with high mortality and current treatment is difficult to achieve optimal efficacy. Ozone therapy has been revealed to protect infection and inflammation-related diseases due to its role in antibiotic and immunoregulatory effect. Ozonated triglyceride is a key component of ozonated oil that is one of ozone therapy dosage form. However, the potential role of ozonated triglyceride in sepsis remains unclear. This study aims to explore the effect of ozonated triglyceride on septic mouse model and the molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) were applied to construct septic mouse model. The mouse serum was obtained for detection of cytokines, and lung tissues were collected for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining to evaluate the extent of lung injury in septic mouse with ozonated triglyceride treatment at different time and doses. The survival of septic mice was observed for 96 h and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the survival rates. In addition, primary peritoneal macrophages and human acute monocytic-leukemia cell line (THP-1) were treated with inflammasome activators with or without ozonated triglyceride. The level of cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cleavage of caspase-1 and gasdermin-D (GSDMD) was detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Ozonated triglyceride at different time and doses reduced the release of inflammasome-related cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18] (all P<0.05) but not pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in septic mice (all P>0.05). Ozonated triglyceride significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice and reduced sepsis-induced lung injury (all P<0.05). Ozonated triglyceride significantly suppressed the canonical and non-canonical activation of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome (all P<0.05) but not affected absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and NLR family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes in vitro (all P>0.05). Ozonated triglyceride reduced the cleavage of caspase-1 and the downstream GSDMD.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ozonated triglyceride presents a protect effect on sepsis lethality via reducing cytokines release and sepsis-related organ injury. The mechanism is that ozonated triglyceride specifically suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Ozonated triglyceride is a promising candidate for sepsis treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Caspase 1 , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammasomes , Lung Injury , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Ozone/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 521-526, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of procalcitonin (PCT) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).@*METHODS@#HUVECs were induced by LPS to establish a model of sepsis-induced inflammatory endothelial cell injury. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, HUVECs were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, LPS (1 μg/mL), PCT (10 ng/mL), and LPS+PCT (n=3 each). In the second part, HUVECs were randomly grouped: normal control, LPS, and LPS+PCT of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) (n=3 each). Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in each group.@*RESULTS@#In the first experiment: compared with the normal control group, the PCT, LPS, and LPS+PCT groups had significantly upregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 (P<0.05); compared with the LPS group, the LPS+PCT group had significantly downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 (P<0.05). In the second experiment: compared with those in the LPS group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the LPS+PCT of different concentrations groups were significantly downregulated in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#LPS can promote the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins NLRP3 and caspase-1 in HUVECs, while PCT can inhibit the LPS-induced expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins NLRP3 and caspase-1 in HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Procalcitonin , Nucleotides/pharmacology
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3022-3031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981432

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of arctigenin(ARC) in the treatment of vascular endothelial injury in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH). Fifty SD rats pregnant for 12 days were randomly assigned into a control group, a model group, an ARC group, a rapamycin(RAP, autophagy inducer) group, and an ARC+3-methyladenine(3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the other groups except the control group were intraperitoneally injected with nitrosyl-L-arginine methyl ester(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) to establish the PIH model on the 13th day of pregnancy. On the 15th day of pregnancy, the rats in ARC, RAP, and ARC+3-MA groups were intraperitoneally injected with ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), RAP(1 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and 3-MA(15 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))+ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), respectively. The pregnant rats in the control group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. The blood pressure and 24 h urine protein(24 h-UP) of pregnant rats in each group were measured before and after intervention. Cesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy on day 21, and the body weight and body length of fetal rats were compared among groups. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of placenta. The expression of endothelin-1(ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) in placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels of ET-1 and nitric oxide(NO) were determined with corresponding kits. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), Beclin-1, NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain(ASC), caspase-1, interleukin(IL)-1β, and IL-18 was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The level of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in placenta was measured by fluorescence staining. The results showed that on day 12 of pregnancy, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP had no significant differences among groups. On days 15, 19, and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). On days 19 and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in ARC group and RAP group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.05), and they were higher in the ARC+3-MA group than in the ARC group(P<0.05). On day 21, the model group had lower body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), higher serum level of ET-1, and lower serum level of NO(P<0.05) than the control group. Moreover, the placental tissue showed typical pathological damage, down-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and eNOS(P<0.05), up-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and elevated ROS level. Compared with the model group, ARC and RAP groups showed increased body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), lowered serum level of ET-1, elevated serum level of NO(P<0.05), reduced pathological damage of placental tissue, up-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1, and eNOS(P<0.05), down-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and lowered ROS level. Compared with ARC group, 3-MA reversed the effects of ARC on the above indicators. In conclusion, ARC can inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and mitigate vascular endothelial damage in PIH rats by inducing autophagy of vascular endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Animals , Rats , Humans , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Beclin-1 , Cesarean Section , Reactive Oxygen Species , Placenta , Caspase 1 , Autophagy
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2820-2828, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981385

