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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 250-263, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To reveal the detail mechanism of miR-484 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury.METHODS: Rats model of MI/R injury was established based on control (Con; sham operate) group, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, miR-484 treatment (miR) group, and I/R-negative control (IR-C) group, followed by pathological and interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β expression evaluation. Then the myocardial apoptosis, as well as the expression of miR-484, caspase-3, and caspase-9 in myocardium were examined. Finally, the regulatory relation between miR-484 and SMAD family member 7 (SMAD7) was predicated, followed by verification analysis.RESULTS: Compared with Con group, the expression of miR-484 in I/R and IR-C group was decreased. Compared with I/R and IR-C group, the expression of miR-484 was increased in miR group. Compared with Con group, the expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in cardiac myocytes of I/R group and IR-C group were increased. Compared with Con group, the apoptotic index, membrane potential of I/R, and the expression of caspase-3/9 were increased in IR-C group. Compared with the I/R and IR-C groups, the apoptotic index of myocardial cells in the ischemic region was decreased, the membrane potential was increased, and the expression of caspase-3/9 was decreased significantly in the miR group. SMAD7 was the target gene of miR-484.CONCLUSIONS: MiR-484 protected myocardial cells from I/R injury by suppressing caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression during cardiomyocyte apoptosis. MiR-484 reduced the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in MI/R. MiR-484 might alleviate the decreasing of mitochondrial membrane potential in MI/R cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Membrane Potentials , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the impacts of electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function, the pathological morphology in brain tissue, apoptosis level and the protein expressions of apoptosis-related cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and cysteine aspartic acid protease-9 (Caspase-9) in the rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the potential mechanism of EA in treatment of TBI.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 clean-grade SD mice were randomized into a blank group (8 rats), a sham-operation group (8 rats), a model group (27 rats) and an EA group (27 rats). In terms of interventions of 3, 7 and 14 days, 3 subgroups were divided in the model group and the EA group successively, 9 rats in each subgroup. The modified Feeney free-fall percussion method was adopted to establish TBI models of rats. In the sham-operation group, only the skull was exposed and drilled and no free-fall percussion was exerted. One day after modeling, EA was given in the rats of EA group at "Shuigou" (GV 26), "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on the affected side, with intermittent wave, 2 Hz in frequency, once daily, 10 min each time, for 3, 7 and 14 days successively. Separately, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the modified neurological severity scale (mNSS) was used to evaluate the degree of neurological function injury in the rats, HE staining and Nissl staining were to observe the pathological and morphological changes in brain tissue, TUNEL method was to observe the level of apoptosis in brain tissue and immunohistochemistry (IHC) method and Western blot were to determine the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in brain tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, mNSS scores were increased obviously in the rats of the model group respectively (<0.01). Compared with the model group, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, mNSS scores were reduced in the rats of the EA group respectively (<0.05). On day 3 of intervention, in brain injury region of the rats in the model group and the EA group, gross tissue necrosis, nuclear fragmentation, consolidation and obvious vacuolar changes, reduced Nissl bodies and scattered arrangement were found. On day 7 and 14 of intervention, in the model group and the EA group, the new connective tissue filling and normal cells were visible and Nissl bodies increased. The overall repair and Nissl body quantity in the EA group were better than the model group. Compared with the sham-operation group, on day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the numbers of apoptotic cells were increased obviously in the model group (<0.01) and they were reduced in the EA group as compared with the model group (<0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, on day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in damaged brain tissue were all increased obviously in the model group (<0.01) and they were all reduced in the EA group as compared with the model group successively (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture remarkably improves the condition in the neurological function injury and reduces apoptosis degree in TBI model rats, which is likely related to the down-regulation of the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in damaged brain tissue and further to bring the impacts on mitochondria mediated apoptosis process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Therapeutics , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 689-695, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the cerebellum of rats submitted to an experimental focal cerebral ischemia, by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours, associated with an alcoholism model. Methods Fifty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into five experimental groups: control group (C): animals submitted to anesthesia only; sham group (S): animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure; ischemic group (I): animals submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours; alcoholic group (A): animals that received daily absolute ethanol diluted 20% in water for four weeks; and, ischemic and alcoholic group (I + A): animals receiving the same treatment as group A and, after four weeks, submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. The cerebellum samples were collected and immunohistochemical analysis of Caspase-9 protein and serum analysis by RT-PCR of microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 and miR155 were performed. Results The expression of Caspase-9 was higher in groups I, A and I + A. In the microRNAs analyses, miR-126 was higher in groups A and I + A, miR-155 was higher in groups I and I + A. Conclusions We conclude that apoptosis occurs in the cerebellar cortex, even if it is distant from the ischemic focus, and that microRNAs 126 and 155 show a correlation with cellular apoptosis in ischemic rats and those submitted to the chronic alcohol model.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cerebelo de ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal experimental, por oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos, seguida de reperfusão por 48 horas, associada a um modelo de alcoolismo. Métodos Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar adultos, subdivididos em cinco grupos experimentais: grupo controle (C): animais submetidos apenas à anestesia; grupo sham (S): animais submetidos à simulação completa do procedimento cirúrgico; grupo isquêmico (I): animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas; grupo alcoólico (A): animais que receberam etanol absoluto diário diluído em 20% em água por quatro semanas; e grupo isquêmico e alcoólico (I + A): animais que recebem o mesmo tratamento do grupo A e, após quatro semanas, submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas. As amostras de cerebelo foram coletadas e a análise imuno-histoquímica da proteína Caspase-9 e a análise sérica por RT-PCR dos microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 e miR155 foram realizadas. Resultados A expressão de Caspase-9 foi maior nos grupos I, A e I + A. Nas análises de microRNAs, o miR-126 foi maior nos grupos A e I + A, o miR-155 foi maior nos grupos I e I + A. Conclusões Concluímos que a apoptose ocorre no córtex cerebelar, mesmo distante do foco isquêmico, e que os microRNAs 126 e 155 mostram uma correlação com a apoptose celular em ratos isquêmicos e submetidos ao modelo crônico de álcool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Alcoholism/pathology , Caspase 9/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebellum/chemistry , Brain Ischemia/blood , Rats, Wistar , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Alcoholism/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 55: e18222, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011653

