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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773121

ABSTRACT

The main chemical constituents of naphthopyrone reference extract( NRE) with definite content and relatively fixed chemical composition were analyzed and determined. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography were used to systematically study NRE from the aspects of main chemical components and determination. The results showed that the chemical composition of naphthopyrone reference extract of Cassiae Semen was relatively fixed,and seven naphthalopyranones were identified. Cassiaside B_2,cassiaside C_2,rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-gentiobioside and cassiaside C were the main chemical constituents of NRE,of which the determination and uncertainty results were( 11. 40+ 0. 26) %,( 11. 68+0. 24) %,( 16. 60+0. 22) %,( 28. 8+0. 48) %,respectively. This study contributed to the accurate evaluation of NRE and the foundation for the application of NRE in the quality control of Cassiae Semen,and provided a new idea for the replacement of single chemical reference substance by the reference extract of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Cassia , Chemistry , Certification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Seeds , Chemistry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777504

ABSTRACT

A total of ten compounds were isolated from the 90% Et OH extract of Cassia siamea by using various chormatographic techniques,and their structures were established as( 2' S)-2-( propan-2'-ol)-5,7-dihydroxy-benzopyran-4-one( 1),chrobisiamone( 2), 2-( 2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methyl-7-hydroxychromone( 3), 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone( 4), 2-methyl-5-acetonyl-7-hydroxychromone( 5),3-O-methylquercetin( 6),3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonone( 7),luteolin-5,3'-dimethylether( 8),4-( trans)-acetul-3,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-dihydronapht halenone( 9) and 6-hydroxymellein( 10) based on the spectroscopic data.Compound 1 was a new compound,and 3,4,6,8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Cassia , Luteolin , Senna Plant , Spectrum Analysis
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 237-241, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959185

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we evaluated the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of protein preparations obtained from Cassia fistula L. and Combretum leprosum Mart. leaves on the gastrointestinal parasites of goats. Protein preparations were obtained after the extraction of C. fistula L. and C. leprosum Mart. leaves, followed by protein fractionation (with ammonium sulfate saturation percentages of 30%, 30%-60%, and 60%-90%) and dialysis, which resulted in protein fractions (called F1, F2, and F3, respectively). The fractions were evaluated by egg hatching (the eggs were recovered in stool samples from naturally infected goats) and larval development tests. The results reveled that the inhibition of hatching of eggs caused by the protein fractions of C. fistula (38%) were similar to that of the control drug, thiabendazole. In addition, the fractions of C. fistula caused significant inhibition (61-69%) of larval development also. However, C. leprosum did not reveal significant inhibition of egg hatching and larval development. We conclude that C. fistula L. showed better ovicidal and larvicidal activity against endoparasites.


Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades ovicida e larvicida de preparações proteicas de Cassia fistula L. e Combretum leprosum Mart. em parasitas gastrointestinais de caprinos. As preparações proteicas foram obtidas por extração das folhas de C. fistula L. e C. leprosum Mart. seguido pelo fracionamento proteico (com porcentagens de saturação de sulfato de amônio de 30%, 30-60%, 60-90%) e diálise, resultando nas frações proteicas (intituladas F1, F2 e F3, respectivamente). As frações foram avaliadas nos testes de eclosão de ovos (os ovos foram recuperados em amostras de fezes de cabras naturalmente infectadas) e de desenvolvimento larvar. Os resultados revelaram que a inibição da eclosão de ovos causada pelas frações proteicas de C. fistula (38%) foi semelhante à do fármaco controle, o tiabendazol. Além disso, as frações de C. fistula também causaram inibição significativa (61-69%) do desenvolvimento larvar. No entanto, C. leprosum não revelou inibição significativa na eclosão dos ovos e no desenvolvimento larvar. Concluiu-se que C. fistula L. mostrou uma melhor atividade ovicida e larvicida contra endoparasitas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Stomach/parasitology , Goats/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cassia , Combretum , Intestines/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/drug effects , Ovum/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Larva/drug effects
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187084