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis" combination(GX) on the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and the level of autophagy in RAW264.7 macrophage damaged by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and the mechanism of GX against inflammatory response in macrophages. To be specific, LPS was used to induce the injury of RAW264.7 cells. Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay was employed to measure the survival rate of cells, and Western blot to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC), cysteine-aspartic acid protease(caspase)-1, interleukin(IL)-18, IL-1β, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-Ⅱ, and selective autophagy junction protein p62/sequestosome 1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. ELISA was used to measure the levels of IL-18 and IL-1β in RAW264.7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the number of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells. Immunofulourescence staining was used to detect the expression of LC3-Ⅱ and p62 in RAW264.7 cells. The result showed that GX significantly reduced the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in RAW264.7 cells, significantly increased the protein expression of LC3Ⅱ, decreased the expression of p62, significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β, significantly increased the number of autophagosomes, significantly enhanced the immunofluorescence of LC3Ⅱ, and reduced the immunofluorescence of p62. Furthermore, 3-methyladenine(3-MA) could reverse the inhibitory effect of GX on NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 and reduce the release of IL-18 and IL-1β. In summary, GX can increase of the autophagy activity of RAW264.7 and inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and suppressing inflammatory response in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Autophagy , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2639-2645, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981368

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of multi-glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii(GTW) on renal injury in diabetic kidney disease(DKD) rats through Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3)/cysteine-aspartic acid protease-1(caspase-1)/gsdermin D(GSDMD) pyroptosis pathway and the mechanism. To be specific, a total of 40 male SD rats were randomized into the normal group(n=8) and modeling group(n=34). In the modeling group, a high-sugar and high-fat diet and one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce DKD in rats. After successful modeling, they were randomly classified into model group, valsartan(Diovan) group, and GTW group. Normal group and model group were given normal saline, and the valsartan group and GTW group received(ig) valsartan and GTW, respectively, for 6 weeks. Blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(Scr), alanine ami-notransferase(ALT), albumin(ALB), and 24 hours urinary total protein(24 h-UTP) were determined by biochemical tests. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Serum levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-18(IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related proteins in renal tissue, and RT-PCR to determine the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related genes in renal tissue. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed high levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), low level of ALB(P<0.01), severe pathological damage to kidney, and high protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, valsartan group and GTW group had low levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), high level of ALB(P<0.01), alleviation of the pathological damage to the kidney, and low protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01 or P<0.05). GTW may inhibit pyroptosis by decreasing the expression of NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD in renal tissue, thereby relieving the inflammatory response of DKD rats and the pathological injury of kidney.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Tripterygium , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Uridine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Kidney , Valsartan/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 10-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970101

