Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 368
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922611

ABSTRACT

As a form of new programmed cell death, pyroptosis is divided into a canonical pyroptosis pathway and a non-canonical pyroptosis pathway. In recent years, it is reported that non-canonical pyroptosis is closely related to inflammatory reactions, which directly affects the occurrence, development, and outcome of sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, respiratory disease, nerve system inflammatory disease, and other inflammatory diseases. When the cells were infected with Gram-negative bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), it can induce the activation of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase(caspase)-4/5/11 and directly bind to the cells to cleave gasdermin D (GSDM-D) into the active amino-terminus of GSDM-D. The amino-terminus of GSDM-D with membrane punching activity migrates to the cell membrane, triggering the rupture of the cell membrane, and the cell contents discharge, leading to the occurrence of non-canonical pyroptosis. After activation of caspase-11, it also promotes the canonical pyroptosis, activates and releases interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, which aggravated inflammation. Caspase-4/5/11, GSDM-D, Toll-like receptor 4 and high mobility group protein B1 are the key molecules of the non-canonical pyroptosis. Exploring the mechanisms of non-canonical pyroptosis and the related research progresses in inflammatory diseases intensively is of great significance for clinical prevention and treatment of the relevant diseases.


Subject(s)
Caspases , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Pyroptosis , Sepsis
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 329-341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878261

ABSTRACT

Pyroptosis is a form of programmed cell death which is closely related to the inflammatory response, mediated by Gasdermin protein and depends on the activity of cysteine aspartate specific protease (caspase). Pyroptosis is typically characterized by swelling and rupture of cell membrane, release of proinflammatory factors and cell contents from the plasma membrane to the extracellular environment, which aggravates inflammatory response. During the inflammatory response, NLRP3, caspase, Gasdermin D (GSDMD) and IL-1β play important roles in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of pyroptosis in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, pressure overload-induced ventricular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy, myocarditis, arrhythmia and so on, and summarize the potential treatment targeting pyroptosis. It will provide the basis for prevention and treatment of clinical cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Caspases , Humans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Pyroptosis
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 27-31, Mar. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is one of the common malignant tumors of the head and neck. However, current treatments have numerous side effects, and drugs from natural sources may have better therapeutic potential. This research investigated the induction of apoptosis by α-hederin (α-HN), a constituent of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel, in the oral cancer cell line SCC-25 and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: SCC-25 cells were treated with 50, 100, and 200 µmol/L α-HN. Cell proliferation; extent of apoptosis; activities of caspases-3, 8, and 9; and the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, phosphorylated (p)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p-Akt, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) proteins were determined using the 3-(4,5)-2-thiazole-(2,5)-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry, caspase activity detection kits, and western blot assays, respectively. The results showed that the proliferation of SCC-25 cells in the α-HN-treated groups decreased significantly, and the inhibitory effect was time and concentration dependent. Compared with cells in the control group, the extent of apoptosis increased significantly, caspase-3 and -9 activities were significantly enhanced, and the Bcl-2 level was lowered and the Bax level was elevated significantly in SCC-25 cells treated with α-HN for 48 h (P b 0.05). The expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR was also significantly lower in SCC-25 cells treated with α-HN than that in the control group (P b 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that α-HN can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of SCC-25 cells and may exert these effects by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Saponins/pharmacology , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oleanolic Acid/metabolism , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Saponins/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Survival , Blotting, Western , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Caspases , Pulsatilla , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism
4.
Gut and Liver ; : 77-82, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are crucial to establish early intervention. Previous studies have suggested that plasma levels of cleaved keratin-18 (K18; M30) fragments can predict the severity of liver disease. The aim of this study was to correlate plasma M30 levels with stages of liver fibrosis in ALD. METHODS: Patients with ALD (n=139, 79.1% males) and liver histology were included, and plasma samples were collected to quantify plasma M30 levels. Patients were stratified into five groups by fibrosis stage (F0=14; F1=15; F2=35; F3=17; and F4=58) according to the Kleiner score. Differences between groups were evaluated using the chi-square test or analysis of variance. Trends by fibrosis stage were calculated by logistic regression analysis, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in M30 levels among fibrosis stages. The correlation between plasma M30 levels and fibrosis was poor (Pearson’s correlation coefficient=0.13, Spearman rho=0.20 [p=0.02]), and M30 levels did not correlate with alcohol-specific histological features. However, significant correlations of M30 levels with aspartate aminotransferase (Spearman rho=0.653, p 200 U/L reveal a sensitivity for predicting cirrhosis of 84.5% with a negative predictive value of 73.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma M30 levels are often elevated in ALD and correlate with serum transaminases but do not reflect fibrosis. The usefulness as a prognostic marker awaits evaluation in prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alcoholics , Apoptosis , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Caspases , Early Intervention, Educational , Fibrosis , Humans , Keratin-18 , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Logistic Models , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transaminases
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 509-516, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to verify the induction and mechanism of selective apoptosis in G361 melanoma cells using anti-HER2 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNP-HER2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following GNP-HER2 treatment of G361 cells, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were measured by WST-1 assay, Hemacolor staining, Hoechst staining, immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and Western blotting.


