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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0004, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357124

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A acurácia do cálculo da lente intraocular não é perfeita, podendo ser comuns erros refrativos pós-operatórios, especialmente em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia refrativa prévia ou na presença de córneas assimétricas. O poder corneano após cirurgia refrativa pode ser medido com maior acurácia utilizando o mapa de poder óptico total na zona central de 4mm, com Orbscan II ou pelo mapa equivalent keratometric reading disponível no pentacam, com medidas centrais de 1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,5mm. O objetivo desta série de casos é demonstrar a abordagem de quatro olhos em condições especiais corneanas, por meio do equivalent keratometric reading do pentacam para mensuração do poder corneano e o utilizando na biometria, em comparação com possíveis resultados obtidos com outras estratégias. Os quatro olhos foram submetidos a procedimentos refrativos prévios, e a lente intraocular escolhida a partir do uso do poder corneano calculado pelo equivalent keratometric reading mostrou excelentes resultados pós-operatórios.


ABSTRACT The accuracy of the intraocular lens calculation is not perfect, and postoperative refractive errors are common, especially in patients who have undergone previous refractive surgery or in presence of asymmetric corneas. Corneal power after refractive surgery can be more accurately measured using the total optical power map in the 4-mm central zone, by means of Orbscan II or equivalent keratometric reading map available on pentacam, with central measurements of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.5 mm. The purpose of this case series is to demonstrate four approaches performed in special corneal conditions, using pentacam equivalent keratometric reading to measure corneal power and biometrics, and comparing with possible results obtained with other strategies. The four eyes were submitted to previous refractive procedures, and the intraocular lens chosen from the use of the corneal power calculated by equivalent keratometric reading showed excellent postoperative results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Biometry/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Cataract/diagnosis , Visual Acuity , Corneal Topography , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Lenses, Intraocular
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1051, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352035

ABSTRACT

El lupus eritematoso sistémico es una enfermedad autoinmune, de curso crónico con afectación multisistémica. Las manifestaciones oculares del lupus eritematoso sistémico pueden afectar cualquier estructura del ojo. La formación de catarata y la aparición de la diabetes secundaria asociada con el tratamiento esteroideo prolongado es frecuente en estos pacientes. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con antecedentes de lupus eritematoso sistémico de más de 20 años de evolución, tratada con 5 mg diarios de prednisona oral en dosis de mantenimiento. Refiere, además, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 controlada de más de 10 años de evolución. Asiste a la consulta de Oftalmología por disminución de la visión y se diagnostica catarata en el ojo derecho. Se realiza facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular plegable, previa profilaxis para la endoftalmitis. La catarata asociada a la diabetes secundaria en los pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico justifica el uso de profilaxis antinflamatoria con esteroides tópicos y sistémicos para asegurar una mínima inflamación posoperatoria y mejorar el pronóstico visual(AU)


Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease of multisystemic involvement. Ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus may present in any structure of the eye. Cataract formation and the appearance of secondary diabetes associated to prolonged steroid therapy are common in these patients. A case is presented of a female 69-year-old patient with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus of more than 20 years' evolution, treated with 5 mg daily of oral prednisone at maintenance doses. The patient also reports controlled diabetes mellitus type 2 of more than ten years' evolution. Her main concern in attending Ophthalmology consultation is vision reduction. Cataract is diagnosed in her right eye. The treatment indicated is phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation following prophylaxis for endophthalmitis. Cataract associated to secondary diabetes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus justifies the use of anti-inflammatory prophylaxis with topical and systemic steroids to ensure minimum postoperative inflammation and improve visual prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Cataract/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/complications , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Research Report
3.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1018, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347542

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Lowe o síndrome oculocerebrorenal es un trastorno multisistémico. Es una enfermedad rara e infrecuente. Objetivo: Exponer un caso clínico típico, con fracaso renal controlado sin método dialítico y que de manera tardía en su adolescencia se diagnostica con síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut. Presentación caso: Adolescente masculino de 18 años nacido de un embarazo sin riesgo y parto por cesárea, macrofeto. Desde el nacimiento, con diagnóstico perinatal de catarata congénita y evolutivamente glaucoma bilateral con tratamiento conservador. A partir del primer año de vida padece de acidosis tubular y síndrome de Fanconi con evolución a una enfermedad renal crónica. Relacionado todo con retraso del desarrollo psicomotor, discapacidad intelectual, estereotipias, síntomas obsesivos compulsivos y depresión. De manera tardía, a los 10 años tuvo inicio de crisis epilépticas de varios tipos con predominio de las tónicas durante el sueño y en vigilia, frecuentes, con electroencefalograma característico de síndrome Lennox-Gastaut. Tuvo atención interdisciplinaria y evolución clínica estable hasta la edad adulta cumplida. El estudio molecular de ADN materno y del niño confirmaron la mutación c2224_2226 del GTA (exón 19), delección de valina en la posición 742 del cromosoma X del OCRL 1, que ratifica el síndrome de Lowe. Conclusiones: El Síndrome de Lowe, es un trastorno multisitémico, ligado al cromosoma X y frecuente en varones. Clínicamente se caracteriza por alteraciones oftalmológicas, renales y neurológicas(AU)


Introduction: Lowe syndrome or oculocerebrorenal syndrome is a multisystemic disorder. It's a rare and uncommon disease. Objective: Show a typical clinical case, with controlled renal failure without dialytic method and that late in the adolescence is diagnosed with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Case presentation: 18-year-old male adolescent born of a risk-free pregnancy and cesarean delivery, with macrosomia. From birth, he had a perinatal diagnosis of congenital cataract and evolutionarily bilateral glaucoma with conservative treatment. From the first year of life he suffers from tubular acidosis and Fanconi syndrome with an evolution to chronic kidney disease. All of these were related to delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, stereotypies, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Lately, at 10 years old, epileptic seizures of various types with predominance of tonic ones during sleep and wakefulness began; they were frequent, with characteristic electroencephalogram of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. He had interdisciplinary care and stable clinical evolution into adulthood. The molecular study of the mother and child DNA confirmed the c2224_2226 mutation of GTA (exon 19), valine deletion at position 742 of the X chromosome of OCRL 1, which ratifies Lowe syndrome. Conclusion: Lowe Syndrome is a multisystemic disorder, linked to the X chromosome and common in males. Clinically, it is characterized by ophthalmological, renal and neurological alterations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Cataract/therapy , Rare Diseases/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/diagnosis , Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome/diagnosis , Electroencephalography/methods
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1018, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341461

