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1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 23-28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359362

ABSTRACT

Históricamente la sociedad ha rechazado el abuso sexual de menores de 13 años, dictándose leyes al respecto. La justicia luego de un debido proceso condenaba al victimario con reclusión incluso hasta la década del 70-80, con orquiectomía. Los adelantos en neurobiología, endocrinología, sicofarmacología y sicología se consideraron las bases para tratar al pedófilo y someterlo a libertad condicional, ahorrándose el costo financiero de la reclusión de por vida. Diversos países dictaron leyes contra la conducta pedófila. En dicha legislación ejerció gran influencia la promulgación en EE.UU. (estado de Washington "sobre el ofensor sexual" y el dictamen de la Corte Suprema en 1997 en el juicio de Kansas vs Hendricks). En Chile en los 90 el caso del pedófilo apodado "Zacarach" sacó a la luz pública el tema que no se quería ver. En esa fecha se presentó al parlamento un proyecto de Ley para "curar" la pedofilia con acetato de Medroxiprogesterona imitando legislación de EE.UU. Causó sorpresa en el medio endocrinológico que se usara terapia hormonal como "cura" de la pedofilia. Se ha utilizado en varios países la castración química producida por gestágenos o agonístas del GnRH más antiandrógenos (acetato de Ciproterona), para inhibir la secreción y acción de la testosterona disminuyendo líbido y erección. No se ha demostrado que exista curación de la orientación pedófila y existen dudas de la prevención primaria y secundaria de la pedofilia. Pese al adelanto tecnológico en neurociencias para estudio de las zonas vinculadas a la sexualidad, aún no existen marcadores que permitan diagnosticar o pronosticar futuros resultados de la terapia. El tratamiento médico de la pedofilia no garantiza curación ni prevención del delito pedofílico.


Historically, society has rejected sexual abuse of children under 13, with there having been laws enacted in this regard. The judicial system, after a due process, condemned the perpetrator with reclusion and even up until the decades of the 70s and 80s with orchiectomy. Advances in neurobiology, endocrinology, psychopharmacology and psychology were considered the basis for treating the pedophile and putting them on probation, saving the financial cost of imprisonment for life. Multiple countries have enacted laws against pedophilic behaviour. Such legislation was greatly influenced by the enactment in the USA (state of Washington "on the sex offender" and the ruling of the Supreme Court in 1997 in the trial of Kansas against Hendricks). In Chile in the 90s, the case of a pedophile nicknamed "Zacarach" brought to light an issue that nobody wanted to see. Around that time, a bill was presented to Parliament to try and "cure" pedophilia with Medroxyprogesterone acetate, imitating US legislation. It was a surprise in the endocrinological world that hormonal therapy would be used as a "cure" for pedophilia. Chemical castration produced by gestagens or GnRH agonists plus antiandrogens (Cyproterone acetate) has been used in several countries to inhibit the secretion and action of testosterone, reducing libido and erection. It has not been proven that there is a cure for pedophile orientation and there are doubts about the primary and secondary prevention of pedophilia. Despite technological advances in neurosciences for the study of the zones pertaining to sexuality, there are still no indicators that allow for diagnosis or prediction of future results of therapy. The medical treatment of pedophilia does not guarantee cure or prevention of pedophilic crime.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pedophilia/drug therapy , Castration/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pedophilia/diagnosis , Pedophilia/etiology , Pedophilia/therapy , Sex Offenses/legislation & jurisprudence , Testis/drug effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Cyproterone Acetate/therapeutic use
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(2, cont.): e2405, jul-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352310

ABSTRACT

A castração em fêmeas pode ser feita pela ovariectomia (retirada dos ovários), ou ovariohisterectomia (retirada dos ovários e do útero). Essa última técnica é a mais recomendada em cães e gatos, devido à prevenção de afecções que podem ocorrer posteriormente no útero. Dentre essas complicações pode-se encontrar sangramento por ligadura mal feita em coto, hidroureter, hidronefrose, piometra de coto, formação de tratos sinusais, aderência, obstrução crônica, incontinência urinária, retenção abdominal de compressas cirúrgicas, transcecção de parte do ureter e ovário remanescente. Em cadelas castradas, a causa mais comum da formação de tratos sinusais é a presença de reação tecidual ao redor do fio de sutura. O presente estudo teve como objetivo relatar um caso de uma cadela sem raça definida, 8,7 kg, seis anos, que deu entrada no Hospital Veterinário de Uberaba, MG com queixa principal a presença de ferida no flanco direito sendo tratada há nove meses, porém sem sucesso. Já haviam feito uso de vários antibióticos sistêmicos e antinflamatorios esteroidais e não esteroidais. Diante do caso observado, foram realizados exames laboratoriais e de imagem. Perante o resultado do exame de imagem, a principal suspeita foi a formação de trato sinusal com comunicação com a cavidade abdominal devido a uma reação ao fio de algodão utilizado na ovariohisterectomia.(AU)


Female animals can be castrated by ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries), or ovariohysterectomy (removal of the ovaries and uterus). The latter is the most recommended in dogs and cats due to the prevention of conditions that may subsequently occur in the uterus. Among these complications, one can find bleeding by poor ligation in the stump, hydroureter, hydronephrosis, stump pyometra, formation of sinus tracts, adherence, chronic obstruction, urinary incontinence, abdominal retention of surgical compresses, transection of part of the ureter and remaining ovary. In castrated bitches, the most common cause of the formation of sinus tracts is the presence of tissue reaction around the suture thread. This study aimed at reporting a case of a mixed breed, six-year-old dog, 8.7 kg that was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of Uberaba with the main complaint of the presence of a wound on the right flank being unsuccessfully treated for nine months. Several systemic antibiotics and steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had already been used. In view of the observed case, laboratory and imaging exams were performed. In view of the result of the imaging examination, the main suspicion was the formation of a sinus tract with communication to the abdominal cavity due to a reaction to the cotton thread used in the ovariohysterectomy.(AU)