Subject(s)
Actins , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspases , Cell Adhesion , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cyclin A , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Cytochromes c , Cytoplasm , DNA Fragmentation , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Focal Adhesions , Melanoma , Mitochondria , Nanoparticles , Phosphotransferases , ErbB Receptors , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771633

ABSTRACT

The clinical treatment of joint contracture due to immobilization remains difficult. The pathological changes of muscle tissue caused by immobilization-induced joint contracture include disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and skeletal muscle tissue fibrosis. The proteolytic pathways involved in disuse muscle atrophy include the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway, caspase system pathway, matrix metalloproteinase pathway, Ca-dependent pathway and autophagy-lysosomal pathway. The important biological processes involved in skeletal muscle fibrosis include intermuscular connective tissue thickening caused by transforming growth factor-β1 and an anaerobic environment within the skeletal muscle leading to the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. This article reviews the progress made in understanding the pathological processes involved in immobilization-induced muscle contracture and the currently available treatments. Understanding the mechanisms involved in immobilization-induced contracture of muscle tissue should facilitate the development of more effective treatment measures for the different mechanisms in the future.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Autophagy , Calcium , Metabolism , Caspases , Metabolism , Connective Tissue , Metabolism , Pathology , Contracture , Metabolism , Pathology , Therapeutics , Fibrosis , Humans , Immobilization , Joints , Lysosomes , Metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal , Metabolism , Pathology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Metabolism , Proteolysis , Signal Transduction , Physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Ubiquitin , Metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777467

ABSTRACT

Curcumae Rhizoma is a Chinese medicinal herb that is contraindicated during pregnancy. Cold-congelation and blood-stasis are corresponding syndromes to Curcumae Rhizoma. Whether syndrome-based treatment is associated with developmental neurotoxicity of Curcumae Rhizoma remains to be unclear. To verify the theory of traditional Chinese medicine of "syndrome-based treatment during pregnancy", the present study induced the mice blood stasis model by immersing mice in ice water. Pregnant C57 BL/6 wild type(WT) mice and pregnant Nrf2 knock out(KO) mice were randomly divided into control groups and Rhizoma Curcumae exposure groups. The mice were exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae during day 5 to day 18 after pregnancy. The neurodevelopment was examined to evaluate the differences of developmental neurotoxicity between normal and blood-stasis pregnant mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae. caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in brain of the offspring were measured by colorimetric assays. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression in brain of the offspring were examined by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. According to the findings, C57 BL/6 mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae(10.0 g·kg~(-1)) had a longer positive occurring time of the surface righting reflex test of offspring and higher caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in brain of offspring, compared with the normal control group, but with no significant change in those of blood-stasis pregnant mice offspring. However, mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae(10.0 g·kg~(-1)) showed no change in Bcl-2 gene expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in brain of the offspring. Nrf2 gene knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a longer positive occurring time of the surface righting reflex test of offspring and higher caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in brain of offspring. In conclusion, developmental neurotoxicity of the blood-stasis pregnant mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae was weaker than that of the normal pregnant mice. Nrf2 activation involved in the phenomenon of Rhizoma Curcumae of "syndrome-based treatment during pregnancy", but the upstream signal pathway mechanism value shall be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Caspases , Genetics , Curcuma , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Maternal Exposure , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Genetics , Pregnancy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Genetics , Random Allocation , Rhizome , Chemistry , Signal Transduction
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e8499, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001530