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on chronic heart failure (CHF) in rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. One hundred SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose salidroside groups. The CHF model was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were intragastrically administrated with 6, 12 and 24 mg/kg salidroside, respectively, once a day, for continuous 4 weeks. Finally, the serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), cardiac function indexes, and expression levels of myocardial cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase (Caspase)-3, Caspase-9, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein were determined. Results showed that, after treatment, compared with model group, in high-dose salidroside group the heart function indexes were significantly improved (P < 0.05), the serum levels of BNP and IL-6 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the expression levels of myocardial Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and MMP-1 protein were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression level of TIMP-1 protein was significantly increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, salidroside has obvious protective effects on CHF in rats. The mechanisms may be related to its regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ventricular remodelingregulation related protein expressions


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rhodiola/adverse effects , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Therapeutics/classification , Caspase 3/pharmacology , Caspase 9/pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite all the efforts and increased knowledge of rabies, the exact mechanisms of infection and mortality from the rabies virus are not well understood. To understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of rabies virus infection, it is crucial to study the tissue that the rabies virus naturally infects in humans. METHODS: Cerebellum brain tissue from 9 human post mortem cases from Iran, who had been infected with rabies virus, were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to evaluate the innate immune responses against the rabies virus. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation of the infected cerebellum and immunohistochemical analyses showed an increased immunoreactivity of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, caspase-9, toll-like receptor3 and toll-like receptor4 in the infected brain tissue. CONCLUSION: These results indicated the involvement of innate immunity in rabies infected human brain tissue, which may aggravate the progression of this deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Brain , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Iran , Mortality , Pathology , Rabies virus , Rabies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Virulence
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the cytotoxic effect of Cimicifuga rhizoma extract is associated with cell death in the human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and human melanoma cell lines (G361). METHODS: Apoptosis induced by Cimicifuga rhizoma extract was confirmed by water-soluble tetrazolium salts-1 (WST-1) assay, immunocytochemistry, and western blot. Additionally, the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results showed that Cimicifuga rhizoma extract significantly reduced the viability of G361 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 200 µg/ml, and the apoptotic process was found to occur via the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 pathways. Besides, the release of cytochrome c and AIF was also detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that Cimicifuga rhizoma extract causes apoptosis of human melanoma cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cimicifuga , Cytochromes c , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratinocytes , Melanoma , Microscopy, Confocal
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) have been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis roots (EESB) on the growth ofn human leukemia U937 cells. METHODS: The effect of EESB on cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile staining and flow cytometry. The effects of EESB on the expression of regulatory proteins of apoptosis and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling were determined by Western blotting. Caspase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured using flow cytometric analysis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukemia , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Phosphatidylinositols , Receptors, Death Domain , Scutellaria baicalensis , Scutellaria , U937 Cells , Up-Regulation
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763027