ABSTRACT

La catarata comprende la opacidad del cristalino, la cual puede afectar la corteza y el núcleo subcapsular anterior y posterior de manera progresiva, secundario a la acumulación de proteínas dañadas a este nivel, con pérdida del equilibrio entre la producción y la eliminación de las especies reactivas libres de oxígeno. La importancia de retrasar o identificar marcadores específicos, además de promover un nuevo blanco terapéutico, también es motivo de análisis y de estudio en diferentes líneas de investigación. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura del 01 de enero al 20 de julio del año 2020. Se utilizaron metabuscadores en inglés y español de PUBMED, INFOMED, CLINICALKEY, LILACS, EBSCO, SCIELO, PRISMA y UPTODATE, con el objetivo de identificar la nueva evidencia científica relacionada con el estrés oxidativo y su participación en la formación de la catarata. La barrera del cristalino funciona como un medio de intercambio entre diferentes moléculas, lo que impide el paso de antioxidantes al núcleo y provoca su opacificación. Las mitocondrias a nivel de la corteza del cristalino permiten la remoción de oxígeno. Posteriormente la fosforilación oxidativa forma radicales libres de superóxido que, de manera natural, con el paso del tiempo se acumulan a este nivel. Con la edad, la homeostasis adaptativa pierde la capacidad de responder ante los cambios de estrés oxidativo, por lo que el uso de antioxidantes -de manera profiláctica e intencionada- puede cambiar el destino último para esta patología. La falta de equilibrio en los procesos de óxido-reducción es responsable de la formación de la catarata(AU)


Cataract comprises opacification of the crystalline lens, which may progressively affect the cortex and the anterior subcapsular nucleus, secondary to accumulation of damaged proteins on this level, with loss of balance between production and elimination of free reactive oxygen species. The importance of delaying or identifying specific markers, as well as promoting a new therapeutic target, is the object of study and analysis of a variety of research lines. A review was conducted of the literature published from 1 January to 20 July 2020. Use was made of PubMed, Infomed, Clinical Key, Lilacs, EBSCO, SciELO, Prisma and UpToDate metasearch engines in English and Spanish to identify new scientific evidence about oxidative stress and its involvement in cataract formation. The crystalline lens barrier serves as a medium for exchange between various molecules, preventing entrance of antioxidants into the nucleus, which results in opacification. Mitochondria on the crystalline lens cortex allow oxygen removal. Oxidative phosphorylation then forms free superoxide radicals which naturally accumulate on this level with the passing of time. With aging, adaptive homeostasis loses its ability to respond to oxidative stress changes, but the prophylactic, targeted use of antioxidants may change the ultimate fate of this condition. Lack of balance in oxidation-reduction processes is the cause of cataract formation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , Cataract/etiology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Homeostasis , Lens Cortex, Crystalline , Review Literature as Topic
5.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1006, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341460

ABSTRACT

La disfotopsia negativa representa un motivo importante de insatisfacción del paciente tras una cirugía de catarata no complicada. Se manifiesta como una sombra oscura en el campo visual temporal, habitualmente en forma de medialuna, que cuando es persistente transforma en frustrante un resultado posquirúrgico que de otra manera sería considerado exitoso. Dada la amplia literatura publicada al respecto, esta revisión pretende resumir lo más actualizado sobre este fenómeno óptico en cuanto a sus causas, factores asociados, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se realizó una búsqueda en Scholar Google con las palabras clave "Negative dysphotopsia", la cual se confinó a artículos de la Journal of Cataract Refractive Surgery, y se encontró un total de 822 resultados; de ellos, 54 desde el año 2019 hasta el momento de la revisión(AU)


Negative disfotopsia is an important cause of patient´s dissatisfaction after an uncomplicated cataract surgery. The affected individuals perceive a dark shadow on the temporal visual field, in the form of a crescent or arc, that transforms in frustrating a postsurgical result otherwise considered as successful. Given the several articles published on this topic, this review hopes to summarize the most up-to-date literature about this optic phenomenon considering its causes, associated factors, diagnosis and current treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cataract/diagnosis , Visual Fields , Causality , Cataract/therapy , Review Literature as Topic
6.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e887, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341459

ABSTRACT

La catarata se presenta como la principal causa de ceguera prevenible en todo el mundo. La facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular es el procedimiento quirúrgico estándar más comúnmente utilizado. Las lentes intraoculares son consideradas prótesis de material biocompatible que se usan para sustituir el cristalino humano, y se han diseñado para limitar las aberraciones de orden superior y mejorar la calidad de la visión al conseguir la emetropía. Varias son las generaciones de lentes intraoculares diseñadas hasta este momento, con el fin de lograr su perfeccionamiento para ofrecerle al paciente una mayor independencia y excelentes resultados visuales después de la cirugía de catarata para todas las distancias. De ahí la motivación para realizar una búsqueda de diversos artículos publicados, con el objetivo de describir los lentes intraoculares Premium. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, con todos sus buscadores(AU)


Cataract is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation is the standard surgical procedure most commonly used. Intraocular lenses are biocompatible material prosthesis that replace the human crystalline lens. They have been designed to limit higher order aberrations and improve vision quality, achieving emmetropia. Several generations of intraocular lenses have been developed so far with the purpose of improving their quality and providing patients with greater independence and excellent visual results for all distances after cataract surgery. Hence the motivation to conduct a search for a variety of published papers, with the purpose of characterizing the Premium intraocular lenses. Use was made of the Infomed platform, particularly the Virtual Health Library with all its search engines(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cataract/etiology , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1009, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341455