ABSTRACT

Two new coordination polymers [Zn (bdc)(bpybzimH2)](DMF)0.5 (1, H2bdc=1,4-dicarboxybenzene, bpybzimH2=6,6′-bis-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide) and [Co (bpybzimH2)(sbc)]H2O (2, H2sbc=4-mercaptobenzoic acid) have been successfully prepared under solvothermal conditions using the multi-N chelating organic ligand bpybzimH2 as the foundational building block. In addition, the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was conducted to evaluate the anti-proliferation activity of compounds 1 and 2 against human spinal tumor cells OPM-2. The cell viability curves showed that the two compounds have anti-proliferation activity on spinal tumor cells, and the activity of compound 1 is higher than compound 2. The annexin V-FITC/PI assay and western blot were used to detect the apoptotic percentage of OPM-2 cells incubated with compounds 1 and 2. The YAP protein expression and its role in cell apoptosis were further studied with qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymers/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ligands , Spinal Neoplasms/enzymology , Spinal Neoplasms/pathology , Transfection , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 525-532, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991701

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The role of villous atrophy in apoptosis, a distinctive feature of celiac disease, is a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the apoptosis rate through immunohistochemical staining for M30 and M65 in celiac disease cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study in a tertiary-level center. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies from 28 treatment-naive patients with celiac disease, 16 patients with potential celiac disease, 10 patients with a gluten-free diet and 8 controls were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the end-apoptotic marker M30 and the total cell death marker M65. H-scores were compared. Several laboratory parameters were recorded concomitantly, and at the one-year follow-up for celiac disease and potential celiac disease patients. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in H-score for M30 expression between the celiac disease, potential celiac disease and gluten-free diet groups (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in H-score for M65 expression. There was a positive correlation between the H-score for M30 expression and the anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (anti-tTgIgA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin G (anti-tTgIgG) levels (R = 0.285, P = 0.036; and R = 0.307, P = 0.024, respectively); and between the H-score for M65 expression and the anti-tTgIgA and anti-tTgIgG levels (R = 0.265, P = 0.053; and R=0.314, P = 0.021, respectively). There was no difference between celiac disease and potential celiac disease patients regarding the laboratory parameters selected. CONCLUSION: The rates of apoptosis and nutritional deficiencies in patients with potential celiac disease were similar to those in patients with celiac disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Celiac Disease/pathology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Keratin-18/metabolism , Biopsy , Biomarkers/metabolism , Celiac Disease/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716086

