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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e308, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383654

ABSTRACT

Las cataratas son una causa importante de discapacidad visual en la población pediátrica en todo el mundo y pueden afectar significativamente el neurodesarrollo de un niño. Constituyen un problema fundamental en cuanto a su manejo y una de las causas más relevantes de ceguera tratable en los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo. La trisomía 21 es la cromosomopatía más frecuente, de características fenotípicas determinadas con un 60% de anormalidades oculares, entre las que se destacan las ametropías, queratocono y las cataratas. El diagnóstico clínico y la identificación temprana del tipo de cataratas, junto con intervenciones clínicas y tratamientos precoces, son claves para lograr resultados óptimos. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con síndrome de Down y catarata congénita bilateral y su manejo inicial.


Cataracts are a major cause of visual impairment in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly affect a child's neurobiological development. Congenital cataract management can become a very important problem and is one of the most important causes of blindness in developed and developing countries. Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disease and it has certain phenotypic characteristics and 60% ophthalmic abnormalities, such as, ametropia, keratoconus and cataracts. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical. Early identification, diagnosis, and appropriate clinical care are key to achieve optimal results. We present the case of a newborn with Down syndrome who was diagnosed with an early bilateral congenital cataract.


A catarata é uma das principais causas de deficiência visual na população pediátrica no mundo e pode afetar significativamente o neurodesenvolvimento de uma criança, além de constituir um problema fundamental em termos de sua gestão e é uma das causas mais relevantes de cegueira tratável em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. Trissomia 21 é a cromossomopatia mais frequente e tem determinadas características fenotípicas com 60% de alterações oculares, como a ametropia, ceratocone e catarata. O diagnóstico clínico e a identificação precoce do tipo de catarata, juntamente com intervenções clínicas e tratamento precoces, são fundamentais para alcançar os melhores resultados. Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido com síndrome de Down e catarata congênita bilateral e seu manejo inicial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Cataract/congenital , Cataract Extraction , Down Syndrome/complications
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0058, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394861

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze and describe the coefficients found on maximum Ambrósio Relational Thickness-Maximum (ART-Max) and Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display total deviation (BAD-D) in eyes with normal corneal topography subjected to cataract surgery with premium intraocular lens implantation and correlated these data with final visual acuity. Methods ART-Max and BAD-D data from 103 eyes of patients subjected to implantation of diffractive bifocal intraocular lens, with normal corneal topography who achieved visual acuity of 20/20 or 20/25 without correction after cataract surgery were analyzed. The groups with normal and abnormal values were compared using the chi-square test. Results Thirty-two (31.1%) and 71 (68.9%) eyes presented normal and abnormal ART-Max values, respectively. The difference between these groups was significant (p=0.0002). Fifty-five (53.4%) and 48 (46.6%) eyes had normal and abnormal BAD-D, respectively, and intergroup difference was not significant (p=0.9576). Conclusion Among patients with normal corneal topography who underwent premium intraocular and had good final visual acuity of 20/20 or 20/25, suspicious or abnormal indices of ART-Max and BAD-D were frequent, providing evidence that it possibly should not be a contraindication.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar e descrever os coeficientes numéricos encontrados nos exames Ambrósio Relational Thickness-Maximum (ART-Max) e desvio total do Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display (BAD-D) em olhos com topografia normal submetidos ao implante de lente intraocular premium na cirurgia de catarata, correlacionando-os com a acuidade visual final pós-operatória. Métodos Foram analisados os resultados de ART-Max e BAD-D de 103 olhos de pacientes submetidos ao implante de lentes bifocais difrativas, que apresentavam exame topográficos normal e alcançaram acuidade visual 20/20 ou 20/25 sem correção visual no pós-operatório final. Para a análise estatística entre os grupos normais e anormais ou suspeitos, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados Foram encontrados 32 (31,1%) olhos com ART-Max normal e 71 (68,9%) com ART-Max suspeito/anormal. A diferença entre os grupos foi significativa (p=0,0002). Quanto ao BAD-D, foram encontrados 55 (53,4%) olhos com resultados normais e 48 (46,6%) com resultados suspeitos/anormais. A diferença entre os grupos não foi significativa (p=0,9576). Conclusão Entre os pacientes com topografia normal submetidos ao implante de lentes premium e que alcançaram acuidade visual 20/20 ou 20/25, os índices suspeitos ou anormais de ART-Max e BAD-D eram frequentes, não se configurando em contraindicação para a realização do implante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Refractive Errors/prevention & control , Visual Acuity/physiology , Cornea/pathology , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Topography/methods , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Corneal Pachymetry/methods
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0011, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360921

