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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 326-336, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989451

ABSTRACT

Abstract The catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to different acute concentrations (5-10 mg/l) of diazinon and the Lc50 value was recorded as high as 7.3 mg/l for 96 hours. The fishes exposed to three sub-lethal levels of diazinon (0.73, 1.095 and 1.46 mg/l) for 30 days showed that the pesticide induces changes in different blood parameters. Number of red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin level and haematocrit values were elevated whereas white blood cells (WBC) count was reduced. Various blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobine (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobine concentration (MCHC) vary insignificantly in the fish treated with diazinon. Glucose level and activity level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was increased in Clarias gariepinus exposed to diazinon. Protein level in plasma of fish treated with pesticide was changed but the change was insignificant. Histological changes in the liver, gills and kidney of fishes exposed to diazinon were apparent when compared to control. Hepatocytes necrosis and bleeding were more distinct in the fishes exposed to pesticide. Glomerulus hypertrophy and bleeding in kidneys; and fusion and degeneration of secondary lamellae and epithelial hyperplasia in gills were also observed in the exposed fish.


Resumo O peixe-gato, Clarias gariepinus, foi exposto a diferentes concentrações agudas (5-10 mg / l) de diazinon e o valor de Lc50 foi registrado tão alto quanto 7,3 mg / l por 96 horas. Os peixes expostos a três níveis sub-letais de diazinon (0,73, 1,095 e 1,46 mg / l) por 30 dias mostraram que o pesticida induz mudanças nos diferentes parâmetros sanguíneos. O número de glóbulos vermelhos, o nível de hemoglobina e os valores do hematócrito foram elevados, enquanto a contagem de leucócitos foi reduzida. Vários índices sanguíneos, como volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM) variam insignificantemente nos peixes tratados com diazinon. Nível de glicose e nível de atividade de AST e ALT foi aumentado em Clarias gariepinus expostos a diazinon. O nível de proteína no plasma de peixes tratados com pesticidas foi alterado, mas a mudança foi insignificante. Alterações histológicas no fígado, brânquias e rins de peixes expostos ao diazinon foram aparentes quando comparados ao controle. A necrose e o sangramento de hepatócitos foram mais distintos nos peixes expostos ao agrotóxico. Hipertrofia do glomérulo e sangramento nos rins; e fusão e degeneração de lamelas secundárias e hiperplasia epitelial em brânquias também foram observadas nos peixes expostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/metabolism , Catfishes/blood , Diazinon/toxicity , Gills/drug effects , Gills/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(4): e190050, 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056795

ABSTRACT

Lophiosilurus alexandri is a carnivorous freshwater fish endemic of São Francisco basin and an endangered species. In this study, we analysed the chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash and lipid), fatty acid profile, and nutritional quality (atherogenic index, thrombogenecity index, ratio between hypocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids and ω6/ω3 = ratio) of L. alexandri in lotic (river), lentic (hydroelectric dams) environments, under natural fed, and in laboratory controlled conditions fed with commercial diets. Cultured and lentic fish had significantly higher lipid levels (1.5 and 1.9- fold, respectively) than lotic fish. Lentic L. alexandri had significantly higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (4×) than cultured or lotic L. alexandri. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were the highest in lentic fish, followed by lotic fish. Lentic fish had greater proportion of fatty acid ω6/ω3 than lotic or cultured fish. The results of this study showed that L. alexandri is a lean fish (1-2% of total lipids) and that the environment has a great influence on the fatty acid profile. These results may be a reference for further studies, primarily as a source of information for conservation L. alexandri through restocking and the development of commercial projects of aquaculture.(AU)


Lophiosilurus alexandri é um peixe de água doce, carnívoro, endêmico da bacia do rio São Francisco e encontra-se vulnerável a extinção. Neste estudo, analisamos a composição química (umidade, cinzas, lipídeos e proteína), o perfil de ácidos graxos e qualidade nutricional (índices de aterogênicidade e trombogenicidade, razão entre ácidos graxos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos e ω6/ω3) de L. alexandri em ambientes lóticos (rio), lênticos (hidrelétricas), sob alimentação natural, e em laboratório, com condições controladas e alimentados com dietas comerciais. Os peixes cultivados e capturados em ambientes lênticos apresentaram níveis lipídicos significativamente mais altos (1,5 e 1,9 vezes, respectivamente) do que os peixes cultivados em ambientes lóticos. Os animais cultivados em ambiente lênticos, apresentaram níveis significativamente mais altos de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) (4×) que os animais cultivados em laboratório e ambiente lóticos. Os níveis de ácido docosaexaenoico (DHA) foram os mais altos em peixes lênticos, seguidos pelos peixes lóticos. Os peixes lênticos apresentaram melhor proporção de ácidos graxos ω6/ω3 que peixes lóticos ou de cativeiro. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que L. alexandri é um peixe magro (1-2% do total de lipídios) e que o ambiente tem uma grande influência no perfil de ácidos graxos. Esses resultados podem ser uma referência para novos estudos, principalmente como fonte de informações para sua conservação por meio do repovoamento e desenvolvimento de projetos para sua criação comercial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Catfishes/metabolism , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Aquaculture
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 306-314, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-888097