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate whether Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis participated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), and to explore the role of caspase-1 and caspase-11 pyroptosis pathways in this process. The mice were divided into four groups: wild type (WT), WT-LPS, GSDMD knockout (KO) and KO-LPS. The sepsis-associated AKI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (40 mg/kg). Blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of creatinine and urea nitrogen. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed via HE staining. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of pyroptosis-associated proteins. The results showed that the concentrations of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the WT-LPS group were significantly increased, compared with those in the WT group (P < 0.01); whereas serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the KO-LPS group were significantly decreased, compared with those in the WT-LPS group (P < 0.01). HE staining results showed that LPS-induced renal tubular dilatation was mitigated in GSDMD KO mice. Western blot results showed that LPS up-regulated the protein expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), GSDMD and GSDMD-N in WT mice. GSDMD KO significantly down-regulated the protein levels of IL-1β, caspase-11, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1(p22) induced by LPS. These results suggest that GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis is involved in LPS-induced sepsis-associated AKI. Caspase-1 and caspase-11 may be involved in GSDMD cleavage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury , Caspase 1 , Caspases/metabolism , Creatinine , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice, Knockout , Nitrogen , Sepsis , Urea , Gasdermins/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 193-201, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the protective effect of breviscapine against brain injury induced by intrauterine inflammation in preterm rats and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#A preterm rat model of brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation was prepared by intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide in pregnant rats. The pregnant rats and preterm rats were respectively randomly divided into 5 groups: control, model, low-dose breviscapine (45 mg/kg), high-dose breviscapine (90 mg/kg), and high-dose breviscapine (90 mg/kg)+ML385 [a nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) inhibitor, 30 mg/kg] (n=10 each). The number and body weight of the live offspring rats were measured for each group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of the uterus and placenta of pregnant rats and the pathological morphology of the brain tissue of offspring rats. Immunofluorescent staining was used to measure the co-expression of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in the cerebral cortex of offspring rats. ELISA was used to measure the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the brain tissue of offspring rats. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of Nrf2 pathway-related proteins in the brain tissue of offspring rats.@*RESULTS@#Pathological injury was found in the uterus, and placenta tissue of the pregnant rats and the brain tissue of the offspring rats, and severe microglia pyroptosis occurred in the cerebral cortex of the offspring rats in the model group. Compared with the control group, the model group had significant reductions in the number and body weight of the live offspring rats and the protein expression levels of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the brain tissue of the offspring rats (P<0.05), but significant increases in the relative fluorescence intensity of the co-expression of IBA-1 and NLRP3, the levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β, and the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the brain tissue of the offspring rats (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the breviscapine administration groups showed alleviated pathological injury of the uterus and placenta tissue of the pregnant rats and the brain tissue of the offspring rats, significant increases in the number and body weight of the live offspring rats and the protein expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the brain tissue of the offspring rats (P<0.05), and significant reductions in the relative fluorescence intensity of the co-expression of IBA-1 and NLRP3, the levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β, and the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the brain tissue of the offspring rats (P<0.05). The high-dose breviscapine group had a significantly better effect than the low-dose breviscapine (P<0.05). ML385 significantly inhibited the intervention effect of high-dose breviscapine (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Breviscapine can inhibit inflammatory response in brain tissue of preterm rats caused by intrauterine inflammation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, and it can also inhibit microglial pyroptosis and alleviate brain injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Body Weight , Brain Injuries/prevention & control , Caspase 1 , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Flavonoids/therapeutic use
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 20-31, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970940

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the potential function and related mechanism of microRNA-223 (miRNA-223) in the podocyte pyroptosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephritis induced by HBV X protein (HBx). Methods: HBx-overexpressing lentivirus was transfected into human renal podocytes to mimic the pathogenesis of HBV-GN. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting experiments were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of pyroptosis-related proteins [nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1], and inflammatory factors (interleukin-1β and interleukin-18), respectively.TUNEL staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the number of pyroptosis cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of podocytes biomarkers desmin and nephrin; Hoechst 33342 staining was used to observe the morphological and quantitative changes of podocyte nuclei. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure caspase-1 activity. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify the downstream target of miRNA-223. Podocytes were divided into the following nine groups: control group (no special treatment), empty plasmid group (transfected with empty plasmid), HBx overexpression group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus and miRNA-223 mimic), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus and miRNA-223 inhibitor), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic+NLRP3 group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic+ NLRP3 siRNA group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 siRNA), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor+NLRP3 group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor+NLRP3 siRNA group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 siRNA). Results: miRNA-223 was down-regulated in HBx overexpression group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). TUNEL and immunofluorescence staining showed that NLRP3 knockdown attenuated podocyte injury and pyroptosis induced by HBx overexpression (P < 0.05). Dual luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that NLRP3 was one of the downstream targets of miRNA-223. Rescue experiments revealed that NLRP3 overexpression weakened the protective effect of miRNA-223 in podocyte injury (P < 0.05). The addition of miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 siRNA decreased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokines, and reduced the number of pyroptosis cells induced by HBx overexpression (all P < 0.05); The addition of miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid significantly increased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokines, caspase-1 activity, and the number of pyroptosis cells (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: HBx may promote podocyte pyroptosis of HBV-GN via downregulating miRNA-223 targeting NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that miRNA-223 is expected to be a potential target for the treatment of HBV-GN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Podocytes/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 725-735, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970542

