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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of suppressing high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) on neuronal autophagy and apoptosis in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats.@*METHODS@#Rat models of ICH induced by intracerebral striatum injection of 0.2 U/mL collagenase Ⅳ were treated with 1 mg/kg anti-HMGB1 mAb or a control anti-IgG mAb injected via the tail immediately and at 6 h after the operation (n=5). The rats in the sham-operated group (with intracranial injection of 2 μL normal saline) and ICH model group (n=5) were treated with PBS in the same manner after the operation. The neurological deficits of the rats were evaluated using modified neurological severity score (mNSS). TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis of the striatal neurons, and the expressions of HMGB1, autophagy-related proteins (Beclin-1, LC3-Ⅱ and LC3-Ⅰ) and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3) in the brain tissues surrounding the hematoma were detected using Western blotting. The expression of HMGB1 in the striatum was detected by immunohistochemistry, and serum level of HMGB1 was detected with ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The rat models of ICH showed significantly increased mNSS (P < 0.05), which was markedly lowered after treatment with anti- HMGB1 mAb (P < 0.05). ICH caused a significant increase of apoptosis of the striatal neurons (P < 0.05), enhanced the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-Ⅱ, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.05), lowered the expressions of LC3-Ⅰ and Bcl-2 (P < 0.05), and increased the content of HMGB1 (P < 0.05). Treatment with anti-HMGB1 mAb obviously lowered the apoptosis rate of the striatal neurons (P < 0.05), decreased the expressions of Beclin-1, LC3-Ⅱ, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.05), increased the expressions of LC3-Ⅰ and Bcl-2 (P < 0.05), and reduced the content of HMGB1 in ICH rats (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Down- regulation of HMGB1 by anti-HMGB1 improves neurological functions of rats after ICH possibly by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis of the neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 463-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#"Multi-targeting" drugs can prove fruitful to combat drug-resistance of multifactorial disease-cervical cancer. This study envisioned to reveal if Thuja homeopathic mother tincture (MT) and its bioactive component could combat human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-infected SiHa cervical cancer cells since it is globally acclaimed for HPV-mediated warts.@*METHODS@#Thuja MT was studied for its antiproliferative and antimigratory properties in SiHa cells followed by microscopic determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) staining and loss in mitochondrial membrane potential (MtMP) by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) staining. Apoptosis and autophagy inductions were studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and immunoblot analyses of marker proteins. The bioactive component of Thuja MT detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was studied for antiproliferative and antimigratory properties along with in silico prediction of its cellular targets by molecular docking and oral drug forming competency.@*RESULTS@#Thuja MT showed significant antiproliferative and antimigratory potential in SiHa cells at a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 17.3 µL/mL. An increase in DCFDA fluorescence and loss in Rh123 fluorescence prove that Thuja MT acted through the burst of ROS and loss in MtMP respectively. AO/EB-stained cells under the microscope and immunoblot analyses supported Thuja-induced cellular demise via dual pathways-apoptosis and autophagy. Immunoblots showed cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) along with upregulation of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B)-II, and p62 proteins. Hence, the apoptotic cascade followed a caspase-3-dependent pathway supported by PARP-1 cleavage, while autophagic death was Beclin-1-dependent and mediated by accumulation of LC3BII and p62 proteins. Thujone, detected as the bioactive principle of Thuja MT, showed greater anti-proliferative and anti-migratory potential at an IC50 of 77 µg/mL, along with excellent oral drug competency with the ability for gastrointestinal absorption and blood-brain-barrier permeation with nil toxicity. Molecular docking depicted thujone with the strongest affinity for mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and protein kinase B followed by B-cell lymphoma 2, murine double minute 2 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which might act as upstream triggers of apoptotic-autophagic crosstalk.@*CONCLUSION@#Robust "multi-targeting" anticancer potential of Thuja drug and thujone for HPV-infected cervical cancer ascertained its therapeutic efficacy for HPV infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Bicyclic Monoterpenes , Caspase 3 , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Papillomavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Thuja/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether Schisandrin B (Sch B) attenuates early brain injury (EBI) in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham (sham operation), SAH, SAH+vehicle, and SAH+Sch B groups using a random number table. Rats underwent SAH by endovascular perforation and received Sch B (100 mg/kg) or normal saline after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evan's blue extravasation, and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining were carried out 24 h after SAH. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to detect the expressions of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the rat brain, while the expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax, Caspase-3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing the caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), Caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brains were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the SAH group, Sch B significantly improved the neurological function, reduced brain water content, Evan's blue content, and apoptotic cells number in the brain of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, Sch B decreased SAH-induced expressions of Iba-1 and MPO (P<0.01). SAH caused the elevated expressions of Bax, Caspase-3, NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brain (P<0.01), all of which were inhibited by Sch B (P<0.01). In addition, Sch B increased the Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Sch B attenuated SAH-induced EBI, which might be associated with the inhibition of neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and the NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cyclooctanes , Evans Blue , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lignans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Polycyclic Compounds , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Water , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939677