ABSTRACT

Daidzein isolated from soybean (Glycine max) has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of 7,8,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity are not well understood. In the current study, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly inhibited neuronal cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells, which were used as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, pretreatment with 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly recovered 6-OHDA-induced cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), increased Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly restored the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Further, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) level induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 7,8,4′-THIF protects against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death in cellular PD models. Also, these effects are mediated partly by inhibiting activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Catalase , Cell Death , Glutathione , Glycogen Synthase , In Vitro Techniques , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Malondialdehyde , Neurons , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Soybeans , Superoxide Dismutase , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of inner-heating acupuncture on apoptosis of chondrocytes and expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).@*METHODS@#A total of 32 rats were divided into a normal group, a model group, a control treatment group and a treatment group by random number grouping method, 8 rats in each one. The rats in the normal group received no intervention. The rats in the remaining three groups adopted modified Videman method to develop KOA model, the ankle joint of left posterior leg was fully extended and fixed with a resin bandage for 6 weeks. After successful modeling, the rats in the model group received no intervention. The rats in the control treatment group were treated with medium-frequency pulse electrotherapy. The rats in the treatment group were treated with inner- heating acupuncture, 30 min each treatment, once a day, five days per week, and totally 3-week treatment was given. After 3 weeks, the damaged cartilage tissue was collected, and HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of the cartilage tissue of the knee joint. ELISA was used to detect the content of cytochrome-C in the tissue homogenate supernatant. The chondrocytes in damaged cartilage tissue were isolated, flow cytometer was used to detect the changes of apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in chondrocytes were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB), respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the damage of cartilage tissue in the model group was significant, and the expression level of Cyt-C in the homogenate supernatant of damaged cartilage tissue was increased (<0.01); the chondrocyte apoptosis was increased significantly (<0.01); the chondrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly (<0.01); the mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 was increased significantly (all <0.01). Compared with the model group, the cartilage injury in the control treatment group and the treatment group was significantly relieved; the expression level of Cyt-C in the supernatant of damaged cartilage tissue homogenate was decreased (both <0.01); the chondrocyte apoptosis was significantly reduced (both <0.01); the chondrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential was increased significantly (both <0.01). Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 was significantly reduced (all <0.01). Compared with the control treatment group, the treatment group was more effective in the treatment of KOA.@*CONCLUSION@#The inner-heating acupuncture could significantly improve the pathological changes of KOA rats, inhibit the apoptosis of chondrocytes, which may be closely related to the suppression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cartilage, Articular , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Chondrocytes , Heating , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Rats
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is under development as an oncolytic virus due to its preferential replication in cancer cells and oncolytic activity, however the viral components responsible have not yet been determined. In this study the effects of VSV wild-type (wt) and M51R-mutant matrix proteins (M51R-mMP) on apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy pathways, in an esophagus cancer cell line (KYSE-30) were investigated. METHODS: The KYSE-30 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1 plasmids encoding wt or M51R-mMP, and apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy were evaluated 48 and 72 hours after transfection. RESULTS: KYSE-30 cells transfected with VSV wt and M51R-mMPs significantly reduced cell viability to < 50% at 72 hours post-transfection. M51R-MP significantly increased the concentration of caspase-8 and caspase-9 at 48 and 72 hours post-transfection, respectively ( p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were detected following transfection with the VSV wt plasmid. Moreover, VSV wt and M51R-mMP transfected cells did not change the expression of caspase-3. VSV wt and M51R-mMPs did not mMP change caspase-1 expression (a marker of pyroptosis) at 48 and 72 hours post-transfection. However, M51R-mMP and VSV wt transfected cells significantly increased RIP-1 (a marker of necroptosis) expression at 72 hours post-infection ( p < 0.05). Beclin-1, a biomarker of autophagy, was also induced by transfection with VSV wt or M51R-mMPs at 48 hours post-transfection. CONCLUSION: The results in this study indicated that VSV exerts oncolytic activity in KYSE-30 tumor cells through different cell death pathways, suggesting that M51R-mMP may potentially be used to enhance oncolysis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Oncolytic Viruses , Plasmids , Pyroptosis , Transfection , Vesicular Stomatitis , Viral Structures
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719643