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum. cassia and C. aromaticum) on the glycemic response with a focus on the preparation of dehydrated powder and water extract. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Science Direct, and the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS) through May 2017. In the meta-analysis for the preparation of powder, eight trials reporting fasting blood glucose (FBG), four trials reporting HbA1c, and three trials reporting the postprandial glycemic response were included. For the water extract, six trials reporting FBG and four trials reporting HbA1c were eligible for this study. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect size. RESULTS: Cassia cinnamon powder intake significantly lowered FBG by −1.55 mmol/L (95% CI, −2.45, −0.64; p = 0.001) and the AUC of postprandial blood glucose level by −51.8 mmol/L·min (95% CI, −85.5, −18.1; p = 0.003). There was a significant difference in FBG between water extract of cinnamon and placebo of −0.76 mmol/L (95% CI, −1.09, −0.43; p = 0.000). However, blood HbA1c level was not significantly altered by any preparation of cinnamon. No statistical heterogeneity was observed for any analysis except in the case of FBG for cinnamon powder. Results of funnel plots and Egger's regression suggest a low likelihood of publication bias in all biomarkers (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to this meta-analysis, there was possible evidence to support a relationship between cassia cinnamon intake and fasting glucose in both preparation of powder and water extract. Furthermore, new evidence of the health benefits on postprandial glucose regulation of cinnamon powder was obtained.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Cassia , Cinnamomum aromaticum , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Fasting , Glucose , Information Services , Insurance Benefits , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias , Water
5.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 108-112, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88721

ABSTRACT

Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity of each herbal extract, which is extracted from Bacopa monnieriis, Cassia fistula and Phyllanthus polyphyllus, respectively. The treatment of herbal extract exhibited anti-inflammatory effect as a dose-dependent manner, from 1.25mg/kg to 12.5mg/kg, in acute inflammatory models (carrageen and egg-albumin induced rat hind paw edema). It also elicited significant anti-inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory models (cotton pellet granuloma and Freund's adjuvant induced polyarthritis in rat). In cotton pellet granuloma test, the extract exhibited the inhibitory effect of 23 and 57% at the dose of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant induced model, the treatment of the extract of 1.25, 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg showed the inhibitory effect of 23, 56 and 66% at 8 days, respectively. In the acetic acid-induced model, the extract significantly reduced abdominal writhing in mice when compared to the control group, reducing the mean number of writhing from 41 ± 2 in the control group to 17 ± 3 and 15 ± 2 at the dose of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg. From these experiments, the extract, which was extracted from the combination of Bacopa monnieriis, Cassia fistula and Phyllanthus polyphyllus, (w/w/w = 1/2/1) is surprisingly found a significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Bacopa , Cassia , Freund's Adjuvant , Granuloma , Mice , Phyllanthus , Rats
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(4): 1003-1008, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759226

ABSTRACT

O gênero Cryptococcus caracteriza-se por ser uma levedura responsável por infecção sistêmica, causada pelas espécies Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii. O fungo é encontrado em substratos de origem animal e vegetal, e a infecção ocorre com a inalação de basidiósporos ou leveduras desidratadas infectantes presentes no ambiente. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo pesquisar a existência de microfocos de Cryptococcussp.em amostras ambientais da cidade de Araçatuba, São Paulo, com a finalidade de minimizar os riscos de contaminação do homem e dos animais, buscando o conhecimento da ecoepidemiologia do Cryptococcus. Foram colhidas 50 amostras oriundas de ocos e troncos de árvores (Cassiasp., Ficussp., Caesalpinea peltophorides) de 10 locais representativos do perímetro urbano, as quais foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Bacteriologia e Micologia da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba-Unesp, onde foram processadas e semeadas em placas de Petri contendo ágar semente de Níger e Sabouraud dextrose com clorafenicol e incubadas à temperatura de 30ºC, por um período não inferior a cinco dias. Posteriormente, foram submetidas às provas bioquímicas: produção de urease, termotolerância a 37ºC e quimiotipagem em ágar CGB (L-canavanina-glicina-azul de bromotimol). A análise dos resultados revelaram que 17 (34%) dos cultivos foram positivos para o gênero Cryptococcus, sendo nove (18%) para Cryptococcus gattiie oito (16%) para Cryptococcus neoformans. Outras leveduras correlacionadas, como Rhodotorula sp. e Candida sp., também foram isoladas. Conclui-se que os basidiósporos de Cryptococcusencontram-se dispersos na natureza, constituindo microfocos ambientais, não vinculados necessariamente a um único hospedeiro.


Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Cryptococcusyeasts, especially C. neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The fungus is found in substrates of animal and vegetable origin, and infection occurs through inhalation and seedlings present in the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the existence of microfocus Cryptococcus sp. from the environmental samples of Araçatuba city, São Paulo, featuring new niches, by decoupling the direct relationship between fungus and host in order to minimize the risk of contamination of man and animals, understanding the ecoepidemiology of Cryptococcus. Fifty samples from hollows and tree trunks were harvested (Cassia sp., Ficus sp., Caesalpinea peltophorides) from ten representatives in the urban perimeter. The samples were immediately sent to the Laboratory of Bacteriology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Araçatuba - Unesp where they were processed and plated on Petri dishes containing agar seed Niger and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, incubated at 30ºC for a period of no less than 5 days. Afterwards they were subimitted to biochemical tests: urease production, thermotolerance at 37°C and quimiotipagem in CGB agar (L- Canavanine-Glycine-Bromothymol blue). The results showed that 17 (34%) cultures were positive for Cryptococcus, 9 (18%) for Cryptococcus gattii and 8 (16%) for Cryptococcus neoformans. Other yeast correlated as Rhodotorula sp. and Candida sp. were isolated. We conclude that the infectious propagules of Cryptococcus are dispersed in nature and constitute an environmental microfocus, not necessarily being bound to a single host.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcus neoformans , Fungi , Infections , Cassia , Entomophthorales , Ficus , Yeasts
7.
Caracas; s.n; 2015. 294 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-878055

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus afecta a muchas personas alrededor del mundo, por lo que la comunidad científica está interesada en la búsqueda de nuevas drogas de origen sintético o natural para el tratamiento de la misma. En el presente trabajo se utilizaron cuatro plantas empleadas tradicionalmente en el tratamiento empírico de la diabetes y se realizó la síntesis total de los productos naturales α- yß- pentagaloilglucosa, ácido elágico y sus análogos. Las plantas estudiadas provienen de los géneros: Ouratea polyantha Engl. (Ochnaceae), Capraria biflora L. (Schrophulariaceae), Cassia fruticosa Mill. (Fabaceae) y Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae). De la planta O. polyantha Engl., se aisló por HSCCC, e identificó por técnicas espectroscópicas el flavonoide rutina (OpC-4), la biflavona agathisflavona (OpD-5, OpB-M1), el ácido 4-hidroxibenzóico (OpD-10) y un nuevo megastigmano identificado como (6R,9S)-6'-(4''-hidroxibenzoil)-roseósido (OpD-9). Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron fracciones enriquecidas en lupeol y ß-sitosterol (OpBHex-FrCHCl3), agathisflavona (OpA, OpG) y rutina (OpA, OpC, OpG, OpH) las cuales fueron identificadas por CCF y HPLC comparando con muestras auténticas. Se evaluó el contenido de flavonoides totales como % de rutina en las fracciones OpC, OpG y OpH, por ensayos colorimétricos con AlCl3, obteniendo valores de: 7,08 ± 0,04; 31,9 ± 1,0; y 12,4 ± 0,3 %, respectivamente. De la planta C. fruticosa Mill., se aisló e identificó, por cromatografía flash y técnicas espectroscópicas el ester esteriodal ß-sitosterol palmitato•1/2•H2O (CfRS-3) y los flavonoides glicosilados kaempferol 3-O-rutinósido (nicotiflorin, CfH-1) y kaempferol 3-O-(2''-ramnosil)rutinósido (clitorin, CfH-2). Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron fracciones enriquecidas ß-sitosterol (CfB), y en los flavonoides nicotiflorin y clitorin (CfF, CfYY). De la planta C. biflora L., se aisló e identificó el glicosido manitol (CbE), el cual fue purificado por múltiples procesos de recristalización (CbM-2) y caracterizado por sus propiedades físicas y por la obtención de su derivado semisintético hexaacetilmanitol (CbM-2Ac). Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron fracciones enriquecidas en ß-sitosterol (CbI-FrCHCl3), azúcares (CbG, CbO), porfirinas tipo feoforbido-a (CbK y CbL) y terpenos aromáticos (CbK, CbF, CbN, CbP). De la planta R. tuberosa L., se obtuvieron fracciones enriquecidas en lupeol, betulina y ß-sitosterol (RtB, RtR-1, RtR-K), azúcares (RtI, RtR-G) polifenoles (RtJ, RtQac, RtSac, RtR-Mac, RtR-Nac) y terpenos aromáticos (RtQorg, RtSorg, RtR-Morg, RtR-Norg). En RtR-K se cuantificó por densitometría óptica el contenido porcentual de: lupeol 37,3 ± 0,8; ß-sitosterol 15,6 ± 0,6 y betulina (4,3 ± 0,3) % respectivamente. Los flavonoides aislados agathisflavona, nicotiflorin y clitorin mostraron inhibición significativa sobre el sistema enzimático G-6-Pasa microsomal cuyos valores fueron 63, 60 y 46 % respectivamente. Por otra parte, las fracciones terpenoidal (RtR-K) y porfirínicas (CbK y CbL) presentaron una inhibición moderada sobre la G-6-Pasa con 45, 25 y 27% respectivamente. Entre los productos sintetizados, los anómeros α- y ß-pentaacilglucosa (PAG, PBG y PGG-Bn) no presentaron actividad biológica significativa (<10%), lo cual indica claramente que el grupo galoilo es fundamental para la actividad biológica asociada a los taninos hidrolizables α-PGG y ß-PGG. A concentraciones finales de 50 µM, estos compuestos presentaron un porcentaje de inhibición de 77 y 79 % respectivamente con una significancia estadística importante (p<0,00006). Por otra parte, el ácido elágico (AE) sintetizado presentó un porcentaje de inhibición de 63% cuyo IC50 fue 76,50 µM, su derivado acetilado (AAcE) mostro un IC50 73,5 µM, mientras que, el derivado alquilico (AMeE) fue inactivo frente a la G-6-Pasa. Adicionalmente, AE y AAcE no mostraron actividad inhibitoria de la absorción intestinal de glucosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthaceae/chemistry , Cassia/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus , Ochnaceae/chemistry , Chromatography , Ethnobotany , Phytochemicals
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284774