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: To explore the effect and mechanism of curcumin on human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell apoptosis induced by Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitors UMI-77.@*METHODS@#T-ALL cell line Molt-4 was cultured, and the cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin and Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 for 24 h. The MTT method was used to detect the cell survival rate after different treatment; According to the results of curcumin and UMI-77, the experimental settings were divided into control group, curcumin group (20 μmol/L curcumin treated cells), UMI-77 group (15 μmol/L Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 treated cells) and curcumin+ UMI-77 group (20 μmol/L curcumin and 15 μmol/L Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 treated cells), MTT method was used to detect cell proliferation inhibition rate, Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method and TUNEL staining were used to detect cell apoptosis, DCFH-DA probe was used to detect cell reactive oxygen species, JC-1 fluorescent probe was used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and Notch1 signaling pathway-related proteins.@*RESULTS@#After the treatment of Molt-4 cells with different concentrations of curcumin and Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77, the cell survival rate was decreased (P<0.05); Compared with the control group, the cell proliferation inhibition rate of the curcumin group and the UMI-77 group were increased, the apoptosis rate of cell was increased, the level of ROS was increased, the protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the cells were all increased, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was reduced (P<0.05); Compared with the curcumin group or UMI-77 group, the cell proliferation inhibition rate and apoptosis rate of the curcumin+UMI-77 group were further increased, and the level of ROS was increased. At the same time, the protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the cells were all increased, the protein expression of Bcl-2 was reduced (P<0.05); In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells after curcumin treatment was decreased, and the proteins expression of Notch1 and HES1 were reduced (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin can enhance the apoptosis of T-ALL cells induced by Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential, the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of Notch1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein/metabolism , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Thioglycolates , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/pharmacology
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 471-480, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936034

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the regulatory effects and signaling mechanism of sodium ferulate on the proliferation and apoptosis of human skin hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFbs). Methods: The experimental research methods were used. The 4th-6th passage of HSFbs from human skin were used for the following experiments. HSFbs were co-cultured with sodium ferulate at final mass concentrations of 1, 1×10-1, 1×10-2, 1×10-3, 1×10-4, 1×10-5, and 1×10-6 mg/mL for 48 hours, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method was used to determine the cell absorbance values and linear regression was used to analyze the half lethal concentration (LC50) of sodium ferulate (n=6). HSFbs were co-cultured with sodium ferulate at final mass concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/mL for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method was used to determine the cell absorbance values and the cell proliferation inhibition rate was calculated (n=3). According to the random number table, the cells were divided into 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, 0.030 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, 0.003 mg/mL sodium ferulate group treated with sodium ferulate at corresponding final mass concentrations, and negative control group without any treatment. After 72 hours of culture, the cell absorbance values were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method (n=5), the microscopic morphology of cells was observed by transmission electron microscope (n=3), the cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and the apoptosis index was calculated (n=4), the protein expressions of B lymphocystoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-3 (caspase-3) were determined by immunohistochemistry (n=4), and the protein expressions of transformed growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), phosphorylated Smad2/3, phosphorylated Smad4, and phosphorylated Smad7 were detected by Western blotting (n=4). Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett test. Results: The LC50 of sodium ferulate was 0.307 5 mg/mL. After being cultured for 24-96 hours, the cell proliferation inhibition rates of cells treated with sodium ferulate at four different mass concentrations tended to increase at first but decrease later, which reached the highest after 72 hours of culture, so 72 hours was chosen as the processing time for the subsequent experiments. After 72 hours of culture, the cell absorbance values in 0.003 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, 0.030 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, and 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group were 0.57±0.06, 0.53±0.04, 0.45±0.05, respectively, which were significantly lower than 0.69±0.06 in negative control group (P<0.01). After 72 hours of culture, compared with those in negative control group, the cells in the three groups treated with sodium ferulate showed varying degrees of nuclear pyknosis, fracture, or lysis, and chromatin loss. In the cytoplasm, mitochondria were swollen, the rough endoplasmic reticulum was expanded, and local vacuolation gradually appeared. After 72 hours of culture, compared with that in negative control group, the apoptosis indexes of cells were increased significantly in 0.003 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, 0.030 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, and 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). After 72 hours of culture, compared with those in negative control group, the protein expressions of Bcl-2 of cells in 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), the protein expressions of Bax of cells in 0.030 mg/mL sodium ferulate group and 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of caspase-3 of cells in 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group was significantly increased (P<0.01). After 72 hours of culture, compared with those in negative control group, the protein expression levels of TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad2/3, and phosphorylated Smad4 of cells in 0.030 mg/mL sodium ferulate group and 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group were significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of phosphorylated Smad7 of cells in 0.003 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, 0.030 mg/mL sodium ferulate group, and 0.300 mg/mL sodium ferulate group were significantly increased (P<0.01). Conclusions: Sodium ferulate can inhibit the proliferation of HSFbs of human skin and promote the apoptosis of HSFbs of human skin by blocking the expression of key proteins on the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and synergistically activating the mitochon- drial apoptosis pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/metabolism , Coumaric Acids , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/pharmacology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935769