ABSTRACT

The apoptotic effects of shikonin (5,8-dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione) on the human colon cancer cell line SNU-407 were investigated in this study. Shikonin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against SNU-407 cells, with an estimated IC50 value of 3 µM after 48 h of treatment. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptotic body formation, sub-G1 phase cells, and DNA fragmentation. Shikonin induced apoptotic cell death by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase family members, and the apoptotic process was mediated by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the PERK/elF2α/CHOP apoptotic pathway, and mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Shikonin increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization and altered the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, with a decrease in B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein, and subsequently, increased expression of cleaved forms of caspase-9 and -3. Taken together, we suggest that these mechanisms, including MAPK signaling and the ER-and mitochondria-mediated pathways, may underlie shikonin-induced apoptosis related to its anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Fragmentation , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes , Protein Kinases
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7599, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974261

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressive role of oridonin, an active compound extracted from Rabdosia rubescens, has been proven in several gastric cancer (GC) cell lines. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of oridonin on another GC cell line, SNU-216, and explore the potential mechanisms. The viable cell numbers, cell migration, survival fraction, and cell viability were, respectively, evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, wound healing assay, clonogenic assay, and CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry assay and western blot. The expression of p53 was inhibited by transient transfection, and the efficiency was verified by western blot. qRT-PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expression of p53. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression of apoptosis, DNA damage and p53 function related factors. We found that oridonin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and survivability, and enhanced cell apoptosis in SNU-216 cells. However, it had no influence on HEK293 cell viability. Oridonin also remarkably enhanced the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin on SNU-216 cells, as it significantly increased apoptotic cells and decreased cell viability. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of p53 was significantly up-regulated in oridonin-treated cells, while Mdm2 expression was down-regulated. Furthermore, oridonin enhanced p53 function and induced DNA damage. Knockdown of p53 or employing the caspase inhibitor, Boc-D-FMK, reversed the effect of oridonin on cell viability and apoptosis-related protein expression. The present study demonstrated that oridonin exhibited an anti-tumor effect on GC SNU-216 cells through regulating p53 expression and function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/analysis , Diterpenes, Kaurane/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , DNA Damage/drug effects , Carcinoma/metabolism , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Apoptosis/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Caspase 3/analysis , Caspase 9/analysis , HEK293 Cells , Flow Cytometry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771462