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar cómo controlar la progresión del astigmatismo en la facoemulsificación para mejorar sus resultados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de serie de casos en 43 ojos de pacientes con diagnóstico de catarata, operados por la técnica de facoemulsificación por prechop con implante de lente intraocular plegable, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" desde noviembre del año 2018 hasta abril de 2020. Se emplearon los porcentajes y números absolutos para las variables cualitativas, las cuantitativas, la media y la desviación estándar, con un intervalo de confianza del 95 por ciento. Resultados: La edad media fue de 69,4 ± 8,3 años (51,16 por ciento); la dureza NO3; la mejor agudeza visual sin corrección mejoró en el 76,75 por ciento entre 0,8 a 1,0; la queratometría media pre- vs. posoperatoria no mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas; el cilindro refractivo posoperatorio fue menor de 0,5 dioptrías en el 72,09 por ciento; el 51,17 por ciento de los ojos en el preoperatorio tenían astigmatismo refractivo contra la regla, lo cual mejoró según esta al mes de operado en el 60,47 por ciento de los pacientes. La calidad de vida en el 100 por ciento de los casos fue muy buena al mes de operados, según FV-14. Conclusiones: La corrección del astigmatismo con las incisiones personalizadas en la facoemulsificación ofrece buena predictibilidad y mejora su calidad visual y de vida(AU)


Objective: Determine how to control the progression of astigmatism in phacoemulsification to improve its results. Methods: A descriptive prospective study was conducted of a case series of 43 eyes of cataract patients undergoing prechop phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from November 2018 to April 2020. Percentages and absolute numbers were used for qualitative variables, and mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables, with a confidence interval of 95 percent. Results: Mean age was 69.4 ± 8.3 years (51.16 percent); hardness was NO3; in 76.75 percent best uncorrected visual acuity improved 0.8-1.0; pre- vs. postoperative mean keratometry did not show any statistically significant differences; in 72.09 percent the postoperative refractive cylinder was smaller than 0.5 diopters; 51.17 percent of the eyes had preoperative refractive against-the-rule astigmatism, improving at one month postoperative in 60.47 percent. Quality of life by the VF-14 survey was very good in 100 percent of the patients one month after surgery. Conclusions: Correction of astigmatism with personalized incisions in phacoemulsification provides good predictability and improves visual quality and quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Astigmatism , Cataract/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Quality of Life , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1065, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341450

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad del Ocular Trauma Score como factor pronóstico de la agudeza visual final en pacientes con diagnóstico de catarata traumática. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y de evaluación de un sistema pronóstico en una serie de 61 casos. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos de acuerdo con el mecanismo del trauma. Se estudió la relación entre la agudeza visual a los tres meses después de la cirugía de catarata y las variables demográficas y clínicas. El resultado visual se predijo mediante el Ocular Trauma Score y se comparó con el obtenido. Resultados: La mediana de la edad de los pacientes estudiados fue de 52,8 (RI: 44,0-63,0) años. Los pacientes con antecedentes de trauma abierto tendieron a ser más jóvenes: 50,5 (RI: 43,0-54,0) años de edad vs. 57,0 (RI: 45,5-65,5) años. Predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino (85,2 por ciento) y de baja escolaridad (55,7 por ciento). Se observó mejoría de la agudeza visual mejor corregida después de la cirugía, en particular en los pacientes con trauma cerrado. El Ocular Trauma Score pronosticó adecuadamente para agudeza visual de 20/40 o más. Conclusiones: Se logran buenos resultados con el uso del Ocular Trauma Score como factor pronóstico de la agudeza visual en pacientes con diagnóstico de catarata traumática(AU)


Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the Ocular Trauma Score as a prognostic factor for final visual acuity in patients diagnosed with traumatic cataract. Methods: A descriptive longitudinal evaluative study was conducted of a prognostic system in a series of 61 cases. The patients were divided into two groups according to the trauma mechanism. An analysis was performed of the relationship between visual acuity three months after cataract surgery and clinical and demographic variables. Visual outcome was predicted with the Ocular Trauma Score and then compared with the result obtained. Results: Mean age of the patients studied was 52.8 (IR 44.0-63.0) years. Patients with a history of open trauma tended to be younger: 50.5 (IR: 43.0-54.0) years vs. 57.0 (IR: 45.5-65.5) years. A predominance was found of male sex (85.2 percent) and a low educational level (55.7percent. Best corrected visual acuity was found to improve after surgery, particularly in patients with closed trauma. The Ocular Trauma Score predicted appropriately for visual acuity values of 20/40 or higher. Conclusions: Good results are obtained with the use of the Ocular Trauma Score as a prognostic factor for visual acuity in patients diagnosed with traumatic cataract(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cataract/diagnosis , Eye Injuries/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1062, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341449

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar la recuperación y la calidad visual posoperatoria en la cirugía bilateral del cristalino por facoemulsificación. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y analítico de serie de casos en 40 pacientes con el diagnóstico de catarata bilateral, operados por cirugía bilateral simultánea del cristalino, atendidos en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", durante el periodo comprendido desde noviembre del año 2018 hasta marzo de 2020. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, dureza nuclear según LOCS III, mejor agudeza visual con y sin corrección, astigmatismo medio inducido, visión de colores, sensibilidad al contraste, velocidad de lectura y estudio de la calidad de vida por la encuesta FV-14. Se emplearon los porcentajes y los números absolutos para resumir las variables cualitativas. En el caso de las cuantitativas se usó la media con su desviación estándar y el intervalo de confianza del 95 por ciento. Resultados: Fue más frecuente el sexo femenino en el 65 por ciento; la edad media fue de 69,1 ± 8,1 años. El 55,11 por ciento de los pacientes tuvo dureza NO3. La media de la mejor agudeza visual sin corrección mejoró a 0,89 ± 0,25; la mejor agudeza visual con corrección mejoró a 0,96 ± 0,03; el resto de las variables estudiadas mostró mejoría significativa. Conclusiones: La cirugía bilateral simultánea del cristalino personalizada contribuye de manera significativa a la mejoría de la visión en cantidad y calidad, lo que permite recuperar la calidad de vida de los pacientes(AU)