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin on hippocampal neuron apoptosis induced by lead acetate. Methods: In September 2020, primary hippocampal neuronal cells were isolated and cultured from fetal rats, and identified using cellular immunofluorescent. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability to determine the concentration and time of lead acetate-induced hippocampal neuron apoptosis. MTT was also used to evaluate the effect of paeoniflorin concentration on the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by lead acetate. According to the results, different concentrations of paeoniflorin were selected to intervene hippocampal neuron cells, after 24 h, lead acetate was added to the cells, meanwhile, blank and model groups were set up, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) , lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , malondialdehyde (MDA) and Caspase-3 were measured. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) , phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) , p38 mitogen -activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) , phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) , c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) protein expression in hippocampal neuronal cells were determined by Western blotting. Results: The isolated and cultured hippocampal neurons were identified by immunofluorescence chemical staining and then treated with lead acetate, MTT results showed that lead acetate had the best toxicity effect when treated for 24 h at a concentration of 25 μmol/L. Paeoniflorin showed no cytotoxic effect on hippocampal neuronal cells when the concentrations below 80 μmol/L. Compared with the model group, the activity of hippocampal neuronal cells was significantly increased after treating with 20, 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin (P<0.05) . Compared with the blank group, the ROS activity, LDH release level, MDA content and caspase-3 content were significantly increased (P<0.01) , and the SOD activity was significantly decreased (P< 0.01) in the hippocampal neuronal cells of the model group. Compared with the model group, the ROS activity, LDH release level, MDA content and caspase-3 content were obviously decreased (P<0.05) , SOD activity was significantly increased (P <0.01) after hippocampal neuronal cells were treated with 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin. Relative to the model group, the ratio of p-ERK/ERK were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) , while the ratios of p-p38MAPK/p38MAPK and p-JNK/JNK were significantly down-regulated after hippocampal neuronal cells were treated with 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Paeoniflorin may down-regulate the expression of p-p38MAPK and p-JNK protein, up-regulate the expression of p-ERK protein, and inhibit the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by lead acetate through the MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Glucosides , Hippocampus/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Lead , Monoterpenes , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 326-333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935216

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on the proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell KYSE150 and KYSE410. Methods: KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells were treated with different concentrations of DMY (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 μmol/L) for 24 hours. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values of KYSE150 and KYSE410 were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Then 0.5‰ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as control group, dihydromyricetin (DMY), dihydromyricetin and transforming growth factor-β1 (DMY+ TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were used as experimental group. Cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were measured by clonal formation and flow cytometry. Transwell invasion and wound healing assay were used to detect cell invasion and migration. The protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bcl-2, Bax, Smad2/3, phosphorylation-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and Vimentin were detected by western blot. Results: The IC50 values of DMY on KYSE410 and KYSE150 cells were 100.51 and 101.27 μmol/L. The clone formation numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 in DMY group [(0.53±0.03) and (0.31±0.03)] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.10) and (1.00±0.05), P<0.05]. The apoptosis rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(1.84±0.22)% and (2.80±0.07)%] were higher than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.18)% and (1.00±0.07)%, P<0.05]. The invasion numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(0.42±0.03) and (0.29±0.05)] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.08) and (1.00±0.05), P<0.05]. The migration rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(0.65±0.14)% and (0.40±0.17)%] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.10)% and (1.00±0.08)%, P<0.05]. The clone formation numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 in TGF-β1 group [(1.01±0.08) and (0.99±0.25)] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.73±0.10) and (0.58±0.05), P<0.05]. The apoptosis rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(0.81±0.14)% and (1.18±0.10)%] were lower than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(1.38±0.22)% and (1.85±0.04)%, P<0.05]. The invasion numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(1.19±0.11) and (1.39±0.11)] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.93±0.09) and (0.93±0.05), P<0.05]. The migration rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(1.87±0.19)% and (1.32±0.04)%] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.86±0.16)% and (0.77±0.12)%, P<0.05]. The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group were higher than those in DMSO group, while the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was lower than that in DMSO group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Vimentin in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group were lower than those in DMSO group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group were lower than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group, and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was higher than that in DMY+ TGF-β1 group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY+ TGF-β1 group were lower than those in DMY group, and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was higher than that in DMY group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Vimentin in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group (P<0.05). Conclusion: DMY can inhibit the proliferation and EMT of ESCC mediated by TGF-β1 and promote cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Flavonols , Humans , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology , Vimentin/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/pharmacology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of the in vitro toxicity of doxycycline to myeloma cell line H929 and also the possible pathway involved its toxicity.@*METHODS@#Myeloma cell line H929 was treated with DOX, MEK inhibitor U0126 or RAS agonist ML-098, either alone or in combination. Then, the expression of p-MEK, caspase-3, caspase-9 and c-Jun in H929 were used to detected by Western blot; the cells proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively.@*RESULTS@#DOX significantly increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, and down-regulated the level of p-MEK in H929 (P<0.05). MEK antagonist U0126 significantly increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, and down-regulated the level of p-MEK (P<0.05). After Dox combined with ML-098 treatment of H929 cells, the apoptosis rate of H929 cells was lower than that of DOX alone treatment group(P<0.05). Compared with DOX alone treatment group, the expressions of p-MEK and p-ERK1/2 in DOX+ML-098 combined treatment group were increased, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3,9 in H929 cells were decreased (P<0.05). The levels of c-Jun mRNA and protein increased in H929 when treated by DOX alone (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#DOX can induce apoptosis of H929 via intrinsic apoptosis pathway, and MEK/ERK pathway and c-Jun possibly play a role in this process.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/pharmacology , Multiple Myeloma
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928146