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão do concentrado proteico da destilação de etanol obtido de arroz (CPA) na alimentação do jundiá. Trezentos e setenta e cinco peixes foram distribuídos em sistema de recirculação de água com 15 caixas (125L). Foram testadas três dietas (37% PB e 3200kcal/kg de energia digestível), sendo uma controle e duas testando a substituição da proteína da farinha de peixe em 25% (CPA-25%) ou 50% (CPA-50%) pelo CPA. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho, composição corporal e índices somáticos. Os animais submetidos ao tratamento CPA-25% apresentaram resposta de crescimento equivalente aos que receberam o tratamento controle, mas superior aos peixes submetidos ao CPA-50%. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para os índices somáticos avaliados. Os animais submetidos às dietas contendo CPA apresentaram maior teor de gordura corporal. Já a deposição de gordura corporal foi superior para os peixes alimentados com CPA-25%, e a deposição de proteína corporal menor para os alimentados com CPA-50%. Os resultados indicam que o CPA pode substituir em até 25% a proteína da farinha de peixe, sem comprometer o crescimento dos jundiás, tendo esse nível de substituição proporcionado, inclusive, uma redução de 8% no custo da dieta.(AU)


The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of protein concentrate from the distillation of ethanol from rice (CPA) in jundia feed. A total of 375 fish were distributed in water recirculation system with 15 boxes (125L). Three diets (37% PB and 3200kcal / kg digestible energy), one control and two were to test for the replacement of fishmeal protein by 25 (CPA-25%) and 50% (CPA-50%) by CPA. At 30 days, the variables of performance, body composition and somatic indexes were evaluated. The animals submitted to the CPA-25% treatment presented a growth response equivalent to those that received the Control treatment, but superior to the fish submitted to the CPA-50%. There were no significant differences between treatments for the somatic indices evaluated. Animals submitted to diets containing CPA had higher body fat content. Body fat deposition was higher for fish fed with CPA-25% and lower body protein deposition for those fed with CPA-50%. The results indicate that CPA can substitute up to 25% fish meal protein, without compromising the growth of jundias, and this level of substitution provided an 8% reduction in diet cost.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oryza/chemistry , Catfishes/metabolism , Proteins/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis
4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(2): [e170152], jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-948409

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the anesthetic effect of the essential oils (EOs) from the peel of Citrus x aurantium (EOCA) and Citrus x latifolia (EOCL) on silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EOCA and EOCL to determine time of anesthesia induction and recovery. Induction of anesthesia was observed in all fish exposed to 400, 600 or 800 µL L−1 EOCA and 300, 400 or 500 µL L−1 EOCL. Another group of fish were exposed for 8 h to 50, 100, or 200 µL L−1 of either EOs. Overall, fish exposed to ethanol and both EOs presented higher ventilatory frequencies (VF) than the control group throughout the 8 h of exposure. Net ion (Na+, K+ and Cl−) effluxes and ammonia excretion were significantly lower in fish exposed to 50, 100 or 200 µL L−1 of either EOs compared to control fish. Mortality was 37% in fish exposed to 200 µL L−1 of either EOs after 8 h. These findings suggest that EOCA and EOCL are useful anesthetics and sedatives for Rhamdia quelen, but their usefulness as alternatives to reduce stress in fish transportation at the lower concentrations tested (50-100 µL L−1) deserves further study.(AU)


O efeito anestésico dos óleos essenciais (OEs) da casca de Citrus x aurantium (OECA) e Citrus x latifolia (OECL) em jundiá Rhamdia quelen foi investigado. Os peixes foram expostos a diferentes concentrações de OECA e OECL para determinar o tempo de indução e recuperação da anestesia. Todos peixes expostos a 400, 600 ou 800 µL L−1 OECA e 300, 400 ou 500 µL L−1 OECL foram anestesiados. Outro grupo de peixes foi exposto aos OEs durante 8 h a 50, 100 ou 200 µL L−1. Peixes expostos ao etanol e aos OEs apresentaram VF maior que o grupo controle durante as 8 h de exposição. Os efluxos líquidos de Na+, K+, Cl− e a excreção de amônia foram significativamente menores nos peixes expostos a 50, 100 ou 200 µL L−1 dos OEs em comparação com o grupo controle. A mortalidade foi de 37% nos peixes expostos a 200 µL L−1 de ambos os OEs após 8 h. Os resultados sugerem que OECA e OECL são anestésicos e sedativos úteis para o jundiá, mas sua utilidade como alternativa para reduzir o estresse no transporte de peixes nas concentrações mais baixas testadas (50-100 µL L−1) necessita de estudos adicionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Citrus/adverse effects , Catfishes/metabolism
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(2): [e170120], jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-948461