Objective: Analyze postoperative recovery and visual quality in bilateral crystalline lens surgery by phacoemulsification. Methods: An analytical prospective study was conducted of a case series of 40 bilateral cataract patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral crystalline lens surgery at the Center for Ocular Microsurgery of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from November 2018 to March 2020. The variables analyzed were age, sex, nuclear hardness by LOCS III, best visual acuity with and without correction, induced medial astigmatism, color vision, contrast sensitivity, reading speed and quality of life by the VF-14 survey. Percentages and absolute numbers were used to summarize qualitative variables, whereas mean and standard deviation were used for quantitative variables, with a 95 percent confidence interval. Results: Female sex prevailed with 65 percent; mean age was 69.1 ± 8.1 years. Hardness was NO3 in 55.11 percent of the patients examined. Mean best visual acuity without correction improved to 0.89 ± 0.25; best corrected visual acuity improved to 0.96 ± 0.03; the remaining variables studied showed significant improvement. Conclusion: Simultaneous personalized bilateral crystalline lens surgery significantly contributes to visual improvement both quantitatively and qualitatively, making it possible for patients to recover their quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Astigmatism/etiology , Cataract/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Microsurgery/methods , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Color Vision
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 91-95, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280107

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados da facotrabeculectomia em seguimento igual ou superior a 5 anos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, de intervenção e analítico realizado no centro cirúrgico da clínica de olhos de Juazeiro do Norte com pacientes operados no período de 2006 a 2013. Foram envolvidos na investigação 34 olhos de 29 pacientes com catarata senil e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto submetidos à facotrabeculectomia. Foi criado um escore de risco de dano glaucomatoso variando de 0 a 5 ao avaliar pressão intraocular, escavação do disco óptico, número de drogas hipotensoras utilizadas para o tratamento do glaucoma e a idade do paciente em anos. A amostra foi de conveniência e pareada. Foi utilizado o teste de Wilcoxon pareado para a verificação de diferenças entre médias. Foi aceito p< 0,05 para a rejeição da hipótese de nulidade. O estudo foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética da plataforma Brasil e segue a resolução 466 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde. Resultados: A média da acuidade visual foi significantemente maior após o seguimento de 5 anos (média pré-operatória 0,42 +/- 0,23 ver-sus média pós-operatória 0,62 +/- 0,29 - p=0,0031). A média dos escores de risco para dano glaucomatoso após 5 anos de seguimento foi significativamente menor quando comparado ao pré-operatório (media pré-operatória: 9,47 +/- 1,61 versus média pós-operatória 6,55 +/- 2,21) p < 0,0001, considerado extremamente significante. Conclusão: A facotrabeculectomia foi significantemente efetiva na melhora da acuidade visual e na redução do risco de dano glau-comatoso após seguimento pós-operatório igual ou superior a 5 anos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of phacotrabeculectomy in a follow-up of five years or more. Methods: Retrospective, interventional and analytical study that was carried out in the surgical center of clínica de olhos do juazeiro with patients operated on from 2006 to 2013. 34 eyes of 29 patients with senile cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma, who underwent phacotrabeculectomy were involved in the investigation. A risk score for glaucomatous dam-age ranging from 0 to 5 when evaluating intraocular pressure, excavation of the optic disc, number of hypotensive drugs used to treat glaucoma and the patient's age in years. The sample was of convenience and paired. The paired Wilcoxon test was used to verify differences be-tween means. P <0.05 was accepted for the rejection of the null hypothesis. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Brazil platform and follows the principles of resolu-tion 466 of the National Health Council. Results: The mean visual acuity was significantly higher after a five-year follow-up (preoperative average 0.42 +/- 0.23 versus postoperative average 0.62 +/- 0.29 - p = 0.0031). The average risk score for glaucomatous damage after five years of follow-up was significantly lower when compared to the preoperative (preoperative mean: 9.47 +/- 1.61 versus postoperative mean 6.55 +/- 2, 21) p <0.0001, considered extremely significant. Conclusion: Phacotrabeculectomy was significantly effective in improving visual acuity and reducing the risk of glaucomatous damage after a five-year postoperative follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract/complications , Trabeculectomy/methods , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Phacoemulsification/methods , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/complications , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Intraocular Pressure
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 111-116, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280103

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a correlação entre qualidade de vida e diminuição da acuidade visual em idosos portadores catarata senil. Métodos: Estudo transversal e quantitativo com 53 idosos portadores de catarata senil e candidatos à facectomia em uma clínica oftalmológica particular da cidade de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. Para investigação sociodemográfica, foi utilizado questionário elaborado pelos autores. A investigação acerca da qualidade de vida relacionada à visão foi feita por meio do questionário National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25). Para análise estatística, aplicou-se o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson e Teste de Hipóteses em que a estatística do teste segue distribuição t-Student, com nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes entrevistados apresentava idade compreendida entre 70 a 79 anos (n.29 / 54,7%) e era do sexo feminino (n.30 / 56,6%). A relação de dependência entre o escore médio do domínio "Capacidade Visual" com o do domínio "Qualidade de Vida" obteve coeficiente de correlação de Pearson igual a 0,664, estatisticamente significante ao teste t de Student (p < 0,001). Assim, há evidências de que a qualidade de vida e a função visual estariam correlacionadas de forma que quanto maior a capacidade visual, maior seria a qualidade de vida. Conclusão: A correlação entre saúde ocular e capacidade funcional de idosos pode ser obtida pela aplicação do National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25), gerando dados que revelam a necessidade da garantia de acesso da população idosa à saúde ocular.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the correlation between quality of life and decreased visual acuity in elders with senile cataract. Methods: A transversal and quantitative study involving 53 elderly patients with senile cataracts and candidates for cataract surgery in a private ophthalmology clinic in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. For sociodemographic investigation, a questionnaire elaborated by the authors was used. Research on visual-related quality of life was done through the National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25) questionnaire. For statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient and hypothesis testing were applied, in which the test statistic follows a Student's t distribution, with 5% significance level (p < 0,05). Results: The majority of the interviewed patients' ages were comprehended between 70 and 79 years old (n.29 / 54,7%) and were female (n.30 / 56,6%). The correlation between the mean score of the "Visual Capacity" domain and of the "Quality of Life" domain had Pearson's correlation coefficient equal to 0,664, statistically significant in Student's t-test (p < 0,001). Therefore, there are evidences that the quality of life and the visual function are correlated so that the better the visual capacity, the better the quality of life. Conclusion: The correlation between ocular health and functional capacity of the elderly can be obtained by the application the National Eye Institute - Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25), generating data that reveals the necessity of guaranteed access to ocular health by the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cataract/psychology , Cataract Extraction , Visual Acuity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e1060, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289529