ABSTRACT

The dry seeds of Cassia obtusifolia were carried by the "ShenZhou 8" satellite and sowed after landing. Based on our pri- or study on SP1, the characteristics of plants growth, physiological index and content of effective components were examined. The results showed that the QC10, QC29 strains matured 5 d earlier compared with control. The plant height, across diameter and ground diameter of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was superior to the control at whole growth period. The branch number increased ranging from 4 to 11 and the number of pods reached 321, 313,281, respectively, which was dramatically higher than the control (246). The yield of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains increased noticeably from 31.4 to 63.2 g. The 1000-seed-weight of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was 25.86, 25.88, 24.06 g, while the control was 23.69 g. Compared to the control, the mass fraction of chlorophyll was enhanced 1.098, 1.016, 0.297 mg. There was no significant difference in aurantio-obtusin and chrysophanol content of seeds. Through two years research, three high-yield mutant strains were obtained. This study indicates that spaceflight-induced mutants could provide new germplasm for C. obtusifolia breeding and offers the theoretical basis for further utilization of spaceflight-induced mutation to breed high-quality C. obtusifolia strains.


Subject(s)
Cassia , Chemistry , Genetics , Mutation , Space Flight
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284771

ABSTRACT

Cassiae Semen is a common traditional Chinese medicine, and contents of anthraquinones of Cassiae Semen different significantly from area to area. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), only contents of aurantio obtusin and chrysophanol were used to evaluate the quality of Cassiae Semen, another data could be added later. Ten batches of Cassiae Semen from different areas were determined, and total anthraquinones, total free anthraquinones and total combined anthraquinones contents were assessed by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, contents of aurantio obtusin, rhein, aloe emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were determined by HPLC. After that, principal components analysis was used to evaluate these data determined previous by dimension reduction analysis. At last, the result suggests that three main components were found out, it shows that content of aloe emodin could be used to evaluate the quality of Cassiae Semen as well as contents of aurantio obtusin and chrysophanol. And Cassiae Semen from Hebei province posseses higher quality than Cassiae Semen from other different areas. All these results can provide a good reference for quality evaluating of Cassiae Semen medicinal materials at a certain extent.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Cassia , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Principal Component Analysis
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 12(1)jan.-mar. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-707346

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: A constipação intestinal é um problema crônico, frequente, que afeta a Qualidade de Vida dos indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia clínica e a tolerabilidade da composição Cassia fistula e Senna alexandrina Miller, na apresentação geleia sem açúcar, em pacientes diagnosticados com constipação intestinal funcional crônica. MÉTODOS: Estudo envolvendo 96 voluntários com diagnóstico de constipação intestinal funcional crônica, conforme Critérios de Roma III, randomizados em grupos ativo e placebo. A avaliação da eficácia primária foi realizada por meio da frequência média de evacuações, consistência média das fezes e melhora global da constipação. Foram realizadas ainda avaliações secundárias, como número de dias seguidos sem evacuação, proporção de evacuações com dor, esforço, sensação de evacuação incompleta ou bloqueio, uso de manobras manuais, sujeitos de pesquisa que aderiram às recomendações de hábitos de vida, uso de fármacos de resgate e melhora da constipação segundo avaliação do sujeito de pesquisa. RESULTADOS: A proporção de sujeitos da pesquisa que apresentou melhora global da constipação foi de 65,1% no grupo ativo e de 22,0% grupo placebo (p<0,0001). Para a maioria das avaliações secundárias de eficácia, o grupo ativo apresentou melhor desempenho quando comparado ao grupo pesquisa. De acordo com a avaliação dos sujeitos de pesquisa sobre a melhora da constipação, o grupo ativo apresentou melhor desempenho do que o grupo pesquisa. Quanto à segurança, os dois grupos apresentaram resultados similares. CONCLUSÃO: A geleia sem açúcar composta de Cassia fistula e Senna alexandrina Miller apresentou um comportamento seguro e eficaz, sendo uma alternativa para tratamento da constipação intestinal funcional crônica.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intestinal constipation is a chronic and frequent problem that affects Quality of Life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the composition Cassia fistula and Senna alexandrina Miller, as sugar free jelly, in patients diagnosed with chronic functional constipation. METHODS: We evaluated 96 volunteers diagnosed with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria. Volunteers were randomized into active and placebo groups. Primary efficacy endpoint was evaluated by mean frequency of bowel movements, consistency of stools and global improvement of constipation. Secondary endpoints were evaluated, such as number of days without bowel movements, proportion of bowel movements with pain, with strain, sensation of incomplete or blocked bowel movement, use of, manual maneuvers to facilitate defecation, subjects who adhered to the diet recommendation, use of rescue medication, and level of constipation improvement, according to subject evaluation. RESULTS: Global improvement of constipationwas observed in 65.1% of subjects enrolled in active group versus 22% in placebo group (p<0.0001). For most secondary efficacy evaluations, the active group performed better when compared to placebo group. According to the evaluation of the subjects on the improvement of constipation, the active group performed better than the placebo group. As for security, the two groups showed similar results. CONCLUSION: Cassia fistula and Senna alexandrina Miller sugar free jelly demonstrated to be safe and effective and it can be used as an alternative for the treatment of functional constipation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cassia , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Drug Tolerance , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Senna Extract
11.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 19(1): 21-28, ene.-mar. 2014. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-711037

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the species Cassia grandis L. f. (cañandonga) is recognized by the Cuban Health System and the population for its antianemic properties, in spite of the unpleasant odor of its fruit. OBJECTIVES: to perform a bibliographic update about the chemical, toxicological and pharmacologic characteristics of the study species. METHODS: an extensive review was conducted in international databases such as HighWire, DOAJ, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, Chemical Abstract, Medline, PudMed, and Pharmaceutical Abstract, in addition to the national database CuMed from the year 1900 until 2012. RESULTS: there are still not enough studies that certify its usefulness and pharmaco-toxicological safety as antianemic, and few pharmaceutical formulations have been developed. The fruit is the most studied organ of the species. CONCLUSIONS: it is necessary to carry out new investigations to certify its antianemic effect and develop new therapeutic alternatives to eliminate the unpleasant odor of Cassia grandis L. f. fruit formulations.


INTRODUCCIÓN: la especie Cassia grandis L. f. (cañandonga) es reconocida en el sistema de salud cubano y su población por sus propiedades antianémicas, a pesar del desagradable olor de sus frutos. OBJETIVO: evaluar el estado del arte sobre aspectos químicos, toxicológicos y farmacológicos de Cassia grandis L. f. (cañandonga) desde 1900 hasta 2012. MÉTODOS: se revisó en bases de datos internacionales como HighWire, DOAJ, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, Chemical, Abstract, Medline, PudMed, y Pharmaceutical Abstract, además de la base de datos nacional CuMed desde 1900 hasta 2012. RESULTADOS: aún son insuficientes los estudios que avalan su utilidad y seguridad farmacotoxicológica como antianémico, así como pocas las formulaciones farmacéuticas desarrolladas. El fruto es el órgano más estudiado de la especie. CONCLUSIONES: se necesita realizar nuevas investigaciones para avalar su efecto antianémico y de otras alternativas terapéuticas que permitan eliminar el olor desagradable de las preparaciones de los frutos de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cassia/toxicity , Cassia/chemistry , Anemia/prevention & control
12.
Hamdard Medicus. 2014; 56 (4): 15-23
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167791

