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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06923, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356556

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a chronic fungal infection caused by Sporothrix species. The occurrence of cases that are resistant to long-term treatment, especially in the nasal planum of cats, emphasizes the importance of studying its pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the inflammatory process of cutaneous lesions of feline refractory sporotrichosis to clinical aspects through cytopathological and histopathological examination. Moreover, the study included 13 cats with cutaneous lesions that had been resistant to itraconazole treatment for more than a year. Cutaneous lesions samples were collected for cytopathological, histopathological, and fungal culture analyses. Tissue fragments were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Grocott methenamine silver (GMS). Further, two clinical presentations had the highest occurrence: the localized cutaneous form in animals with good general condition and stable disease (n=9, 69.2%) and the disseminated cutaneous form in cats with poor general condition (n=4, 30.8%). In cats with refractory sporotrichosis, the nasal planum (84.6%) was the most common location of lesions. In the cytopathological study, cats with fewer than two lesions and in good general condition (n=9, 69.2%) showed absence or mild yeast intensity (up to 5 yeasts per field), lower intensity of macrophages and neutrophils, and higher intensity of epithelioid cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. On the other hand, (n=4, 30.8%) of the cats with disseminated sporotrichosis and a poor general condition had a marked intensity of yeasts, which were mostly phagocytosed by an increased number of macrophages and neutrophils. Of those animals with good general condition, the majority (n=6, 66.7%) had higher eosinophil intensity. In histopathology, malformed suppurative granuloma was the predominant type (n=9, 69.2%) in feline sporotrichosis lesions, followed by well-formed granulomas (n=4, 30.8%). Malformed granulomas showed mild to moderate fungal intensity (55.6%) in animals with good general condition and localized lesions while marked fungal intensity (44.4%) in cats with the disseminated form of the disease and poor general condition. Well-formed granulomas (n=4, 30.7%) had mild to moderate intensity of fungal load, and 75% of the animals with this type of granuloma had only one lesion and were in good general condition. Long-term itraconazole treatment in these cats with refractory sporotrichosis can keep the infection under control and localized lesions stable; however, fungus reactivation can occur, resulting in an exuberant and inefficient immune response.(AU)


A esporotricose é uma infecção fúngica crônica causada por espécies do gênero Sporothrix. A ocorrência de casos refratários ao tratamento de longo prazo, especialmente na região nasal de gatos, alerta para a importância do estudo de sua patogênese. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o processo inflamatório das lesões cutâneas de esporotricose felina refratária ao tratamento, por meio de exames citopatológico e histopalógico, e comparar com aspectos clínicos. Treze gatos com lesões cutâneas refratárias ao tratamento com Itraconazol por mais de um ano foram incluídos no estudo. Amostras de lesões cutâneas foram coletadas para análises citopatológicas, histopatológicas e cultura fúngica. Fragmentos de tecidos foram processados e corados pela hematoxilina-eosina (HE) e Prata Metenamina de Grocott (GMS). Duas apresentações clínicas tiveram maior ocorrência: a forma localizada cutânea em animais com bom estado geral e doença estável (n=9, 69,2%); e a forma disseminada cutânea em gatos com estado geral ruim (n=4, 30,8%). A região nasal (84,6%) foi a localização mais frequente das lesões nos gatos com esporotricose refratária ao tratamento. No estudo citopatológico, felinos com menos de duas lesões, e em bom estado geral, (n=9, 69,2%) revelaram ausência ou leve intensidade de leveduras (até 5 leveduras por campo), menor intensidade de macrófagos e neutrófilos, e maior intensidade de células epitelióides, linfócitos, plasmócitos e eosinófilos. Enquanto, (n=4, 30,8%) dos felinos que apresentavam a forma disseminada da esporotricose associada a um estado geral ruim, revelaram acentuada intensidade de leveduras em sua maioria fagocitadas por acentuado número de macrófagos e neutrófilos. Dos animais com bom estado geral, a maioria (n=6, 66,7%) apresentava maior intensidade de eosinófilos. Na histopatologia, o granuloma supurativo mal formado foi o tipo predominante (n=9, 69,2%) nas lesões de esporotricose felina, e (n=4, 30,8%) foram de granulomas bem formados. Granulomas mal formados apresentaram leve a moderada intensidade fúngica (55,6%) nos animais com bom estado geral e lesões localizadas, e acentuada intensidade fúngica (44,4%) nos gatos com a forma disseminada da doença e estado geral ruim. Granulomas bem formados (n=4, 30,7%) apresentaram leve a moderada intensidade de carga fúngica, sendo 75% dos animais com esse tipo de granuloma com apenas uma lesão e bom estadogeral. O tratamento de longo prazo com itraconazol, nesses gatos com esporotricose refratária, pode manter a infecção controlada e lesões localizadas estáveis de forma temporária, contudo a reativação do fungo pode ocorrer levando a uma resposta imunológica exuberante e ineficiente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis/pathology , Cat Diseases/pathology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Granuloma/veterinary
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 632-643, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057984