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la discapacidad visual del diabético de 50 años y más de edad y la cobertura de la atención oftalmológica en Cuba durante el año 2016. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica, descriptiva y transversal que tomó la encuesta rápida de ceguera evitable realizada en Cuba en el año 2016, la cual incluyó la retinopatía diabética validada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Con los datos obtenidos en los cuestionarios se confeccionó una base de datos donde se tomaron todos los diabéticos conocidos o no con discapacidad visual. Resultados: La prevalencia de cualquier tipo de discapacidad visual en el diabético es de 25,4 por ciento (21,8-28,9). El riesgo de desarrollar discapacidad visual moderada, grave y ceguera es de 19,4 por ciento (16,5-22,3), 2,8 por ciento (1,0-4,6) y 3,2 por ciento (1,5-4,8) respectivamente. La catarata es la primera causa de discapacidad. El riesgo de discapacidad visual en el diabético es similar para uno y otro sexo y se incrementa con la edad. Las coberturas de tratamiento son bajas. Conclusiones: En Cuba, alrededor de un cuarto de los diabéticos tienen algún riesgo de discapacidad visual. El diabético tiene mayor riesgo de discapacidad visual moderada; sin embargo, el riesgo de discapacidad visual grave y de ceguera es el mismo para toda la población de 50 años y más de edad. La catarata y la retinopatía diabética son las causas más frecuentes de discapacidad visual en el diabético. Se evidencian dificultades con la atención oftalmológica, que incluye el examen y la cobertura de tratamiento de la catarata y del láser para la retinopatía diabética(AU)


Objective: Describe visual impairment among diabetics aged 50 years and over, and the coverage of ophthalmological care in Cuba in the year 2016. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted based on the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness survey developed in Cuba in the year 2016, which included diabetic retinopathy with validation by the World Health Organization. The data obtained from the questionnaires were transferred to a database of visually impaired known and unknown diabetics. Results: Prevalence of any sort of visual impairment among diabetics is 25.4 percent (21.8-28.9). Risk of developing moderate visual impairment, severe visual impairment or blindness is 19.4 percent (16.5-22.3), 2.8 percent (1.0-4.6) and 3.2 percent (1.5-4.8), respectively. Cataract is the leading cause of impairment. Risk of visual impairment among diabetics is similar in the two sexes and increases with age. Treatment coverage is low. Conclusions: In Cuba, about one fourth of the diabetics are at some risk of visual impairment. Diabetics are at a higher risk of moderate visual impairment. However, the risk of severe visual impairment and blindness is the same as for the population aged 50 years and over. Cataract and diabetic retinopathy are the most common causes of visual impairment among diabetics. Difficulties were found in ophthalmological care, including examination and treatment coverage for cataract and laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract/epidemiology , Blindness/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Laser Therapy/methods , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 77-81, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251320

ABSTRACT

RESUMO No final do século vinte, com o surgimento de novas tecnologias e de novos programas espaciais, a medicina aeroespacial ganhou destaque no meio científico uma vez que os estudos relacionados às alterações da fisiologia humana no espaço tornaram-se cada vez mais necessário para a manutenção da saúde de cosmonautas. Os olhos são considerados uma das estruturas mais sensíveis do corpo às alterações vasculares, estruturais e bioquímicas provocadas pela microgravidade e radiação cósmica. Nesse sentido, essa revisão narrativa busca identificar e explicar as principais alterações morfológicas e funcionais que ocorrem no sistema visual em decorrência de missões espaciais.


ABSTRACT At the end of the twentieth century, with the emergence of new technologies and new space programs, aerospace medicine gained prominence in the scientific community since studies related to changes in human physiology in space have become increasingly necessary for the maintenance of cosmonaut health. The eyes are considered one of the most sensitive structures in the body to vascular, structural and biochemical changes caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. In this sense, this narrative review seeks to identify and explain the main morphological and functional changes that occur in the visual system as a result of space missions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Space Flight , Weightlessness , Cataract/complications , Papilledema/complications , Cosmic Radiation , Aerospace Medicine , Eye Manifestations
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 51-57, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153107

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a mobile eye health unit on access to eye care and to generate a profile of the population requiring ophthalmic care by age, nature of their ophthalmic diseases, and optimal management. Methods: The study was conducted in 14 cities in the southwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. Subjects included individuals who participate in the Brazilian Unified Health System who were in need of eye care. There were no restrictions on age, gender or socioeconomic status. Data was transferred to an Excel table for statistical analyses. Results: We evaluated 6,878 participants in this survey with mean age of 44 years (range 4 months to 96 years); 65.5% were female. Among the diagnoses, 78.6% presented with refractive errors, 9.6% presented with cataracts and 8.3% presented with pterygium. New corrective lenses were prescribed for 60.9% of the participants; 10% retained their existing lenses, ~28% required counseling only and18.1% of the participants were referred to a tertiary facility for specialized exams and/or surgical procedures. Of the participants who required outside referrals, 36.4% required oculoplastic/external eye surgery and 31.8% required cataract surgery. Conclusion: The vast majority of patients presenting to a mobile eye health unit required prescriptions for corrective lenses. The rate of detection of ocular disorders was relatively high and the mobile unit provided effective treatment of refractive errors and referrals for specialized ophthalmic examinations and procedures. A mobile eye health unit can be an effective alternative method for improving access to basic eye care, for promoting eye health education and preventing blindness.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o impacto do uso de unidade móvel no acesso à saúde ocular e avaliar o perfil da população que necessita de cuidados oftalmológicos, as doenças oculares mais frequentes e o tratamento. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em 14 municípios da região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo utilizando uma unidade móvel oftalmológica. Os participantes eram usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde que procuraram atendimento oftalmológico, sem restrição quanto a idade, gênero ou condição socioeconômica. Os dados foram transferidos para a tabela Excel para análise estatística. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 6.878 pessoas, com média de idade de 44 anos (variação de 4 meses a 96 anos) e 65,5% eram mulheres. Erros refrativos estavam presentes em 78,6% dos participantes, catarata em 9,6% e pterígio em 8,3%. Para 60% foram prescritos óculos, para 10% foi mantida a correção óptica em uso e para 28% foram necessárias apenas orientações. Exames especializados ou procedimentos cirúrgicos foram indicados para 18,1% dos casos que foram encaminhados para tratamento em serviço terciário. Dentre os pacientes referenciados, 36,4% necessitavam de cirurgia oculoplástica ou para tratar afecções externas do olho e 31,8%, de cirurgia de catarata. Conclusão: A grande maioria dos pacientes que procurou atendimento na unidade móvel necessitava de prescrição de óculos. A unidade móvel oftalmológica possui alto grau de resolutividade para os problemas oculares, com oportunidade de tratar os erros refrativos e referenciar os pacientes que necessitam de atendimento espe­cializado, geralmente relacionado a condições cirúrgicas. Unidades móveis podem ser uma alternativa aos cuidados oftalmológicos básicos, melhorando o acesso, atuando na promoção da saúde ocular e prevenindo a cegueira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Cataract/pathology , Cataract Extraction , Blindness , Brazil/epidemiology , Visual Acuity
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06598, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340345

ABSTRACT

Objective was to evaluate the accuracy of elastography in the differentiation between normal and cataract lenses One hundred forty-five eyes of 98 dogs were divided into groups according to cataract stage. Forty-twoeyes were submitted to phacoemulsification. Biometric parameters, echogenicity and echotexture patterns of the anterior, posterior and vitreous chambers, lens and retina-choroid-sclera complexes were evaluated by ocular ultrasound in modes A and B. Deformability, and color (blue color = indicated less rigid structures, color red = more rigid structures) of the lenses were evaluated by the elastogram. The shear wave velocity (SWV; m/s) was calculated in three regions of the lens, both in the cortex and in the nucleus. The SWV of nucleus was statistically different between the normal lenses and with cataracts, and between the stages of cataract (P<0.001). Healthy lenses and incipient cataracts had a more rigid nucleus. Mature cataracts presented lowest nuclear rigidity (P<0.001). On cortical region the SWV was significantly higher (P<0.01) in intumescent and incipient cataracts. SWV less than 2.67m/s indicates cataract with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 94%. Values lower than 2.23m/s suggest mature cataract, with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76%. SWV greater than 2.66 m/s are associated with normal lenses or incipient cataract, presenting sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 84%. Qualitative method allowed differentiation between healthy and affected lenses and the classification of evolutionary stages. There was a correlation between the degree of stiffness of lens in cortical and nuclear regions (p=00165, r=0.37) and between the balanced saline solution quantitative and surgical time (P<0.01, r=0.73). Degree of stiffness of lens did not correlate with parameters of phacoemulsification. Elastographic proved feasible for evaluating the lens of dogs, characterizing the types of cataracts, and demonstrating increased stiffness of the diseased lenses.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar a precisão da elastografia na diferenciação entre lentes normais e de catarata. Cento e quarenta e cinco olhos de 98 cães foram divididos em grupos de acordo com o estágio de maturação da catarata. Quarenta e dois olhos foram submetidos à facoemulsificação. Parâmetros biométricos, ecogenicidade e padrões de ecotextura das câmaras anterior, posterior e vítrea, lente e complexos retina-coróide-esclera foram avaliados por ultrassonografia ocular nos modos A e B. A deformabilidade e a coloração (cor azul = indicou estruturas menos rígidas, cor vermelha = estruturas mais rígidas) das lentes foram avaliadas pelo elastograma. A velocidade da onda de cisalhamento (SWV; m/s) foi calculada em três regiões da lente, tanto no córtex quanto no núcleo. A SWV do núcleo foi estatisticamente diferente entre as lentes normais e com catarata e entre os estágios da catarata (P<0,001). Lentes saudáveis e cataratas incipientes tinham um núcleo mais rígido. Cataratas maduras apresentaram menor rigidez nuclear (P<0,001). Na região cortical, a SWV foi significativamente maior (P<0,01) nas cataratas intumescentes e incipientes. Uma SWV menor que 2,67m/s indica catarata com sensibilidade de 72% e especificidade de 94%. Valores inferiores a 2,23m/s sugerem catarata madura, com sensibilidade de 71% e especificidade de 76%. Uma SWV superior a 2,66m/s está associada à catarata normal ou incipiente, apresentando sensibilidade de 94% e especificidade de 84%. O método qualitativo permitiu a diferenciação entre lentes normais de olhos saudáveis e afetadas e a classificação dos estágios evolutivos. A elastografia se mostrara uma ferramenta viável para avaliar as lentes de cães, caracterizando os tipos de catarata e demonstrando maior rigidez das lentes doentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Dogs , Cataract/veterinary , Dogs , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/veterinary , Ultrasonics , Phacoemulsification
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0044, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347256