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a dangerous disease of lungs, which was known to mankind from the time of Hippocrates, but its peculiar features identified it. Hippocrates was the first to name this disease as 'panting' which means breathlessness1. Later on many Unani scholars keenly studied about Asthma and mentioned it in their books. The Unani scholars successfully treated this disease by Unani medicines, which even the present scholars, are following. The modern medical science invented bronchodilators and corticosteroids thus made the treatment much easier. Apart from all these advancements, the complete treatment of asthma is yet to be achieved. The drugs, which have been selected for the purpose of this research work, have been in practice since ancient times. The main objective of this study was to scientifically evaluate the efficacy of our drugs in commonly encountered clinical entity, asthma. The study was open single group uncontrolled randomised clinical trial. In the present study thirty cases of 15 to 55 years of age who were clinically diagnosed were enrolled in the study for 60 days from indoor and outdoor of the Department of Moalejat, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh during the period extending from 2006-2008. The patients were treated with Irasa [Iris ensata Thunb.], Zanjabeel [Zingiber officinalis Rosc.], Qaranfal [Eugenia caryophylla Thunb.] and Maghz-e-Amaltas [Cassia fistula Linn.] 6 grams, 3 grams, 3 grams and 4 grams respectively in the form of powder 12 hourly for 60 days. Significant improvement in symptoms and signs and laboratory findings of the disease was observed


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lung Diseases , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Medicine, Unani , Ginger , Cassia
13.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(4): 763-773, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704108

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical O/W emulsion containing plant-derived polyphenol extracts and evaluate its stability and antioxidant activity. O/W emulsions were prepared using ionic surfactant polysorbate 80 (Tween 80®). The odorwas adjusted with few drops of blue sea fragrance. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extracts alone and emulsions containing these extracts. Physical stability was assessed by submitting the emulsions to storage at 8 ºC, 25 ºC, 40 ºC and 40 ºC + 70% RH (relative humidity) for two months. Various physical characteristics of emulsions monitored, include color, creaming, liquefaction, centrifugation and pH. Brookfield rotational rheometer was used to determined viscosities and rheological behavior of emulsions. Different types of emulsion were determined microscopically, while pH values of emulsions were measured by a pH meter. Electrical conductivity data confirmed that the outer phase was water. Samples presented an acceptable pH value for an external topical use. Shear thinning behaviour was observed for all emulsions. The polyphenol-rich-plant-derived extracts alone and the extract containing emulsions showed good antioxidant activities. This research confirmed that the method used was suitable for preparing emulsions with Hippophae rhamnoids and Cassia fistula extracts, suggesting that those emulsions are suitable for topical use.


O presente estudo objetivou o desenvolvimento de uma emulsão farmacêutica óleo-água contendo extratos de plantas ricos em polifenóis, a comparação à sua formulação-controle e a avaliação de sua estabilidade, assim como de sua capacidade antioxidante. Extrato concentrado de Hippophae rhamnoids e Cassia fistula foi encapsulado no interior da fase oleosa da emulsão O/W. As emulsões foram preparadas usando o tensoativo iônico monooleato sorbital de polioxietileno (Tween 80®). O odor foi ajustado pela adição de algumas gotas de fragrância azul do mar. O ensaio do DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazil) foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antioxidante dos extratos de plantas sozinhos e nas emulsões contendo os extratos. A estabilidade física foi avaliada submetendo os cremes a diferentes temperaturas de estocagem, como a 8 ºC, 25 ºC e 40 ºC e a 40% + 70% de umidade relativa por um período de 2 meses. As características físicas das emulsões foram monitoradas por 2 meses incluindo cor, cremosidade, liquefação, centrifugação e pH. O reômetro rotacional de Brookfield foi utilizado para determinar a viscosidade e o comportamento reológico das emulsões. O programa Rheocalc Brookfield foi utilizado para análise dos dados. As características organolépticas também foram avaliadas. O tipo de emulsão foi determinado microscopicamente, enquanto o pH das emulsões foi avaliado por meio de um pHmetro. A estabilidade farmacêutica esperada das emulsões foi alcançada dentro dos dois meses de estudo. Os resultados da condutividade elétrica confirmaram que a fase externa da emulsão era composta de água. O pH das amostras estava dentro da normalidade para uso tópico. A emulsão apresentou boa fragrância e pode ser retirada da pele com água após a aplicação, características desejáveis em emulsões O/W. Os extratos vegetais ricos em polifenóis isolados ou nas emulsões apresentaram boa atividade antioxidante. Nossos estudos confirmaram que o método utilizado foi adequado para preparar a emulsão semi-sólida contendo extratos de Hippophae rhamnoids e Cassia fistula. Nossos achados sugerem que emulsões contendo extratos de Hippophae rhamnoids e Cassia fistula são adequados para o uso tópico.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Cassia/classification , Emulsions/analysis , Hippophae/classification , Polysorbates , Cosmetic Stability
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis).@*METHODS@#Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads.@*RESULTS@#Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids.@*CONCLUSIONS@#C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cassia , Chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Tuberculosis , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Urtica dioica , Chemistry
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(4): 466-469, June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626438

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis) positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants) found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants/microbiology , Cassia/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Ants/classification , Brazil , Cassia/classification , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Mycological Typing Techniques
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288674

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In order to get the method to improve the salt resistance of seeds and seedlings for Cassia obtusbifolia under NaCl stress, seed germination and physiological characteristics of C. obtusifolia seedlings were studied.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Several physiological indexes of C. obtusifolia seeds treated with exogenous carbon monoxide donor hematin under NaCl stress like the germination vigor, germination rate, germination index and vigor index were measured. And other indexes like the relative water content, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, the contents of soluble sugar, protein and proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were also measured.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The germination indexes of C. obtusifolia seeds under NaCl stress had been inhibited obviously. But after the treatment of hematin, every germination indexes were all increased. The result showed that the treatment of exogenous CO donor hematin obviously improved the germination vigor, germination rate, germination index and vigor index, increased the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, improved the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fm'), PS II actual photochemical efficiency (phiPS II), photochemical quench coefficient (qP), decreased non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) , increased the relative water content of leaves and the content of soluble surge, protein and proline. Meanwhile, the results also indicated that CO improved the activities of superoxide (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT). The effects of CO could be reversed when CO scavenger Hb is added.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Exogenous CO donor hematin with appropriate concentration could significantly alleviate the damages to the seeds and seedlings of C. obtusifolia under NaCl stress and promote the salt resistance of the seeds and seedlings through improving the germination indexes, the photochemical efficiency and the antioxidase activities of the seedlings.</p>


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Carbon Monoxide , Metabolism , Cassia , Metabolism , Catalase , Metabolism , Chlorophyll , Metabolism , Germination , Physiology , Hemin , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Photosystem II Protein Complex , Metabolism , Plant Proteins , Metabolism , Proline , Metabolism , Seedlings , Metabolism , Seeds , Sodium Chloride , Pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Time Factors , Water , Metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312482

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cassia , Chemistry , Culex , Insecticides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lethal Dose 50 , Life Cycle Stages , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
19.
West Indian med. j ; 60(6): 608-614, Dec. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a hexane extract of Cassia alata leaves in A549 lung cancer cells. METHOD: Parental A549 lung cancer cells were exposed to various concentrations (100"180 µg/ml) of Cassia alata leaf extract for 24 hours. Following treatment, the cells were evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine the cytotoxic effect of the extract. Caspase 8, 3 and 9 negative A549 cells were also prepared using lentiviral based shRNA knockdown of the caspase 8, 3 and 9 genes, respectively. The cytotoxic effect of Cassia alata leaf extract was then evaluated in these knockdown cells using the MTT assay. Chemical analysis was performed on the extract using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Cassia alata extract was cytotoxic in parental and caspase-9 negative, but not caspase 3 and 8 negative A549 cells. The IC50 values were 143 µg/ml and 145 µg/ml in parental and caspase 9 negative A549 cells respectively. The flavanoid kaempferol was identified as a constituent of Cassia alata leaf extract. CONCLUSIONS: Cassia alata produces cytotoxicity in A549 cancer cells that is mediated by caspase 8 activation. This effect may be attributable to kaempferol.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto citotóxico de un extracto de hexano de hojas de Cassia alata en las células A549 del cáncer pulmonar. MÉTODO: Células A549 parentales del cáncer pulmonar fueron expuestas a varias concentraciones (100-180 µg/ml) de un extracto de la hoja de Cassia alatadurante 24 horas. Tras el tratamiento, las células fueron evaluadas usando el ensayo de bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolio (MTT) a fin de determinar el efecto citotóxico del extracto. También se prepararon células A549 negativas caspasa 8, 3 y 9 mediante silenciamiento génico vía ARN (shRNA knockdown) de los genes de las caspasas 8, 3 y 9 respectivamente, sobre la base de la inserción de vectores lentivirales. Entonces, usando un ensayo MTT se procedió a evaluar el efecto citotóxico del extracto de hojas de Cassia alataen éstas células genéticamente modificadas. Se realizó un análisis químico del extracto utilizando cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia. (HPLC). RESULTADOS: El extracto de Cassia alata resultó ser citotóxico en las células A549 negativas parentales y caspasa 9, pero no en las negativas caspasa 3 y 8. Los valores de IC50 fueron 143 µg/ml y 145 µg/ml en las células A549 negativas parentales y caspasa 9 respectivamente. El flavonol kaempferol fue identificado como un constituyente del extracto de las hojas de Cassia alata. CONCLUSIONES: La Cassia alata produce citotoxicidad en las células cancerosas A549, mediada por la activación de la caspasa 8. Este efecto puede ser atribuido al kaempferol.