ABSTRACT

To study the protective effect of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills on ischemic stroke rats. Ninety 4-weeks-old SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=15):sham operation group, model group, nimodipine group(12 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills high-dose group(400 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills medium-dose group(200 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills low-dose group(100 mg·kg~(-1)).The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model(PMCAO) was established in the model group, nimodipine group, and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups by the improved thread plug method, while the sham operation group did not insert the thread plug.Nimodipine group and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups were given intragastric administration once a day for 24 days before the modeling operation, and once 1 hour before the modeling operation, while sham operation group and model group were given equal volumes of distilled water.The neuroethology of the surviving rats was measured; The volume of cerebral infarction in rats was measured by TTC method; The histopathology of rat brain was observed by HE method; The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-6(IL-6),malondialdehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in serum were detected by ELISA;The mRNA expressions of Notch 1,Jagged 1,Hes 1 and Bcl-2 in rat brain were detected by RT-PCR;Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of caspase-3 protein in rat brain; the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and CD34 positive cells in rat brain were detected by immunofluorescence.The low, medium and high dose groups of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills and nimodipine group could significantly reduce the neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarction volume of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, reduce the morphological changes of nerve cells, decrease the expression of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 in rat serum, increase the activity of SOD and CAT,and reduce the level of MDA.Furthermore, the expression levels of Notch l, Jagged l, Hes l and Bcl-2 mRNA were significantly increased, and the expression level of caspase-3 protein was decreased.Meanwhile, the number of VEGF and CD34 positive cells increased in the treatment group.The differences were statistically significant. Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills has a protective effect on ischemic stroke rats, and its mechanism may be related to anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, promotion of nerve cell proliferation, inhibition nerve cell apoptosis and promotion of angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928134