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at analyzing the energetic substrate (ES) in the main storage tissues of Steindachneridion parahybae, throughout the reproductive cycle in captivity. Differently from wild, in captivity, feeding is not interrupted during the reproductive period, the females do not spawn spontaneously, and they are sedentary. Adult females were sampled monthly and based on their histology and gonadosomatic index (GSI), ovaries were classified into: previtellogenic (PRV), vitellogenic (VTG), and regression (REG) stages. Ovaries at the VTG stage showed higher protein and lipids levels than at the PRV stage with a positive correlation between these substrates and the GSI. Muscle was the main source of proteins transferred to the ovaries, according to the negative correlation between these organs. Lipids remained unchanged in the liver, which is an important supplier in vitellogenesis, a pattern that probably occurs due to the continuous feeding. Muscular glycogen levels were higher at the VTG and REG than at the PRV stages. Plasma triglycerides were also higher during REG, while glucose levels were more elevated during the VTG stage. These results suggest that with constant food supply, the pattern of deposition of ES in S. parahybae is different from that described for other wild potamodromous species.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição do substrato energético (SE) nos principais tecidos de armazenamento de Steindachneridion parahybae, durante todo o ciclo reprodutivo em cativeiro. Diferentemente do ambiente natural, em cativeiro, a alimentação desses animais não é interrompida durante o período reprodutivo, as fêmeas não desovam espontaneamente, e são sedentárias. Fêmeas adultas foram amostradas mensalmente e baseada na histologia e no índice gonadossomático (IGS), os ovários foram classificados: estádios pré-vitelogênico (PRV), vitelogênico (VTG) e regressão (REG). Os ovários no estádio VTG apresentaram uma maior concentração de lipídeos e proteínas em relação ao estágio PRV. Esses substratos correlacionaram-se positivamente com o IGS. O músculo foi a principal fonte de proteína transferida aos ovários, como foi confirmado pela análise de correlação negativa entre esses órgãos. Os lipídeos mantiveram-se inalterados no fígado, considerado um importante órgão fornecedor de lipídeos para a vitelogênese, padrão que possivelmente ocorreu devido à contínua alimentação. A concentração do glicogênio muscular foi mais elevada durante os estágios VTG e REG em relação ao PRV. A concentração de triglicerídeos plasmática apresentou maiores valores no estádio REG enquanto a concentração de glicose no plasma foi maior durante os estádios VTG. Esses resultados sugerem que com alimentação constante, as fêmeas de S. parahybae apresentam um distinto padrão de mobilização dos substratos energéticos em relação ao que já foi descrito para outras espécies potamódromas de ambiente natural.(AU)


This study aimed at analyzing the energetic substrate (ES) in the main storage tissues of Steindachneridion parahybae, throughout the reproductive cycle in captivity. Differently from wild, in captivity, feeding is not interrupted during the reproductive period, the females do not spawn spontaneously, and they are sedentary. Adult females were sampled monthly and based on their histology and gonadosomatic index (GSI), ovaries were classified into: previtellogenic (PRV), vitellogenic (VTG), and regression (REG) stages. Ovaries at the VTG stage showed higher protein and lipids levels than at the PRV stage with a positive correlation between these substrates and the GSI. Muscle was the main source of proteins transferred to the ovaries, according to the negative correlation between these organs. Lipids remained unchanged in the liver, which is an important supplier in vitellogenesis, a pattern that probably occurs due to the continuous feeding. Muscular glycogen levels were higher at the VTG and REG than at the PRV stages. Plasma triglycerides were also higher during REG, while glucose levels were more elevated during the VTG stage. These results suggest that with constant food supply, the pattern of deposition of ES in S. parahybae is different from that described for other wild potamodromous species.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/metabolism , Substrates for Biological Treatment/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis , Glycogen
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(2): [e180014], jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-948757

ABSTRACT

Samples of eggs, newly hatched larvae (NHL), and larvae at the end of the lecithotrophic period (eight days after hatching) (LPL) of Lophiosilurus alexandri were collected to determine the amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Crude protein did not change throughout initial development and the concentration of lipids was highest in NHL. The content of the indispensable amino acids (IAA) isoleucine, leucine, and valine decreased in LPL, while in eggs and NHL they remained high and similar in value. The dispensable amino acids (DAA), such as aspartic acid, tyrosine, and glycine, increased in LPL, while alanine decreased. The percentage of neutral lipids increased in LPL. The saturated fatty acid content decreased during ontogeny, while monounsaturated fatty acids decreased only in LPL. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content was highest in LP. Polar fatty acids were found in higher percentages in eggs and NHL, but lower in LPL. Saturated fatty acid content decreased during ontogenetic development, while that of monounsaturated fatty acids decreased only in LPL. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content was highest in LPL. Protein content was maintained during ontogenetic development, while amino acid classes experienced changes. Lophiosilurus alexandri preferentially uses saturated and monosaturated fatty acids as an energy source during its early development.(AU)


Amostras de ovos, larvas recém-eclodidas (NHL) e larvas no final do período lecitotrófico (oito dias após a incubação) (LPL) de Lophiosilurus alexandri foram coletadas para determinar os perfis de aminoácidos e ácidos graxos. A proteína bruta não alterou durante o desenvolvimento inicial e a concentração de lipídios foi maior na NHL. O conteúdo dos aminoácidos indispensáveis (IAA) isoleucina, leucina e valina diminuíram em LPL, enquanto nos ovos e NHL eles permaneceram com valores elevados e semelhantes entre si. Os aminoácidos dispensáveis (DAA), como ácido aspártico, tirosina e glicina, aumentaram em LPL, enquanto a alanina diminuiu. A porcentagem de lipídios neutros aumentou em LPL. O teor de ácidos graxos saturados diminuiu durante a ontogenia, enquanto os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados diminuíram apenas em LPL. O teor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados foi maior em LPL. Os ácidos graxos polares foram encontrados em porcentagens mais altas em ovos e NHL, e menores em LPL. O teor de ácidos graxos saturados reduziu durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético, enquanto que os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados diminuíram apenas em LPL. O teor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados foi maior em LPL. O conteúdo de proteínas foi mantido durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético, enquanto as classes de aminoácidos sofreram mudanças. Lophiosilurus alexandri usa preferencialmente ácidos graxos saturados e monossaturados como fonte de energia durante o desenvolvimento inicial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/embryology , Catfishes/metabolism , Fatty Acids/classification , Amino Acids
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 505-512, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-833976

