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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e301, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280180

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that require adequate preoperative evaluation in order to prevent and lessen the serious complications of catecholamine hypersecretion. Preoperative management contributes to reducing morbidity and mortality rates in patients who have not been diagnosed with this condition and undergo any surgery. However, current mortality seems to be lower, a fact attributed to preoperative management with alpha blockers.


Resumen Los feocromocitomas son neoplasias neuroendocrinas poco frecuentes que requieren una evaluación preoperatoria adecuada, con el fin de prevenir y disminuir las complicaciones graves de la hipersecreción de catecolaminas. El manejo preoperatorio contribuye a disminuir las tasas de morbimortalidad en los pacientes que no han sido diagnosticados con esta entidad y son sometidos a cualquier cirugía. Sin embargo, la mortalidad actual parece ser más baja, hecho atribuido a un manejo preoperatorio con α-bloqueadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Surgical Clearance , Neoplasms , Postoperative Care , Catecholamines , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Morbidity , Mortality
2.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e400, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144318

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice of pheochromocytoma. During the first surgical phase (pneumoperitoneum insufflation, tumor and veins handling), there is a risk of hypertensive crisis due to catecholamine release. After tumor excision, patients can suffer relative vasodilation and the residual effect of antihypertensive drugs, which results in arterial hypotension. For that reason, antihypertensive drugs used in the first phase should have a rapid onset of action, short half-life and no residual effect. Methods We report a series of three cases of patients with pheochromocytoma who were treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy. They all received clevidipine infusion from the beginning of the surgery, before they had presented hypertension, to treat and try to minimize hypertensive peaks. Results In all patients, hypertensive peaks were controlled in a few minutes. After tumor resection, clevidipine infusion was stopped in all cases, and any patient required infusion of vasopressors. Discussion Clevidipine could be a first choice antihypertensive drug in pheochromocytoma surgery. Starting the infusion of clevidipine before the hypertensive peaks could help to make them less pronounced.


Resumen Introducción La adrenalectomía laparoscópica es el tratamiento de elección del feocromocitoma. Durante la primera fase quirúrgica (insuflación de neumoperitoneo, manipulación del tumor y de las venas implicadas), existe el riesgo de que se desencadenen crisis hipertensivas debido a la liberación de catecolaminas. Después de la extirpación del tumor, los pacientes pueden sufrir una vasodilatación relativa y el efecto residual de los fármacos antihipertensivos usados previamente, lo que resulta en hipotensión arterial. Por esa razón, los fármacos antihipertensivos utilizados en la primera fase quirúrgica deben tener rápido inicio de acción, vida media corta y mínimo efecto residual. Métodos Se describe una serie de casos de tres pacientes con feocromocitoma que fueron tratados con adrenalectomía laparoscópica. Todos recibieron infusión de clevidipino desde el comienzo de la cirugía, antes de presentar hipertensión arterial, para así intentar minimizar y tratar rápidamente los posibles picos hipertensivos. Resultados En todos los pacientes los picos hipertensivos se controlaron en pocos minutos. Después de la resección del tumor, la infusión de clevidipino se detuvo en todos los casos y ningún paciente requirió perfusión de vasopresores. Discusión El clevidipino podría ser un fármaco antihipertensivo de primera elección en la cirugía de feocromocitoma. Iniciarlo antes de que ocurran los picos hipertensivos podría ayudar a que sean más leves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents , Pheochromocytoma , Catecholamines , Adrenalectomy , Hypotension
3.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 395-399, 20201230. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248361

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytomas are tumors of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla that produce, store, metabolize, and secrete catecholamines. Due to increased secretion the patient may present with various symptoms, but elevation of blood pressure is the most common manifestation, and can cause serious complications if not recognized and treated in time. The present report mentions a case of a young male patient who started the picture with severe hypertension, tachycardia and headache, diagnosed with Pheochromocytoma during the investigation of paroxysmal arterial hypertension. It should be noted that early diagnosis, followed by surgical treatment of tumor removal, makes it possible to cure the disease and remission of symptoms.