ABSTRACT

To investigate the toxicity and related mechanism of miltirone to human acute myeloid leukemia THP-1 cells. To be specific, the active components and targets of miltirone were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and the target proteins were converted into standard gene names with UniProt. Acute leukemia-rela-ted target genes were screened from GeneCards and DisGeNET. Venn diagram was constructed with Venny 2.1 to yield the common targets of the disease and the drug. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape 3.8.2. THP-1 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), and 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μmol·L~(-1) miltirone for 24 h, respectively. The proliferation rate of cells was analyzed by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester(CFSE), apoptosis rate by flow cytometry with Annexin V-PE/7 AAD staining, and cell morphology by acridine orange staining. Real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) was employed to detect the mRNA levels of nuclear receptor coactivator 2(NCOA2), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP1), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2)-associated X protein(Bax), Bcl-2, and cysteine aspartyl protease-3(caspase-3). The effect of miltirone on apoptosis was detected in presence of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. A total of 26 targets of miltirone, 1 046 genes related to acute leukemia, and 6 common targets of the two were screened out. Flow cytometry result showed miltirone at 10 μmol·L~(-1) can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of THP-1 cells. The typical manifestations of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, nuclear rupture, and chromatin agglomerate were displayed by acridine orange staining. The decreased mRNA levels of NCOA2 and PARP1 and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the activity of pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 were observed. Z-VAD-FMK can attenuate the apoptosis-inducing effect of miltirone. This study indicates that miltirone can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of THP-1 cells, by down-regulating NCOA2 and PARP1, raising Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activating caspase-3.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Leukemia/metabolism , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , THP-1 Cells , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Bax inhibitor 1 (BI- 1) and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) on vascular calcification (VC).@*METHODS@#Mouse models of VC were established in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) diabetic mice by high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injections with Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine for 16 weeks. ApoE-/- mice (control group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice (VC group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression (VC + BI-1TG group), and ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression and OPA1 knockout (VC+BI-1TG+OPA1-/- group) were obtained for examination of the degree of aortic calcification using von Kossa staining. The changes in calcium content in the aorta were analyzed using ELISA. The expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was determined using Western blotting. Cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate for 14 days to induce calcification, and the changes in BI-1 and OPA1 protein expressions were examined using Western blotting and cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL staining.@*RESULTS@#ApoE-/- mice with VC showed significantly decreased expressions of BI-1 and OPA1 proteins in the aorta (P=0.0044) with obviously increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P= 0.0041). Overexpression of BI-1 significantly promoted OPA1 protein expression and reduced calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.0006). OPA1 knockdown significantly increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in the aorta (P=0.0007).@*CONCLUSION@#BI-1 inhibits VC possibly by promoting the expression of OPA1, reducing calcium deposition and inhibiting osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the vascular smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant/pathology , Osteogenesis , Vascular Calcification/pathology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#During pregnancy, pregnant women are prone to stress reactions due to external stimuli, affecting their own health and fetal development. At present, there is no good treatment for the stress reactions from pregnant women during pregnancy. This study aims to explore the effect of probiotics on abnormal behavior and hippocampal injury in pregnant stressed offspring.@*METHODS@#SD pregnant rats were divided into a control group, a stress group, and a probiotics group, with 6 rats in each group. The control group was untreated; the stress group was given restraint stress on the 15th-20th day of pregnancy; the probiotics group was given both bifidobacterium trisporus capsules and restraint stress on the 15th-20th day of pregnancy, and the offspring continued to be fed with probiotics until 60 days after birth (P60). The offspring rats completed behavioral tests such as the open field test, the elevated plus maze test, the new object recognition test, and the barnes maze test at 60-70 d postnatally. Nissl's staining was used to reflect the injury of hippocampal neurons; immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of microglia marker ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) which can reflect microglia activation; ELISA was used to detect the content of plasma TNF-α and IL-1β; Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3.@*RESULTS@#The retention time of offspring rats in the stress group in the central area of the open field was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.01), and the retention time of offspring rats in the probiotic group in the central area of the open field was significantly more than that in the stress group (P<0.05). The offspring rats in the stress group stayed in the open arm for a shorter time than the control group (P<0.05) and entered the open arm less often than the control group (P<0.01); the offspring rats in the probiotic group stayed in the open arm for a longer time than the stress group and entered the open arm more often than the stress group (both P<0.05). The discrimination ratio for new to old objects in the offspring rats of the stress group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.01), and the discrimination ratio for new to old objects in the offspring rats of the probiotic group was significantly higher than that of the stress group (P<0.05). The offspring rats in the stress group made significantly more mistakes than the control group (P<0.05), and the offspring rats in the probiotic group made significantly fewer mistakes than the stress group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the numbers of Nissl bodies in CA1, CA3, and DG area were significantly reduced in the offspring rats of the stress group (all P<0.001), the number of activated microglia in DG area of hippocampus was significantly increased (P<0.01), the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β in peripheral blood were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated, and the protein expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were significantly up-regulated (all P<0.001). Compared with the stress group, the numbers of Nissl bodies in CA1, CA3, and DG area were significantly increased in the probiotic group offspring rats (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05), the number of