La castración en hembras se puede realizar mediante ovariectomía (extirpación de los ovarios) u ovario histerectomía (extirpación de los ovarios y del útero). Esa última técnica es la más recomendada en perros y gatos, debido a la prevención de afecciones que pueden presentarse posteriormente en el útero. Entre estas complicaciones se puede encontrar hemorragias por ligadura mal realizada en muñón, hidruréter, hidronefrosis, piometra de muñón, formación de tractos sinusales, adherencia, obstrucción crónica, incontinencia urinaria, retención abdominal de compresas quirúrgicas, transección de parte del uréter y ovario remanente. En las perras castradas, la causa más común de formación de trayectos sinusales es la presencia de reacción tisular alrededor del hilo de sutura. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo reportar el caso de una perra sin raza definida, de 8,7 kg, de seis años de edad, que ingresó en el Hospital Veterinario de Uberaba, MG con el principal síntoma de presencia de una herida en el flanco derecho siendo tratada durante nueve meses, pero sin éxito. Ya habían usado varios antibióticos sistémicos y medicamentos antiinflamatorios esteroides y no esteroides. A la vista del caso observado, se realizaron exámenes de laboratorio y de imagen. A la vista del resultado del examen de imagen, la principal sospecha fue la formación de un tracto sinusal con comunicación con la cavidad abdominal debido a una reacción al hilo de algodón utilizado en el ovario histerectomía.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Ovary , Sutures , Ovariectomy , Castration , Dogs/surgery , Pyometra , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 341-343, set 29, 2021. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354651

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is a rare condition characterized by the concomitant presence of testicular and ovarian tissue, and usually presents genital ambiguity. They are chromosomally heterogeneous, and cytogenetic analyses is relevant. Objective: to report a patient from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil, with ovotesticular disorder of sex differentiation 46,XX and SRY-negative. Case report: patient aged 19 years, first child of non-consanguineous parents, diagnosed at birth with genital ambiguity and, without correct diagnosis, was registered a male sex. The patient underwent surgery to correct bilateral cryptorchidism, orchiopexy and colpectomy. During puberty, he developed female and male sexual characteristics. Investigation at this time revealed: laboratory (normal total testosterone and estradiol as high follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, histopathological (right gonad, ovarian follicles and left gonad, atrophic testicles), karyotype (46, XX) and molecular (SRY-negative). Diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sex development was established. The patient chose to remain male and underwent bilateral mastectomy, vaginal colpectomy and bilateral gonadectomy. Currently, the patient receives hormonal replacement therapy, followup with a multi-professional approach and awaits masculinizing genitoplasty. Discussion: For OT-DSD individuals with 46, XX, the female sex is suggested as the best sex of rearing option. Unlike the reported cases, the patient chose the male sex, since the sex at registration of birth was important in his choice. Conclusion: Cytogenetic and molecular analyses allowed us to assist in the etiological diagnosis of the patient with OT-DSD. However, molecular analyses are necessary to elucidate the genes involved in the sexual determination of this patient.


Introdução: distúrbio da diferenciação do sexo ovotesticular é uma condição rara com presença concomitante de tecido testicular e ovariano, geralmente com ambiguidade genital. Os pacientes são cromossomicamente heterogêneos e a análise citogenética é fundamental. Objetivo: relatar o caso de um paciente do município de Manaus, Amazonas, portador de distúrbio da diferenciação do sexo ovotesticular 46, XX e SRY-negativo. Caso clínico: paciente de 19 anos, primeiro filho de pais não consanguíneos, que ao nascimento foi diagnosticado com ambiguidade genital, contudo, sem diagnóstico correto, foi registrado como sendo do sexo masculino. Foi submetido a cirurgias para correção da criptoquirdia bilateral, orquidopexia e colpectomia vaginal. Na puberdade, desenvolveu características sexuais feminina e masculina. Investigação diagnóstica mostrou: exames hormonais (testosterona total e estradiol normais enquanto hormônio folículo-estimulante e hormônio luteinizante elevados), histopatológicos (gônada direita, folículos ovarianos e gônadas esquerda, testículos atróficos), cariótipo (46, XX) e molecular (SRY-negativo). O diagnóstico de distúrbio da diferenciação do sexo ovotesticular foi estabelecido. O paciente optou por permanecer no sexo masculino e submeteuse à mastectomia bilateral, colpectomia vaginal e gonadectomia bilateral. Atualmente faz reposição hormonal, acompanhamento com abordagem multiprofissional e aguarda pela genitoplastia masculinizante. Discussão: aos indivíduos DDS-OT com 46, XX é sugerido como a melhor opção de sexo, o feminino. Diferentemente dos casos relatados, o paciente optou por permanecer no sexo masculino, visto que o registro de nascimento foi importante para a sua escolha. Conclusão: análises citogenéticas e moleculares permitiu auxiliar no diagnóstico etiológico do paciente com DDS-OT, contudo, análises moleculares são necessárias para elucidação de genes envolvidos na determinação sexual desse paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Disorders of Sex Development , Chromosomes , Case Reports , Castration , Mastectomy
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 126-131, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363897

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou avaliar o comportamento de cães de responsáveis brasileiros, através do Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) e estabelecer se estes comportamentos apresentam relação significativa com a idade, sexo e castração do animal. O questionário foi respondido pelos participantes entre novembro de 2018 a abril de 2020. As amostras foram divididas de acordo com o sexo (fêmeas ou machos), a idade (um ano ou menos, de um a três anos, de três a sete anos, de sete a dez anos ou mais de dez anos) e o status reprodutivo do animal (castrados ou inteiros). Para cada questionário respondido, foram calculados os escores das 14 categorias de comportamento investigados pelo C-BARQ e, através do programa Biostat 5.3, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman com nível de significância de 5% para avaliar a correlação entre estes escores com os fatores idade, sexo e status reprodutivo dos animais. Os resultados sugerem maiores escores de comportamentos agressivos em cães mais velhos e em cães castrados. A castração também obteve associação com maiores escores de medo de outros cães. Os achados evidenciam necessidade de estudos que busquem investigar de que modo a castração se vincula com estes comportamentos que podem comprometer a convivência entre o responsável e seu cão.