Subject(s)
Humans , /metabolism , Cassia/chemistry , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/enzymology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
20.
West Indian med. j ; 60(6): 615-621, Dec. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a hexane extract of Cassia alata leaves in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) arthritis in rats. METHOD: A hexane extract of Cassia alata leaves was administered by oral gavage to CFA arthritic rats (500 mg/kg, n = 6). Controls received corn oil (2 ml, n = 6). The CFA arthritic model was induced by the injection of 0.5 ml (CFA) into the synovial cavity of the right knee joint of the hind leg of rats. The ability of the plant extract to reduce swelling as a sign of arthritic inflammation was assessed by obtaining the circumference of the knee joint before and for twenty eight days post arthritis induction. Reduction of leukocyte infiltration into the blood and synovial cavity of the arthritic rats were assessed using automated counting and Wrights method. Protection against cartilage erosion was also assessed histologically. RESULTS: Cassia alata extract significantly (p = 0.0032) reduced knee circumference (swelling) in the CFA arthritic rats. Total and differential leukocyte counts in both blood and synovial fluid from Cassia alata treated animals were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control animals. Protective effects against cartilage degradation on the femoral head of the knee joint were observed in Cassia alata treated animals, as normal cartilage structure and chondrocyte arrangement were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Cassia alata exhibits anti-inflammatory activities that should be further examined and potentially exploited for anti-arthritic therapies.


OBJETIVO: Investigar los efectos anti-inflamatorios del extracto de hexano de hojas de Cassia alata en artritis inducida por adyuvante completo de Freund (CFA) en ratas. MÉTODO: Un extracto de hexano de hojas de Cassia alata fue administrado por gavage oral a ratas artríticas por CFA (500 mg/kg, n = 6). Los controles recibieron aceite de maíz (2 ml, n = 6). El modelo artrítico de CFA fue inducido inyectando 0.5 ml (CFA) en la cavidad sinovial de la rótula derecha de la pata trasera de las ratas. La capacidad del extracto de la planta en cuanto a reducir la inflamación como signo de la inflamación artrítica, fue evaluada obteniendo la circunferencia de la rótula antes y durante veintiocho días posterior a la inducción de la artritis. La reducción de la infiltración de leucocitos en la sangre y la cavidad sinovial de las ratas artríticas fue evaluada usando el conteo automatizado y el método de Wright. También se evaluó histológicamente la protección contra la erosión del cartílago. RESULTADOS: El extracto de Cassia alata redujo significativamente (p = 0.0032) la circunferencia de la rodilla (inflamación) en las ratas artríticas por CFA. Los conteos totales y diferenciales de leucocitos tanto en la sangre como en el líquido sinovial de los animales tratados con Cassia alata fueron significativamente (p < 0.05) más bajos en los animales del control. Los efectos protectores contra la degradación del cartílago en la cabeza femoral de la rótula fueron observados en los animales tratados con Cassia alata, ya que se mantuvieron la estructura normal del cartílago y las disposición de los condrocitos. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que la Cassia alata exhibe propiedades anti-inflamatorias que deben ser examinadas ulteriormente y explotadas potencialmente para las terapias anti-artríticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Cassia/chemistry , Freund's Adjuvant , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Knee Joint , Leukocyte Count , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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