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Orthodontic root resorption (ORR) due to orthodontic tooth movement is a difficult treatment-related adverse event. Caspases are important effector molecules for apoptosis. At present, little is known about the mechanisms underlying ORR and apoptosis in the cementum. The aim of the present in vivo study was to investigate the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), caspase 3, caspase 8, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in the cementum in response to a heavy or an optimum orthodontic force. METHODS: The maxillary molars of male Wistar rats were subjected to an orthodontic force of 10 g or 50 g using a closed coil spring. The rats were sacrificed each experimental period on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after orthodontic force application. And the rats were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: On day 7 for the 50-g group, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed numerous root resorption lacunae with odontoclasts on the root, while immunohistochemistry showed increased TRAP- and RANKL-positive cells. Caspase 3- and caspase 8-positive cells were increased on the cementum surfaces in the 50-g group on days 3 and 5. Moreover, the number of caspase 3- and caspase 8-positive cells and RANKL-positive cells was significantly higher in the 50-g group than in the 10-g group. CONCLUSIONS: In our rat model, ORR occurred after apoptosis was induced in the cementum by a heavy orthodontic force. These findings suggest that apoptosis of cementoblasts is involved in ORR.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases , Dental Cementum , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Models, Animal , Molar , Osteoclasts , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Root Resorption , Tooth Movement Techniques
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714732

ABSTRACT

Because of the unsatisfactory treatment options for breast cancer (BC), there is a need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this malignancy. One such strategy is chemotherapy using non-toxic dietary substances and botanical products. Studies have shown that Panduratin A (PA) possesses many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we provide evidence that PA treatment of MCF-7 BC cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with an IC50 of 15 µM and no to little effect on normal human MCF-10A breast cells. To define the mechanism of these anti-proliferative effects of PA, we determined its effect critical molecular events known to regulate the cell cycle and apoptotic machinery. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-FITC staining provided evidence for the induction of apoptosis. PA treatment of BC cells resulted in increased activity/expression of mitochondrial cytochrome C, caspases 7, 8 and 9 with a significant increase in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, suggesting the involvement of a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that PA treatment of cells resulted in G0/G1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis data revealed that, in MCF-7 cell lines, PA treatment resulted in the dose-dependent (i) induction of p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1, (ii) downregulation of Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and (iii) decrease in cyclin D1. These findings suggest that PA may be an effective therapeutic agent against BC.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Caspases , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Cytochromes c , Down-Regulation , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Insurance Benefits , MCF-7 Cells , Phosphotransferases
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812431

ABSTRACT

The underground cane of Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) has long been used by Chinese ethnic minority as a constituent of anti-cancer formulae. Saponins are abundant secondary metabolic products located in the underground cane of this plant. The potential therapeutic effects of total saponins isolated from Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) (SSPH) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested in vitro in human liver cancer cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7404. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometry, caspase activation was determined by ELISA, and PARP, cleaved PARP, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were measured using Western blotting analysis. In vivo anti-HCC effects of SSPH were verified in nude mouse xenograft model. SSPH exerted markedly inhibitory effect on HCC cell proliferation in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, SSPH significantly induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent signaling and arrested cell cycle at G/M phase. These anti-proliferation effects of SSPH were associated with up-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk1/2) and c-jun-NH2-kinase-1/2 (JNK1/2) and reduced phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Furthermore, inhibitors of ERK, UO126, and JNK, SP600125 inhibited the anti-proliferation effects by SSPH, suggesting that Erk and JNK were the effector molecules in SSPH induced anti-proliferative action. During in vivo experiments, SSPH was found to inhibit xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, with a similar mechanism in vitro. Our study confirmed that SSPH exerted antagonistic effects on human liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular mechanisms underlying SSPH action might be closely associated with MAPK signaling pathways. These results indicated that SSPH has potential therapeutic effects on HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Caspases , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Dioscoreaceae , Chemistry , Heterografts , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Liver Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , Mice, Nude , Phosphorylation , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Toxicity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the synergistic effect of ABT-737 on docetaxel using MDA-MB-231, a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line overexpressing B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). METHODS: Western blot analysis was performed to assess expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-related molecules. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry analysis. Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk) was used for pretreatment to assess the role of caspases. RESULTS: Cell viability of MDA-MB-231 after combination treatment with ABT-737 and docetaxel was significantly lower than that after docetaxel or ABT-737 monotherapy based on MTT assay (both P < 0.001), with a combination index of 0.41. The proportion of sub-G1 population after combination treatment was significantly higher than that after docetaxel or ABT-737 monotherapy (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). Pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk completely restored cell viability of MDA-MB-231 from apoptotic cell death induced by combination therapy (P = 0.001). Although pro-caspase-8 or Bid did not show significant change in expression level, pro-casepase-9 showed significantly decreased expression after combination treatment. Cleaved caspase-3 showed increased expression while poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage was induced after combination treatment. However, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 totally lost their expression after combination treatment. CONCLUSION: Combination of ABT-737 with docetaxel elicits synergistic therapeutic effect on MDA-MB-231, a TNBC cell line overexpressing Bcl-2, mainly by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Therefore, adjunct of ABT-737 to docetaxel might be a new therapeutic option to overcome docetaxel resistance of TNBCs overexpressing Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Apoptosis , B-Lymphocytes , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Drug Resistance , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773641