This study investigated Brazilian's dogs behavior through the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) and establish if these behaviors have a significant relationship with the age, sex and neutering status of the animal. The questionnaire was answered by owners between November 2018 and April 2020. The sample was divided according to sex (female or male), age (one year or less, from one to three years, from three to seven years, from seven to ten years or more than ten years) and the reproductive status of the animal (neutered or not). For each questionnaire answered, the scores of the 14 behavior categories investigated by C-BARQ were calculated and Spearman's correlation coefficient with a significance level of 5% was used to assess the correlation between these scores with the factors age, sex and reproductive status of the animals (Biostat 5.3 program). The results suggest higher scores for aggressive behavior in older dogs and in neutered dogs. Neutering was also associated with higher scores of fear from other dogs. The findings suggest the need for studies that seek to investigate how castration is linked to these behaviors that can deteriorate the owner-dog relationship.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Behavior, Animal , Dogs/psychology , Castration/veterinary , Aggression , Human-Animal Interaction
5.
J. psicanal ; 54(100): 145-162, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1279343

ABSTRACT

Este artigo examina o caso do pequeno Hans com a finalidade de apresentar sua fobia como um trabalho de simbolização do sexual. A análise de Hans começa com a mãe, em conformidade com a teoria da angústia da época, porém migra em direção ao pai. A principal hipótese de Freud é o recalcamento das moções hostis em relação ao pai. As manifestações do Édipo negativo de Hans são exploradas. O Édipo e a castração são localizados não do lado do recalcado, mas da instância recalcante. O axioma de que o inconsciente é estruturado como uma linguagem é criticado.


This article examines little Hans's case in order to relate the child's phobia with a work of symbolization of the sexual. Hans's analysis starts with the mother, in accordance with the theory of anxiety at the time, but migrates towards the father. Freud's main hypothesis is the repression of hostile impulses towards the father. Hans's negative Oedipus manifestations are explored. Oedipus and castration are located not on the repressed side, but on the repressive instance. The axiom that the unconscious is structured like a language is criticized.


Este artículo examina el caso del pequeño Hans para presentar su fobia como una obra de simbolización de lo sexual. El análisis de Hans comienza con la madre, de acuerdo con la teoría de la angustia de la época, pero migra hacia el padre. La principal hipótesis de Freud es la represión de las mociones hostiles hacia el padre. Se exploran las manifestaciones negativas de Edipo de Hans. Edipo y castración se ubican no en el lado reprimido, sino en la instancia represora. Se critica el axioma de que el inconsciente está estructurado como un lenguaje.


Cet article examine le cas du petit Hans afin de présenter sa phobie comme une œuvre de symbolisation du sexuel. L'analyse de Hans commence par la mère, conformément à la théorie de l'angoisse de l'époque, mais migre vers le père. L'hypothèse principale de Freud est le refoulement des motions hostiles envers le père. Les manifestations négatives d'Œdipe de Hans sont explorées. Œdipe et castration se situent non pas du côté refoulé, mais du côté du refoulant. L'axiome selon lequel l'inconscient est structuré comme un langage est critiqué.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Sexuality , Freudian Theory , Castration
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 327-334, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248930

ABSTRACT

Ovariohysterectomy (OHE) is the most performed elective surgery in veterinary medicine. Although this procedure brings benefits both to the animal and public health, acquired urinary incontinence is a possible complication resultant from it. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence and evaluate size, breed, and time of surgery as risk factors in a population of spayed female dogs in the Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in the year of 2013, through the use of a multiple-choice screening instrument. Identified estimated prevalence was 11.27% and main risk factors were as follows: large size (OR = 7.12 IC95% = 1.42 - 35.67), Rottweiler breed (OR = 8.92; IC95% = 5.25 - 15.15), Pit-bull breed (OR = 4.14; IC95% = 2.19 - 7.83), and Labrador breed (OR = 2.73; IC95% = 1.53 - 4.87). Time of surgery was not considered a risk factor for urinary incontinence in this population (OR = 1.45; IC95% = 0.86 - 2.40). Even though most owners reported a small impact on their relationship with the animal, urinary incontinence hazard should be addressed before spaying.(AU)


A ovário-histerectomia (OHE) é a cirurgia eletiva mais realizada em medicina veterinária. Embora seja um procedimento que beneficie a saúde pública e do animal, a incontinência urinária adquirida é uma complicação possível resultante desse procedimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de incontinência urinária e avaliar porte, raça e momento da castração como fatores de risco em uma população de cadelas castradas no HCV/UFRGS, no ano de 2013, através do uso de um instrumento de triagem de múltipla escolha. A prevalência estimada foi de 11,27% e os principais fatores de risco foram: grande porte (OR = 7,12 IC95% = 1,42 - 35,67), raça Rottweiler (OR = 8,92; IC95% = 5,25 - 15,15), raça Pitbull (OR = 4,14; IC95% = 2,19 - 7,83) e raça Labrador (OR = 2,73; IC95% = 1,53 - 4,87). O tempo da cirurgia não foi considerado fator de risco para incontinência urinária nessa população (OR = 1,45; IC95% = 0,86 - 2,40). Embora a maioria dos proprietários tenha relatado um pequeno impacto no relacionamento com o animal, a possibilidade de incontinência urinária deve ser devidamente discutida antes da castração.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Urethra/pathology , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urinary Incontinence/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Castration/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06533, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279531