Os feocromocitomas são tumores das células cromafins da medula adrenal que produzem, armazenam, metabolizam e secretam catecolaminas. Devido à secreção aumentada, o paciente pode apresentar vários sintomas, porém a elevação da pressão arterial é a manifestação mais comum e pode causar sérias complicações se não for reconhecida e tratada a tempo. O presente relato menciona o caso de paciente do sexo masculino, jovem, com início de quadro com hipertensão severa, taquicardia e cefaleia, sendo diagnosticado com feocromocitoma durante a investigação do quadro de hipertensão arterial paroxística. Ressalva-se que o diagnóstico precoce seguido do tratamento cirúrgico de retirada do tumor possibilita a cura da patologia e a remissão dos sintomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pheochromocytoma , Catecholamines , Arterial Pressure
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 767-772, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144277

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La forma clínica de presentación más común del neuroblastoma es el de una masa abdominal, pero puede presentarse con sintomatología menos habitual, como es la crisis adrenérgica por liberación de catecolaminas. OBJETIVO: Describir una forma de presentación inusual de neuroblastoma y el amplio diagnóstico diferencial que existe en un lactante con síntomas adrenérgicos. CASO CLÍNICO: Lactante femenina de 7 semanas de vida, consultó por historia de tres semanas de sudoración e irritabilidad a lo que se asoció fiebre de 24 h de evolución y dificultad respiratoria. Al ingreso presentaba mal esta do general, irritabilidad, sudoración, enrojecimiento facial, taquipnea y palidez cutánea, taquicardia sinusal extrema e hipertensión arterial (HTA), interpretadas como sintomatología adrenérgica. Se completó el estudio con una ecografía abdominal y resonancia magnética que mostraron una gran masa retroperitoneal compatible con neuroblastoma. Las catecolaminas en sangre y en orina mostraron altos niveles de dopamina, adrenalina y noradrenalina, probablemente de origen tumoral. Se inició tratamiento antihipertensivo con fármacos alfa bloqueantes con buen control de la tensión arterial. Se resecó quirúrgicamente el tumor sin incidencias y con una adecuada recuperación posterior. La paciente presentó evolución favorable a tres años de seguimiento. CONCLUSIONES: en un lactante con sintomatología adrenérgica como irritabilidad, enrojecimiento, sudoración asociada a HTA, se debe descartar patología cardiaca, metabólica (hipoglucemia), intoxicaciones y/o patología suprarrenal. Dentro de esta última, el neuroblastoma es la primera posibilidad diagnóstica, por ser uno de los principales tumores en la infancia y aunque esta presentación no es habitual puede producir estos síntomas.


INTRODUCTION: The most common clinical presentation of neuroblastoma is an abdominal mass, but it can present with uncommon symptoms, such as adrenergic storm due to catecholamine release. OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual presentation of neuroblastoma and the wide differential diagnosis that exists in an infant with adrenergic symptoms. CLINICAL CASE: A 7-week old female infant was evaluated due to a 3-week history of sweating and irritability associated with a 24-hour fever and respiratory distress. At admission, she presented poor general condition, irritability, sweating, facial redness, tachypnea and skin paleness, extreme sinus tachycardia, and high blood pressure (HBP), interpreted as adrenergic symptoms. The study was completed with abdominal ultrasound and magnetic reso nance imaging that showed a large retroperitoneal mass compatible with neuroblastoma. Plasma and urinary catecholamines tests showed high levels of dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, probably of tumor origin. We started antihypertensive treatment with alpha-blocker drugs, showing a good blood pressure control. The tumor was surgically resected without incidents and adequate subsequent recovery. The patient presented a favorable evolution after three years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In an infant with adrenergic symptoms such as irritability, redness, sweating associated with HBP, it should be ruled out pathology heart or metabolic (hypoglycemia) pathology, intoxications, and/or adrenal pathology. Within this last one, neuroblastoma is the first diagnostic possibility, since it is one of the main tumors in childhood and, although this presentation is not usual, it can produce these symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sweating , Tachycardia/etiology , Catecholamines/urine , Flushing/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Neuroblastoma/diagnosis , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/complications , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/urine , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Irritable Mood , Biomarkers, Tumor/urine , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypertension/diagnosis , Neuroblastoma/complications , Neuroblastoma/urine
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786457