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilização do hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha como atrativo na alimentação do Rhamdia quelen. No experimento 1, foram utilizados os seguintes atrativos alimentares: 1. extrato aquoso de músculo de tilápia-do-Nilo (controle positivo); 2. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com baixo grau de hidrólise (GH); 3. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH; 4. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH diluído (10% da concentração) e 5. controle usando somente água destilada. Após jejum de 48 horas, o comportamento foi registrado em vídeo por um período basal de dois minutos e por mais 18 minutos após a inoculação do atrativo. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e 20 repetições. O experimento 2 foi realizado para avaliar a capacidade do hidrolisado proteico de estimular a ingestão de alimento em juvenis de jundiá. Para isso, foram confeccionados pellets de ágar contendo ou não hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha. Os peixes foram avaliados individualmente e tiveram um período de adaptação de sete dias. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste de proporção de Goodman (1964). A inoculação dos hidrolisados com alto e baixo GH aumentou o tempo de movimentação dos barbilhões. O hidrolisado com alto GH diluído proporcionou os mesmos resultados que o hidrolisado com baixo GH , mas as médias não diferiram das obtidas para a água destilada (controle negativo) e do extrato de músculo. O incremento na movimentação de um lado para outro do aquário foi maior (P<0,05) para os hidrolisados com alto e baixo GH. No experimento 2, a proporção de peixes que ingeriu os pellets contendo hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH foi maior (P<0,05) em relação aos que ingeriram os pellets contendo água destilada. O hidrolisado proteico foi eficiente para estimular o comportamento associado à alimentação em juvenis de Rhamdia quelen.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the sardine waste hydrolysate as a feeding stimulant for Rhamdia quelen juveniles. In experiment 1 the following feeding stimulants were evaluated: 1. Aqueous extract of Nile tilapia muscle; 2. sardine waste protein hydrolysate with a low degree of hydrolysis (DH); 3. Sardine waste protein hydrolysate with high GH; 4. sardine waste protein hydrolysate with high GH diluted (10% concentration) and 5. control using only distilled water. The fish were evaluated individually. After 48 hours fasting, the behavior was videotaped for a baseline period of 2 minutes, and for another 18 minutes after attractive inoculation. The design was completely randomized with three treatments and twenty repetitions. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effect of the sardine waste protein hydrolysate on the food intake of silver catfish. For this purpose agar pellets were produced containing or not sardine waste protein hydrolysate. The fish were evaluated individually and had an adjustment period of 7 days. The results were analyzed using the Goodman test (1964). Inoculation of the sardine waste protein hydrolysate with high and low GH increased the barbel movement time. The sardine waste protein hydrolyzate diluted with high GH yielded the same results as the hydrolysate with low GH, but did not differ from the average obtained for distilled water (negative control) and muscle extract. The increase in moving side to side in the aquarium was higher (P<0.05) for sardine waste protein hydrolysate with high and low GH. In experiment 2 the proportion of fish that ingested the pellets containing sardine waste protein hydrolysate was higher (P<0.05) than the proportion of fish that ingested the pellets containing distilled water. The sardine waste protein hydrolysate was efficient to stimulate the feeding associated behavior in Rhamdia quelen juveniles.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed , Catfishes/metabolism , Eating , Fish Proteins/analysis , Protein Hydrolysates/analysis , Fishes , Hydrolysis
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(1): 73-78, jan. 2017. tab., graf.
Article in English | ID: biblio-846421

ABSTRACT

The immunomodulatory effects of dietary ß-glucan were evaluated in silver catfish. ß-glucan was added to the diet (0.01%, and 0.1%) and fed to the fish for 21 days, to evaluate effects on blood and some innate immune parameter, or fed for 42 days, to evaluate growth rate and resistance to challenge with pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. We found that adding ß-glucan to the diet had no effect on fish growth and no effect on blood cells, or serum bacterial agglutination and serum myeloperoxidase activity. However, fish that received ß-glucan in the diet had the natural hemolytic activity of complement significantly higher compared to control fish. Furthermore, fish fed with ß-glucan and challenged with A. hydrophila had fewer bacteria in blood and presented a significantly higher survival rate compared to control fish. Thus, we concluded that ß-glucan might be explored as feed additive aiming to improve silver catfish innate immunity and resistance to specific pathogen.(AU)


O uso da ß-glucana como suplemento alimentar foi avaliado em jundiás. A ß-glucana foi adicionada à ração na proporção de 0.01%, e 0.1% e fornecida aos peixes por 21, para avaliar dados hematológicos e parâmetros do sistema imune natural, ou 42 dias, para avaliar ganho de peso e resistência ao desafio com Aeromonas hydrophila. A adição da ß-glucana na dieta não afetou o ganho de peso e não induziu alterações hematológicas nem alterações nos níveis de aglutininas e mieloperoxidase sanguínea. No entanto, a atividade hemolítica natural do sistema do complemento foi significativamente maior nos peixes alimentados com ß-glucana. Além disso, nos peixes alimentados com ß-glucana e desafiados com A. hydrophila, o número de bactérias isoladas do sangue foi significativamente menor, e a sobrevivência ao desafio foi significativamente maior do que nos peixes que não receberam ß-glucana. Consequentemente, concluímos que a ß-glucana tem potencial imunomodulador quando adicionada à dieta, nas condições experimentais aqui indicadas, e contribui para aumentar imunidade natural e a resistência dos jundiás ao desafio com patógenos específicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Adjuvants, Immunologic , beta-Glucans/analysis , Catfishes/metabolism , Food Additives/analysis , Immunologic Factors , Aeromonas hydrophila , Fishes/immunology
9.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160083, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-841871

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate if Lippia alba has different chemotypes according to the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) considering collection site, and if the EO may have different effects on blood and plasma parameters in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, during and immediately after anesthesia. The citral (EO-C) and linalool (EO-L) chemotypes were identified, and both presented similar anesthetic effects for silver catfish. Fish were exposed to two concentrations of each EO, which induced slow and fast anesthesia (100 and 300 µL L-1, respectively). Blood ions did not change at any time of anesthesia induction and recovery and, therefore, the electrolyte balance was not altered. Blood gases oscillated through all exposure and recovery times, but there was an increase in pO2 after 10 min recovery in fish anesthetized with EO-C. Glucose increased in fish exposed to both EOs when compared with the control group. Overall, exposure to both EOs (except 100 µL L-1 EO-L at most times) reduced plasma cortisol levels compared to the control and/or ethanol groups. However, as plasma creatinine levels in fish anesthetized with EO-C were higher than control fish, the use of EO-L is preferable.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se Lippia alba apresenta diferentes quimiotipos de acordo com a composição química do óleo essencial (OE), considerando local de coleta e se o OE causa diferentes efeitos nos parâmetros sanguíneos e plasmáticos em jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, durante e imediatamente após a anestesia. Os quimiotipos citral (OE-C) e linalol (OE-L) foram identificados e ambos apresentaram efeito anestésico semelhante para jundiá. Os peixes foram expostos a duas concentrações de cada OE, que induziram anestesia lenta e rápida (100 e 300 mL L-1, respectivamente). Íons sanguíneos não se alteraram em nenhum tempo e consequentemente, o equilíbrio eletrolítico não foi alterado. Os gases sanguíneos oscilaram durante todo tempo de exposição e recuperação, mas houve aumento na pO2 após 10 min de recuperação em peixes anestesiados com OE-C. Níveis sanguíneos de glicose aumentaram nos peixes expostos a ambos OEs quando comparados com o grupo controle. De um modo geral, a exposição a ambos OEs (exceto 100 µL L-1 OE-L na maioria dos tempos) reduziu o cortisol plasmático comparado aos grupos controle e etanol. No entanto, como os níveis de creatinina plasmática em peixes anestesiados com OE-C foram maiores que nos peixes controle, é preferível o uso do OE-L.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/blood , Catfishes/metabolism , Catfishes/physiology , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Hydrocortisone
10.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(2): e160027, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-841899

ABSTRACT

The effects of the timing of first feeding on the point-of-no-return (PNR) and growth of laboratory reared silver catfish Rhamdia voulezi larvae were studied. The experiment began immediately after the complete absorption of the yolk sac, 3 days after hatching (DAH). The food was provided for the first time on 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th DAH. Zooplankton and newly-hatched Artemia spp. were used to feed the larvae. To evaluate the effect of food deprivation on growth, the standard length and weight of 594 larvae were assessed. Larval growth was significantly affected by the time of first exogenous feeding. The larvae fed from 3rd to 5th DAH showed a significantly higher development than those fed from 6th DAH. The larvae reached the PNR on 6th DAH. Survival and larval growth strongly depended on the timing of initial feeding. In order to avoid potential mortality by starvation and obtain good growth, the silver catfish larvae R. voulezi must establish successful initial feeding within 5 days after hatching.(AU)


Os efeitos do tempo da alimentação inicial sobre o ponto de não retorno (PNR) e o crescimento de larvas de jundiá Rhamdia voulezi foram estudados em condições laboratoriais. O experimento foi iniciado imediatamente após a completa absorção do saco vitelínico, 3 dias após a eclosão (DAE). O alimento foi fornecido pela primeira vez no 3o, 4o, 5o, 6o, 7o, 8o e 9o DAE. Zooplâncton e Artemia spp. recém-eclodida foram usados para a alimentação das larvas. Para avaliar os efeitos da privação alimentar sobre o crescimento, o comprimento padrão e peso de 594 larvas foram analisados. O crescimento larval foi significativamente afetado pelo tempo da primeira alimentação exógena. As larvas que receberam alimento do 3 o ao 5 o DAE apresentaram desenvolvimento significativamente maior que aquelas alimentadas mais tardiamente, a partir do 6 o DAE. As larvas alcançaram o PNR no 6 o DAE. A sobrevivência e o crescimento das larvas dependem do momento da alimentação inicial. Para evitar a mortalidade em massa e obter bom crescimento, as larvas de R. voulezi precisam estabelecer com sucesso a alimentação inicial até o 5 o dia após a eclosão.(AU)


Subject(s)
Catfishes/abnormalities , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis , Larva/growth & development
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6346, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888962

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Thymol/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia/veterinary , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Catfishes/metabolism , Diazepam/pharmacology , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1251-1258, set.-out. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-827880

ABSTRACT

The activities of enzymes from a number of metabolic pathways have been used as a tool to evaluate the best use of nutrients on fish performance. In the present study the catfish Rhamdia quelen was fed with diets containing crude protein-lipid-carbohydrate (%) as follows: treatment (T) T1: 19-19-44; T2: 26-15-39; T3: 33-12-33; and T4: 40-10-24. The fish were held in tanks of re-circulated, filtered water with controlled temperature and aeration in 2000L experimental units. The feeding experiment lasted 30 days. The following enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism were determined: Glucokinase (GK), Phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1), Pyruvate kinase (PK), Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP-1). The activities of 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were also assayed. The influence of nutrient levels on the enzyme activities is reported. The increase of dietary protein plus reduction of carbohydrates and lipids attenuates the glycolytic activity and induces hepatic gluconeogenesis as a strategy to provide metabolic energy from amino acids. The fish performance was affected by the concentrations of protein, lipid and carbohydrates in the diet. The greatest weight gain was obtained in fish fed diet T4 containing 40.14% of crude protein, 9.70% of lipids, and 24.37% of carbohydrate, respectively.(AU)


As atividades de enzimas das vias metabólicas têm sido utilizadas como uma ferramenta para avaliar a melhor utilização dos nutrientes e o desempenho dos peixes. No presente estudo, o jundiá foi alimentado com rações contendo diferentes concentrações de proteína bruta, lipídeos e carboidratos (%), da seguinte forma: tratamento (T) T1: 19-19-44; T2: 26-15-39; T3: 33-12-33; e T4: 40-10-24. Os peixes foram mantidos em tanques de recirculação, com água filtrada, temperatura controlada e aeração em unidades experimentais de 2.000L. O período experimental foi de 30 dias. Foram aferidas as atividades das enzimas glicoquinase (GK), fosfofrutoquinase 1 (PFK-1), piruvato quinase (PK) e frutose-1,6-difosfatase (FBP-1). Também foram aferidas as atividades da 6-fosfogluconato desidrogenase (6PGDH) e glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PDH) da via das pentoses. É relatado que níveis de nutrientes influenciam as atividades enzimáticas das vias metabólicas. No presente estudo, o aumento da proteína da dieta e a redução de hidratos de carbono e lipídeos reduziram a atividade glicolítica e induziram a gliconeogênese hepática como uma estratégia para fornecer energia pelos aminoácidos. O desempenho dos peixes foi afetado pelas concentrações de proteínas, lipídeos e carboidratos na dieta. O maior ganho de peso foi obtido em peixes alimentados com dieta T4 contendo 40,14% de proteína bruta, 9,70% de lipídeos, e 24,37% de carboidratos, respectivamente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/metabolism , Diet/veterinary , Enzymes/analysis , Gluconeogenesis , Glycolysis , Liver/metabolism , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): e4872, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951644

ABSTRACT

(+)-Dehydrofukinone (DHF) is a major component of the essential oil of Nectandra grandiflora (Lauraceae), and exerts a depressant effect on the central nervous system of fish. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying DHF action remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the action of DHF on GABAA receptors using a silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) model. Additionally, we investigated the effect of DHF exposure on stress-induced cortisol modulation. Chemical identification was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and purity was evaluated using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. To an aquarium, we applied between 2.5 and 50 mg/L DHF diluted in ethanol, in combination with 42.7 mg/L diazepam. DHF within the range of 10-20 mg/L acted collaboratively in combination with diazepam, but the sedative action of DHF was reversed by 3 mg/L flumazenil. Additionally, fish exposed for 24 h to 2.5-20 mg/L DHF showed no side effects and there was sustained sedation during the first 12 h of drug exposure with 10-20 mg/L DHF. DHF pretreatment did not increase plasma cortisol levels in fish subjected to a stress protocol. Moreover, the stress-induced cortisol peak was absent following pretreatment with 20 mg/L DHF. DHF proved to be a relatively safe sedative or anesthetic, which interacts with GABAergic and cortisol pathways in fish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Catfishes/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Lauraceae/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/blood , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Flumazenil/pharmacology , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Diazepam/pharmacology , Flame Ionization , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 728-738
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153753

ABSTRACT

Effect of environmental hypertonicity, due to exposure to 300 mM mannitol solution for 7 days, on the induction of ureogenesis and also on amino acid metabolism was studied in the air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus, which is already known to have the capacity to face the problem of osmolarity stress in addition to other environmental stresses in its natural habitats. Exposure to hypertonic mannitol solution led to reduction of ammonia excretion rate by about 2-fold with a concomitant increase of urea-N excretion rate by about 2-fold. This was accompanied by significant increase in the levels of both ammonia and urea in different tissues and also in plasma. Further, the environmental hypertonicity also led to significant accumulation of different non-essential free amino acids (FAAs) and to some extent the essential FAAs, thereby causing a total increase of non-essential FAA pool by 2-3-fold and essential FAA pool by 1.5-2.0-fold in most of the tissues studied including the plasma. The activities of three ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase in liver and kidney tissues, and four key amino acid metabolism-related enzymes such as glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase (reductive amination), alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase were also significantly up-regulated in different tissues of the fish while exposing to hypertonic environment. Thus, more accumulation and excretion of urea-N observed during hypertonic exposure were probably associated with the induction of ureogenesis through the induced OUC, and the increase of amino acid pool was probably mainly associated with the up-regulation of amino acid synthesizing machineries in this catfish in hypertonic environment. These might have helped the walking catfish in defending the osmotic stress and to acclimatize better under hypertonic environment, which is very much uncommon among freshwater teleosts.


Subject(s)
Air , Amino Acids/metabolism , Ammonia/analysis , Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/metabolism , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Environment , Hypertonic Solutions/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Ornithine/metabolism , Osmosis/drug effects , Respiration , Urea/analysis , Urea/metabolism , Walking
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 894-902, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718057

ABSTRACT

O estudo foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com duração de oito semanas, de abril a junho de 2011. O objetivo foi definir o melhor nível de incorporação do resíduo de peixes na alimentação de juvenis de jundiá, em sistema de recirculação d'água, utilizando-se 450 alevinos de jundiás, com peso médio inicial de 7,2±0,27g. Foram testadas cinco diferentes dietas, em três repetições, com níveis diferentes (0; 3,75; 7,5; 15; e 30 por cento) de incorporação de farinha de carcaça de jundiás com vísceras (FCJCV). As dietas continham, aproximadamente, 37 por cento de PB e 3200kcal de EM/kg de dieta. Foram coletados dados de ganho em peso diário, sobrevivência, fator de condição, taxa de crescimento específico, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, taxa de eficiência proteica e deposição de proteína e lipídio corporal. O maior ganho de peso foi para o nível 30 por cento de inclusão de FCJCV, com peso final de 45,47g e ganho em peso diário de 0,68g/dia. A dieta com nível de 30% de inclusão de FCJCV apresentou melhores valores para taxa de crescimento específico (3,34 por cento/dia), conversão alimentar aparente (1,05: 1), biomassa final 1.105,45g, deposição proteica corporal (64,9mg/dia), taxa de eficiência proteica (1,9) e coeficiente de retenção proteica (1,96 por cento). Concluiu-se que a utilização de farinha de resíduos de processamento de jundiá no nível de 30% de inclusão na dieta foi a que apresentou maior eficiência no desenvolvimento de juvenis de jundiá...


The study was carried out at the Fish Farming Laboratory of the Animal Science Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, during 8 weeks, from April to June 2011. The objective of this study was to define the best level of incorporation of waste in food fish of juvenile Jundiá in water recirculation system using 450 fingerlings of jundiá with initial average weight of 7.2±0.27g. We tested 5 different diets in three repetitions with different levels of incorporation of carcasse jundiá with viscera meal (FCJCV) (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, and 30 percent). The diets contained 37 percent CP and 3200kcal/kg of ME. Data were collected from daily weight gain, survival, condition factor, specific growth rate, feed conversion, carcass yield, protein efficiency ratio and deposition of body protein and lipid. The weight gain was greater with the inclusion of 30 percent FCJCV with final weight of 45.47g and daily weight gain of 0.68g/day. The diet with inclusion of 30 percent FCJCV showed better values for specific growth rate (3.34 percent/day), feed conversion ratio (1.05: 1), final biomass (1105.45g), body protein deposition (64.9mg/day), protein efficiency ratio (1.9) and protein retention coefficient (1.96 percent). In conclusion, the use of processing waste meal of jundiá in the level of 30 percent in the diet showed the highest efficiency in the development of juvenile jundiá...


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed , Fish Products , Weight Gain , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/metabolism , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Fish Flour Industry
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 697-704, 06/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718080

ABSTRACT

The acute intoxication of Cypermethrin in Silver Catfish (Rhamdia quelen) was evaluated. Animals weighing 56.67±4.43g and measuring 18.92±1.16cm were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin for the species in hydrological conditions during 96 hours. A total of 52 fish divided into three groups were used and received the following concentrations of Cypermethrin: 0 (n=12); 1.5 (n=20) and 2.5 (n=20)mg/L. The intoxicated animals suffered behavioral changes such as loss of balance, swimming alteration, dyspnea, upright swimming and sudden spiral swimming movements. As soon as the 96-hour period was over, a blood collection for hematological and biochemical analyses was performed. A complete haemogram test, plasmatic protein test, albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were studied. The values of erythrocytes, hematocrits, haemoglobin, total number of leukocytes, thrombocyte, ALT, AST and ALP changed according to the groups. The results have shown that the environmental contamination by Cypermethrin is toxic to the species...


Avaliou-se a intoxicação aguda da cipermetrina em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen). Jundiás que pesavam 56,67±4.43g e mediam 18,92±1,16cm foram expostos a concentrações subletais de cipermetrina para a espécie em 96 horas, via hídrica, utilizando-se 52 peixes, distribuídos em três grupos, segundo a concentração de cipermetrina: 0 (n = 12); 1,5 (n = 20) e 2,5 (n = 20)mg/L. Os animais intoxicados apresentaram alterações comportamentais, como perda de equilíbrio, dispneia, natação na posição vertical e movimentos bruscos de natação em espiral. Após 96 horas de exposição, foi coletado sangue para análises de hemograma completo, proteína plasmática, albumina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e gamaglutamiltransferase. Os valores de eritrócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina, número total de leucócitos, número total de plaquetas, ALT, AST e ALP diferiram entre os grupos. Os resultados demonstraram que a contaminação ambiental por cipermetrina é tóxica para a espécie...


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis/veterinary , Catfishes/metabolism , Pyrethrins/poisoning , Toxicological Symptoms , Insecticides/poisoning
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(12): 1297-1303, Dec. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662563

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen) on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L). Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120). In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L). After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods. Concerning the...