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to parallelly investigate the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomi Ramulus formula granules(CRFG) and Cinnamomi Cortex formula granules(CCFG) against acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury(MI/RI) and the underlying mechanism based on the efficacy of "warming and coordinating the heart Yang". Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, CRFG low and high-dose(0.5 and 1.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups, and CCFG low and high-dose(0.5 and 1.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups, with 15 rats in each group. The sham group and the model group were given equal volumes of normal saline by gavage. Before modeling, the drug was given by gavage once a day for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the last administration, the MI/RI rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending artery(LAD) for 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion except the sham group. The sham group underwent the same procedures without LAD ligation. Heart function, cardiac infarct size, cardiac patho-logy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cardiac injury enzymes, and inflammatory cytokines were determined to assess the protective effects of CRFG and CCFG against MI/RI. The gene expression levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), Gasdermin-D(GSDMD), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interleukin-18(IL-18) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and N-GSDMD were determined by Western blot. The results showed that both CRFG and CCFG pretreatments significantly improved cardiac function, decreased the cardiac infarct size, inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduced the content of lactic dehydrogenase(LDH), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme(CK-MB), aspartate transaminase(AST), and cardiac troponin Ⅰ(cTnⅠ). In addition, CRFG and CCFG pretreatments significantly decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in serum. RT-PCR results showed that CRFG and CCFG pretreatment down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, and downstream pyroptosis-related effector substances including GSDMD, IL-18, and IL-1β in cardiac tissues. Western blot revealed that CRFG and CCFG pretreatments significantly decreased the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and N-GSDMD in cardiac tissues. In conclusion, CRFG and CCFG pretreatments have obvious cardioprotective effects on MI/RI in rats, and the under-lying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD signaling pathway to reduce the cardiac inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-18 , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Myocardial Infarction , Caspase 1
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 226-233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970518

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Huangqin Tang(HQT) on the NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway in mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis(UC). C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group(DSS group), and low-, medium-and high-dose HQT groups(HQT-L, HQT-M, and HQT-H), and western medicine mesalazine group(western medicine group). The UC model was induced in mice. Subsequently, the mice in the HQT-L, HQT-M, HQT-H groups, and the western medicine group were given low-, medium-, high-dose HQT, and mesalazine suspension by gavage, respectively, while those in the blank and DSS groups were given an equal volume of distilled water by gavage. After 10 days of administration, the body weight, DAI scores, and colonic histopathological score of mice in each group were determined. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed decreased body weight of mice and increased DAI scores and intestinal histopathological score. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group showed improved DAI scores, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). The intestinal histopathological scores of the HQT groups and the western medicine group significantly decreased, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). In addition, compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed elevated expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and decreased IL-10 level. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group displayed decreased expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduced serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increased IL-10 level. The improvement was the most significant in the HQT-H group and the western medicine group(P<0.01). In conclusion, HQT may reduce the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduce the se-rum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increase the expression of IL-10 by regulating the classic pyroptosis pathway of NLRP3/Caspase-1, thereby improving the symptoms of intestinal injury and inflammatory infiltration of intestinal mucosa in DSS mice to achieve its therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 481-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970485

ABSTRACT

Based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro experimental verification, this study aims to explore the effect of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination on HSC-LX2 pyroptosis. Specifically, the targets of Albiziae Cortex, Tribuli Fructus, and hepatic fibrosis were retrieved from an online database and CNKI, and "drug-component-target" network and "drug-component-target-disease" network were constructed. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established based on STRING. Metascape was employed for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment, and the mechanism of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination against liver fibrosis was predicted. Molecular docking was used to verify some of the results of network pharmacology, and in vitro experiment was carried out to further verify the above conclusions. According to the results of network pharmacological analysis, 25 active components and 439 targets of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination and 152 anti-liver fibrosis targets were screened out, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain and leucine-rich-repeat-and pyrin-domain-containing 3(NLRP3) and caspase-1. The key targets were involved in 194 KEGG pathways in which the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway topped. The binding common targets were related to pyroptosis. The results of in vitro experiment showed that the pair-containing serum reduced the proliferation rate of HSC-LX2 and the content of reactive oxygen species(ROS), interleukin-18(IL-18), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β)(P<0.05). Western blot and qRT-PCR suggested that the protein and gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), and gasdermin D(GSDMD) in HSC-LX2 increased after AngⅡ stimulation, and the expression decreased after the intervention of pair-containing serum(P<0.05). In summary, the pair-containing serum can inhibit the classic pathway of pyroptosis, which may be the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism. This is consistent with the predicted results of network pharmacology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Caspase 1/genetics , Fibrosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 667-676, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940973

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and molecular mechanism of exogenous L-carnitine on hepatic pyroptosis mediated by excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress in severely scald rats. Methods: The experimental research method was adopted. According to the random number table (the same group method below), fifteen female Sprague Dawley rats aged 6-8 weeks were divided into sham-injury group, scald alone group, and scald+carnitine group (with 5 rats in each group), and full-thickness scald of 30% total body surface area were made on the back of rats in scald alone group and scald+carnitine group, and rats in scald+carnitine group were additionally given intraperitoneal injection of L-carnitine. At post injury hour (PIH) 72, The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine dehydrogenase (ALT) of biochemical indicators of liver injury were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer with the sample number of 5. At PIH 72, liver tissue damage was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. At PIH 72, The mRNA levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), cysteine aspartic acid specific protease 1 (caspase-1), gasderminD (GSDMD), and interleukin 1β(IL-1β) in liver tissue as pyroptosis-related markers and glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in liver tissue as endoplasmic reticulum stress-related markers were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Protein expression levels of GRP78, CHOP, NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in liver tissue were detected by Western blotting, and the sample numbers were all 5. HepG2 cells as human liver cancer cells were divided into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group, 0.1 μmol/L tunicamycin (TM) group, 0.2 μmol/L TM group, 0.4 μmol/L TM group, and 0.8 μmol/L TM group and were treated accordingly. After 24 h of culture, cell viability was detected by cell counting kit 8, and the intervention concentration of TM was screened, and the sample number was 5. HepG2 cells were divided into DMSO group, TM alone group, and TM+carnitine group, and treated accordingly. After 24 h of culture, the protein expression levels of GRP78, CHOP, NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in cells were detected by Western blotting, and the sample numbers were all 3. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference-t test. Results: At PIH 72, the AST and ALT levels of serum in scald alone group were (640±22) and (157±8) U/L, which were significantly higher than (106±13) and (42±6) U/L in sham-injury group, respectively, with t values of -46.78 and -25.98, respectively, P<0.01. The AST and ALT levels of serum in scald+carnitine group were (519±50) and (121±10) U/L, which were significantly lower than those in scald alone group, respectively, with t values of 4.93 and 6.06, respectively, P<0.01. At PIH 72, the morphology of liver tissue of rats in sham-injury group were basically normal with no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration; compared with those in sham-injury group, the liver tissue of rats in scald alone group showed a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and disturbed cell arrangement; compared with that in scald alone group, the liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group showed a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration. At PIH 72, the mRNA expression on levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 34.42, 41.93, 30.17, and 15.68, respectively, P<0.01); the mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in scald alone group (with t values of 34.40, 37.20, 19.95, and 7.88, respectively, P<0.01). At PIH 72, the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 12.28, 26.92, 5.20, 10.02, and 24.78, respectively, P<0.01); compared with those in scald alone group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly decreased (with t values of 10.99, 27.96, 12.69, 8.96, and 12.27, respectively, P<0.01). At PIH 72, the mRNA levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 21.00 and 16.52, respectively, P<0.01), and the mRNA levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in scald alone group (with t values of 8.92 and 8.21, respectively, P<0.01); the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 22.50 and 14.29, respectively, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in scald alone group (with t values of 14.29 and 5.33 respectively, P<0.01). After 24 h of culture, the cell survival rates of 0.1 μmol/L TM group, 0.2 μmol/L TM group, 0.4 μmol/L TM group, and 0.8 μmol/L TM group were significantly decreased than that in DMSO group (with t values of 4.90, 9.35, 18.64, and 25.09, respectively, P<0.01). Then 0.8 μmol/L was selected as the intervention concentration of TM. After 24 h of culture, compared with that in DMSO group, the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in cells in TM alone group were significantly increased (with t values of 10.48 and 17.67, respectively, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in TM+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in TM alone group (with t values of 8.08 and 13.23, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). After 24 h of culture, compared with those in DMSO group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD-N in cells in TM alone group were significantly increased (with t values of 13.44 and 27.51, respectively, P<0.01), but the protein expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, and cleaved IL-1β in cells were not significantly changed (P>0.05); compared with that in TM alone group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD-N in cells in TM+carnitine group were significantly decreased (with t values of 20.49 and 21.95, respectively, P<0.01), but the protein expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, and cleaved IL-1β in cells were not significantly changed (P>0.05). Conclusions: In severely scald rats, exogenous L-carnitine may play a protective role against liver injury by inhibiting the pathways related to excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Burns , Carnitine/pharmacology , Caspase 1/pharmacology , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Liver , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Pyroptosis , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2516-2524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , 1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 11-16, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927890