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study used serological and molecular methods to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) with zoonotic potential in cats neutered at the University Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, Santa Catarina. The combined PCR and serological results revealed that 17 (56.6%) cats were positive for one or more pathogens. The sampled cats had antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. (7/30), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (3/30) and Leishmania infantum (2/30). The PCR assay detected DNA closely related to Ehrlichia canis in 6/30 cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis in 2/30 cats, A. phagocytophilum and Cytauxzoon sp. in one cat each. While Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae were detected in two cats each, and B. koehlerae was detected in one cat.


Resumo Como os felinos podem ser parasitados por diversos patógenos transmitidos por vetores (PTV), alguns com caráter zoonótico, este estudo objetivou detectar por métodos sorológicos e moleculares, patógenos transmitidos por vetores hematófagos, em gatos atendidos em um Hospital Veterinário Universitário em Santa Catarina. Os resultados da PCR e da sorologia combinados, revelaram que 17 (56,6%) gatos foram positivos para um ou mais patógenos. Na sorologia, foram positivos 7/30 gatos para Ehrlichia, 3/30 para Anaplasma phagocytophilum e 2/30 para Leishmania infantum. Na PCR foi detectado DNA filogeneticamente associado a: Ehrlichia canis em 6/30 gatos; Mycoplasma haemofelis, em 2/30 gatos; A. phagocytophilum e Cytauxzoon sp. em 1/30 gatos cada. Enquanto Bartonella clarridgeiae e B. henselae foram detectadas, cada uma, em dois gatos, B. koehlerae foi detectada em um gato.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Babesia/isolation & purification , Babesia/genetics , Babesia/immunology , Babesiosis/transmission , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Bartonella/genetics , Bartonella/immunology , Brazil , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/transmission , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Ehrlichia/genetics , Ehrlichia/immunology , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/genetics , Anaplasma/immunology , Insect Vectors , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma/immunology
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 713-721, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058000

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rickettsia spp. bacteria are responsible for tick-borne diseases worldwide, mostly maintained by rickettsial amplifiers capybaras in Brazilian endemic areas. The campus of the University of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, is an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), with high density of capybaras and Amblyomma spp., along with confirmed human cases. Besides capybaras, the university has also an in-campus high population of sheltered and free-roaming cats. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics associated with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia felis exposure among cats in a BSF-endemic area. Out of 51 cats sampled, 23/35 shelter (65.7%) and 5/16 free-roaming (31.2%) were positive (titers ≥ 64) for at least one Rickettsia species. Ticks species were present in 3/16 free-roaming cats (18.8%), consisting of Amblyomma spp., nymphs of Amblyomma sculptum and adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Despite sharing the capybaras environment, the seropositivity among the free-roaming and shelter cats was lower than owned cats in other endemic areas. Whether equally or less exposed to rickettsial infection, compared with owned cats in endemic areas, free-roaming and shelter cats may be used as environmental sentinels for human exposure to rickettsiae in such areas.


Resumo Espécies de Rickettsia têm sido responsáveis por doenças transmitidas por carrapatos no mundo, a maioria mantida por hospedeiros amplificadores, como as capivaras em áreas endêmicas no Brasil. A Universidade de São Paulo, em Piracicaba, no sudeste do Brasil, é uma área endêmica para a Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB), com alta densidade de capivaras e Amblyomma spp., e com casos humanos confirmados. Além de capivaras, a universidade também possui gatos em um abrigo e de vida livre. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e as características associadas com exposição à Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri e Rickettsia felis em gatos de área endêmica para a FMB. Dos 51 gatos amostrados, 23/35 (65,7%) do abrigo e 5/16 (31,2%) de vida livre foram positivos (títulos ≥ 64) para pelo menos uma Rickettsia spp. Carrapatos estiveram presentes em 3/16 (18,8%) gatos de vida livre, representados por Amblyomma spp., ninfas de Amblyomma sculptum e adultos de Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Apesar de compartilharem o ambiente com capivaras, os gatos amostrados foram igualmente ou menos expostos à infecção riquetsial do que os gatos com proprietário em outras áreas endêmicas, podendo ser usados como sentinelas para exposição humana à riquétsias nessas áreas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Ticks/microbiology , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Rickettsia/classification , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Rickettsia Infections/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/transmission , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 151-156, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042494

ABSTRACT

Abstract Occurrence of infection or exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia spp. was detected in feral cats living in two fragments from Atlantic rainforest, in Natal, RN, Brazil, and in dogs living around the parks. While serum samples were collected from 155 animals (53 cats living in the parks; 29 dogs living in human homes around the parks; and 73 dogs living at an animal control center - ACC), spleen samples were collected from 20 dogs that were euthanized at ACC. Serum samples were analyzed to Rickettsia spp. and E. canis antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescence assay. Seventeen of the 102 dogs (17%) had E. canis antibodies and 13% (20/155) of all dogs and cats (i.e. 3% (3/102) of the dogs and 32% (17/53) of the cats) were seropositive for Rickettsia spp. antigens. The animals were therefore been exposed to R. amblyommatis or by a very closely related genotype. Among the 20 dog spleen samples analyzed, eight were PCR positive for E. canis and two for H. canis (GenBank accession number MG772657 and MG772658, respectively). In none of the spleen samples were obtained amplicons for Babesia spp. through PCR. This study provided the first evidence that Rickettsia of the spotted fever group is circulating among dogs and cats in Natal.


Resumo A ocorrência de infecção ou exposição para Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis e Rickettsia spp. foi determinada em gatos ferais que viviam em dois fragmentos da Mata Atlântica, localizados em Natal, RN, Brasil e em cães que viviam em torno dos parques e em outras regiões da cidade. Enquanto amostras de soro foram coletadas de 155 animais (53 gatos que viviam nos parques, 29 cães com domicilio em torno dos parques e 73 cães do Centro de Controle de Animais -CCA), fragmentos de baço foram coletados de 20 cães eutanasiados no CCA. A detecção de anticorpos nas amostras de soros coletadas contra Rickettsia spp. e E. canis foi realizada pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta. Dezessete dos 102 cães (17%) apresentaram anticorpos anti E. canis e 13% (20/155) de todos os cães e gatos (ou seja, 3% (3/102) dos cães e 32% (17/53) dos gatos) foram soropositivos para antígenos de Rickettsia spp. Os animais foram considerados expostos à R. amblyommatis ou a um genótipo muito relacionado. Entre as 20 amostras de baço de cães analisadas, oito foram positivas para E. canis e duas para Hepatozoon canis (números de acesso ao Genbank MG772657 e MG772658, respectivamente). Nenhuma das amostras de baço produziram amplicons de Babesia spp. na PCR. Observou-se, pela primeira vez, a circulação de Rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e gatos em Natal, RN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Rickettsia/immunology , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Forests , Eucoccidiida/immunology , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Ehrlichia canis/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 180-185, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ehrlichiosis is caused by agents belonging to Ehrlichia genus. Despite the frequent reports on the serological and molecular detection of E. canis in dogs in Brazil, there is scant data on ehrlichiosis in brazilian cats. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp. in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro, and evaluating hematological changes associated with this rickettsial infection. We searched for IgG antibodies against E. canis on blood samples of 216 cats by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA). Additionally, we performed nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) assays targeting E. canis-16S rRNA and dsb gene, respectively. Fifty-seven (26.4%) cats were seropositive for Ehrlichia spp. by IFA. Ehrlichia spp.-16S rRNA gene fragments were detected in 3 cats (1.4%). Although the obtained 16S rRNA sequences showed 99 to 100% identity with E. canis, cats were negative in qPCR. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, left shift neutrophil and hyperproteinemia were observed. Anemia was statistically associated with seropositivity to E. canis and kittens showed lower positivity rates (p<0.05). This study showed that Ehrlichia spp. occur in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro. Further studies involving culture isolation are much needed to more precisely characterize these organisms.