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the anti- scarring effect of rapamycin in rabbits receiving glaucoma filtering surgery.@*METHODS@#Ninety-six Chinchilla rabbits were randomized equally into 3 rapamycin treatment groups and one control group. All the rabbits underwent trabeculectomy, after which the rabbits in the 3 rapamycin groups were treated with eye drops containing 1%, 3%, or 5% rapamycin in the operated eyes, and those in the control groups were given castor oil 4 times a day. The intraocular pressure (IOP) and inflammatory reaction in the treated eyes were observed, and the PCNA-positive cells in the filtering bleb were detected using immunohistochemistry. RTFs isolated from the Tenon's capsule of the rabbits were cultured , and the expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in the fibroblasts were detected after treatment with different concentrations of rapamycin.@*RESULTS@#The IOP was significantly lower in rapamycin-treated group than in the control group after the surgery ( < 0.05). The counts of the PCNA-positive cells were significantly lower in rapamycin-treated rabbits than in the control group ( < 0.05). Rapamycin treatment dose-dependently increased the expressions of caspase-3 and caspase- 9 at both the mRNA ( < 0.001) and protein ( < 0.001) levels without causing significant changes in the expressions of caspase-8.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Rapamycin can inhibit excessive proliferation of the fibroblasts in the filtering bleb to reduce scar formation after glaucoma filtration surgery in rabbits. Rapamycin also increases the expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 to induce apoptosis of the RTFs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cicatrix , Filtering Surgery , Glaucoma , General Surgery , Intraocular Pressure , Postoperative Complications , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Rabbits , Random Allocation , Sirolimus , Therapeutic Uses , Trabeculectomy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal cell damage, which is associated with neurodegenerative disease. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of perilla oil (PO) and its active component, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells exposed to 250 µM H₂O₂ for 24 h were treated with different concentrations of PO (25, 125, 250 and 500 µg/mL) and its major fatty acid, ALA (1, 2.5, 5 and 25 µ/mL). We examined the effects of PO and ALA on H₂O₂-induced cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and nuclear condensation. Moreover, we determined whether PO and ALA regulated the apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as cleaved-poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved caspase-9 and -3, BCL-2 and BAX. RESULTS: Treatment of H₂O₂ resulted in decreased cell viability, increased LDH release, and increase in the nuclei condensation as indicated by Hoechst 33342 staining. However, PO and ALA treatment significantly attenuated the neuronal cell death, indicating that PO and ALA potently blocked the H₂O₂-induced neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, cleaved-PARP, cleaved caspase-9 and -3 activations were significantly decreased in the presence of PO and ALA, and the H₂O₂-mediated up-regulated BAX/BCL-2 ratio was blocked after treatment with PO and ALA. CONCLUSIONS: PO and its main fatty acid, ALA, exerted the protective activity from neuronal oxidative stress induced by H₂O₂. They regulated apoptotic pathway in neuronal cell death by alleviation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, and down-regulation of cleaved-PARP and cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Although further studies are required to verify the protective mechanisms of PO and ALA from neuronal damage, PO and ALA are the promising agent against oxidative stress-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , alpha-Linolenic Acid , Apoptosis , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Neuroblastoma , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxidative Stress , Perilla
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728765

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the raising anticancer effects of resveratrol (Res) on paclitaxel (PA) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549. The 10 µg/ml of Res had no effect on human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells or on A549 cancer cells and the 5 or 10 µg/ml of PA also had no effect on MRC-5 normal cells. PA-L (5 µg/ml) and PA-H (10 µg/ml) had the growth inhibitory effects in NSCLC cell line A549, and Res increased these growth inhibitory effects. By flow cytometry experiment, after Res (5 µg/ml)+PA-H (10 µg/ml) treatment, the A549 cells showed the most apoptosic cells compared to other group treatments, and after additional treatment with Res, the apoptosic cells of both two PA concentrations were raised. Res+PA could reduce the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2, and Res+PA could reduce the COX-2 related genes of VEGF, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, procollagen I, collagen I, collagen III and CTGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and raise the TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, IκB-α, p53, p21, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax genes compared to the control cells and the PA treated cells. From these results, it can be suggested that Res could raise the anticancer effects of PA in A549 cells, thus Res might be used as a good sensitizing agent for PA.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Line , Collagen , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung , Paclitaxel , Procollagen , RNA, Messenger , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728752