ABSTRACT

A 36-year-old male patient initially presented with hypertension, tinnitus, bilateral carotid masses, a right jugular foramen, and a periaortic arch mass with an elevated plasma dopamine level but an otherwise normal biochemical profile. On surveillance MRI 4 years after initial presentation, he was found to have a 2.2-cm T2 hyperintense lesion with arterial enhancement adjacent to the gallbladder, which demonstrated avidity on ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATATE PET/CTand retrospectively on ¹⁸F-FDOPA PET/CT but was nonavid on ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT. Biochemical work-up including plasma catecholamines, metanephrines, and chromogranin A levels were found to be within normal limits. This lesion was surgically resected and was confirmed to be a paraganglioma (PGL) originating from the gallbladder wall on histopathology. Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and PGL are rare tumors of the autonomic nervous system. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) pathogenic variants of the succinate dehydrogenase complex are usually involved in parasympathetic, extra-adrenal, multifocal head, and neck PGLs. We report an unusual location of PGL in the gallbladder associated with SDHD mutation which could present as a potential pitfall on ¹⁸F-FDOPA PET/CT as its normal excretion occurs through biliary system and gallbladder. This case highlights the superiority of ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATATE in comparison to ¹⁸F-FDOPA and ¹⁸F-FDG in the detection of SDHD-related parasympathetic PGL.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00004847.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autonomic Nervous System , Biliary Tract , Catecholamines , Chromogranin A , Dopamine , Gallbladder , Head , Humans , Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neck , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Plasma , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Succinate Dehydrogenase , Tinnitus
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761587

ABSTRACT

Ganglioneuroma is a rare benign tumor originating from the neural crest cells. It occurs most commonly in the retroperitoneum and posterior mediastinum and is often found in the neck or pelvis. It may be detected incidentally or detected by pressure effects on the adjacent structures due to its slow growth. However, some functional tumors may secrete catecholamines and present with some clinical symptoms. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. We describe here a case of a retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma which was removed completely by surgery. We review the literature and discuss the clinical features of a ganglioneuroma.


Subject(s)
Catecholamines , Ganglioneuroma , Mediastinum , Neck , Neural Crest , Pelvis
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717164

ABSTRACT

External quality assessment (EQA) trials of conventional newborn screening tests for phenylketonuria, galactosemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, and congenital hypothyroidism, as well as extended newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry, were performed twice in 2016 and 2017. A total of 44 specimens in the form of dried blood spots were distributed in each trial to 16 laboratories. The response rate of these laboratories was 100%. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and cut-offs were evaluated for each analyte in the newborn screening tests. EQA trials for the analyses of methylmalonic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, catecholamines, metanephrines, organic acids, and amino acids were also performed. A well-designed EQA program and continuous education would improve the performance of metabolite testing.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Amino Acids , Catecholamines , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Education , Galactosemias , Homocystinuria , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Methylmalonic Acid , Phenylketonurias , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vanilmandelic Acid
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 527-539, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757975

ABSTRACT

Sympathetic arborizations act as the essential efferent signals in regulating the metabolism of peripheral organs including white adipose tissues (WAT). However, whether these local neural structures would be of plastic nature, and how such plasticity might participate in specific metabolic events of WAT, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we exploit the new volume fluorescence-imaging technique to observe the significant, and also reversible, plasticity of intra-adipose sympathetic arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT in response to cold challenge. We demonstrate that this sympathetic plasticity depends on the cold-elicited signal of nerve growth factor (NGF) and TrkA receptor. Blockage of NGF or TrkA signaling suppresses intra-adipose sympathetic plasticity, and moreover, the cold-induced beiging process of WAT. Furthermore, we show that NGF expression in WAT depends on the catecholamine signal in cold challenge. We therefore reveal the key physiological relevance, together with the regulatory mechanism, of intra-adipose sympathetic plasticity in the WAT metabolism.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Beige , Cell Biology , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Animals , Catecholamines , Metabolism , Cold Temperature , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Metabolism , Neuronal Plasticity , Receptor, trkA , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sympathetic Nervous System , Physiology
10.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(3): e1383, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949243

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The role of autonomic nervous system in the development and maintenance of portal hypertension is not fully elucidated. It is known that the gene expression of norepinephrine in the superior mesenteric artery varies with time, and it may contribute for splanchnic vasodilation and its consequent hemodynamic repercussions. It is still not known exactly how the adrenergic expression behaves at the heart level in the initial stages of this process. Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase), involved in the synthesis of norepinephrine, in the myocardium of rats submitted to partial ligation of the portal vein. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Sham Operated and Portal Hypertension. The partial ligation was performed in the Portal Hypertension group, and after 1/6/24 h and 3/5/14 days the animals were euthanized. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to quantify the expression of the stained enzyme using the ImageJ program. Results: The Portal Hypertension group expressed percentages between 4.6-6% of the marked area, while the Sham Operated group varied between 4-5%. Although there was no statistical significance, the percentage stained in the Portal Hypertension group followed an increasing pattern in the first 6 h and a decreasing pattern after 24 h, which was not observed in the Sham Operated group. Conclusion: The expression of noradrenaline in rat myocardium during the first two weeks after partial ligation of the portal vein, with tyrosine hydroxylase as marker, did not show differences between groups over time.


RESUMO Racional: O papel do sistema nervoso autônomo na hipertensão portal não está completamente elucidado. Sabe-se que, nessa condição, a expressão gênica da norepinefrina na artéria mesentérica superior modifica-se com o tempo, podendo ser importante contribuinte para a vasodilatação esplâncnica e suas repercussões hemodinâmicas. Apesar dos estudos sobre as repercussões cardiovasculares na hipertensão portal, ainda não se sabe como a expressão adrenérgica se comporta a nível cardíaco nas etapas iniciais desse processo. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão imunoistoquímica da enzima tirosina hidroxilase (tirosina 3-mono-oxigenase), relacionada à síntese da norepinefrina, no miocárdio de ratos submetidos à ligadura parcial da veia porta. Métodos: Foram utilizados 24 ratos, distribuídos em dois grupos: Sham Operated e Hipertensão Portal. A ligadura parcial da veia porta foi realizada apenas no grupo Hipertensão Portal e, após 1/6/24 h e 3/5/14 dias, os animais foram eutanasiados. Foi feita a análise imunoistoquímica para quantificar a expressão da enzima corada, utilizando o programa ImageJ. Resultados: No grupo Hipertensão Portal, o miocárdio expressou percentuais entre 4,6-6% de área marcada, enquanto que no grupo Sham Operated variou entre 4-5%, sem significância estatística. Apenas no grupo Hipertensão Portal, a porcentagem corada pela enzima seguiu padrão crescente nas primeiras 6 h e decrescente após 24 h. Conclusão: A expressão da noradrenalina no miocárdio de ratos durante as primeiras duas semanas após a ligadura parcial da veia porta, tendo como marcador a enzima tirosina hidroxilase, não apresentou diferenças entre grupos ao longo do tempo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Norepinephrine/biosynthesis , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/biosynthesis , Catecholamines/physiology , Norepinephrine/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739191

ABSTRACT

Nephrotic syndrome in the first year of life, characterized by renal dysfunction and proteinuria, is associated with a heterogeneous group of disorders. These disorders are often related to genetic mutations, but the syndrome can also be caused by a variety of other diseases. We report an infant with nephrotic syndrome associated with a neuroblastoma. A 6-month-old girl was admitted with a 10% weight loss over 10 days and nephrotic-range proteinuria. She was ill-looking, and her blood pressure was higher than normal for her age. Her cystatin-C glomerular filtration rate was decreased, and levels of plasma renin, aldosterone, and catecholamines were elevated. Renal ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography showed a retroperitoneal prevertebral mass encasing both renal arteries and the left renal vein. The mass was partially resected laparoscopically, and the pathologic diagnosis was neuroblastoma. Findings on a simultaneous renal biopsy were unremarkable. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and several anti-hypertensive drugs, including an alpha blocker. Two months later, the mass had decreased in size and the proteinuria and hypertension were gradually improving. In an infant with abnormal renin-angiotensin system activation, severe hypertension, and nephrotic-range proteinuria, neuroblastoma can be considered in the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aldosterone , Antihypertensive Agents , Biopsy , Blood Pressure , Catecholamines , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension , Infant , Nephrotic Syndrome , Neuroblastoma , Plasma , Proteinuria , Renal Artery , Renal Veins , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , Ultrasonography , Weight Loss
12.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 46(4): 257-262, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-960148

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El estrés se ha asociado con un síndrome de insuficiencia cardiaca aguda, con morbilidad y mortalidad importantes. Metodología: Reporte de caso y revisión no sistemática de la literatura relevante. Presentación del caso: Mujer de 65 arios con antecedente de trastorno de ansiedad generalizada no tratado que, tras la muerte violenta de un hijo, sufría dolor opresivo en el precordio, el cuello y la extremidad superior izquierda que duraba más de 30 min; la sospecha clínica inicial fue síndrome coronario agudo. Revisión de la literatura: La miocardiopatía de tako-tsubo se caracteriza por disfunción ventricular izquierda, reversible en la mayoría de los casos, y alteraciones del movimiento de la pared ventricular sin anormalidades coronarias, asociado a altas concentraciones plasmáticas de catecolaminas, que en la mayoría de los casos coinciden con un estresor agudo de tipo físico o emocional. Conclusiones: La miocardiopatía de tako-tsubo es un diagnóstico diferencial que los médicos que atienden a pacientes con sospecha de síndrome coronario deben considerar, especialmente ante mujeres posmenopáusicas con antecedentes de comorbilidades psiquiátricas como el trastorno de ansiedad generalizada.


Abstract Introduction: Stress has been associated with an acute heart failure syndrome of important morbidity and mortality. Methods: Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. Case presentation: A 65-year-old woman with a history of an untreated generalized anxiety disorder, whom after the violent death of her son presented with oppressive chest pain irradiated to neck and left superior extremity, lasting for more than 30 minutes, initial clinical suspect suggests acute coronary syndrome. Literature review: Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by a reversible left ventricular dysfunction and wall movement abnormalities, without any compromise of the coronary arteries, associated to high plasma levels of catecholamines which in most cases correlates with an acute stress of emotional or physical type. Conclusions: Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy has to be considered by physicians among the differential diagnosis when facing patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome, especially in postmenopausal women with a history of psychiatric comorbidities such as a generalized anxiety disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Anxiety Disorders , Chest Pain , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Heart Failure , Catecholamines , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Coronary Vessels , Acute Coronary Syndrome
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(1): 20-23, ene. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869719

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (MTT) is an acute ventricular dysfunction and reversible in absence of coronary disease. It is a rare presentation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (FPGL). It was described for the first time in 1990 by Sato et al, the physiopathology is not clear yet. It is associated with high levels of catecholamines, vasospasm in the micro vascularization, rupture of atheromatous plaque and myiocarditis. The clinical presentation is similar to an acute myocardial infarction because of that the FPGL must be considered in patients without obstructive coronary lesions. We present a case of a 50 years old women with history of Arterial Hypertension, active smoking and Neurofibromatosis, who is admitted to emergency room with an acute myocardial pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Pheochromocytoma/complications , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/complications , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Catecholamines/analysis , Pheochromocytoma/surgery , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/surgery
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788365

ABSTRACT

Many bipolar disorder patients exhibit mixed affective states, which portend a generally more severe illness course and treatment resistance. In the previous renditions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual mixed states were narrowly defined in the context of bipolar I disorder, but with the advent of DSM-5 the term “mixed episode” was dropped and replaced by “mixed features” specifier which could be broadly applied to manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes in both the bipolar spectrum and major depressive disorders. This paradigm shift reflected their significance in the prognosis and overall management of mood disorders, so that the clinicians should thoroughly familiarize themselves with the contemporary notions surrounding these conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to bring to light the current conceptualizations regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of mixed states. To achieve this goal, in June 2016 an extensive literature search was undertaken using the PubMed database. Some exploratory terms utilized included “mixed states”, “mixed episodes”, “switching”, “rapid cycling” cross referenced with “bipolar disorder”. Focusing on the most relevant and up to date studies, it was revealed that mixed states result from genetic susceptibility in the circadian and dopamine neurotransmission apparatuses and disturbance in the intricate catecholamine-acetylcholine neurotransmission balance which leads to mood fluctuations. The management of mixed states is challenging with atypical antipsychotics, newer anticonvulsants and electroconvulsive therapy emerging as the foremost treatment options. In conclusion, while progress has been made in the neurobiological understanding of mixed states, the currently available therapeutic modalities have only shown limited effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Anticonvulsants , Antipsychotic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , Catecholamines , Depressive Disorder, Major , Dopamine , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Mood Disorders , Prognosis , Synaptic Transmission
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787066