activated microglia in the DG area of hippocampus was significantly reduced (P<0.05), and the TNF-α and IL-1β levels in peripheral blood were significantly decreased (both P<0.05), the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated, and the protein expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were significantly down-regulated (all P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Probiotic intervention partially ameliorated anxiety and cognitive impairment in rats offspring of pregnancy stress, and the mechanism may be related to increasing the number of neurons, inhibiting the activation of hippocampal microglia, and reducing inflammation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Female , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Humans , Pregnancy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate evodiamine (EVO)-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#HepG2 cells were treated with EVO (0.04-25 μmol/L) for different time intervals, and the cell survival rate was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. After HepG2 cells were treated with EVO (0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L) for 48 h, the alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin (TBIL) content of supernatant were detected. A multifunctional microplate reader was used to detect the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in HepG2 cells to evaluate the level of cell lipid peroxidation damage. The interactions between EVO and apoptosis, autophagy or ferroptosis-associated proteins were simulated by molecular docking. The HepG2 cells were stained by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) fluorescent probe (JC-10) and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI), and MMP and apoptosis in HepG2 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The cell survival rate was significantly reduced after the HepG2 cells were exposed to EVO (0.04-25 μmol/L) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the HepG2 cells treated with EVO for 24, 48 and 72 h were 85.3, 6.6 and 4.7 μmol/L, respectively. After exposure to EVO (0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L) for 48 h, the ALT, AST, LDH, ALP activities and TBIL content in the HepG2 cell culture supernatant, and the MDA content in the cells were increased, and SOD enzyme activity was decreased. Molecular docking results showed that EVO interacted with apoptosis-associated proteins (caspase-9 and caspase-3) better. JC-10 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays demonstrated that EVO could decrease MMP and promote apoptosis in the HepG2 cells. Western blot results indicated that the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated in the HepG2 cell treated with EVO for 48 h. In contrast, the protein expressions of pro-caspase-3, BSEP and MRP2 were downregulated.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggested that 0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L EVO had the potential hepatotoxicity, and the possible mechanism involved lipid peroxidation damage, cell apoptosis, and cholestasis.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11 , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cholestasis , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 , Quinazolines/toxicity
16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 829-837, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The anti-tumor effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been widely confirmed. However, the anti-tumor effect of its peptides is rarely reported. This study aims to investigate the effects of PEDF and its peptides on the apoptosis and migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).@*METHODS@#In this study, A549 cells and H1299 cells were selected as the research object, and the cells were divided into normal group, PEDF treatment group, 34 peptide treatment group, 44 peptide treatment group and 34+44 peptide treatment group by administering different drugs at the same concentration to the cells. The proliferation activity of cells in each group was detected by CCK-8 method; the migration ability of cells was detected by scratch test; the expression levels of apoptosis related proteins such as protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and cleaved-caspase-3 were detected by Western blot; the expression levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in each group, such as cadherin (E-cadherin) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were detected by Western blot; the apoptosis rate of each group was detected by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The results of CCK-8 showed that PEDF and its peptides could inhibit cell proliferation, and the inhibitory effect of 34+44 peptide was the strongest (P<0.05); Observation under the microscope found that PEDF and its peptides can inhibit the proliferation and mesenchymal transformation of A549 cells and H1299 cells, and the inhibitory effect of the 34+44 peptide group is the most obvious; Western blot indicated that compared with other groups, the expressions of cleaved-caspase-3 and RIP3 in 34+44 peptide group were significantly higher (P<0.05), and the expressions of EMT protein E-cadherin were higher, the expression of α-SMA decreased (P<0.05); The results of flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis rate of 34+44 peptide group was significantly higher than those of other groups (P<0.05); The scratch test showed that compared with all the other groups, the healing rate of 34+44 peptide group was the lowest (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#34+44 combination peptide can better promote the apoptosis of NSCLC, inhibit the migration of NSCLC, and thereby inhibit the growth of NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cadherins/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Caspase 3 , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Eye Proteins , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Nerve Growth Factors , Peptides/pharmacology , Serpins , Sincalide
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) to lymphoma Raji cells and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Different concentrations of 2-ME2 were used to treat lymphoma Raji cells. CCK8 method was used to detect the effect of 2-ME2 to proliferation of Raji cells. Flow cytometry FITC/PI double labeling method was used to detect early apoptosis of the cells. Western blotting was used to detect the effect of 2-ME2 to the expression of BCL-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and C-myc proteins in Raji cells.@*RESULTS@#2-ME2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of Raji cells. The inhibition rate increased with the increasing of drug concentration, and increased significantly with the prolongation of drug treatment time (r=0.9215). Flow cytometry FITC/PI double staining showed that the apoptotic rate of 2.5 μmol/L 2-ME2 treatment group was (33.79±1.63) %, while the apoptosis rate of the 48 h group was (51.90±2.72) %, and that of the control group was (7.08±0.36) %. After treated with 2.5 μmol/L 2-ME2 for 12 h, the expression of Bax protein was up-regulated, BCL-2 protein was down-regulated, caspase-3 protein expression was up-regulated, and C-myc protein expression was down-regulated, all of them showed a time-dependent relationship.@*CONCLUSION@#2-ME2 shows obvious inhibitory effect on lymphoma Raji cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its mechanism of treatment on lymphoma Raji cells may be related to up-regulation of Bax/BCL-2 ratio and activation of Caspase-3 to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Down-regulation of C-myc protein expression also participates in the apoptotic process.


Subject(s)
2-Methoxyestradiol , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Lymphoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Up-Regulation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210040, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279382

ABSTRACT

Resumo Contexto Estudos demonstraram, por análise histológica e Dopplerfluxométrica, a interferência da isquemia renal unilateral, realizada em algumas cirurgias, sobre o rim contralateral, identificando o fenômeno de kidney-kidney crosstalk. Objetivos Identificar o efeito da isquemia de duas estratégias de oclusão da vasculatura renal esquerda sobre o rim contralateral através do volume de células renais positivas para Caspase 3. Métodos Suínos foram divididos em 2 grupos: A (n = 8), artéria renal esquerda clampeada, e AV (n = 8), artéria e veia renais esquerdas clampeadas. Foi realizado o estudo imuno-histoquímico (anti-Caspase 3), com o material de biópsias coletadas do rim isquêmico e contralateral em 0, 30, 60 e 90 minutos de isquemia, e análise morfométrica, sendo que a média representou o volume de área de Caspase 3 positiva (%). Resultados A análise morfométrica do rim contralateral nos tempos 30, 60 e 90 minutos de isquemia mostrou que a média da área marcada por Caspase 3 foi estatisticamente superior à média do rim isquêmico nos dois grupos: artéria renal clampeada (A) e artéria e veia renais clampeadas (AV). Comparando o rim isquêmico e contralateral nos dois tipos de clampeamento, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante da área marcada por Caspase 3. Conclusões No modelo experimental de isquemia renal unilateral, o rim não isquêmico apresentou dano celular, demonstrado pela expressão da Caspase 3 de forma aguda em decorrência da isquemia contralateral. O tipo de clampeamento do hilo não parece ter influência sobre o volume de área marcada por Caspase 3.


Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated with histological analysis and Doppler flow measurement analysis that unilateral renal ischemia, which is performed in some surgeries, interfered with the contralateral kidney, identifying the phenomenon of kidney-kidney crosstalk. Objectives To identify the effects on the ischemic and contralateral kidney of renal ischemia induced by two types of clamping technique by analyzing the volume of kidney cells positive for Caspase 3. Methods Sixteen pigs were divided into 2 groups, as follows: A (n = 8) - clamping of left renal artery only and AV (n = 8) - clamping of left renal artery and vein. Immunohistochemical analyses (anti Caspase 3) were conducted with biopsy specimens collected from the ischemic and contralateral kidney at 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes of ischemia and morphometric analysis was performed, taking the mean to represent the volume of the Caspase 3 positive area (%). Results Morphometric analysis of specimens collected at 30, 60, and 90 minutes of ischemia showed that the mean area marked for Caspase 3 was statistically larger in the contralateral kidney than the ischemic kidney in both groups: clamped renal artery (A) and clamped renal artery and vein (AV). Comparing the ischemic and contralateral kidney, there was no statistically significant difference in the area marked for Caspase 3 between the two types of clamping. Conclusions In the experimental model of unilateral renal ischemia, the non-ischemic kidney exhibited cell damage, demonstrated by Caspase 3 expression. The type of hilum clamping does not appear to influence the area marked for Caspase 3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Renal Circulation , Ischemia , Swine , Intervention Studies , Apoptosis , Constriction , Caspase 3
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 627-634, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155766

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives The mechanisms by which local anesthetics cause neurotoxicity are very complicated. Apoptosis and autophagy are highly coordinated mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis against stress. Studies have shown that autophagy activation serves as a protective mechanism in vitro. However, whether it also plays the same role in vivo is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and to elucidate the mechanism of neurotoxicity in an intrathecally injected rat model. Methods Eighteen healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Before receiving an intrathecal injection of 1% bupivacaine, each rat received an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or rapamycin (1 mg.kg-1) once a day for 3 days. The pathological changes were examined by Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Apoptosis was analysed by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling (TUNEL) staining. Caspase-3, Beclin1 and LC3 expression was examined by Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Beclin1 and LC3 expression and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were detected by western blot analysis. Results After bupivacaine was injected intrathecally, pathological damage occurred in spinal cord neurons, and the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 increased. Enhancement of autophagy with rapamycin markedly alleviated the pathological changes and decreased the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 while increasing the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Conclusions Enhancement of autophagy decreases caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and improves neuronal survivalin vivo. Activation of autophagy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for local anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.