ABSTRACT

Most normal cells express L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2). However, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in many tumor cells and presumed to support their increased growth and proliferation. This study examined the effects of JPH203, a selective LAT1 inhibitor, on cell growth and its mechanism for cell death in Saos2 human osteosarcoma cells. FOB human osteoblastic cells and Saos2 cells expressed LAT1 and LAT2 together with their associating protein 4F2 heavy chain, but the expression of LAT2 in the Saos2 cells was especially weak. JPH203 and BCH, a non-selective L-type amino acid transporter inhibitor, potently inhibited L-leucine uptake in Saos2 cells. As expected, the intrinsic ability of JPH203 to inhibit L-leucine uptake was far more efficient than that of BCH in Saos2 cells. Likewise, JPH203 and BCH inhibited Saos2 cell growth with JPH203 being superior to BCH in this regard. Furthermore, JPH203 increased apoptosis rates and formed DNA ladder in Saos2 cells. Moreover, JPH203 activated the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway by upregulating pro-apoptotic factors, such as Bad, Bax, and Bak, and the active form of caspase-9, and downregulating anti-apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. These results suggest that the inhibition of LAT1 activity via JPH203, which may act as a potential novel anti-cancer agent, leads to apoptosis mediated by the mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway by inducing the intracellular depletion of neutral amino acids essential for cell growth in Saos2 human osteosarcoma cells.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Transport Systems , Amino Acids, Neutral , Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain , Apoptosis , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , DNA , Humans , Leucine , Osteoblasts , Osteosarcoma
18.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 126-135, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis B viral protein X (HBx) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as the elevation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We thus investigated the anticancer effects of an HSP90 inhibitor 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) in HBx-transfected hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: pcDNA-HBx was made by inserting the HBx gene derived from the HBV-infected patient into pcDNA3.1 using the restriction enzymes (XbaI/HindIII). HBx-expressing HepG2 cells were then generated by transfecting HepG2 cells with pcDNA containing HBx gene. To compare the anticancer effects of 17-DMAG between pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells and the control cells (pcDNA-transfected HepG2 cells), we performed various molecular studies, including Ez-cytox proliferation assay, Western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: 17-DMAG inhibited the proliferation of pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells better than control cells (P<0.05). After treating with a various concentration of 17-DMAG (50–1,000 nM), pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells exhibited higher expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (c-caspase-3, c-caspase-8, and c-caspase-9) than did control cells (P<0.05). pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells showed higher activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 than did control cells (P<0.05). Finally, we found that the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (PARP and c-caspase-3) was considerably decreased by the use of a caspase inhibitor suggesting that 17-DMAG induces the cell death of HepG2 cells caspase-dependently. CONCLUSIONS: Our study strongly suggests that 17-DMAG has antiviral effects against HBV as well as anticancer effects against HepG2 cells. Thus, the application of 17-DMAG appears to be particularly advantageous to the HCC patients related with HBV infection.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Caspases , Cell Death , Flow Cytometry , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Transfection
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129231

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of metformin on human esophageal cancer cell and to investigate its possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was detected by using a Cell Counting Kit-8, while cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry and western blot was used to measure the expression of the related proteins. RNAi was used to knockout pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2). An Eca109 tumor model was established to evaluate the antitumor effect in vivo. Immunohistochemistry was determined based on the expression of PKM2 and Bim in tumor tissues. Tunnel was used to assess tumor cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer cells viability was reduced after metformin treatment. The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis was induced, caspase 3 was activated, caspase 9 was downregulated, and the pro-apoptotic protein Bim increased. Further study revealed that metformin could suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and its downstream proteins, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT/PKB), phosphorylation of AKT (pAKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6K, and PKM2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 partly reversed metfromin-induced apoptosis and attenuated the repression effect of metfomin to PI3K, pAKT, and PKM2. Knockout PKM2 resulted in the activation of caspase 3, down-regulation of caspase 9, and increased expression of Bim. In the Eca109 xenograft model, metformin significantly reduced tumor growth. Furthermore, we found that metformin treatment increased the rate of apoptosis, down-regulation of PKM2, and up-regulation of Bim in tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Metformin restrained esophageal cancer cell proliferation partly by suppressing the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Esophageal Neoplasms , Flow Cytometry , Heterografts , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Metformin , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Pyruvate Kinase , Repression, Psychology , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , RNA Interference , Sirolimus , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of metformin on human esophageal cancer cell and to investigate its possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was detected by using a Cell Counting Kit-8, while cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry and western blot was used to measure the expression of the related proteins. RNAi was used to knockout pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2). An Eca109 tumor model was established to evaluate the antitumor effect in vivo. Immunohistochemistry was determined based on the expression of PKM2 and Bim in tumor tissues. Tunnel was used to assess tumor cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer cells viability was reduced after metformin treatment. The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis was induced, caspase 3 was activated, caspase 9 was downregulated, and the pro-apoptotic protein Bim increased. Further study revealed that metformin could suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and its downstream proteins, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT/PKB), phosphorylation of AKT (pAKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6K, and PKM2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 partly reversed metfromin-induced apoptosis and attenuated the repression effect of metfomin to PI3K, pAKT, and PKM2. Knockout PKM2 resulted in the activation of caspase 3, down-regulation of caspase 9, and increased expression of Bim. In the Eca109 xenograft model, metformin significantly reduced tumor growth. Furthermore, we found that metformin treatment increased the rate of apoptosis, down-regulation of PKM2, and up-regulation of Bim in tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Metformin restrained esophageal cancer cell proliferation partly by suppressing the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Esophageal Neoplasms , Flow Cytometry , Heterografts , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Metformin , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Pyruvate Kinase , Repression, Psychology , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , RNA Interference , Sirolimus , Up-Regulation
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