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10–15% of pheochromocytomas are malignant. There are insufficient histologic criteria for the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Thus, the term malignant pheochromocytoma is restricted to tumors with local invasion or distant metastases. We experienced a case of malignant pheochromocytoma recurred with spinal metastasis 4 years after the surgery for huge benign pheochromocytoma. A 68-year-old female was admitted for trunk and back pain. The patient had a history of surgery 4 years ago for a 10.0×9.5×7.5 cm sized benign pheochromocytoma at the left adrenal gland. A thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in the 7th thoracic vertebral body and a 24-hour urinary norepinephrine increased, suggesting metastatic recurrence of malignant pheochromocytoma. After metastasectomy in the 7th thoracic vertebral body, urine catecholamine was normalized and pain also disappeared. However, a metastatic lesion was found in the paraaortic area on a follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan and an additional metastasectomy was performed. The pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic pheochromocytoma in the paraaortic lymph nodes. She is supposed to be treated with adjuvant iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy. In our experience, a close follow-up should be considered in patients who had a huge benign pheochromocytoma due to the possibility of malignant metastases.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Adrenal Glands , Aged , Back Pain , Catecholamines , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Iodine , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metastasectomy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Norepinephrine , Pathology , Pheochromocytoma , Recurrence , Spine
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765876

ABSTRACT

Neurocritically ill patients are at an increased risk of other organ dysfunctions, especially lung injury. Major pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and neurogenic pulmonary edema, are frequently caused by brain injury, and are associated with poor outcome. Brain and lung have strong interactions via complex pathways from the brain to the lung, and vice versa. Excessive release of catecholamines and systemic inflammatory responses play an integral role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction after brain injuries. Mechanical ventilation is commonly used to manage pulmonary dysfunctions associated with brain injury, and lung protective ventilation strategies reduce injuries to the lung and brain. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of lung injuries in patients with neurocritical illness, and the various strategies of mechanical ventilation used to reduce lung injury.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Brain , Catecholamines , Epidemiology , Humans , Lung Injury , Lung , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Pulmonary Edema , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventilation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145717

ABSTRACT

Paraganglioma is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor of cells that originate in the autonomic nervous system. Some paragangliomas have the ability to secrete catecholamines, similar to secretions in pheochromocytoma. For this reason, paragangliomas may cause malignant hypertension in patient, upon being administered anesthesia, or during surgery, this may lead to a life-threatening condition, despite the tumor having been diagnosed before conducting the procedure. Therefore, it is important to take adequate actions for reducing the occurrence of morbidity and mortality during surgery. Here, we describe a successful anesthetic management in a patient diagnosed with retroperitoneal paraganglioma invading the iliac bone.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Autonomic Nervous System , Catecholamines , Humans , Hypertension, Malignant , Mortality , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174343

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10–15% of pheochromocytomas are malignant. There are insufficient histologic criteria for the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Thus, the term malignant pheochromocytoma is restricted to tumors with local invasion or distant metastases. We experienced a case of malignant pheochromocytoma recurred with spinal metastasis 4 years after the surgery for huge benign pheochromocytoma. A 68-year-old female was admitted for trunk and back pain. The patient had a history of surgery 4 years ago for a 10.0×9.5×7.5 cm sized benign pheochromocytoma at the left adrenal gland. A thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in the 7th thoracic vertebral body and a 24-hour urinary norepinephrine increased, suggesting metastatic recurrence of malignant pheochromocytoma. After metastasectomy in the 7th thoracic vertebral body, urine catecholamine was normalized and pain also disappeared. However, a metastatic lesion was found in the paraaortic area on a follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan and an additional metastasectomy was performed. The pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic pheochromocytoma in the paraaortic lymph nodes. She is supposed to be treated with adjuvant iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy. In our experience, a close follow-up should be considered in patients who had a huge benign pheochromocytoma due to the possibility of malignant metastases.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Adrenal Glands , Aged , Back Pain , Catecholamines , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Iodine , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metastasectomy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Norepinephrine , Pathology , Pheochromocytoma , Recurrence , Spine
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 286-290, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189031

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytomas are neoplasms of the adrenal gland that are derived from chromaffin cells. One of the most important features of this tumor is that it can synthesize and release catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. Due to this, arterial hypertension is one of the most common manifestations of the tumor. Although arterial hypertension is a substantial risk factor for aortic dissection, aortic dissection is actually a rare manifestation of pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a patient with pheochromocytoma who presented with acute type B aortic dissection.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Catecholamines , Chromaffin Cells , Epinephrine , Humans , Hypertension , Norepinephrine , Pheochromocytoma , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143322

ABSTRACT

Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC)-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Adrenal Medulla , Aldosterone , Alkalosis , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blood Pressure , Catecholamines , Epithelial Sodium Channels , Negotiating , Nephrons , Rodentia
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