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of the pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 on nerve injury in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH). Methods: Seventy-two SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=24): Sham group, ICH group and MCC950 group. ICH group and MCC950 group rats were injected with autogenous non-anticoagulant blood to establish ICH model, and then the rats in MCC950 group were intraperitoneally injected with MCC950 at the dose of 10 mg/kg(2 mg/ml) for 3 days after ICH model was established. Seventy-two hours after the establishment of the model, the forelimb placement test, the corner test and mNSS score were performed to observe the neurological function of the rats with ICH. The volume of hematoma was observed in fresh brain tissue sections. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of brain tissue. The dry-wet weight ratio was calculated to evaluate the changes of brain tissue edema. The degeneration of neurons was observed by FJC staining. The neuronal apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining. The protein expression and activation levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 and GSDMD were determined by Western blot. Results: Compared with sham group, the percentage of successful placement of left forelimb and left turn was decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05), mNSS score was increased significantly (P<0.01) in ICH group. Hematoma volume was increased significantly, the number of microglial cells around the hematoma was increased, the number of neurons was decreased, nerve cell swelled, some cells showed pyknotic necrosis, and the staining was deepened. The water content of the right base was increased significantly (P<0.05). The number of FJC positive and TUNEL positive cells around the hematoma was increased significantly (P<0.05). The levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1/pro-caspase-1 ratio, GSDMD-N, GSDMD, GSDMD-N/GSDMD ratio, IL-1β and IL-18 were increased significantly (P<0.01, P< 0.05). Compared with ICH group, the percentage of successful placement of left forelimb and left turn was increased significantly in MCC950 group (P<0.05), while the mNSS score and the volume of hematoma were decreased significantly (P<0.01), the swelling degree of nerve cells around the hematoma was reduced significantly, and the number of pyrotic necrotic cells was decreased. The water content of the right base was decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the number of FJC positive and TUNEL positive cells around the hematoma was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1/pro-caspase-1 ratio, GSDMD-N, GSDMD, GSDMD-N/GSDMD ratio, IL-1β and IL-18 were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: MCC950 can ameliorate nerve injury after ICH by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome mediated inflammation and pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Furans , Hematoma , Indenes , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonamides , Water
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