ABSTRACT

The underground cane of Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) has long been used by Chinese ethnic minority as a constituent of anti-cancer formulae. Saponins are abundant secondary metabolic products located in the underground cane of this plant. The potential therapeutic effects of total saponins isolated from Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) (SSPH) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested in vitro in human liver cancer cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7404. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometry, caspase activation was determined by ELISA, and PARP, cleaved PARP, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were measured using Western blotting analysis. In vivo anti-HCC effects of SSPH were verified in nude mouse xenograft model. SSPH exerted markedly inhibitory effect on HCC cell proliferation in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, SSPH significantly induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent signaling and arrested cell cycle at G/M phase. These anti-proliferation effects of SSPH were associated with up-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk1/2) and c-jun-NH2-kinase-1/2 (JNK1/2) and reduced phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Furthermore, inhibitors of ERK, UO126, and JNK, SP600125 inhibited the anti-proliferation effects by SSPH, suggesting that Erk and JNK were the effector molecules in SSPH induced anti-proliferative action. During in vivo experiments, SSPH was found to inhibit xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, with a similar mechanism in vitro. Our study confirmed that SSPH exerted antagonistic effects on human liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular mechanisms underlying SSPH action might be closely associated with MAPK signaling pathways. These results indicated that SSPH has potential therapeutic effects on HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Caspases , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Dioscoreaceae , Chemistry , Heterografts , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Liver Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , Mice, Nude , Phosphorylation , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Toxicity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common liver tumor and the main cause of cancer-related death. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib and GNF5 which were developed to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia, regulate the progression of various cancers. The aim of this study was to confirm the anti-tumor activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors through regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), an important oncogenic factor in various cancer cells, in human hepatocarcinoma SK-HEP1 cells. METHODS: Cell viability and colony formation assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of imatinib, GNF5 and GNF2 on the growth of SK-HEP1 cells. Using immunoblot analysis, we assessed change of the activation of caspases, PARP, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Skp2/p27/p21 pathway by imatinib and GNF5 in SK-HEP1 cells. Using sh-Skp2 HCC cells, the role of Skp2 in the effects of imatinib and GNF5 was evaluated. RESULTS: Imatinib and GNF5 significantly inhibited the growth of SK-HEP1 cells. Treatment of imatinib and GNF5 decreased Skp2 expression and Akt phosphorylation, and increased the expression of p27, p21, and active-caspases in SK-HEP1 cells. In sh-Skp2 HCC cells, cell growth and the expression of Skp2 were inhibited by more than in the mock group treated with imatinib and GNF5. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the anti-growth activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be associated with the regulation of p27/p21 and caspases through Skp2 blockage in HCC cells.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Caspases , Cell Survival , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Liver , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7560, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951752