ABSTRACT

Excessive infection and inflammation are the most common complications associated with castration. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX), or firocoxib (FX) for inflammation control after castration in horses using acute-phase proteins (APP) as markers of inflammation. Thirty healthy, unbroken, mixed-breed horses (body weight 358.62±45.57kg and age 4.99±2.63 years) were randomly (n=10 animals/group) allocated to receive one of three different post-castration anti-inflammatory medicines: Group 1 (FM 1.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); Group 2 (MX 0.6mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); and Group 3 (FX 0.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days). All horses were castrated in standing position, using the open technique. Serum and peritoneal APP concentrations were measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and determined before castration (0), and 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after castration. The results were submitted to analysis of variance using the SAS statistical program, and means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). Three animals from the MX group developed hyperthermia (with rectal temperatures of 39.8, 39.3 and 38.9°C on day 4, 5 and 6, respectively) and showed local clinical signs of inflammation (inguinal and excessive scrotal edema) and reluctance to walk, as well as a rigid gait of the hind limbs. The same complications were observed in one FX horse. No complications were observed among the FM animals. The castration resulted in significant changes in serum and peritoneal values of total proteins, ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf), albumin (Alb), haptoglobin (Hp) and α1-acid glycoprotein (Gp) in animals of all experimental groups. However, the animals of the MX and FX groups presented more intense acute phase response compared to the animals of the FM group. Changes in the APP were associated with the surgical trauma of castration, but the differences between groups were associated with the ability of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to control the inflammation. In conclusion, and based on the findings of acute phase proteins, flunixin is more efficient to control the magnitude of inflammation following castration as compared to meloxicam and firocoxib.(AU)


Infecção e inflamação excessivas são as complicações mais comuns associadas à castração. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia do flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX) ou firocoxib (FX) no controle da inflamação após a castração em cavalos usando proteínas da fase aguda (APP) como marcadores de inflamação. Trinta equinos saudáveis (358,62±45,57kg; 4,99±2,63 anos) foram em função dos anti-inflamatórios utilizados após as castrações aleatoriamente (n= 10 animais/grupo) alocados em três diferentes grupos: Grupo 1 (FM 1,1mg/kg de peso, IV, sid por 5 dias); Grupo 2 (MX 0,6mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias); e Grupo 3 (FX 0,1mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias). Todos os cavalos foram castrados em posição quadrupedal, utilizando a técnica aberta. As concentrações de APP sérica e peritoneal foram separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE) com dodecil-sulfato de sódio (SDS) e determinadas no momento 0 (antes da castração) e com 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a castração. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo programa estatístico SAS e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). Três animais do grupo MX desenvolveram hipertermia (com temperatura retal de 39,8, 39,3 e 38,9° C nos dias 4, 5 e 6, respectivamente) e mostraram sinais clínicos locais de inflamação (edema inguinal e escrotal excessivo) e relutância em andar, bem como marcha rígida dos membros posteriores. As mesmas complicações foram observadas em um cavalo do FX. Não foram observadas complicações entre os animais do FM. Independente do grupo, a castração resultou em alterações significativas nos valores séricos e peritoneais de proteínas totais, ceruloplasmina (Cp), transferrina (Tf), albumina (Alb), haptoglobina (Hp) e glicoproteína ácida α1 (Gp). No entanto, os animais dos grupos MX e FX apresentaram resposta de fase aguda mais intensa quando comparados aos animais do FM. Alterações na resposta de fase aguda deveram-se ao trauma cirúrgico da castração, mas as diferenças entre os grupos foram associadas à capacidade do anti-inflamatório em controlar a inflamação. Em conclusão, baseado da resposta de fase aguda, o flunixin em comparação com o meloxicam e o firocoxib é mais eficiente no controle da inflamação após a castração em equinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acute-Phase Proteins , Castration , Meloxicam , Horses/surgery , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Orchiectomy
8.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 11(3,Supl 1): 163-181, dez.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343446

ABSTRACT

A partir da obra de Freud, trabalha-se a noção de Recusa (Verleugnung) como um mecanismo de defesa presente em todas as formas de subjetivação. A Recusa defende o narcisismo da ameaça de castração, que não se restringe à perda do genital, mas evoca diversas outras feridas narcísicas. Este artigo analisa as transmissões familiares inconscientes e sua relação com a simultânea admissão e não admissão da castração. A fantasia infantil da mãe fálica evidencia a ação da Recusa na manutenção das crenças irracionais e seus efeitos sobre o senso de realidade. Este trabalho aborda as manifestações da Recusa no cotidiano e nos adoecimentos psíquicos e comprova a importância do conceito na ampliação da teoria e da clínica psicanalítica (AU).


Based on Freud's work, this paper focuses on the notion of denial (Verleugnung) as a defense mechanism present in all forms of subjectivity. Denial defends narcissism against castration threat, which is not restricted to the loss of genitals, but evokes several other narcissistic wounds. This article analyzes the unconscious family transmissions and their relationship with the simultaneous admission and nonadmission of castration. The phallic mother childish fantasy shows denial's action in maintaining irrational beliefs and their effects on the sense of reality. This paper explores denial's manifestation in everyday life and in psychic illnesses, and attests the importance of that concept in the expansion of psychoanalytic theory and clinic (AU).


Basándose en la obra de Freud, se trabaja la noción de negación (Verleugnung) como mecanismo de defensa presente en todas las formas de subjetividad. La negación defiende el narcisismo contra la amenaza de castración, que no se limita a la pérdida del genital, sino que evoca varias otras heridas narcisistas. Este articulo analiza las transmisiones familiares inconscientes y su relación con la simultánea admisión y no admisión de la castración. La fantasía infantil de la madre fálica evidencia la acción de la negación en la manutención de creencias irracionales y sus efectos sobre el sentido de la realidad. Este trabajo explora las manifestaciones de la negación en la vida diaria y en enfermedades psíquicas, y comprueba la importancia de este concepto en la expansión de la teoría y de la clínica psicoanalítica (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychoanalytic Therapy , Castration , Culture , Narcissism , Disease , Hazards
9.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e162109, mai. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122173

ABSTRACT

This survey evaluated mombin leaves (Spondias mombin L.) decoction efficiency as an antiseptic during post-surgery period on cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy. For this purpose, 45 castrated mongrels cats were divided into three groups, the first group as a positive control using 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol solution, the second a negative control group using sterile distilled water and, finally, the test group using mombin leaves decocted with a concentration of 100 mg/mL. All animals, independent of age and sex, had visibly healed in most cases in a similar time. Animals treated with mombin leaves decoction presented a significant reduction of bacterial growth. In addition, the animals treated in the test group had better surgical wound healing. All isolated bacterial strains presented inhibition halo for chlorhexidine and for Spondias mombin L. Thus, the decoction of Spondias mombin L. leaves proved antiseptic efficacy in the surgical wounds of cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy.(AU)


Foi avaliada a eficiência do decocto das folhas de cajá (Spondias mombin L.) como antisséptico no pós-cirúrgico de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia. Para tal, foram submetidos à castração 45 gatos sem raça definida, divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo como controle positivo com Solução Alcoólica de Clorexidine a 0,5%; segundo grupo controle negativo com água destilada estéril; e o grupo teste com o decocto de cajá à concentração de 100 mg/mL. Todos os animais, independentemente da idade e sexo, tiveram cicatrização visível em tempo similar. Animais tratados com o decocto apresentaram uma redução significativa do crescimento bacteriano. Além disso, observou-se uma melhor cicatrização das feridas cirúrgicas dos animais tratados no grupo teste. Todas as estirpes bacterianas isoladas apresentaram halo de inibição para clorexidine e para Spondias mombin L. Portanto, o decocto das folhas da Spondias mombin L. apresentou eficácia antisséptica nas feridas cirúrgicas de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Castration/veterinary , Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(4): e171210, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348016

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of immunocastration on the scrotal circumference, as well as in the macroscopic and microscopic testicular features in Nellore bulls bred under a semi-confining system for 91 days. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: 30 intact animals (non-vaccinated) and 30 immunocastrated animals. The immunocastrated animals were treated with two anti-GnRH vaccine doses (BoprivaTM - Zoetis Australia Pty Ltd). The scrotal circumference (SC) was measured on days 0 and 56. Testicular parameters: biometry traits (length, width, and height ­ cm; volume ­ cm3) and weight (g) was measured on day 91. Three testicles from each group were histologically processed to find the seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelium thickness (µm). Data were analyzed in the Minitab® 19 statistical software. The macroscopic features (SC, and testes weight, volume, length, width, and height) and the microscopic features (seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelium thickness) were compared between the two groups through Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. All the values were lower (p<0.05) in animals immunized against GnRH, except for the right testis width and seminiferous tubule diameter. Results indicate that immunization against GnRH affected testicular development.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da imunocastração no perímetro escrotal, assim como nas características testiculares macroscópicas e microscópicas de touros Nelore criados em um sistema de semiconfinamento por 91 dias. Sessenta animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 30 animais inteiros (não vacinados) e 30 imunocastrados. Os animais imunocastrados receberam duas doses de uma vacina anti-GnRH (Bopriva® - Zoetis Ltda). O perímetro escrotal (PE) foi mensurado nos dias 0 e 56. Parâmetros testiculares: atributos biométricos (comprimento, largura e altura ­ cm; volume cm3) e peso (g) foram medidos no dia 91. Três testículos de cada grupo foram processados para histologia clássica a fim de avaliar o diâmetro e a espessura do epitélio dos túbulos seminíferos (µm). Os dados foram analisados pelo software estatístico Minitab® 19. As médias das características macroscópicas (PE, peso, volume, comprimento, largura e altura dos testículos) e das microscópicas (diâmetro e espessura do epitélio dos túbulos seminíferos) foram comparadas entre os dois grupos pelos testes t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Todos os valores foram menores (p<0,05) em animais imunizados contra o GnRH, exceto a altura média do testículo direito e o diâmetro do túbulo seminífero. Os resultados indicam que a imunização contra o GnRH afeta o desenvolvimento testicular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Castration/veterinary , Seminiferous Tubules , Biometry/methods
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 929-938, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011296

ABSTRACT

Due to the doubts and questions about the inflammatory reaction caused by chemical castration, this study aimed to use infrared thermography to detect, evaluate and monitor the inflammatory reaction caused by the intratesticular injection of calcium chloride (CaCl2) 20% with lidocaine 1%. For this, thermographic measurements were taken before (M0), 10 minutes (M1), 1 and 6 hours (M2 and M3), for 7 consecutive days (M4 to M10), at 15 (M11), 30 (M12) and 60 (M13) days after intratesticular injection. Additionally, changes to testicular tissue and effects over spermatogenesis were evaluated by andrological exam before (M0) and 60 days (M13) after intratesticular injection. All cats were orchiectomized at M13, and testicles were submitted to histological analysis. CaCl2 (20%) with lidocaine (1%) administration produced testicular tissue damage and interfered with the spermatogenesis in 70% of treated cats without exacerbating the inflammatory reaction or impairing the cat's welfare. It was concluded that thermographic evaluation is a useful, efficient, easy and quick method to diagnose and monitor cat testicular inflammatory reactions.(AU)


Devido a constantes dúvidas e questionamentos sobre a reação inflamatória ocasionada pela castração química, este estudo objetivou o uso da termografia infravermelha para detectar, avaliar e monitorar a reação inflamatória causada pela injeção intratesticular de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl 2 ) 20% associada à lidocaína 1%. Para isso, medidas termográficas foram aferidas antes (M0), 10 minutos (M1), uma e seis horas (M2 e M3), por sete dias consecutivos (M4 a M10), aos 15 (M11), 30 (M12), e 60 (M13) dias após injeção intratesticular, nos grupos tratado e controle. Todos os gatos foram orquiectomizados no M13, e os testículos submetidos à análise histológica. A injeção CaCl 2 a 20% associada com lidocaína a 1% produziu lesão testicular e interferiu na espermatogênese de 70% dos gatos tratados, sem exacerbar a reação inflamatória ou prejudicar o bem-estar do animal. Foi concluído que a avaliação termográfica é uma ferramenta útil, eficiente, rápida e fácil para o diagnóstico e o monitoramento da reação inflamatória em gatos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cats , Castration/methods , Castration/veterinary , Semen Analysis/methods , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Calcium Chloride , Thermography/veterinary , Lidocaine
12.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 22(3): 97-98, jul-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1052790

ABSTRACT

Os suínos são a segunda proteína animal mais consumido do mundo, sendo que o Brasil é o quarto produtor mundial deste tipo de carne. Atualmente, por exigência do mercado consumidor externo e interno há uma grande demanda por produção de carne por meios orgânicos ecologicamente sustentáveis e que sigam a premissa de bem-estar animal. A castração é realizada em suínos machos para tornar a carne palatável e aceita pelos consumidores. A técnica tradicionalmente empregada é a cirúrgica, mas da maneira que é praticada é um método que provoca dor e estresse nos animais. Como alternativa a este método existe a imunocastração. Tal técnica é eficaz e indolor, mas ainda onerosa para os produtores. Desta maneira, no presente trabalho foi estudada a castração química em suínos por meio de injeção intratesticular de óleo essencial de cravo da índia (OECI). Em todos os animais foi administrado meloxicam e foi feita anestesia infiltrativa intra-testicular. Estabelecida a anestesia foi realizada a castração química. Foi introduzido OECI nos testículos (intratesticular, bilateralmente). Após o procedimento, os suínos foram examinados diariamente durante uma semana. Em todos os animais a introdução do OECI foi de fácil execução, sem intercorrências nem óbitos. Em dois animais 20% (2/10) foi observado edema 24 horas após a administração do fármaco. No entanto, tal reação foi considerada como um processo inflamatório, provocado pela substância injetada no interior do tecido testicular. Não foram observados sinais de dor ou desconforto após a castração química nos animais. Provavelmente tal resultado é decorrente do protocolo analgésico e anestésico adotado no presente estudo. Concluiu-se que a injeção intratesticular de óleo essencial de cravo da índia em suínos machos mostrou-se uma técnica viável e de fácil execução na espécie estudada.(AU)


Pigs are the second most consumed animal protein in the world, with Brazil being the fourth largest producer of this type of meat in the world. Currently, due to the pressure from both the foreign and domestic consumer markets, there is a great demand for meat to be produced in an organic manner, which is ecologically sustainable and following the animal welfare assumptions. Castration is performed on male pigs to make the meat more palatable and accepted by consumers. The technique is traditionally surgical, a method that causes pain and stress to the animals. Immunocastration is an alternative to this method. This is an effective and painless technique for the animals, albeit still costly for the producers. Thus, this paper studied the chemical castration in pigs by intratesticular injection of clove essential oil (CEO). Meloxicam and intra-testicular infiltrative anesthesia were administered to all subjects. Once anesthesia was established, chemical castration was performed. CEO was introduced into the testicles (intratesticular, bilaterally). After the procedure, the subjects were examined daily for one week. In all subjects, the introduction of the CEO was easy to perform, uneventful, and no deaths were recorded. Edema was observed in two subjects (20%) (2/10) 24 hours after drug administration. However, such a reaction was considered as an inflammatory process caused by the substance injected into the testicular tissue. No signs of pain or discomfort were observed after chemical castration. The edema could also be a result of the analgesic and anesthetic protocol adopted in the study. It was concluded that intratesticular injection of clove essential oil in male pigs proved to be a viable and easily performed technique in the studied species.(AU)


Los cerdos son la segunda proteína animal más consumida del mundo, siendo que Brasil es el cuarto productor mundial de este tipo de carne. Actualmente, por exigencia del mercado consumidor externo e interno hay una gran demanda por producción de carne por medios orgánicos ecológicamente sostenibles y que sigan la premisa del bienestar animal. La castración se realiza en cerdos machos para hacer la carne más apetecible y acepta por los consumidores. La técnica tradicionalmente empleada es la quirúrgica, pero de la manera que se practica es un método que provoca dolor y estrés en los animales. Como alternativa a este método existe la inmunocastración. Tal técnica es eficaz e indolora, pero costosa para los productores. Así, en la presente investigación, se estudió la castración química en cerdos por inyección intratesticular de aceite esencial del clavo de India (AEC). Se administró meloxicam a todos los animales y se administró anestesia infiltrada intratesticular. Una vez que se estableció la anestesia, se realizó la castración química. Se ha introducido en los testículos AEC (intratesticular, bilateralmente). Después del procedimiento, los cerdos fueron examinados diariamente durante una semana. En todos los animales, la introducción del AEC ha sido fácil de realizarse, sin incidentes y sin óbito. En dos animales 20%; (2/10) se observó edema 24 horas tras la administración del fármaco. Sin embargo, dicha reacción se consideró como un proceso inflamatorio causado por la sustancia inyectada en el tejido testicular. No se observaron signos de dolor o incomodidad después de la castración química en los animales. Probablemente dicho resultado se deba al protocolo analgésico y anestésico adoptado en el presente estudio. Se concluyó que la inyección intratesticular de aceite esencial del clavo de India en cerdos machos demuestra ser una técnica viable y de fácil realización en la especie estudiada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swine/surgery , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Castration/veterinary , Syzygium/chemistry
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 151-159, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989360

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, parâmetros fisiológicos e temperamentais de bovinos de corte não castrados ou submetidos à castração cirúrgica ou à imunocastração. O período experimental foi dividido em dois subperíodos de observações: primeiros 15 dias pós-castração (período de cicatrização) e os 25 dias seguintes à cicatrização. Nos primeiros 15 dias de avaliação, os animais não castrados obtiveram maior ganho médio diário de peso em relação aos castrados cirurgicamente. A frequência cardíaca foi maior para os animais castrados cirurgicamente, com 126,51 batimentos/minuto, em relação aos demais tratamentos. A distância de fuga foi superior para os novilhos castrados cirurgicamente, com valor de 12,22 metros. Nos 25 dias seguintes à castração cirúrgica, o ganho médio diário de peso foi superior nos bovinos castrados cirurgicamente em relação aos bovinos não castrados ou imunocastrados. A velocidade de fuga, no segundo subperíodo de avaliação, foi superior nos bovinos castrados em relação aos não castrados. O período imediato à castração, os primeiros 15 dias, prejudicou o ganho médio diário e o ganho de peso total, o que causou maior reatividade, com alterações nos parâmetros fisiológicos e temperamentais de bovinos castrados cirurgicamente em comparação com bovinos não castrados, entretanto, transcorrido o período de cicatrização, essas diferenças diminuíram ou desapareceram.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, physiological and temperamental parameters of uncastrated beef cattle or those submitted to surgical castration or immunocastration, in the post-castration period. The experimental period was divided into two subperiods of observations: the first 15 days post-castration (healing period) and the 25 days following healing. In the first 15 days of evaluation, the non-castrated animals obtained a greater average daily gain of weight in relation to surgically castrated. The heart rate was higher for surgically castrated animals with 126,51 beats/minute, compared to the other treatments. The distance of escape was higher for the surgically castrated steers, with a value of 12,22 meters, when compared to the other groups studied. During the next 25 days of surgical castration, the mean daily gain of weight was higher in surgically castrated cattle than in non-castrated or immunocastrated cattle. The escape velocity, in the second evaluation subperiod, was superior in the castrated cattle, in relation to the not castrated. The immediate castration period, the first 15 days, altered the mean daily gain and the total weight gain, the physiological and temperamental parameters of surgically castrated cattle, however, after the healing period, these differences diminish or disappear.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/surgery , Cattle/classification , Cattle/physiology , Castration/veterinary , Weight Gain
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719629

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and its variants (ARVs) in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues according to disease status, and its prognostic significance following radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 282 PCa cases were evaluated, which included 252 localized PCa, 8 metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases. Samples were collected from patients who underwent RP or transurethral resection and were stored in ethically approved tissue banks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were performed for AR and ARVs. Each tissue was confirmed as cancerous (greater than 80%) using hematoxylin and eosin staining. AR and ARVs expression was compared according to disease status. The biochemical recurrence free survival (BCRFS) rates in men with localized PCa was analyzed according to AR and ARV7 expression using the Kaplan-Meier curve. RESULTS: Only 58 of the 252 localized PCa were included in the analysis because of insufficient cancer tissue. AR and ARV7 mRNA expression was higher in the CRPC tissue than in the localized PCa tissue (p=0.025, p=0.002, respectively). In localized PCa tissue, high AR mRNA and protein level was associated with a low BCRFS rate (log-ranked, p=0.019, p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Overall AR and ARV7 mRNA expression levels were increased in CRPC tissues compared to localized PCa and BPH tissues. High AR protein and mRNA expression in the tumor tissue may be considered a predictive factor of BCRFS following RP.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Castration , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Androgen , Recurrence , RNA, Messenger , Tissue Banks
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758908

ABSTRACT

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus and anti-GnRH antibodies are not formed under normal conditions. However, administration an excess of recombinant GnRH protein results in the formation of anti-GnRH. We evaluated the efficacy of the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2)-GnRH vaccine in inducing infertility in 17 intact male cats. The first vaccination and a boosting vaccine was injected for examination. Serum was obtained from blood collected at monthly intervals and anti-GnRH antibodies and testosterone concentrations were determined. Six months after the vaccination, testicular samples are obtained and used for histological examination. Compared with sham control group, the injection groups showed an increase in anti-GnRH antibody titers and testosterone concentrations tended to be reduced in the injection groups and increased in the control group. Histological evaluations and Johnsen's testicular biopsy scores revealed testicular hypoplasia in the 2 injection groups. Consequently, normal sexual maturation with sperm production was observed in the control group. In contrast, the cats that received the GnRH vaccine showed weak (2 of 7 cats) or moderate (4 out of 7 cats) dose-dependent infertility effects. On the basis of the results, the STF2-GnRH vaccine was identified to be effective in inducing infertility in male cats. The results of this study thus indicate the possibility of immunological castration targeting feral cats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Biopsy , Castration , Cats , Contraception, Immunologic , Fertility Agents , Flagellin , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Hypothalamus , Infertility , Male , Salmonella typhimurium , Sexual Maturation , Spermatozoa , Testis , Testosterone , Vaccination , Vaccines
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764113

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Goserelin is a drug used for chemical castration. In a rat model, we investigated whether surgical and chemical castration affected memory ability through the protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal–regulated kinases (MEK)/extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERK) pathways in the hippocampus. METHODS: Orchiectomy was performed for surgical castration and goserelin acetate was subcutaneously transplanted into the anterior abdominal wall for chemical castration. Immunohistochemistry was done to quantify neurogenesis. To assess the involvement of the PKA/CREB/BDNF and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in the memory process, western blots were used. RESULTS: The orchiectomy group and the goserelin group showed less neurogenesis and impaired short-term and spatial memory. Phosphorylation of PKA/CREB/BDNF and phosphorylation of c-Raf/MEK/ERK decreased in the orchiectomy and goserelin groups. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term memory and spatial memory were affected by surgical and chemical castration via the PKA/CREB/BDNF and c-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Adenosine Monophosphate , Blotting, Western , Castration , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Down-Regulation , Goserelin , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Models, Animal , Neurogenesis , Orchiectomy , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Spatial Memory
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786464

ABSTRACT

The term theranostics is a combination of a diagnostic tool that helps to define a right therapeutic tool for specific disease and paves the approach towards personalized or precision medicine. In Nuclear Medicine, a diagnostic radionuclide is labeled with the target and once expression is documented, the same target is labeled with a therapeutic radionuclide and treatment is executed. The theranostic concept was applied first time in 1964 in the treatment of thyroid cancer with I-131 (RAI). Over the years, other theranostic radiotracers became available indigenously from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in the country. Currently Lu-177 is produced in India and peptides like DOTATATE and PSMA are available in a kit form indigenously. At the present time, the radionuclide therapies of oncological disorders which are being performed in India are mainly for neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The main constraints pertaining to this concept is the cost of treatment and awareness among the clinicians which are gradually being taken care of by the private health insurance and our participation in disease management group meetings respectively. The theranostic concept has become popular over the years and has the potential for sustained growth.


Subject(s)
Castration , Disease Management , Group Processes , Humans , India , Insurance, Health , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Nuclear Medicine , Peptides , Precision Medicine , Prostatic Neoplasms , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Thyroid Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786447

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is third common malignancy in men of old age (average 65 years) in Myanmar. Currently, serum PSA and bone scan are the markers of choice. Because of the evidence-based, promising success of ⁶⁸Ga-PSMA PET-CT and 177Lu-PSMA theranostics in prostate cancer worldwide, (99m)Tc-PSMA SPECT-CT imaging and ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA therapy has launched as a stepping-stone of theranostics in Myanmar with the available facilities. Twelve cases of prostate cancer patients were imaged with 600 MBq of (99m)Tc-PSMA I+S SPECT-CT. Four metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (MCRPC) patients with abnormal result were treated with ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA. The protocol consists of 6–8 GBq of ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA, three successive doses at interval of 4–6 weeks. Post-therapy SPECT-CT imaging was done. All treated patients were improved by free of bone pain, and fall/rise in serum PSA level. Two patients with extensive skeletal metastases succumbed to complications. The results are well documented and present at the multidisciplinary conferences for clinical awareness. Theranostics in prostate cancer with available facilities is an additional boon to our health care professionals to upgrade cancer management in Myanmar. This paper provides the technology with cost effectiveness and benefit to prostate cancer patients of Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Castration , Congresses as Topic , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Male , Myanmar , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Theranostic Nanomedicine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761887

ABSTRACT

Androgen receptor (AR) is a steroid receptor transcriptional factor for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone consisting of four main domains, the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, hinge region, and ligand-binding domain. AR plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen deprivation therapy can suppress hormone-naïve prostate cancer, but prostate cancer changes AR and adapts to survive under castration levels of androgen. These mechanisms include AR point mutations, AR overexpression, changes of androgen biosynthesis, constitutively active AR splice variants without ligand binding, and changes of androgen cofactors. Studies of AR in CRPC revealed that AR was still active in CRPC, and it remains as a potential target to treat CRPC. Enzalutamide is a second-generation antiandrogen effective in patients with CRPC before and after taxane-based chemotherapy. However, CRPC is still incurable and can develop drug resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of this resistance can enable new-generation therapies for CRPC. Several promising new AR-targeted therapies have been developed. Apalutamide is a new Food and Drug Administration-approved androgen agonist binding to the ligand-binding domain, and clinical trials of other new AR-targeted agents binding to the ligand-binding domain or N-terminal domain are underway. This review focuses on the functions of AR in prostate cancer and the development of CRPC and promising new agents against CRPC.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists , Castration , Dihydrotestosterone , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Humans , Point Mutation , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Receptors, Androgen , Receptors, Steroid , Testosterone
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1554-1563, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976476

ABSTRACT

Orchiectomized bulls have advantages in the meat quality and ease of handling. Chemical castration is an option for surgical castration and the sclerosing agents can be administered into the testicular or epididymis parenchyma. These agents have a lower incidence of complications than surgery, especially when associated with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which has anti-inflammatory action and increases the absorption of other drugs. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single intratesticular injection of calcium chloride solution associated with DMSO for the chemical sterilization of bulls. Twenty-four young adult bulls were utilized, distributed into 3 groups (G20, G30 and G40, n = 8/group), according to the calcium chloride concentration (20, 30 and 40%), in 10mL volume. Serum concentrations of testosterone, body weight, testicular volume and ecotexture, clinical signs and behavior and were evaluated for 45 days. Thus, the animals were orchiectomized and testicles were assessed histologically. There were no changes in body weight, decreased serum testosterone concentrations (except G30), signs of scrotal sensitivity or changes in behavior over the period. However, there was significant increase in testicular volume, especially on the 2nd and 3rd day after treatment, with values returning to the value initials at 15 days. Testicular adherence and firm consistency were observed during orchiectomy. Ultrasound examination revealed a loss of integrity of the median raphe, with cavity formation and an alteration of the testicular echotexture. In the histological evaluation, coagulation necrosis of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells was observed, mainly in the medial portion in all groups. Some animals presented total absence of tubular formations in all the studied groups, being the effects of greater intensity in the G40. Additionally, pronounced edema was noted in all groups, especially in G40. Inflammatory infiltrate, fibroplasia and neovascularization were found to be predominantly discrete. Based on the conditions used in this study, we conclude that calcium chloride associated with DMSO can be used as a method of chemical sterilization in bovines.(AU)


Bovinos orquiectomizados apresentam vantagens na qualidade da carne e facilidade no manejo. A quimioesterilização é uma opção à castração cirúrgica e os agentes esclerosantes podem ser administrados no parênquima testicular ou epidídimo. Estes produtos possuem menor incidência de complicações, comparados a cirurgia, especialmente quando associados ao dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), que apresenta ação anti-inflamatória e aumenta a absorção de outros fármacos. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de uma única injeção intratesticular de solução de cloreto de cálcio associado com 0,5% de DMSO para a esterilização química de bovinos. Vinte e quatro touros adultos jovens foram utilizados, distribuídos em 3 grupos (G20, G30 e G40, n = 8/grupo) de acordo com a concentração de cloreto de cálcio (20, 30 e 40%), em um volume de 10mL. Foram avaliadas as concentrações séricas de testosterona, peso corporal, volume e ecotextura testicular, sinais clínicos e comportamento por 45 dias. A seguir, os animais foram submetidos à orquiectomia e os testículos avaliados histologicamente. Não foram observadas alterações do peso corporal, diminuição das concentrações de testosterona sérica (exceto no G30), sinais de sensibilidade escrotal ou alterações no comportamento no período avaliado. Porém, houve aumento significativo do volume testicular, especialmente nos 2º e 3º dia após o tratamento, com valores retornando aos iniciais aos 15 dias. Aderência e consistência firme dos testículos foram achados observados durante a orquiectomia. O exame ultrassonográfico revelou perda de integridade da rafe mediana, com formação de cavidades e alteração da ecotextura testicular. Na avaliação histológica, verificou-se necrose de coagulação de túbulos seminíferos e células intersticiais acentuada, principalmente, na porção medial em todos os grupos, sendo que em alguns animais havia ausência total das formações tubulares em todos os grupos estudados, sendo os efeitos de maior intensidade no G40. Além disso, edema foi acentuado em todos os grupos, principalmente em G40. Infiltrado inflamatório, fibroplasia e neovascularização foram achados predominantemente discretos. Com base nas condições utilizadas neste estudo, conclui-se que o cloreto de cálcio associado com o DMSO pode ser utilizado como um método de esterilização química em bovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Cattle/surgery , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Calcium Chloride/analysis , Castration/statistics & numerical data
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