Resumo A erliquiose é causada por agentes pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia . Apesar dos frequentes relatos de detecção sorológica e molecular de E. canis em cães no Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a erliquiose em gatos brasileiros. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de Ehrlichia spp. em gatos domésticos do Grande Rio de Janeiro e avaliar as alterações hematológicas associadas a essa infecção rickettsial. Procuramos anticorpos IgG anti-E. canis em amostras de sangue de 216 gatos por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Além disso, foram realizados ensaios de nested PCR (nPCR) e PCR em tempo real (qPCR) para detecção dos genes E. canis-16S rRNA e dsb , respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete (26,4%) gatos foram soropositivos para Ehrlichia spp. pela RIFI. Fragmentos do gene rRNA de Ehrlichia spp.-16S foram detectados em 3 gatos (1,4%) por ensaios de nPCR. Embora as sequências 16S rRNA obtidas tenham 99 a 100% de identidade com E. canis, os gatos foram negativos nos ensaios de qPCR. Anemia, trombocitopenia, leucocitose, desvio nuclear neutrofílico à esquerda e hiperproteinemia foram observados. Anemia foi estatisticamente associada à soropositividade para E. canis e filhotes apresentaram menores taxas de positividade (p <0,05). Este estudo demonstra que Ehrlichia spp. ocorrem em gatos domésticos da Grande Rio de Janeiro. Outros estudos envolvendo o isolamento por cultura são necessários para caracterizar com mais precisão esses organismos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 80-90, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic intestinal pathogen that infects humans and a wide variety of animals worldwide. Our aim in this study was to investigate the occurrence of E. bieneusi in a domestic cat population in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Sixty fecal samples from diarrheic cats were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced for identification. E. bieneusi was detected in two samples (3.3%), both identified as genotype D. This genotype has already been reported in animals and humans and is considered a zoonotic genotype. Our findings represent the first report of E. bieneusi in domestic cats in Brazil, reinforcing the importance of identifying this agent as a source of infection in animals and humans.


Resumo Enterocytozoon bieneusi é um patógeno intestinal oportunista que infecta humanos e uma variedade de animais em todo o mundo. O objetivo no presente estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de E. bieneusi em uma população de gatos domésticos em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Sessenta amostras fecais de gatos diarréicos foram submetidas a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e os produtos de amplificação foram sequenciados para identificação molecular. E. bieneusi foi detectado em duas amostras (3,3%), ambos identificados como genótipo D. Esse genótipo tem sido relatado em animais e humanos e é considerado um genótipo zoonótico. Nossos resultados representam a primeira descrição de E. bieneusi em gatos domésticos no Brasil, reforçando a importância desse agente como fonte de infecção para animais e humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Microsporidiosis/veterinary , Enterocytozoon/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Brazil , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microsporidiosis/diagnosis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Enterocytozoon/isolation & purification , Genotype
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 446-454, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977924

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to determine the prevalence, factors associated, laboratory findings (with and without coinfection by retroviruses) among naturally infected cats by hemoplasmas in northeastern Brazil. For convenience, 200 domesticated and healthy cats were selected. Blood samples were taken to perform complete blood counts, serum biochemical, immunochromatography tests and nPCR for FIV and FeLV, and PCR for hemoplasma recognition. An interview was conducted to determine the factors associated with hemoplasmas. A total of 71/200 (35.5%) cats were positive for at least one hemoplasma species. Isolated infections were observed in 12,5% for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 12% for Mycoplasma haemofelis and 3% for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Regarding copositivity, 2% of the animals were positive for M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 1.5% for M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis', and 4.5% for ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. No clinical and laboratory changes were observed in the animals that were concomitantly positive for retroviruses and hemoplasmas. Periurban region cats were more likely to be infected by M. haemofelis, while contact with other cats and infection by ' Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' were associated with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum'. This study indicates that infection by hemoplasmas is a common find in cats from northeastern Brazil.


Resumo Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a prevalência, fatores associados, achados laboratoriais (com e sem coinfecção com retrovírus) em gatos naturalmente infectados por hemoplasmas no Nordeste do Brasil. Selecionou-se, por conveniência, 200 gatos domiciliados, hígidos, sendo colhidas amostras de sangue para realização do hemograma, bioquímica sérica, imunocromatografia e nested-PCR para FIV e FeLV, e PCR para identificação dos hemoplasmas. Uma entrevista foi realizada para determinação dos fatores associados aos hemoplasmas. A frequência de positividade foi de 35,5% (71/200). Infecções isoladas foram observadas em 12,5% dos animais para 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 12% para Mycoplasma haemofelis e 3% para 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Quanto a co-positividades, 2% dos animais foram positivos para M. haemofelis e 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 1,5% foram positivos para M. haemofelis e 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis', e 4,5% foram positivos para 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' e 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Não foram observadas alterações clínicas ou laboratoriais nos animais positivos para retrovírus e hemoplasmas, concomitantemente. A região periurbana foi identificada como fator de risco associado a M. haemofelis. Enquanto o contato com outros gatos e a infecção por 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' foi associado à 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum'. Este estudo indica que a presença dos agentes da micoplasmose hemotrópica felina é comum no Nordeste brasileiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prevalence , Chromatography, Affinity , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 185-196, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Sporotrichosis is caused by species of the genus Sporothrix. From 1998 to 2015, 4,703 cats were diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Even after the description of the Sporothrix species, the characterisation of feline isolates is not performed routinely. OBJECTIVES To characterise the clinical isolates from cats at the species level and correlate them with the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cats. METHODS Forty seven Sporothrix spp. isolates from cats assisted at Fiocruz from 2010 to 2011 were included. Medical records were consulted to obtain the clinical and epidemiological data. The isolates were identified through their morphological and physiological characteristics. T3B polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting was used for molecular identification of the species. FINDINGS In phenotypic tests, 34 isolates were characterised as S. brasiliensis, one as S. schenckii and 12 as Sporothrix spp. PCR identified all isolates as S. brasiliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS S. brasiliensis is the only etiological agent of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro to date. None association was found between the isolates and the clinical and epidemiological data. In addition, we strongly recommend the use of molecular techniques for the identification of isolates of Sporothrix spp.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix/classification , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Sporothrix/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA Fingerprinting
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 875-878, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755809

ABSTRACT

The invasin gimB (genetic island associated with human newborn meningitis) is usually found in ExPEC (Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli) such as UPEC (uropathogenic E. coli), NMEC (neonatal meningitis E. coli) and APEC (avian pathogenic E. coli). In NMEC, gimB is associated with the invasion process of the host cells. Due to the importance of E. coli as a zoonotic agent and the scarce information about the frequency of gimB-carrying strains in different animal species, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gimB in isolates from bovine, swine, canine and feline clinical samples. PCR was conducted on 196 isolates and the identity of the amplicons was confirmed by sequencing. Of the samples tested, only E. coli SB278/94 from a bovine specimen was positive (1/47) for gimB, which represents 2.1% of the bovine isolates. The ability of SB278/94 to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells was confirmed by adherence and gentamicin-protection assays using HeLa cells. This is the first study that investigates for gimB in bovine, canine and feline E. coli isolates and shows E. coli from the intestinal-bovine samples harboring gimB.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Bacterial Adhesion/genetics , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestines/microbiology , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Base Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Gentamicins/pharmacology , HeLa Cells , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1101-1103, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727044

ABSTRACT

Ear infections in cats are uncommon, especially involving yeasts. This report describes the first isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii, teleomorph of the Candida genus, in a case of feline otitis in Brazil. The identification and characterization of Stephanoascus ciferrii were confirmed by the Vitek2 System (BioMerieux ®).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Mycoses/veterinary , Otitis/veterinary , Saccharomycetales/isolation & purification , Brazil , Microscopy , Mycological Typing Techniques , Mycoses/microbiology , Otitis/microbiology , Saccharomycetales/cytology , Saccharomycetales/growth & development , Saccharomycetales/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 641-645, Apr.-June 2014. mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723129

ABSTRACT

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichia canis/isolation & purification , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Blood/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/microbiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(2): 93-95, Mar-Apr/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703739

ABSTRACT

A novel SYBR® green-real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed to detect two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, directly from blood samples. The test was used in blood samples obtained from cats living in animal shelters in Southern Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional PCR targeting Bartonella spp. Among the 47 samples analyzed, eight were positive using the conventional PCR and 12 were positive using qPCR. Importantly, the new qPCR detected the presence of both B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in two samples. The results show that the qPCR described here may be a reliable tool for the screening and differentiation of two important Bartonella species.


Um novo teste baseado na reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (qPCR) com SYBR ® Green foi desenvolvido para detectar duas espécies de Bartonella, B. henselae e B. clarridgeiae, diretamente em amostras de sangue. Este teste foi utilizado em amostras de sangue obtidas de gatos que vivem em abrigos de animais do sul do Brasil. Os resultados foram comparados aos obtidos pelo PCR convencional utilizado para a detecção de Bartonella spp. Das 47 amostras analisadas, oito foram positivas no PCR convencional e 12 foram positivas para qPCR. A reação de qPCR, permitiu a detecção da presença simultânea de B. henselae e B. clarridgeiae em duas destas amostras. Os resultados mostram que a qPCR aqui descrita pode ser uma ferramenta confiável para a detecção e diferenciação de duas espécies importantes de Bartonella spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Bartonella Infections/veterinary , Bartonella/genetics , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/blood , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Bartonella Infections/microbiology , Bartonella henselae/genetics , Bartonella henselae/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 262-264, abr. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287337

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis associated with exposure to domestic cats is hyperendemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A review of the clinical records at our institute revealed four patients with clinical signs of dacryocystitis and a positive conjunctival culture for Sporothrix who were diagnosed with Sporothrix dacryocystitis. Three patients were children (< 13 years of age) and one patient was an adult. Two patients reported contact with a cat that had sporotrichosis. Dacryocystitis was associated with nodular, ulcerated lesions on the face of one patient and with granulomatous conjunctivitis in two patients; however, this condition manifested as an isolated disease in another patient. All of the patients were cured of the fungal infections, but three patients had chronic dacryocystitis and one patient developed a cutaneous fistula. Sporotrichosis is usually a benign disease, but may cause severe complications when the eye and the adnexa are affected. Physicians, especially ophthalmologists in endemic areas, should be aware of the ophthalmological manifestations and complications of sporotrichosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Cats , Sporotrichosis/complications , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Dacryocystitis/etiology , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Zoonoses , Chronic Disease , Conjunctivitis/complications
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 470-474, Oct-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698028

ABSTRACT

The literature contains several studies on feline ehrlichiosis. However, information about the characteristics of Ehrlichia infection in cats is still scanty. This study evaluated the association between Ehrlichia spp. infection and the hematologic data of 93 cats treated at the Federal University of Mato Grosso Veterinary Hospital in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of or exposure to Ehrlichia spp. infection was evaluated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the dsb and 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia, and by detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA), respectively. Eight (8.6%) cats tested positive by PCR and the partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products was a 100% match to E. canis. Forty-two (45.1%) cats showed antibody reactivity against Ehrlichia spp. Hematological alterations such as low erythrocyte count, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and monocytosis were observed in PCR positive cats. Among them, low erythrocyte counts were associated with IgG antibody titers of 40 to 640 and five cats also tested positive by PCR. Furthermore, PCR-positive cats showed a tendency to be lymphopenic. No correlation was found between age and sex, and no ticks were observed in any of the examined cats.


Diversos estudos sobre erliquiose felina vêm sendo relatados na literatura. No entanto, a caracterização da infecção por Ehrlichia em gatos ainda é escassa. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a associação entre infecção por Ehrlichia e dados hematológicos em 93 gatos atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, em Cuiabá, Brasil. A presença de infecção por Ehrlichia spp. foi avaliada pela Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR) visando à amplificação dos genes dsb e 16S rRNA de Ehrlichia e por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Oito (8,6%) gatos demonstraram ser positivos pela PCR, sendo suas sequências parciais de DNA 100% idênticas à E. canis. Quarenta e dois gatos (45,1%) apresentaram anticorpos reativos contra Ehrlichia spp. Alterações hematológicas como baixas contagens de eritrócitos, trombocitopenia, linfopenia e monocitose foram observadas em gatos positivos pela PCR. Dentre essas, eritropenia foi associada em gatos com títulos de anticorpos IgG entre 40 e 640, sendo cinco destes positivos pela PCR. Adicionalmente, gatos positivos na PCR apresentaram uma tendência a serem linfopênicos. Não foram observadas associações entre a presença de infecção nos gatos e suas respectivas idades e sexo. Nenhum carrapato foi observado nos gatos examinados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Female , Male , Cat Diseases/blood , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Ehrlichiosis/blood , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 289-291, Apr./June/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679411

ABSTRACT

This article describes the first detection of Cytauxzoon felis, using molecular techniques, in a naturally infected domestic cat from Brazil, South America. Coinfection with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' was also found. The molecular identification of the piroplasmid species was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. A 284 pb fragment of the gene encoding the 18S ribosomal RNA region was amplified and showed 99% identity with other C. felis strains from North America. In addition, PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis, which amplifies a 595 bp fragment of the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA of some bacterial species, identified the co-infecting species as 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'.


Este artigo descreve a primeira detecção de Cytauxzoon felis em um gato doméstico naturalmente infectado no Brasil, América do Sul, através de técnicas moleculares. Também foi encontrada co-infecção com 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum'. A detecção molecular da espécie do piroplasmídeo foi realizada através da reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) e sequenciamento. Um fragmento de 284 pb do gene codificador da região 18S do RNA ribossomal do parasito foi sequenciada e mostrou 99% de identidade com outros isolados de C. felis da América do Norte. Ademais, através da análise por meio de PCR-RFLP (Polimorfismo no comprimento de fragmentos de restrição), que amplifica um fragmento de 595 pb do gene codificador da porção 16 do RNA ribossomal de algumas espécies de bactérias, concluiu-se que a espécie com-infectante era 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Apicomplexa , Coinfection , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Protozoan Infections, Animal/microbiology , Protozoan Infections, Animal/parasitology , Brazil , Mycoplasma Infections/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/parasitology , Pets
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(3): 219-223, July-Sept. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653708

ABSTRACT

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5%) cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2%) for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3%) were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4%) were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2%) showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats.


Micoplasmas hemotróficos e espécies de Bartonella são importantes patógenos que circulam entre gatos e hospedeiros invertebrados, causando ocasionalmente doenças no homem. Apesar disto, poucos são os estudos acerca da ocorrência destes agentes entre gatos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetivou detectar o DNA de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. pela PCR e sequenciamento. Antígeno de FIV e anticorpos anti-FeLV foram estudados utilizando um "kit" comercial, em amostras de sangue e soro, respectivamente, de 46 gatos amostrados em uma campanha de castração em Jaboticabal, SP. Três gatos (6,5%) foram positivos para hemoplasmas: dois (4,3%) para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' e um (2,2%) para M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. Um dos gatos positivos para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' mostrou-se também positivo na detecção de antígeno de FeLV e de anticorpos para FIV. Dois (4,3%) gatos mostraram-se positivos para B. henselae, sendo que um deles também se mostrou positivo para antígeno de FeLV. Oito gatos (17,4%) foram positivos para FeLV, e apenas um gato mostrou anticorpos anti-FIV. Bartonella sp. e hemoplasmas associados à infecção por retrovírus podem circular entre gatos aparentemente saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Female , Male , Bartonella Infections/veterinary , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Coinfection , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Retroviridae Infections/veterinary , Sterilization, Reproductive , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil , Bartonella Infections/blood , Bartonella Infections/complications , Cat Diseases/blood , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/immunology , Leukemia Virus, Feline/immunology , Mycoplasma Infections/blood , Mycoplasma Infections/complications , Retroviridae Infections/blood , Retroviridae Infections/complications
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(6): 772-777, set. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649493

ABSTRACT

Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5%) were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Female , Male , Bartonella Infections/veterinary , Bartonella/genetics , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Bartonella Infections/diagnosis , Bartonella Infections/microbiology , Bartonella henselae/genetics , Bartonella henselae/isolation & purification , Bartonella/classification , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(1): 37-41, jan.-mar. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624846

ABSTRACT

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that affects both humans and animals. The few existing reports on ehrlichiosis in Brazilian cats have been based on observation of morulae in leukocytes and, more recently, on molecular detection of Ehrlichia sp. In this study, we assessed occurrences of Ehrlichia sp. in the blood of 200 domestic cats in São Luís, Maranhão. Of the 200 animals tested, 11 (5.5%) were seropositive for Ehrlichia sp. and two (1%) were positive for Ehrlichia sp. in PCR. We also performed DNA sequence alignment to establish the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals, using the gene 16S rRNA. One cat presented infection with Ehrlichia sp. with 98% identity with E. canis, and another cat infected with Ehrlichia sp. showed 97% identity with E. chaffeensis. This is the first study on molecular detection of Ehrlichia sp. among domestic cats in São Luís, Maranhão.


Erliquiose é uma enfermidade transmitida por carrapatos que afeta seres humanos e animais. Os poucos relatos de erliquiose em gatos, no Brasil, são baseados na observação de mórulas em leucócitos e, mais recentemente, na detecção molecular de Ehrlichia sp. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a ocorrência de Ehrlichia sp. no sangue de 200 gatos de São Luís, Maranhão. Dos 200 animais testados, 11 (5,5%) foram soropositivos para Ehrlichia sp. e dois (1%) foram positivos na PCR para Ehrlichia spp. O alinhamento de sequências de DNA baseado no gene 16S rRNA foi conduzido para estabelecer a identidade da espécie de parasito que infectou estes animais. Um gato apresentou infecção por uma espécie de Ehrlichia sp. com 98% de identidade com E. canis; e outro mostrou-se infectado por Ehrlichia sp. com 97% de identidade com E. chaffeensis. Este estudo traz a primeira detecção molecular de Ehrlichia sp. em gatos de São Luís, Maranhão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/blood , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Brazil , Ehrlichia/genetics , Ehrlichiosis/blood , Ehrlichiosis/microbiology , Geography , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(3): 205-210, jun. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597588

ABSTRACT

Objetive: To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Population and Methods: Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. Results: 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44 percent of dogs had ticks and 37 percent had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Conclusions: Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.


Objetivo: Caracterizar la tenencia y estado de salud de mascotas de niños inmunocomprometidos (IC), con énfasis en situaciones y agentes infecciosos de potencial riesgo para la salud del niño. Población y Métodos: Se entrevistó a familias de niños IC en tratamiento en dos hospitales de Santiago y se evaluó la salud de sus mascotas mediante examen clínico veterinario, copro-parasitológico y búsqueda de dermatofitos en el pelaje. En casos puntuales, se realizaron algunos exámenes de laboratorio específicos a los niños o sus familiares. Resultados: 47 de 70 familias contactadas tenían mascotas, 42 participaron del estudio. Se detectaron situaciones de alto riesgo para niños IC como poseer tortuga como mascota y limpiar excretas de gatos y tortugas. Se evidenció una mínima adherencia al control veterinario, inmunizaciones y desparasitación de mascotas. Se identificaron animales con enfermedades o agentes con potencial zoonótico, destacando Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis y sarna sarcóptica. Un 44 por ciento de los perros presentaban garrapatas y 37 por ciento pulgas, ambos potenciales vectores de infecciones. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que en nuestro medio es necesario implementar medidas que permitan una tenencia más segura de las mascotas en contacto con niños IC.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Cats , Child , Child, Preschool , Dogs , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Neoplasms/immunology , Pets , Transplantation , Zoonoses/transmission , Animal Husbandry , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Pets/microbiology , Pets/parasitology , Risk Factors , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/parasitology
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