ABSTRACT

We constructed lentiviral vectors containing the human wild-type GJB6 gene and the mutant variants A88V and G11R. The three proteins were stably expressed by the Tet-on system in the HaCaT cell line and used to study the functional effect of the variants. The CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analyses were used to determine the levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Western blot analyses were performed to analyze the relevant clinical indicators of hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and markers of apoptosis in transfected HaCaT cells. The CCK8 assay and the flow cytometry results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the apoptosis of HaCaT cells expressing the A88V and G11R mutants. In addition, we demonstrated that the A88V and G11R mutants induced the apoptosis of transfected HaCaT cells via the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARA. No change was observed in the activity of BAX compared with the control. This study provides further clarification on the mechanisms underlying the effect of the mutant variants A88V and G11R of the GJB6 gene on the induction of HaCaT cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ectodermal Dysplasia/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Connexin 30/physiology , Mutation/drug effects , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry
17.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 126-135, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis B viral protein X (HBx) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as the elevation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We thus investigated the anticancer effects of an HSP90 inhibitor 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) in HBx-transfected hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: pcDNA-HBx was made by inserting the HBx gene derived from the HBV-infected patient into pcDNA3.1 using the restriction enzymes (XbaI/HindIII). HBx-expressing HepG2 cells were then generated by transfecting HepG2 cells with pcDNA containing HBx gene. To compare the anticancer effects of 17-DMAG between pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells and the control cells (pcDNA-transfected HepG2 cells), we performed various molecular studies, including Ez-cytox proliferation assay, Western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: 17-DMAG inhibited the proliferation of pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells better than control cells (P<0.05). After treating with a various concentration of 17-DMAG (50–1,000 nM), pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells exhibited higher expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (c-caspase-3, c-caspase-8, and c-caspase-9) than did control cells (P<0.05). pcDNA-HBx transfected HepG2 cells showed higher activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 than did control cells (P<0.05). Finally, we found that the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (PARP and c-caspase-3) was considerably decreased by the use of a caspase inhibitor suggesting that 17-DMAG induces the cell death of HepG2 cells caspase-dependently. CONCLUSIONS: Our study strongly suggests that 17-DMAG has antiviral effects against HBV as well as anticancer effects against HepG2 cells. Thus, the application of 17-DMAG appears to be particularly advantageous to the HCC patients related with HBV infection.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Caspases , Cell Death , Flow Cytometry , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Transfection
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 594-602, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829706

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Local anesthetics (LAs) are generally considered as safe, but cytotoxicity has been reported for several local anesthetics used in humans, which is not well investigated. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of lidocaine, ropivacaine and the combination of lidocaine and ropivacaine were evaluated on human melanoma cell lines. Melphalan, a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, was used as a control agent for comparison of cytotoxic activity. Methods: Melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294T, were exposed to 1 h to different concentrations of above agents. Cell-viability after exposure was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Investigated LAs showed detrimental cytotoxicity on studied melanoma cell lines in time- (p < 0.001), concentration- (p < 0.001), and agent dependant. In both A375 and Hs294T cell lines, minimum cell viability rates were found after 72 h of exposure to these agents. Lidocaine 2% caused a reduction of vital cells to 10% ± 2% and 14% ± 2% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively after 72 h of exposure. Ropivacaine 0.75% after 72 h reduced viable cells to 15% ± 3% and 25% ± 3% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Minimum cell viability after 72 h exposure to the combination was 10% ± 2% and 18% ± 2% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Minimum cell viability after 72 h exposure to melphalan was 8% ± 1% and 12% ± 2%, in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Conclusion: LAs have cytotoxic activity on human melanoma cell lines in a time-, concentration- and agent-dependant manner. Apoptosis in the cell lines was mediated through activity of caspases-3 and caspases-8.