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: This study set out to examine the impact of surgical treatment of senile cataract on visual acuity and quality of life in patients operated in a public teaching hospital. Methods: Prospective study including patients aged over 60 years with clinical indications for cataract surgery treated at a medical residency service. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 was applied. Corrected distance visual acuity was measured before and after cataract surgery. Correlations between National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 scores and corrected distance visual acuity were investigated. Surgeons in charge, and surgical complications were also reported. Results: A total of 69 patients (89 eyes) were enrolled in this study. Patients were submitted to unilateral (52) or bilateral (17) surgery. Mean patient age was 70.8 ± 7.3 (52 to 95) years. Mean preoperative and postoperative National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 scores were 77.4 ± 15.3 (25.7 to 98.2) and 89.7 ± 14.0 (28.2 to 100) respectively. The larger differences in National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 subscale scores were associated with general vision (from 34.4 to 48.6). Mean preoperative and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity were 0.7 ± 0.39 (0.3 to 1.3) LogMAR and 0.24 ± 0.19 (0.1 to 1.0) LogMAR respectively. Comparative analysis of preoperative and postoperative findings revealed significant (p<0.001) improvements in quality of life and corrected distance visual acuity. Most surgeries (70%, 74 eyes) were performed by surgeons in training. Comparative analysis between patients submitted to unilateral and bilateral surgery revealed significantly (p=0.016) larger visual acuity gains in patients requiring surgery in both eyes. However, questionnaire scores did not differ significantly (p=2.48). Complications were observed in 13 eyes (14.6%), posterior capsule tear being the most common. Even in these cases, total National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 scores and corrected distance visual acuity increased significantly (p<0.001). Conclusion: Cataract surgery performed in teaching hospital settings improved patient quality of life and visual acuity. Therefore, public health agencies should ensure access to cataract surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de catarata na acuidade visual e na qualidade de vida em adultos submetidos à cirurgia de catarata em hospital público de ensino. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, que incluiu pacientes acima de 60 anos com indicação clínica para cirurgia de catarata em um serviço de residência médica. O National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 foi aplicado, e a acuidade visual corrigida à distância foi avaliada antes e após a cirurgia de catarata. Foram realizadas correlações entre o escore do National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 e a acuidade visual. Cirurgiões e complicações cirúrgicas também foram descritos. Resultados: Foram incluídos neste estudo 89 olhos de 69 pacientes, em um total de 52 cirurgias unilaterais e 17 bilaterais. A idade média foi de 70,8±7,3 anos (52 a 95), e a pontuação média do National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 antes da cirurgia foi 77,4±15,3 (25,7 a 98,2) e, depois, de 89,7±14,03 (28,2 a 100). A maior diferença entre os subdomínios do National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 foi a visão geral (34,4 a 48,6). A acuidade visual corrigida à distância média antes do procedimento foi de 0,70±0,39 (0,3 a 1,3) LogMAR e, depois, foi de 0,24±0,19 (0,1 a 1,0) LogMAR. Comparando os resultados antes e após a cirurgia de catarata, houve melhora significativa na qualidade de vida (p<0,001) e na acuidade visual (p<0,001). Dentre as cirurgias, 70% (74 olhos) foram realizadas por cirurgiões em treinamento. A análise comparativa entre os grupos de pacientes de cirurgias unilaterais e bilaterais apresentou um ganho na acuidade visual maior no grupo que operou ambos os olhos, com significância estatística (p=0,016). No entanto, o aumento na pontuação do questionário, observado em ambos os grupos, não representou diferença estatisticamente significante (p=٢,٤٨٩). Complicações foram observadas em ١٣ olhos (١٤,٦٪), sendo a ruptura de cápsula posterior a mais frequente. Mesmo esses pacientes obtiveram aumento no escore total do National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (p<0,001) e na acuidade visual corrigida à distância (p<0,001). Conclusão: A cirurgia de catarata realizada em ambiente hospitalar de ensino proporciona melhora na qualidade de vida e na acuidade visual, sendo fundamental que os órgãos de saúde pública garantam o acesso da população a esse procedimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cataract Extraction , Visual Acuity , Phacoemulsification , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, Teaching
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0008, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360919

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries are surgical treatment alternatives for glaucoma aimed at reducing intraocular pressure with a better safety profile compared to traditional trabeculectomy. However, in spite of less invasive techniques, complications may develop in any surgical procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of anterior uveitis following combined treatment with cataract surgery and iStent inject® which addresses the management of postoperative inflammation.


RESUMO As cirurgias minimamente invasivas para glaucoma consistem em uma opção de tratamento cirúrgico para glaucoma, a qual promove redução da pressão intraocular com melhor perfil de segurança do que a trabeculectomia. Todavia, complicações são inerentes à realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos, apesar do uso de técnicas menos invasivas. Este é o primeiro relato que apresenta um caso de uveíte anterior após cirurgia combinada de catarata e iStent inject®, além de orientações quanto ao manejo do quadro inflamatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Uveitis/drug therapy , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Uveitis, Anterior/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Titanium , Trabecular Meshwork/surgery , Tropicamide/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Stents , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Injections, Intraocular , Intraocular Pressure , Acetazolamide/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0006, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360917

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar se há mudança refracional significativa após realização de capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG em olhos pseudofácicos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com análise de prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um hospital com diagnóstico de opacificação de cápsula posterior do cristalino tratada com capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG no período de outubro de 2019 a março de 2021. A comparação entre a refração antes e após o procedimento foi realizada calculando-se o equivalente esférico. Também foi avaliada a mudança da acuidade visual, aferida por LogMAR. Resultados: Foram analisados 90 prontuários, totalizando 140 olhos, de pacientes submetidos à capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG. O equivalente esférico médio pré-procedimento foi de -0,07±0,89D, mínimo de -3,0D e máximo de +2,5D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de 0,0D (-0,50D a +0,375D). A média pós-procedimento foi de -0,18±0,86D, mínimo de -3,5D e máximo de +2,25D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de -0,125D (-0,50D a 0,0D). com p<0,0082. Dos 140 olhos, 66 sofreram miopização e 37 hipermetropização. A média de alteração do equivalente esférico geral foi de -0,12±0,51D, mínimo de -2,50D e máximo de +1,25D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de 0,0D (-0,375D a +0,125D). Ao se comparar a diferença entre o equivalente esférico antes e após o procedimento do grupo de olhos que sofreu miopização (n=66) ou hipermetropização (n=37), separadamente, ambos obtiveram p<0,0001. Ao se compararem todos os olhos que sofreram alguma alteração refracional (n=103), foi encontrado p=0,008. A acuidade visual média pré-procedimento foi de 0,23±0,32, mínimo de 0,0 e máximo de 2,3. Pós-procedimento, a média foi de 0,06±0,13, mínimo de -0,12 e máximo de 0,7, com p<0,0001. Conclusão: A capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG gerou melhora significativa da acuidade visual nos pacientes do estudo, porém também gerou alteração refracional significativa após o procedimento, tanto para miopização (a mais frequente), quanto para hipermetropização.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify if there is a significant change on refraction after Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy in pseudophakic eyes. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of medical records of patients treated at a hospital, with diagnosis of opacification of posterior lens capsule treated with Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, from October 2019 to March 2021. The comparison of refraction before and after the procedure was performed by calculating the spherical equivalent. Changes in visual acuity (VA), measured by LogMAR, were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 medical records (140 eyes) of patients submitted to Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were analysed. The mean pre-procedure spherical equivalent was -0.07±0.89D, minimum of -3.0D and maximum of +2.5D, median (interquartile range) of 0.0D (-0.50D to +0.375D). The post-procedure mean was -0.18±0.86D, minimum of -3.5D and maximum of +2.25D, median (interquartile range) of -0.125D (-0.50D to 0.0D), with p <0.0082. Of the 140 eyes, 66 underwent myopia and 37 hyperopia, the mean change in the general spherical equivalent was -0.12±0.51D, minimum -2.50D and maximum +1.25D, median (interquartile range) of 0.0D (-0.375D to +0.125D). When comparing the difference between the spherical equivalent before and after the procedure of the group of eyes that underwent myopia (n=66) or hyperopia (n=37), separately, both obtained p<0.0001. When comparing all eyes that suffered any change on refraction (n=103), the p value was 0.008. The mean pre-procedure visual acuity was 0.23±0.32, minimum of 0.0 and maximum of 2.3. After the procedure, the mean was 0.06±0.13, minimum of -0.12 and maximum of 0.7, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy significantly improved visual acuity of patients in this study; however, it also led to a significant change on refraction after the procedure, both for myopization, which was more frequent, and for hyperopization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Refraction, Ocular , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Posterior Capsulotomy/adverse effects , Posterior Capsulotomy/methods , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Pseudophakia/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Capsule Opacification/surgery , Capsule Opacification/etiology
6.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e858, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352036

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de contracción capsular se describe como una reducción progresiva y acelerada del diámetro de la capsulorrexis y del saco capsular tras la extracción extracapsular del cristalino. Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina, con antecedentes de miopía elevada, a quien se le realizó cirugía de catarata de ambos ojos sin complicaciones transquirúrgicas, y regresa con síndrome de contracción capsular bilateral al mes de operada. Se comenta la conducta seguida en ambos ojos(AU)


Capsule contraction syndrome is described as progressive, accelerated reduction in capsulorhexis and capsular bag diameter after extracapsular crystalline lens extraction. A case is presented of a female patient with a history of high myopia who underwent cataract surgery of both eyes without any intraoperative complication. One month after surgery the patient presents with bilateral capsule contraction syndrome. Comments are made on the clinical management of each eye(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract Extraction/methods , Capsulorhexis/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/adverse effects , Posterior Capsulotomy/methods
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e974, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352034

ABSTRACT

El implante de una lente intraocular fáquica puede resultar una opción lógica para los pacientes sumamente miopes que buscan liberarse de las gafas y de los lentes de contacto. Esta es una alternativa para corregir los grados de miopía extremos, y se diseñaron para permanecer dentro del ojo por muchos años. Con el cursar del tiempo, fisiológicamente comienza a opacarse el cristalino. Ante la necesidad de removerlo y de calcular una lente de potencia adecuada para el saco capsular y así conseguir la emetropía, surge un nuevo reto. El cálculo inexacto de la potencia dióptrica de la lente a implantar en la intervención quirúrgica es un problema y con él aparece la sorpresa refractiva; de ahí el objetivo de presentar con este caso la causa más frecuente de sorpresa refractiva tras la cirugía de catarata en un paciente miope con lente fáquica implantada. Se destaca la importancia de la longitud axil, sobre todo si esta se modifica después del implante de la lente fáquica para el correcto cálculo de la lente a implantar, así como el método ideal para su obtención: la interferometría óptica, sin olvidar la historia clínica previa al implante de la lente fáquica(AU)


Phakic intraocular lens implantation may be a logical option for extremely myopic patients who wish to get rid of their eyeglasses and contact lenses. This alternative was developed to correct extremely high degrees of myopia and remain inside the eye for many years. However, with the passing of time and due to physiological processes, the crystalline lens tends to become opaque. A new challenge is posed by the need to remove it and select a lens with an optical power appropriate to the capsular sac, thus achieving emmetropia. Inaccurate calculation of the dioptric power of the lens to be implanted in the surgical intervention is a problem leading to refractive surprise. Hence the interest in presenting a case illustrating the most common cause of refractive surprise after cataract surgery in a myopic patient with a phakic lens implant. The importance of axial length is highlighted, particularly whether it is modified after phakic lens implantation for accurate calculation of the lens to be implanted and the ideal method to obtain it: optical interferometry, without disregarding the medical record data preceding the phakic lens implantation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Cataract Extraction/methods , Phakic Intraocular Lenses/adverse effects , Interferometry/methods , Medical Records , Myopia/etiology
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1028, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352027

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar los resultados del implante secundario de lentes intraoculares de cámara anterior rígido con apoyo angular y de lentes intraoculares plegables de cámara posterior suturados a iris, en cuanto a efectividad, seguridad y calidad de vida relacionada con la función visual (cuestionario NEI VFQ-23). Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasi experimental de 50 ojos de pacientes afáquicos sin soporte capsular, después de la cirugía de catarata, divididos en dos grupos según el tratamiento. Resultados: Se observó que en el grupo de pacientes tratados con lente intraocular suturado a iris el porcentaje de pacientes con una visión de 20/40 o más fue significativamente superior (96,0 vs. 60,0 , p = 0,000), mientras que los resultados del cuestionario de calidad de vida fueron menores en cuanto a la frecuencia de pacientes con visión de 20/200 o menos (0,0 vs. 16,0 por ciento, p = 0,110); la inducción de astigmatismo, la disminución de la densidad de células endoteliales (361,6 ± 220,5 vs. 556,1 ± 340, p = 0,021) y el porcentaje de pacientes con complicaciones (36,0 vs. 52,0 por ciento, p = 0,254). Conclusiones: Se logran mejores resultados con el implante de lente intraocular plegable suturado a iris(AU)


Objective: Compare the results of secondary implantation of rigid angle-supported intraocular lenses in the anterior chamber versus foldable iris-suture-fixated intraocular lenses in the posterior chamber, in terms of effectiveness, safety and vision-related quality of life (questionnaire NEI VFQ-23). Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted of 50 eyes of aphakic patients without capsular support after cataract surgery, who were divided into two groups according to the treatment indicated. Results: It was found that in the group treated with iris-suture-fixated intraocular lens implantation the percentage of patients with 20/40 vision or more was significantly higher (96.0 vs. 60.0 percent, p = 0.000), whereas the results of the quality of life questionnaire were lower in terms of frequency of patients with 20/200 vision or less (0.0 vs. 16.0 percent, p = 0.110), induction of astigmatism, endothelial cell density reduction (361.6 ± 220.5 vs. 556.1 ± 340, p = 0.021) and percentage of patients with complications (36.0 vs 52.0 percent, p = 0.254). Conclusions: Better results were obtained with the implantation of foldable iris-suture-fixated intraocular lenses(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cataract Extraction/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Endothelial Cells , Anterior Chamber/injuries , Quality of Life
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1064, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341453

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad ocular y sistémica de una combinación de lidocaína 2 por ciento y fenilefrina 1 por ciento administrada por vía intracameral para provocar midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía de catarata. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de serie de casos en 70 ojos de igual número de pacientes sometidos a facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular. El grupo midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía lo conformaron 35 pacientes dilatados con una inyección intracameral de lidocaína y fenilefrina antes de la cirugía, mientras otros 35 ojos se dilataron de manera tradicional, con un colirio midriático previo. Para la seguridad ocular se evaluaron múltiples parámetros del examen oftalmológico pre- y posoperatorio. Resultados: La presión intraocular, el espesor corneal central, la densidad celular del endotelio corneal y el edema corneal posoperatorio como hallazgo del segmento anterior se comportaron de manera similar en ambos grupos de estudio. Se reportó una complicación transoperatoria en el grupo de manera tradicional y un caso con edema quístico macular posoperatorio en el grupo midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía que no representaron diferencias significativas. Conclusión: La inyección de lidocaína más fenilefrina intracameral es una opción segura tanto ocular como sistémica para provocar midriasis durante la facoemulsificación(AU)


Objective: Evaluate the ocular and systemic safety of a combination of 2 percent lidocaine and 1 percent phenylephrine administered intracamerally to achieve intraoperative mydriasis in cataract surgery. Methods: A prospective study was conducted of a case series of 70 patients (70 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The intraoperative mydriasis group was composed of 35 patients dilated with an intracameral injection of lidocaine and phenylephrine before surgery, whereas another 35 eyes were dilated by the conventional method, with mydriatic eye drops. Ocular safety evaluation was based on the analysis of a wide variety of pre- and postoperative ophthalmological examination parameters. Results: Intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell density and postoperative corneal edema as an anterior segment finding, behaved in a similar manner in both study groups. An intraoperative complication was reported in the conventional method group and a case with postoperative cystoid macular edema in the intraoperative mydriasis group group, neither of them exhibiting significant differences. Conclusion: Intracameral lidocaine plus phenylephrine injection is a safe ocular and systemic option to achieve mydriasis during phacoemulsification(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction/methods , Mydriasis/drug therapy , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1152, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341465

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo aborda el uso de la inteligencia artificial en la cirugía de catarata y la incursión de Cuba en este campo. La inteligencia artificial tiene como objetivo dotar a un agente con la capacidad de tomar decisiones correctas. Dentro de los campos de la inteligencia artificial se encuentra el aprendizaje de máquinas cuyo propósito es entrenar a las computadoras para aprender de un conjunto de datos las decisiones que han de tomar, dada una situación específica. Uno de los métodos más utilizados para el entrenamiento y el aprendizaje de máquinas es el desarrollo de redes neuronales artificiales. Desde un enfoque social, se explica cómo la influencia sobre el resultado visual que puede lograrse con esta tecnología repercute en el individuo y la sociedad, y se resaltan las ventajas y las desventajas de su utilización(AU)


The study addresses the use of artificial intelligence in cataract surgery and Cuba's incorporation into this field. The purpose of artificial intelligence is to develop agents with the ability to take appropriate decisions. One of the branches of artificial intelligence is machine learning, whose aim is to train computers to draw from a set of data the decisions to be taken in response to a specific situation. One of the most common methods in machine training and learning is the development of artificial neural networks. A social explanation is provided of the effect of the visual outcomes obtained by this technology on the individual and society, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of its use(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Cataract Extraction/methods , Machine Learning
11.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1053, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341464

ABSTRACT

El nanoftalmo es una anomalía del desarrollo, de condición rara, siempre bilateral. Comúnmente se presenta con un patrón hereditario autosómico recesivo. Se presenta una paciente femenina de 49 años de edad, atendida en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", con antecedentes de queratocono, glaucoma y nanoftalmo (16 mm). Se realizó cirugía del cristalino y posteriormente la paciente presentó complicaciones, por lo que tuvo que ser intervenida por los Servicios de Glaucoma y Retina. Describimos el caso con el fin de contribuir a enfrentar futuras situaciones similares(AU)


Nanophthalmos is a rare, always bilateral developmental anomaly. It commonly follows an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. A case is presented of a female 49-year-old patient attending Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology with a history of keratoconus, glaucoma and nanophthalmos (16 mm). Crystalline lens surgery was performed, after which the patient developed complications leading to a new intervention at the Glaucoma and Retina Services. The case is described with the purpose of contributing to the solution of similar future situations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract Extraction/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Keratoconus/etiology
12.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1094, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341462

ABSTRACT

La catarata senil es la primera causa de ceguera reversible en el mundo y la cirugía constituye el único método para solucionar esta enfermedad, con alto nivel de seguridad y elevada mejoría en calidad visual y de vida. Por ser una afectación que ocurre en pacientes de la tercera edad, con frecuencia presentan enfermedades sistémicas como hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, enfermedades cardiovasculares, entre otras. Hasta esta fecha se indican exámenes de laboratorio de rutina en el preoperatorio que para algunas instituciones son innecesarios por el bajo riesgo de esta técnica quirúrgica. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Cochrane y Google Académico con el objetivo de revisar lo relacionado con la necesidad de efectuar estos exámenes de laboratorio como rutina antes de la cirugía de catarata. Existen pocos artículos referentes al tema, por lo que se seleccionaron los de mayor evidencia científica. Se pudo concluir que no hay evidencia sobre los requerimientos y necesidades de estudios de laboratorio en el preoperatorio, ya que sus resultados no aportan la capacidad de predecir la morbilidad o de cambiar la conducta relacionada con el proceder quirúrgico o anestésico(AU)


Senile cataract is the leading cause of reversible blindness worldwide. Surgery is the only method available to heal this condition, with a high level of safety and considerable improvement in visual quality and quality of life. Being as it is a condition occurring in elderly patients, systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, among others, are usually present. Routine preoperative laboratory tests are customarily indicated which some institutions consider unnecessary due to the low risk of this surgical procedure. A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar with the purpose of reviewing published information about the need to conduct these laboratory tests as routine practice before cataract surgery. Since few papers about the topic were available, a selection was made of the ones providing the most relevant scientific evidence. It was concluded that no evidence exists about the requirements of and need for preoperative laboratory studies, since their results do not contribute to the ability to predict morbidity or change the conduct related to the surgical or anesthetic procedure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Cataract Extraction/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Quality of Life , Total Quality Management
13.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e905, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341457

ABSTRACT

La cirugía de catarata es la intervención oftalmológica que más se realiza a nivel mundial, fundamentalmente en personas de la tercera edad, donde coinciden cambios en la película lagrimal. Muchas veces después de operados, debido a alteraciones en la homeostasia de la superficie ocular, los pacientes mantienen síntomas muy molestos, como lagrimeo y sensación de cuerpo extraño, que les hacen dudar del buen resultado de la cirugía. Se hace una revisión del tema, para entender el porqué de esta sintomatología, sus causas y los exámenes necesarios a realizar previos a la cirugía, con el objetivo de alcanzar una mejor evolución posoperatoria. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)


Cataract surgery is the most common ophthalmological procedure worldwide. It is particularly frequent in the elderly, due to the changes undergone by the tear film in advanced ages. On many occasions and due to ocular surface homeostatic alterations, patients continue to experience great discomfort after the operation, such as lacrimation or a foreign body sensation, which makes them doubt the satisfactory outcome of the surgery. A review was conducted about the topic to understand the reasons for these symptoms, their causes and the preoperative tests required to achieve a better postoperative evolution. Use was made of the platform Infomed, specifically the Virtual Health Library(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction/methods , Phacoemulsification/methods , Homeostasis , Review Literature as Topic
14.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1068, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341456

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la visión, en pacientes con catarata tratados con monovisión inducida con lente intraocular monofocal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental antes y después con un solo grupo. Para esto fueron reclutados 50 pacientes tributarios de cirugía de catarata, que presentaban presbiopía. Se evaluó la visión funcional (agudeza visual de cerca y de lejos), sin corrección, mejor corregida y la calidad de vida relacionada con la visión (cuestionario VF-14) antes y después de la cirugía. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 59,6 años y predominó el sexo femenino (60,0 por ciento). La mediana de la agudeza visual sin corrección en el ojo dominante poscirugía fue de 0,80 y la del equivalente esférico de -0,16 dioptrías, mientras que en el no dominante fue de 0,50 y de -1,68 dioptrías, respectivamente. La mediana de la agudeza visual sin corrección de cerca fue de 0,80. El 86,0 por ciento de los pacientes no requirió espejuelos después de la cirugía. La puntuación promedio del VF-14 precirugía ubicaba el 50 por ciento de los pacientes con una incapacidad parcial para desarrollar una actividad por causa visual. Después de la cirugía la totalidad de los pacientes no presentaba esta limitación visual. Conclusiones: La cirugía de catarata mejora la calidad de vida relacionada con la visión(AU)


Objective: Evaluate vision-related quality of life in cataract patients treated with induced monovision with monofocal intraocular lens. Methods: An experimental before-after one-group study was conducted. A selection was made of 50 presbyopic patients scheduled for cataract surgery. The variables evaluated were uncorrected and best corrected functional vision (near and far visual acuity) and vision-related quality of life (VF-14 questionnaire) before and after surgery. Results: Mean age was 59.6 years. Female sex prevailed (60.0 percent). Mean uncorrected postoperative visual acuity was 0.80 in the dominant eye and 0.50 in the non-dominant eye, whereas mean spherical equivalent was -0.16 diopters in the dominant eye and -1.68 diopters in the non-dominant eye. Mean uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.80. Of the patients studied, 86.0 percent did not require eyeglasses after surgery. Average preoperative VF-14 score showed that 50 percent of the patients had a partial disability to carry out an activity due to visual causes. After surgery no patient had such a visual limitation. Conclusions: Cataract surgery improves vision-related quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Vision, Monocular , Cataract Extraction/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods
15.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1008, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341454