Resumo Introdução e objetivos Os mecanismos de neurotoxicidade dos anestésicos locais são complexos. A apoptose e a autofagia são mecanismos altamente organizados que mantêm a homeostase celular durante o estresse. Estudos revelam que a ativação da autofagia atua como mecanismo de proteção in vitro. Não está claro se a autofagia também desempenha essa função in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o papel da autofagia na neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésico local e esclarecer o mecanismo dessa neurotoxicidade utilizando um modelo de injeção intratecal em ratos. Métodos Dezoito ratos Sprague‐Dawley machos adultos saudáveis foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Antes de receber a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína a 1%, cada rato recebeu injeção intraperitoneal de veículo ou rapamicina (1 mg.kg‐1) uma vez ao dia durante 3 dias. As alterações patológicas foram examinadas por coloração com Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE). A apoptose foi analisada por coloração com o método dUTP Nick‐End Labeling (TUNEL) mediado por TdT. A expressão de caspase‐3, Beclin1 e LC3 foram examinadas por coloração Imunohistoquímica (IHQ). A expressão de Beclin1 e LC3 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I foram detectadas por análise de western blot. Resultados Após a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína, ocorreu lesão patológica nos neurônios da medula espinhal e os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3 aumentaram. A ativação da autofagia causada pela rapamicina mitigou de forma expressiva as alterações patológicas e diminuiu os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3, aumentando a expressão de LC3 e Beclin1 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I. Conclusões O aumento da autofagia diminui a apoptose dependente da caspase‐3 e melhora a sobrevivência neuronal in vivo. A ativação da autofagia pode ser uma estratégia terapêutica potencial para a neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésicos locais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Autophagy/drug effects , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/prevention & control , Caspase 3/metabolism , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Autophagy/physiology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Beclin-1/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/pathology
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1217-1222, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134428

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Repeated stress is a risk factor for memory impairment and neurological abnormalities in both humans and animals. We sought to investigate the extent of (i) brain tissue injury; (ii) nitrosative and oxidative stress in brain tissue homogenates; (iii) apoptotic and survival biomarkers in brain tissue homogenates; and (iv) immobility and climbing abilities, induced over a period of three weeks by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Wistar rats were either left untreated (Control group) or exposed to a variety of unpredictable stressors daily before being sacrificed after 3 weeks (model group). Assessment of depression-like behavior was performed and animals were then culled and harvested brain tissues were stained with basic histological staining and examined under light microscopy. In addition, brain tissue homogenates were prepared and assayed for these parameters; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), caspase-3, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Histology images showed CUS induced profound damage to the cerebral cortex as demonstrated by severe neuronal damage with shrunken cells, disrupted atrophic nuclei, perineuronal vacuolation and swollen glial cells. CUS also significantly (p<0.05) induced iNOS, MDA, and caspase-3, whereas SOD and Bcl-2 brain tissue levels were inhibited by CUS. In addition, data from the depression-like behavior, forced swimming test showed significant (p<0.05) increase in animal immobility and decrease in climbing ability in the model group of rats. Thus, here we demonstrated a reliable rat model of chronic stress-induced brain injury, which can further be used to investigate beneficial drugs or agents used for a period of three weeks to protect against CUS-induced brain damage.


RESUMEN: El estrés crónico es un factor de riesgo para el deterioro de la memoria y las anomalías neurológicas tanto en humanos como en animales. Intentamos investigar el alcance de lesión del tejido cerebral; (ii) estrés nitrosativo y oxidativo en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; (iii) biomarcadores apoptóticos y de supervivencia en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; y (iv) inmovilidad y habilidades de escalada, inducidas durante un período de tres semanas por estrés crónico impredecible (ECI). Se dejaron sin tratamiento (grupo control) ratas Wistar, o se expusieron a una variedad de factores estresantes impredecibles diariamente antes de ser sacrificadas después de 3 semanas (grupo modelo). Se realizó una evaluación del comportamiento similar a la depresión y luego se sacrificaron los animales y se tiñeron los tejidos cerebrales con tinción histológica básica y se examinaron con microscopía óptica. Además, se prepararon homogeneizados de tejido cerebral y se analizaron los siguientes parámetros; óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (iNOS), malondialdehído (MDA), superóxido dismutasa (SOD), caspasa- 3 y linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2). Las imágenes histológicas mostraron que el CUS indujo un daño profundo en la corteza cerebral como lo demuestra el daño neuronal severo con células encogidas, núcleos atróficos alterados, vacuolación perineuronal y células gliales inflamadas. ECI también indujo significativamente (p <0,05) iNOS, MDA y caspase-3, mientras que los niveles de tejido cerebral SOD y Bcl-2 fueron inhibidos por ECI. Además, los datos del comportamiento similar a la de- presión, la prueba de natación forzada mostró un aumento significativo (p <0,05) en la inmovilidad animal y una disminución en la capacidad de escalada en el grupo modelo de ratas. Por lo tanto, aquí demostramos un modelo confiable de daño cerebral crónico en rata inducido por el estrés, que se puede utilizar para investigar medicamentos o agentes beneficiosos usados durante un período de tres semanas para proteger el daño cerebral inducido por ECI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stress, Psychological/complications , Brain Damage, Chronic/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Behavior, Animal , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cerebral Cortex , Chronic Disease , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Depression , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Nitrosative Stress , Malondialdehyde/analysis
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