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes idosos antes e após de se submeterem à cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal analítico com abordagem quantitativa. A coleta de dados se deu em duas etapas (antes da cirurgia de catarata e 2 meses após o procedimento), tendo sido aplicados dois questionários, sendo um sociodemográfico e o outro o World Health Organization Quality of Life OLD. Recorreu-se à estatística descritiva e aos testes estatísticos t de Student, análise de variância, de Mann-Whitney e de Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: Participaram da pesquisa 34 idosos, sendo 15 (44,1%) até 69 anos de idade e 19 (55,9%) com mais de 69 anos. Identificou-se decréscimo nos escores do Funcionamento do Sensório nos idosos que não tinham atividade de lazer (p=0,0006), não praticavam atividade física (p=0,0023) e não utilizavam a internet (p=0,0010). No domínio Atividades Passadas, Presentes e Futuras, identificou-se aumento do escore nos idosos que não tinham atividade de lazer (p=0,0258), não praticavam atividade física (p=0,0303), afirmaram ter outros problemas de saúde (p=0,0372) e referiram ter boa saúde (p=0,0298). Já no domínio Participação Social, houve aumento do escore nos idosos que não tinham atividade de lazer (p=0,0068), não praticavam atividade física (p=0,0033) e afirmaram ter saúde regular (p=0,0102). Conclusão: Evidenciaram-se decréscimo no Funcionamento do Sensório e aumento nas Atividades Passadas, Presentes e Futuras e na Participação Social.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate quality of life of elderly patients before and after cataract surgery. Methods: A longitudinal analytical study with quantitative approach. Data collection was performed in two stages (before cataract surgery and 2 months after the procedure), when two questionnaires were used - a sociodemographic and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQLD). Descriptive statistics and Student's t test, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were employed. Results: A total of 34 elderly individuals participated in the research, 15 (44.1%) aged up to 69 years and 19 (55.9%) over 69 years. A decrease in the Sensory Functioning scores was identified in those who had no leisure activity (p=0.0006), did not exercise (p=0.0023) and did not use the internet (p=0.0010). In the domain Past, Present and Future Activities, an increase in the score was observed in the elderly who had no leisure activity (p=0.0258), did not exercise (p=0.0303), reported having other health problems (p=0.0372), and in those who reported having good health status (p=0.0298). In the Social Participation domain, there was an increase in the score of the elderly who had no leisure activity (p=0.0068), did not exercise (p=0.0033), and of those who reported having regular health status (p=0.0102). Conclusion: There was a decrease in Sensory Functioning scores and an increase in the domains Past, Present and Future Activities, as well as Social Participation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cataract/psychology , Cataract Extraction/psychology , Postoperative Period , Activities of Daily Living , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies , Sickness Impact Profile , Personal Autonomy , Preoperative Period , Social Participation , Interpersonal Relations
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0037, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The term dysfunctional lens syndrome has gained acceptance in the field and encompasses natural changes due to aging of crystalline lens. The evolution of diagnostic devices has been a key factor in better staging, understanding and characterizing of these degenerative changes. Even with these technological advances and the use of subjective classifications, such as the classic Lens Opacities Classification System, an objective staging of early dysfunctional lens syndrome has yet to be established. Ocular wavefront aberrometry and objective scatter index, associated with Scheimpflug backscatter densitometry, have proven instrumental in detecting early dysfunctional lens syndrome. Staging of early dysfunctional lens syndrome has been proposed in the literature, but no classification has been recognized worldwide. The purpose of this literature review is to assess the current state of dysfunctional lens syndrome from a technological perspective and propose a new staging system to assist surgeons in making surgical decisions.


RESUMO O termo "síndrome disfuncional do cristalino" tem sido mais aceito na área e engloba mudanças naturais devido ao envelhecimento do cristalino. A evolução dos dispositivos diagnósticos tem sido fator fundamental para melhor estadiamento, compreensão e caracterização dessas alterações. Mesmo com esses avanços tecnológicos e o uso de classificações subjetivas, como o Lens Opacities Classification System , um estadiamento objetivo da síndrome disfuncional do cristalino precoce ainda não foi estabelecido. A aberrometria ocular total e o índice de superfície ocular, associado à densitometria de Scheimpflug, mostraram-se instrumentais na detecção da síndrome disfuncional do cristalino precoce. Embora estadiamentos precoces de síndrome disfuncional do cristalino tenham sido propostos na literatura, nenhum foi reconhecido mundialmente até o momento. O objetivo desta revisão de literatura é avaliar o estado atual da síndrome disfuncional do cristalino a partir de uma perspectiva tecnológica, e propor um novo sistema de estadiamento para auxiliar os cirurgiões na tomada de decisões cirúrgicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Lens, Crystalline , Lens Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Presbyopia , Cataract , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Visual Acuity , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Corneal Wavefront Aberration
18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 141-147, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337663

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) é uma desordem metabólica ocasionada pela disfunção das células beta pancreáticas que interferem na produção de insulina e/ou pela resistência dos órgãos alvos a esse hormônio. Níveis elevados de radicais livres em conjunto com o declínio das defesas antioxidantes presente na DM2 podem ocasionar danos a organelas celulares, promovendo complicações da doença. As glutationas S- transferases (GST) são as principais enzimas antioxidantes que participam da defesa celular contra o estresse oxidativo. Os polimorfismos nos genes que codificam essas enzimas podem acarretar o surgimento de complicações oftalmológicas em diabéticos. Este trabalho avaliou a influência dos polimorfismos nos genes GST no desenvolvimento de doenças como a catarata e o glaucoma em pacientes com DM2 na Grande Vitória (ES). Metodologia: Os polimorfismos dos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 foram investigados através da técnica de PCR multiplex. Para o gene GSTP1 utilizou-se a técnica PCR- RFLP. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste exato de Fisher ou do teste do qui-quadrado com P-valor < 0.05. Resultados: Não foi encontrada relação entre os polimorfismos nos genes GSTM1, GSTT1 e GSTP1 e o surgimento de doenças como glaucoma e catarata em pacientes com DM2. Conclusão: Nossos dados sugerem que os polimorfismos nulos nos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 e o polimorfismo Ile105Val no gene GSTP1 não estão associados com a suscetibilidade individual para o desenvolvimento de complicações oftalmológicas em pacientes com DM2. (AU)


Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by beta cell dysfunction that interferes with insulin production and/or by the resistance of target organs to this hormone. An increase in free radicals together with a decline in antioxidant defenses, present in T2DM, can damage cellular organelles and promote the occurrence of disease complications. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the main antioxidant enzymes involved in cellular defense against oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in genes encoding GSTs can lead to ophthalmic complications in persons with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the influence of GST polymorphisms on the development of diseases such as cataract and glaucoma in patients with T2DM in Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were investigated using a multiplex PCR technique. PCR-RFLP was used for the GSTP1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test or the chi-square test, with P-value <0.05. Results: There was no relationship between GSTM1, GSTT1, or GSTP1 polymorphisms and the occurrence of diseases such as glaucoma and cataract in patients with T2DM. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms and the ile105Val polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene are not associated with individual susceptibility to the development of ophthalmic complications in persons with T2DM. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cataract/etiology , Glaucoma/etiology , Oxidative Stress
19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281080

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirugía de cataratas tiene como objetivo restablecer la función visual comprometida por la opacificación del cristalino; con el implante del Lente Intraocular se pretende obtener la mejor agudeza visual posible sin corrección adicional. Objetivos: Comparar la exactitud de 8 fórmulas de cálculo de Lentes Intraoculares en la predicción de la refracción postoperatoria con un único dispositivo de biometría óptica en pacientes operados de cirugía de catarata con técnica de facoemulsificación. Materiales y métodos: Serie de casos consecutivos retrospectivos. 100 pacientes fueron sometidos a cirugía de catarata no complicada con de Lente Intraoculares por un único cirujano; del 1 mayo del 2017 al 1 de mayo del 2018; donde la cirugía fue realizada por córnea clara facoemulsificación. En el período preoperatorio todos los pacientes fueron medidos con biometría óptica. La refracción manifiesta se obtuvo al mes de realizada la cirugía. Resultados: La fórmula más precisa y con mejor desempeño general fue PANACEA con un DRA de 0,18 D; cuando consideramos ojos cortos y largos la fórmula Barrett Universal 2 obtuvo menor error de predicción. HAIGIS y LADAS obtuvieron el mejor desempeño en ojos con cámaras estrechas y profundas respectivamente. Conclusión: No se encontraron diferencias en el defecto refractivo absoluto entre las fórmulas tradicionales de tercera generación y las de reciente desarrollo. Algunas fórmulas tuvieron mejor desempeño al considerar ciertas características anatómicas particulares. Es importante personalizar la elección de la fórmula para cada caso específico.


Introduction: Cataract surgery aims to reestablish visual function compromised by lens opacification; Intraocular Lens implantation the aim is to achieve the best visual acuity without additional correction. In recent years, new Intraocular Lens calculation formulas have appeared that could be more accurate than traditional formulas. Objectives: To compare the accuracy of 8 intraocular lens calculation formulas in the prediction of postoperative refraction with a single optical biometry device in patients undergoing cataract surgery with phacoemulsification technique. Materials and methods: Consecutive retrospective case series. Between May 1 2017 and May 1 2018; 100 patients undergo uncomplicated cataract surgery with Intraocular Lens implantation using the phacoemulsification technique. One surgeon did the cases. Optical Biometry was performed using the IOL Master 500 device. Manifest refraction was obtained one month after the surgery. Results: PANACEA was the most accurate formula; with an Absolute Refractive Defect of 0,18 D. When Considering only short and long eyes Barrett Universal 2 got the smallest defect. HAIGIS and LADAS performed better in eyes with narrow and deep anterior chamber respectively. Conclusion: No differences in Absolute Refractive Defect were found between traditional third-generation formulas and those of recent development. Some formulas performed better when considering certain particular anatomical features. It is important to customize the choice of the formula for each specific case.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Cornea , Lens, Crystalline , Biometry , Lenses, Intraocular
20.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e50394, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339646

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o conhecimento e experiências de idosos sobre a cirurgia de catarata e os cuidados pré e pós-operatórios. Método: Estudo qualitativo-descritivo feito com 24 idosos em hospital privado no Rio de Janeiro e em domicílio. Realizaram-se entrevistas individuais, seguidas de discussão com cada participante, entre setembro e dezembro de 2017. Aplicou-se análise de conteúdo temática na organização dos dados. Resultados: Categorias de análise: concepções sobre a doença e a cirurgia, fontes de acesso à informação, a cultura do silêncio no contexto do cuidado em saúde, e expectativas dos idosos sobre a cirurgia e seus resultados. Os idosos apresentaram lacunas sobre o que sabem sobre a cirurgia e os cuidados pré e pós-operatórios; trouxeram situações que reiteram, por vezes, a cultura do silêncio na relação com os profissionais de saúde e fizeram proposições sobre o que consideravam importante na educação em saúde sobre o tema. Conclusões: A partir da reunião com os idosos, foi possível evidenciar não apenas seus conhecimentos sobre a patologia enfrentada e o procedimento cirúrgico de catarata, como também avaliar, de forma integral, o processo e as mudanças necessárias no âmbito da promoção da saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el conocimiento y las experiencias de personas mayores sobre la cirugía de cataratas y los cuidados prey postoperatorios. Método: estudio cualitativo-descriptivo llevado a cabo con 24 ancianos en hospital privado en Rio de Janeiro-Brasil y en domicilio. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales, seguidas de discusión con cada participante, entre septiembre y diciembre de 2017. Se aplicó el análisis de contenido temático en la organización de los datos. Resultados: categorías de análisis: concepciones sobre la enfermedad y la cirugía, fuentes de acceso a la información, la cultura del silencio en el contexto del cuidado en salud, y expectativas de las personas mayores sobre la cirugía y sus resultados. Los ancianos presentaron lagunas sobre lo que saben respecto a la cirugía y los cuidados pre y post operatorios; trajeron situaciones que reiteran, aveces, la cultura del silencio en la relación con los profesionales de salude hicieron proposiciones sobre qué consideraban importante en la educación en salud sobre el tema. Conclusiones: a partir de la reunión con los ancianos, fue posible evidenciar no solo sus conocimientos sobre la patología enfrentada yel procedimiento quirúrgico de cataratas, sino también evaluar, de forma integral, el proceso y los cambios necesarios en el ámbito de la promoción de la salud.


ABSTRACT Aim: To describe the knowledge and experiences of the elderly about cataract surgery and pre- and post-operative care. Method: This qualitative-descriptive study was conducted with 24 elderly people in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro and at their homes. Individual interviews were held, followed by a discussion with each participant, between September and December 2017. Thematic content analysis was applied in the organization of the data. Results: Categories of Analysis: concepts of the disease and surgery, sources of access to information, the culture of silence in the context of health care, and expectations of the elderly about surgery and its results. The elderly had gaps in their knowledge about the surgery and pre- and post-operative care; spoke about situations that sometimes reiterated the culture of silence in their relationships with health professionals and made proposals about aspect of the topic that they considered important in health education. Conclusions: Based on meetings with the elderly, it was possible to show not only their knowledge about the pathology they faced and surgical procedure [for the treatment of cataracts], but also to fully assess the process and the changes required in the scope of health promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , General Surgery , Cataract , Aged , Nursing , Powders , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Therapeutics , Unified Health System , Family , Cataract Extraction , Residence Characteristics , Health Education , Disease , Hospitals, Private , Health Personnel , Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Empathy , Nurses
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