Resumo Justificativa: Os anestésicos locais (ALs) são geralmente considerados como seguros, mas citotoxicidade foi relatada em vários anestésicos locais usados em seres humanos, a qual não é bem investigada. No presente estudo, a citotoxicidade de lidocaína e ropivacaína e da combinação de lidocaína e ropivacaína foi avaliada em linhagens celulares de melanoma humano. Melfalano, um agente alquilante de mostarda nitrogenada, foi usado como um agente de controle para a comparação da atividade citotóxica. Métodos: Linhagens celulares de melanoma, A375 e Hs294T foram expostas por uma hora a concentrações diferentes dos agentes mencionados acima. A viabilidade celular após a exposição foi determinada por citometria de fluxo. Resultados: Os ALs investigados mostraram citotoxicidade prejudicial nas linhagens celulares de melanoma estudadas dependente do tempo (p < 0,001), da concentração (p < 0,001) e do agente. Em ambas as linhagens de células A375 e Hs294T, níveis mínimos de viabilidade celular foram encontrados após 72 horas de exposição a esses agentes. Lidocaína a 2% provocou uma redução das células vitais para 10% ± 2% e 14% ± 2% em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente, após 72 horas de exposição. Ropivacaína a 0,75% após 72 horas reduziu as células viáveis para 15% ± 3% e 25% ± 3%, em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente. A viabilidade celular mínima após exposição de 72 horas para a combinação foi de 10% ± 2% e 18% ± 2% em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente. A viabilidade celular mínima após exposição de 72 horas ao melfalano foi de 8% ± 1% e 12 ± 2, em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os ALs têm atividade citotóxica em linhagens de celulares de melanoma humano de modo dependente do tempo, da concentração e do agente. A apoptose nas linhagens celulares foi mediada por meio da atividade das caspases-3 e caspases-8.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Survival/drug effects , Amides/toxicity , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Lidocaine/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Flow Cytometry , Ropivacaine
19.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-14, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heavy metals can cause great harm to Siberian tigers in the natural environment. Cadmium (Cd2+) is an environmental contaminant that affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. RESULTS: We investigated the apoptotic effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. Our research revealed the typical signs of apoptosis after Cd²+ exposure. Apoptosis was dose- (0-4.8 µM) and duration-dependent (12-48 h), and proliferation was strongly inhibited. Cd²+ increased the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and disrupted calcium homeostasis by causing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It also increased K+ efflux and altered the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, Fas, and p53. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Cd2+ triggers the apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts by disturbing intracellular homeostasis. These results will aid in our understanding of the effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tigers and in developing interventions to treat and prevent cadmium poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intracellular Space/drug effects , Tigers , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Homeostasis/drug effects , Siberia , DNA Damage , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Apoptosis/genetics , Caspases/analysis , Caspases/drug effects , Comet Assay/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcription , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Fibroblasts/physiology , Homeostasis/physiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360080

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of magnolol on proliferation and apoptosis of HL-60 cells and its mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of HL-60 cells after treatment with different concentration of magnolol (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 µg/ml). The morphological changes of HL-60 cells were examined by light microscopy, and DAPI staining was performed to observe the nuclear morphology of HL-60 cells. The early cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining. RT-PCR was carried out to examine the mRNA expression of BAX and BCL-2. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of caspase family.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The magnolol inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation, and the inhibitory rate of cell proliferation increased significantly in a dose- and time- dependent manner (P < 0.05). HL-60 cells became small, even apoptotic bodies appeared after treatment with magnolol. In addition, nuclear condensation or fragmentation could be observed, which is the typical morphological features of apoptosis. When HL-60 cells were treated with 40 µg/ml of magnolol for 24 h, the ratio of early apoptotic cells reached to (11.7 ± 2.4) %, which was significant different from control (1.4 ± 1.1) % (P < 0.05). RT-PCR results showed that treatment of HL-60 cells with magnolol up-regulated the expression of BAX, whereas down-regulated the expression of BCL-2. Western blot results showed that the cleavages of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were significantly enhanced by magnolol.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The magnolol can significantly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells and induce the apoptosis of HL-60 cells, which may occur through up-regulation of BAX, down-regulation of BCL-2 and the activation of caspases.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Biphenyl Compounds , Pharmacology , Caspases , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Lignans , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Up-Regulation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL