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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.


RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
2.
Biol. Res ; 51: 17, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improper control on reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination process and formation of free radicals causes tissue dysfunction. Pineal hormone melatonin is considered a potent regulator of such oxidative damage in different vertebrates. Aim of the current communication is to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress and ROS induced damage, and amelioration of oxidative status through melatonin induced activation of signaling pathways. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult Labeo rohita and exposed to H2O2 at three different doses (12.5, 25 and 50 µM) to observe peroxide induced damage in fish hepatocytes. Melatonin (25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) was administered against the highest dose of H2O2. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) was measured spectrophotometrically. Expression level of heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP90), HSPs-associated signaling molecules (Akt, ERK, cytosolic and nuclear NFkB), and melatonin receptor was also measured by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: H2O2 induced oxidative stress significantly altered (P < 0.05) MDA and GSH level, SOD and CAT activity, and up regulated HSP70 and HSP90 expression in carp hepatocytes. Signaling proteins exhibited differential modulation as revealed from their expression patterns in H2O2-exposed fish hepatocytes, in comparison with control hepatocytes. Melatonin treatment of H2O2-stressed fish hepatocytes restored basal cellular oxidative status in a dose dependent manner. Melatonin was observed to be inducer of signaling process by modulation of signaling molecules and melatonin receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that exogenous melatonin at the concentration of 100 µg/ml is required to improve oxidative status of the H2O2-stressed fish hepatocytes. In H2O2 exposed hepatocytes, melatonin modulates expression of HSP70 and HSP90 that enable the hepatocytes to become stress tolerant and survive by altering the actions of ERK, Akt, cytosolic and nuclear NFkB in the signal transduction pathways. Study also confirms that melatonin could act through melatonin receptor coupled to ERK/Akt signaling pathways. This understanding of the mechanism by which melatonin regulates oxidative status in the stressed hepatocytes may initiate the development of novel strategies for hepatic disease therapy in future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Spectrophotometry , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Fishes , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 264-270, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781326

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluated the potential antioxidant agent Legalon (r) SIL (silibinin-C-2',3-bis(hydrogensuccinat)) in the skeletal muscle of rats. METHODS: IRI was achieved via tourniquet application in Wistar-albino rats. Experimental groups were chosen as (i) sham control, (ii) IRI (3+2 h), (iii) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-50 (50 mg/kg/i.p.), (iv) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-100 (100 mg/kg/i.p.), and (v) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-200 (200 mg/kg/ i.p.). Muscle viability (evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride dye method), malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed in muscle samples using a spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Although viability of the injured limb non-significantly declined in the IRI group, administration of Legalon (r) SIL did not prevent injury. However, dramatic increase observed in malondialdehyde levels in the IRI group was prohibited by Legalon (r) SIL in a statistically significant manner. In comparison with the sham-control group, IRI and Legalon (r) SIL administration did not cause any significant alterations in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSION: Although Legalon (r) SIL was not sufficient to prevent muscle injury in terms of viability, it is found to be an effective option to reduce reactive oxygen species-induced cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Silymarin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Ischemia/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Tissue Survival/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Catalase/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 756-761, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of remifentanil as an antioxidant and analyze the histopathologic, biochemical changes in experimental ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) exposed rat uteri. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were assigned to three groups (n = 7). 2h period of ischemia was followed by 1h of reperfusion in the I/R and the I/R-remifentanil groups. After ischemia, no drug was administered in the sham and I/R groups. In the I/R-remifentanil group, remifentanil infusion (2 μg/kg/min) was started in the ischemia period, and continued until the end of reperfusion. After the ischemic and reperfusion period, the ischemic uterine horns were removed surgically for biochemical and histopathologic examination. Tissue damage scores (endometrial epithelial glandular leukocytosis, degeneration, and endometrial stromal changes) were examined. Malondialdehyde levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase enzyme activities in tissue were measured. RESULTS: We found significantly lower epithelial leukocytosis and cell degeneration in the I/R-remifentanil group (p<0.05). Remifentanil administration significantly decreased concentrations of malondialdehyde, and increased catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Remifentanil appears to protect the uterine tissue against ischemia-reperfusion and can be used safely in uterus transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Piperidines/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Uterus/blood supply , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Ischemia/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Time Factors , Uterus/pathology
5.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-17, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH); showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ± 0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract) and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight) as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic), alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol), theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Spices , Annonaceae/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peroxidases/drug effects , Picrates/metabolism , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Cameroon , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Catalase/drug effects , Forests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(8): 538-543, 08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether there is any effect resulting from preconditioning with nutraceutical supplementation containing arginine and oil mixes with high ω9:ω6 ratio and low ω6:ω3 ratio containing EPA and DHA, ALA fatty acids on inflammatory mediators, antioxidant and lipid profile modulation in surgical trauma. METHODS: Twenty-six men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomized into three groups and treated as follows: Group 1 (skim milk, 0% fat), Group 2 (supplement with ω6:ω3 ratio of 8:1 and arginine) and Group 3 (supplement with high ω9:ω6 ratio of 3.2:1 and low ω6:ω3 ratio of 1.4:1 and arginine). Patients received skin milk or supplements twice a day (200 ml) during five days prior to surgery. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at three different timepoints: five days before surgery (PRE), before anesthesia induction (IND) and on the 2nd postoperative day (POS). Parameters analyzed included inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), antioxidants (catalase), lipid profile and heat shock protein (HSP-27). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups on inflammatory mediators and antioxidant parameters. However, lipid profile values (Cholesterol, LDL, Triglycerides, VLDL), were significantly different. CONCLUSION: Preconditioning with arginine and oil mixes containing high ω9:ω6 ratio and low ω6:ω3 ratio, has no effects on inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Reduction of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL profiles may be related to the trauma effect. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Arginine/pharmacology , Catalase/blood , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lipids/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Arginine/metabolism , Catalase/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids/metabolism , /blood , Prostatectomy , Triglycerides/blood
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(4): 1403-1411, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607433

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of organic and conventional grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) leaf extracts in reducing hydrogen peroxide-induced stress in the liver, heart and kidney of Wistar rats by measuring lipids and proteins damages (carbonyl assay), as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. The preincubation with 5 mg/mL of organic and conventional grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) leaf extracts prevented both lipids and proteins oxidative damages in all tissues analyzed. The organic leaf extract was able to restore superoxide dismutase (kidney and liver) and catalase (heart) activities, which were modified by the treatment with H2O2. The conventional extract was able to restore only the catalase activity in liver and heart tissues. The beneficial effects of the V labrusca leaf extract shown in this study could probably be important for formulating dietary supplements, as well as for developing new ingredients with improved antioxidant properties from other plant sources.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos benéficos de extratos de folhas de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) orgânicas e convencionais em reduzir o dano gerado pelo peróxido de hidrogênio no fígado, coração e rim de ratos Wistar, pela medida de danos a lipídios e a proteínas (Ensaio Carbonyl), como também a modulação sob a atividade das enzimas antioxi-dantes superoxido dismutase e catalase. A pré-incubação com 5 mg/mL de extratos de folhas de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) orgânicas e convencionais previnem ambos danos oxidativos a lipídios e proteínas em todos os tecidos analisados. O extrato de folha orgânica foi capaz de restabelecer a atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (rim e fígado) e catalase (coração), as quais foram modificadas pelo tratamento com peróxido de hidrogênio. O extrato convencional foi capaz de restabelecer apenas a enzima catalase no fígado e no coração. Os efeitos do extrato da folha V. labrusca mostrados neste estudo, provavelmente, poderiam ser importantes para a formulação de suplementos dietéticos, bem como para o desenvolvimento de novos ingredientes com propriedades antioxidantes provenientes de outras plantas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Vitis/chemistry , Catalase/analysis , Catalase/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase
8.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 June; 48(3): 197-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135320

ABSTRACT

The neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of roots of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight and Arn (EEPV) was investigated against -amyloid(25-35)-induced amnesia in mice which is a suitable animal model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The senile plaques of -amyloid (A) are major constituents accumulated during the progression of AD as a potent neurotoxicant. In our investigation, intracerebroventricular injection of A(25-35) in mice induced the neurodegeneration, exhibited the increased time of escape latency in behavioral pattern using water maze and decreased the levels of antioxidants namley superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and vitamin C with elevated level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The neuroprotective potential of EEPV was determined by behavioral pattern using water maze and biochemical parameters such as SOD, CAT and GPx and vitamin C content as well as AChE. Mice were treated with EEPV at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Except control, all animals received a single injection of neurotoxicant A(25-35) on 14th day. In behavioural assessment, treatment with ethanolic extract improved the cognitive function in the water maze and attenuated the elevated levels of AChE with increase in antioxidant enzymes, indicating the neuroprotection with increased levels of vitamin C. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of P. viscida exerts anti-amnesiac effects and enhances cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amnesia/chemically induced , Amnesia/drug therapy , Amnesia/enzymology , Amnesia/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(3): 217-223, Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576071

ABSTRACT

Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g), were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9 percent NaCl + 0.04 mL 95 percent ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1) both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05). Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day) and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL) towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2 percent) and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7 percent), arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9 percent) and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9 percent). Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3 percent), catalase (23.6 percent) and glutathione-reductase (14.8 percent) activities and the reducing power (10.2 percent GSH/GSSG ratio). We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Ovary/drug effects , Ovulation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Organ Size/drug effects , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/enzymology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Time Factors
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Feb; 48(1): 22-28
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135296

ABSTRACT

The cardioprotective potential of Inula racemosa root hydroalcoholic extract against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction was investigated in rats. The rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c.) exhibited myocardial infarction, as evidenced by significant (P<0.05) decrease in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility, relaxation along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure, as well as decreased endogenous myocardial enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Isoproterenol also significantly (P<0.05) induced lipid peroxidation and increased leakage of myocyte injury marker enzymes. Pretreatment with I. racemosa extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days, followed by isoproterenol injections on days 19th and 20th significantly (P<0.05) improved cardiac function by increasing the heart rate, mean arterial pressure, contractility and relaxation along with decreasing left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Pretreatment with I. racemosa also significantly (P<0.05) restored the reduced form of glutathione and endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase from the heart, which were depleted after isoproterenol administration. In addition to restoration of antioxidants, I. racemosa significantly (P<0.05) inhibited lipid peroxidation and prevented the leakage of myocytes specific marker enzymes creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase from the heart. Thus, it is concluded that I. racemosa protects heart from isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by reducing oxidative stress and modulating hemodynamic and ventricular functions of the heart. Present study findings demonstrate the cardioprotective effect of I. racemosa and support the pharmacological relevance of its use and cardioprotection mechanism in ischemic heart disease as well as substantiate its traditional claim


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Inula , Isoproterenol , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 649-654, July 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523735

ABSTRACT

Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase), while in a stationary phase (SP), Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs) are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.


Subject(s)
Benzene Derivatives/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Oxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , /pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/metabolism , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candida glabrata/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
12.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2008 Jul-Sep; 4(3): 111-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. CONCLUSION: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Catalase/drug effects , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Glutathione/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rubia , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(2): 117-121, Feb. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474769

ABSTRACT

The effects of H2O2 were evaluated in the estuarine worm Laeonereis acuta (Polychaeta, Nereididae) collected at the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory under controlled salinity (10 psu diluted seawater) and temperature (20°C). The worms were exposed to H2O2 (10 and 50 µM) for 4, 7, and 10 days and the following variables were determined: oxygen consumption, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase activity in both the supernatant and pellet fractions of whole body homogenates. The concentrations of non-protein sulfhydryl and lipid peroxides (LPO) were also measured. The oxygen consumption response was biphasic, decreasing after 4 days and increasing after 7 and 10 days of exposure to 50 µM H2O2 (P < 0.05). At the same H2O2 concentration, CAT activity was lower (P < 0.05) in the pellet fraction of worms exposed for 10 days compared to control. Non-protein sulfhydryl concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were not affected by H2O2 exposure. After 10 days, LPO levels were higher (P < 0.05) in worms exposed to 50 µM H2O2 compared to control. The reduction in the antioxidant defense was paralleled by oxidative stress as indicated by higher LPO values (441 percent compared to control). The reduction of CAT activity in the pellet fraction may be related to protein oxidation. These results, taken together with previous findings, suggest that the worms were not able to cope with this H2O2 concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Polychaeta/drug effects , Catalase/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Lipid Peroxides/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polychaeta/enzymology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Time Factors
14.
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal. 2008; 1 (4): 9-13
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-89952

ABSTRACT

Complications in diabetes mellitus are associated with free radicals and oxidative stress. The human body prevents these complications through antioxidant defense mechanisms. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Securigera Securidaca on erythrocyte catalase activity in typel diabetic rats. At the present interventional study thirty male wistar rats were used. Animals were divided to two groups including normal and diabetic [n = 15 per each group].Each group was divided further to control and experimental subgroups. The experimental subgroups were received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of the plant extract intraperitoneally. After thirty days administration, blood sample was directly collected from the heart and erythrocyte catalase activity was assessed. catalase activity decreased in diabetic control group significantly [P = 0.002].Furthermore, catalase activity in groups treated at two doses of l00mg/kg and 200mg/kg was significantly different as compared to control group [P = 0.003]. The aqueous seed extract of Securigera Securidaca probably could be effective in decreasing diabetic complications through improvement of antioxidant response by altering catalase activity and consequently reducing oxidative stress


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Plant Extracts , Diabetes Complications/prevention & control , Catalase/drug effects , Erythrocytes/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(3/4): 815-823, Sep.-Dec. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637629

ABSTRACT

Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4): 815-823. Epub 2007 December, 28.


Plantas completas de Eichhornia crassipes y Pistia stratiotes fueron expuestas a varias concentraciones (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) de metales pesados (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) utilizando hidroponía, por 21 días. Se realizaron análisis espectrométricos en las hojas para determinar la actividad total de la catalasa, peroxidasa y dismutasa superóxida. Al final del periodo experimental, se comparó con plantas no tratadas (control). Los metales pesados incrementan la actividad de la catalasa, peroxidasa y la dismutasa superóxida para ambas especies y hay diferencias entre los metales. El Zn produce el menor estímulo para enzimas antioxidantes en ambas especies; Hg produce el mayor estímulo. El incremento de las enzimas antioxidantes en relación con las plantas control fue mayor en E. crassipes que P. stratiotes. E. crassipes tolera altas concentraciones de metal en un gran número de ellos, mientras que la tolerancia en P. stratiotes es menor.


Subject(s)
Araceae/drug effects , Eichhornia/drug effects , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases/drug effects , Araceae/enzymology , Catalase/drug effects , Eichhornia/enzymology , Peroxidase/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/enzymology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 88(3): 346-353, mar. 2007. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-451738

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: O estudo avaliou a influência de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados (AGS) e ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI) sobre a função mecânica, a morfologia e o estresse oxidativo do miocárdio de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar com 60 dias de idade foram alimentados com dieta padrão (n = 8) ou dietas ricas em AGS (n = 8) ou AGI (n = 8) durante 60 dias. A função mecânica foi avaliada em músculo papilar isolado do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) por meio de contrações isométrica e isotônica, em condição basal (1,25 mM de cálcio), após elevação da concentração extracelular de cálcio para 5,2 mM e estimulação beta-adrenérgica com isoproterenol 1,0 µM. Fragmentos do VE foram usados para estudo de estresse oxidativo e microscopias óptica e eletrônica. RESULTADOS: As dietas suplementadas com AGS e AGI não alteraram a função mecânica do músculo cardíaco. Entretanto, ambas provocaram estresse oxidativo, com aumento do hidroperóxido de lipídio e redução da concentração de superóxido dismutase. A dieta AGI diminuiu a expressão da catalase e a AGS reduziu a quantidade de glutationa peroxidase miocárdica. Ambas as dietas promoveram discretas alterações morfológicas visualizadas ultra-estruturalmente, como depósitos lipídicos e lesões das membranas celulares. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que dietas enriquecidas com AGS e AGI não acarretam alteração da função mecânica do músculo cardíaco isolado, mas causam discretas lesões estruturais e estresse oxidativo no miocárdio.


OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) rich diets on mechanical function, morphology and oxidative stress in rat myocardium. METHODS: Male, 60-day-old Wistar rats were fed a control (n=8), a SFA (n=8), or a UFA-rich diet (n=8) for sixty days. Mechanical function was studied in isolated left ventricle papillary muscle under isometric and isotonic contractions, in basal conditions (1.25mM calcium chloride) and after 5.2mM calcium chloride and beta-adrenergic stimuli with 1.0µM isoproterenol. Left ventricle fragments were used to study oxidative stress and morphology under light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: SFA and UFA-rich diets did not change myocardium mechanical function. Both diets caused oxidative stress, with high lipid hydroperoxide and low superoxide-dismutase concentrations. UFA rich diet decreased catalase expression and SFA rich diet decreased the amount of myocardial glutathione-peroxidase. Both diets promoted light ultrastructural injuries such as lipid deposits and cell membrane injuries. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that SFA and UFA rich diets do not alter isolated muscle mechanical function, but promote light myocardial morphological injuries and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Myocardium , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Catalase/drug effects , Dietary Fats/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Isometric Contraction/drug effects , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Isotonic Contraction/drug effects , Isotonic Contraction/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Models, Animal , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardium/chemistry , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144636

ABSTRACT

The extract from Smilax china root has been used as medicinal remedy and reported to retain antimicrobial and antimutagenic acitivities. In this study, a possible presence of antioxidant activity of Smilax china root extract was investigated. Methanol extract (Me) revealed the presence of high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (IC50 7.4 microg/ml) and protective property of cell's viability. Further fractionation with various solvent extraction and assay showed high levels of DPPH free radical scavenging activity in the ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracted fractions. In addition, V79-4 cells treated with Me of Smilax china root induced an increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in a dose-dependent manner between 4-100 microg/ml. These results suggest that the medicinal component of the root of Smilax china extracts also contains antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radicals/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Cricetinae , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lung/cytology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144624

ABSTRACT

The extract from Smilax china root has been used as medicinal remedy and reported to retain antimicrobial and antimutagenic acitivities. In this study, a possible presence of antioxidant activity of Smilax china root extract was investigated. Methanol extract (Me) revealed the presence of high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (IC50 7.4 microg/ml) and protective property of cell's viability. Further fractionation with various solvent extraction and assay showed high levels of DPPH free radical scavenging activity in the ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracted fractions. In addition, V79-4 cells treated with Me of Smilax china root induced an increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in a dose-dependent manner between 4-100 microg/ml. These results suggest that the medicinal component of the root of Smilax china extracts also contains antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radicals/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Cricetinae , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lung/cytology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
19.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2000 Oct; 44(4): 401-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-108324

ABSTRACT

The effect of a mega dose of ascorbic acid (200 mg/100 g body wt.) on alcohol-induced toxicity in rats was evaluated. In rats administered alcohol and ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide and conjugated dienes decreased in comparison with that given alcohol alone. The reduced activities of scavenging enzymes, e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in ethanol-administered rats were also enhanced by the co-administration of ascorbic acid and ethanol. Co-administration of ethanol and ascorbic acid reduced phospholipids and MDA levels of the erythrocyte membrane in comparison with that of the ethanol fed rats. The reduction in the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the decrease in triglycerides levels also clearly showed the protective action of ascorbic acid in reducing ethanol induced toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/blood , Catalase/drug effects , Central Nervous System Depressants/toxicity , Cholesterol/blood , Ethanol/toxicity , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Glutathione/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Malondialdehyde/blood , Phospholipids/blood , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Triglycerides/metabolism
20.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1997 Oct; 41(4): 424-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107859

ABSTRACT

The effects of Ashwagandha root powder (0.7 and 1.4 g/kg body weight/day), administered for 15 and 30 days, was investigated on lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in mice. While 15 days treatment with Ashwagandha root powder did not produce any significant change, 30 days treatment produced a significant decrease in LPO, and an increase in both SOD and CAT. Our findings indicate that Ashwagandha root powder possesses free radical scavenging activity, which may be responsible for its pharmacological effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Withania
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