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Demostrar los resultados de la criofacoemulsificación en la cirugía de catarata, como una mejora en la calidad visual y de vida de los pacientes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y analítico de serie de casos en 43 ojos con catarata. Se utilizaron técnicas estadísticas descriptivas como media y desviación estándar. En los resultados no comparados la prueba de chi cuadrado, con significación del 95 por ciento y un valor de p < 0,05 se consideró estadísticamente significativa. Resultados: El 67,44 por ciento de los pacientes no sintieron dolor y lo refirieron muy leve en la colocación del blefaróstato, en la incisión por córnea clara y durante la colocación del lente intraocular; el 62,79 por ciento fueron féminas, mayores de 70 años; el 51,16 por ciento tenía dureza nuclear NO3 por LOCSIII; la visión de colores mejoró en el 90,70 por ciento; la sensibilidad al contraste mejoró en el 58,14 por ciento; el cilindro refractivo en el 72,09 por ciento fue menor de 0,5 dioptrías; la agudeza visual mejor corregida en el 93,02 por ciento fue de 0,8 a 1,0; la paquimetría demostró diferencias significativas al final; la pérdida celular endotelial media fue de 274,16 cel. /mm2; la hexagonalidad media se redujo en un 3,42 por ciento y la encuesta FV-14 fue muy buena en el 100 por ciento de los pacientes al mes de operado. Conclusiones: La criofacoemulsificación es segura y efectiva, que disminuye los efectos inflamatorios de la cirugía sobre la córnea, con alto grado de satisfacción de los pacientes(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Demonstrate the effect of cryophacoemulsification in cataract surgery as a way to improve patient visual quality and quality of life. Methods: An analytical prospective study was conducted of a case series of 43 eyes with cataract. Statistical analysis was based on mean and standard deviation descriptive techniques. In results not compared, a chi-square test with 95 percent significance and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Of the patients studied, 67.44 percent did not feel any pain and reported very mild pain during blepharostat placement, clear corneal incision and intraocular lens placement; 62.79 percent were females aged over 70 years; 51.16 percent had NO3 nuclear hardness by LOCSIII; color vision improved in 90.70 percent; contrast sensitivity improved in 58.14 percent; in 72.09 percent the refractive cylinder was smaller than 0.5 diopters; in 93.02 percent best corrected visual acuity was 0.8-1.0; pachymetry showed significant differences at the end; mean endothelial cell loss was 274.16 cel/mm2; mean hexagonality was reduced 3.42 percent, and the VF-14 index was very good in 100 percent of the patients one month after surgery. Conclusions: Cryophacoemulsification is safe and effective, reduces the inflammatory effects of surgery on the cornea and achieves a high level of patient satisfaction(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cataract Extraction/methods , Patient Satisfaction , Phacoemulsification/methods , Cryoanesthesia/methods , Prospective Studies
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 275-278, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248969

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is more frequent in people aged >50 yeears, and its prevalence increases with age. Few reports have described cases in younger patients, all with a history of ocular surgery, especially iris resection. Herein, we describe the case of a 27-year old man with bilateral advanced glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation material in OS. He had undergone cataract surgeries OU and a penetrating keratoplasty OD during childhood. Currently, he presented with an intraocular pressure of 40 mmHg OU. The OS showed a white flaky material in the pupillary rim and anterior capsule and a Sampaolesi line as a gonioscopic finding. Trabeculectomy was performed OU, and intraocular pressure control was achieved. Unlike other previously reported cases, this patient did not present any apparent iris manipulation in the affected eye. However, he did undergo an iridectomy in the contralateral eye. This is also the first case to be accompanied by bilateral glaucoma at the time of detection of the pseudoexfoliation material.(AU)


RESUMO A síndrome de pseudoesfoliação é mais frequente em pessoas com mais de 50 anos e sua prevalência aumenta com a idade. Poucos relatos descrevem casos em pacientes mais jovens, todos com história de cirurgia ocular, especialmente ressecção da íris. Descrevemos o caso de um homem de 27 anos com glaucoma bilateral avançado e material de pseudoesfoliação no OE. O paciente foi submetido a cirurgias de catarata em AO e a uma ceratoplastia penetrante no OD durante a infância. Atualmente, ele apresentou PIOs de 40 mmHg em AO. O OE apresentou material escamoso branco na borda pupilar e cápsula anterior, e linha Sampaolesi como achado gonioscópico. A trabeculectomia foi realizada em AO e obteve-se o controle da pressão intraocular. Diferentemente de outros casos relatados, o paciente não apresentou qualquer manipulação aparente da íris no olho afetado. No entanto, ele foi submetido a uma iridectomia no olho contralateral. Além disso, este é o primeiro caso a ser acompanhado de glaucoma bilateral no momento da detecção do material de pseudoesfoliação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cataract Extraction , Glaucoma/complications , Exfoliation Syndrome/physiopathology , Iridectomy/instrumentation
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 214-219, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248961

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the influence of pupil dynamics on the defocus profile and area-of-focus of eyes implanted with a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). Methods: This prospective randomized trial was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive the multifocal SN6AD1 (n=20) or the aspheric monofocal SN60WF (aIOL) (n=18) IOLs bilaterally. Dynamic pupillometry, visual acuity for distance and near, corrected and uncorrected, and a defocus profile were assessed postoperatively. The area-of-focus was calculated using an empirical polynomial model of the defocus profile. Results: Sixteen patients (32 eyes) in the multifocal SN6AD1 group and 17 patients (34 eyes) in the aspheric monofocal SN60WF group completed the 1-year follow-up. There were no significant between-group differences in monocular uncorrected distance or near visual acuity. The defocus profiles of the mfIOL group showed a double peak, whereas those of the aspheric monofocal SN60WF group showed only one peak, which is typical for a monofocal intraocular lens. The area-of-focus of the aIOL group (4.66 ± 1.51 logMARxD) was significantly different from that of the multifocal SN6AD1 (1.99 ± 1.31 logMARxD). Pupil size at maximum contraction after exposure to a flash of 30 cd/m2 for 1 second was significantly correlated with a better area-of-focus in the multifocal SN6AD1 group (r=0.54; p=0.0017), whereas this was not the case in the aspheric monofocal SN60WF group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that in eyes implanted with an multifocal SN6AD1, the smaller the pupil size, the better is the area-of-focus and hence the better is the visual performance. This correlation was not found for the aspheric monofocal SN60WF.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da dinâmica pupilar na curva de desfoco de olhos implantados com lente intraoculares multifocais difrativas. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e randomizado realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - Universidade de São Paulo - Departamento de Oftalmologia. Trinta e oito pacientes foram aleatoriamente designados para receber bilateralmente lentes intraoculares SN6AD1 (n=20) (mfIOL) ou SN60WF (n=18) (aIOL). Além da acuidade visual para longe e perto, corrigida e não corrigida, e curva de desfoco, foi ainda realizada pupilometria dinâmica. A área sob a curva de desfoco foi calculada usando um modelo polinomial empírico. Resultados: Um total de 16 e 17 pacientes (n=32 e 34 olhos) completaram 1 ano de seguimento nos grupos mfIOL e aIOL, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças significativas entre grupos para as acuidades visuais seja para longe ou perto. As curvas de desfoco do grupo mfIOL mostraram um pico duplo; enquanto o SN60WF mostrou apenas um pico, típico para uma lente intraoculares monofocal. A média da área sob a curva de desfoco do grupo aIOL foi (4,66 ± 1,51 logMAR.dp), e essa é estatisticamente significante diferente da métrica do grupo mfIOL (1,99 ± 1,31 logMAR.dp). A pupila na contração máxima após a exposição a um flash de 30 cd/m2 por 1 segundo foi significativamente correlacionada com uma melhor área de foco no grupo mfIOL (r=0,54; p=0,0017), essa relação não foi observada para o grupo aIOL. Conclusão: Estes dados indicam que quanto menor a pupila durante contração, melhor é a área sob a curva de desfoco e, portanto, o desempenho visual dos olhos implantados com essa mfIOL. Esta correlação não foi encontrada para lentes intraoculares monofocais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cataract Extraction , Pupil/physiology , Phacoemulsification/instrumentation , Multifocal Intraocular Lenses , Prospective Studies
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 111-116, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280103

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a correlação entre qualidade de vida e diminuição da acuidade visual em idosos portadores catarata senil. Métodos: Estudo transversal e quantitativo com 53 idosos portadores de catarata senil e candidatos à facectomia em uma clínica oftalmológica particular da cidade de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. Para investigação sociodemográfica, foi utilizado questionário elaborado pelos autores. A investigação acerca da qualidade de vida relacionada à visão foi feita por meio do questionário National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25). Para análise estatística, aplicou-se o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson e Teste de Hipóteses em que a estatística do teste segue distribuição t-Student, com nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes entrevistados apresentava idade compreendida entre 70 a 79 anos (n.29 / 54,7%) e era do sexo feminino (n.30 / 56,6%). A relação de dependência entre o escore médio do domínio "Capacidade Visual" com o do domínio "Qualidade de Vida" obteve coeficiente de correlação de Pearson igual a 0,664, estatisticamente significante ao teste t de Student (p < 0,001). Assim, há evidências de que a qualidade de vida e a função visual estariam correlacionadas de forma que quanto maior a capacidade visual, maior seria a qualidade de vida. Conclusão: A correlação entre saúde ocular e capacidade funcional de idosos pode ser obtida pela aplicação do National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25), gerando dados que revelam a necessidade da garantia de acesso da população idosa à saúde ocular.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the correlation between quality of life and decreased visual acuity in elders with senile cataract. Methods: A transversal and quantitative study involving 53 elderly patients with senile cataracts and candidates for cataract surgery in a private ophthalmology clinic in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. For sociodemographic investigation, a questionnaire elaborated by the authors was used. Research on visual-related quality of life was done through the National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25) questionnaire. For statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient and hypothesis testing were applied, in which the test statistic follows a Student's t distribution, with 5% significance level (p < 0,05). Results: The majority of the interviewed patients' ages were comprehended between 70 and 79 years old (n.29 / 54,7%) and were female (n.30 / 56,6%). The correlation between the mean score of the "Visual Capacity" domain and of the "Quality of Life" domain had Pearson's correlation coefficient equal to 0,664, statistically significant in Student's t-test (p < 0,001). Therefore, there are evidences that the quality of life and the visual function are correlated so that the better the visual capacity, the better the quality of life. Conclusion: The correlation between ocular health and functional capacity of the elderly can be obtained by the application the National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25), generating data that reveals the necessity of guaranteed access to ocular health by the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cataract/psychology , Cataract Extraction , Visual Acuity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
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