O presente estudo teve o objetivo de determinar a concentração letal e subletal da cipermetrina por via hídrica em 96 horas em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen) jovens, determinar a concentração subletal da cipermetrina e da deltametrina durante o período inicial do desenvolvimento embrionário do Rhamdia quelen e verificar suas respectivas taxas de fertilização, eclosão e sobrevivência. Os piretróides são inseticidas amplamente utilizados atualmente e apresentam alta toxicidade para peixes. Para determinação da concentração letal e subletal foram utilizados 120 jundiás com peso médio de 59,58±4,50g e comprimento médio de 20,33±2,34cm. As concentrações utilizadas foram 0; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 e 20,0mg de cipermetrina por litro de água (mg/L). Os peixes foram expostos ao produto dentro de aquários com capacidade para 30 litros. Em cada aquário foram colocados quatro peixes e cada tratamento teve três repetições, totalizando doze peixes por tratamento. Para determinar a concentração subletal da cipermetrina e deltametrina na fase de desenvolvimento embrionário foi realizada a indução da ovulação em fêmeas de jundiá através de hormônios, com posterior coleta dos ovos. Os ovos foram hidratados e fertilizados em soluções de cipermetrina e deltametrina em diferentes concentrações, sendo estas: 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0 e 10,0mg/L para cipermetrina e 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 0,5 e 1,0mg/L para deltametrina, além do grupo controle (0mg/L). Após a fertilização, os ovos permaneceram em recipientes com os respectivos pesticidas até o momento da eclosão onde foi analisada a taxa de eclosão. Em seguida as larvas, a partir da eclosão dos ovos, foram mantidas nas respectivas concentrações de cipermetrina e deltametrina para analisar a taxa de sobrevivência frente aos inseticidas testados, durante 12 e 24 horas. Em relação as concentrações letais e subletais de jundiás jovens, estes apresentaram-se sensíveis à cipermetrina nas concentrações testadas, ...


Subject(s)
Fertilization , Insecticides/toxicity , Catfishes/metabolism , Survival Rate , Poisoning/veterinary , Immunity, Innate , Toxicological Symptoms
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1289-1301, Sept. 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659588

ABSTRACT

Cross River serves as a major source of drinking water, transportation, agricultural activities and fishing in Cross River State, Nigeria. Since there is no formal control of effluents discharged into the river, it is important to monitor the levels of metals contaminants in it, thus assessing its suitability for domestic and agricultural use. In order to determine this, three sampling stations designated as Ikom (Station I), Obubra Ogada (Station II) and Calabar (Station III) were randomly selected to study. For this, ten samples of the freshwater Silver Catfish (Chryshchythys nigrogitatus) (29.4-39.5cm SL, 310-510g), sediment and water were collected from each sampling Station from June 2009-June 2010. The heavy metals profiles of Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, Cd and Cr, in water, sediments and fish muscle were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). In fish, the heavy metals concentration was found to be Cu>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Copper (0.297±0.022 μg/g), Cadmium (0.011±0.007μg/g), Iron (0.371±0.489μg/g), Lead (0.008±0.008μg/g), were determined for the fish. In water, the order was found to be Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Iron (0.009±0.00μg/g), Copper (0.015±0.01 μg/g), Lead (0.0002±0.00μg/g) Cadmium (0.0006±0.001μg/g), Zinc (0.0036±0.003μg/g), were observed in the surface water, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Copper (0.037±0.03μg/g), Iron (0.053±0.04μg/g), Lead (0.0002±0.00μg/g), Cobalt (0.0002±0.00μg/g), Cadmium (0.0006±0.001μg/g) and Zinc (.009±0.0015μg/g) was observed in the bottom water. In sediments, the concentration order found was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd; the highest mean concentration of 0.057±0.04μg/g, 0.043±0.03μg/g, 0.0006±0.00μg/g, 0.0002±0.00μg/g, 0.0009±0.00μg/g, 0.099±0.00404μg/g in Iron, Copper, Lead, Cobalt, Cadmium and Zinc were observed in the sediment, respectively; Chromium was not detected in the sediment for the whole sampling area. Most of the heavy metals were below the maximum allowable levels set by the WHO, FEPA and USEPA, except Zinc which mean concentration of 0.099±0.00404μg/g was above the recommended limit of 0.0766μg/g of USEPA in the sediment at Ikom. This implies that the waste assimilation capacity of the river is high, a phenomenon that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continuous water exchange. This is an indication that an urban and industrial waste discharged into the Cross River has a significant effect on the ecological balance of the river. Thus fish species from the Cross River harvested are safe for human consumption.


Cross River funciona como una fuente importante de agua potable, transporte, actividades agrícolas y pesqueras en el Estado Cross River, Nigeria. Dado que no existe un control formal de los efluentes vertidos en el río, es importante monitorear los niveles de metales contaminantes en el mismo, por lo tanto la evaluación de su idoneidad para el uso doméstico y agrícola. Para la determinación de lo anterior, tres estaciones de muestreo designadas como Ikom (Estación I), Obubra Ogada (Estación II) y Calabar (Estación III) fueron seleccionadas al azar para el estudio. Se tomaron diez muestras de “Bagre de agua dulce de plata” (Chryshchythys nigrogitatus) de 29.4-39.5cm LE (longitud estándar) y 310-510g de peso, sedimentos y agua fueron recolectadas en cada estación de muestreo de junio 2009 a junio 2010. Los perfiles de metales pesados de Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, Cd y Cr, en agua, sedimentos y músculos de peces fueron analizados por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica (AAS). En los peces, la concentración de metales pesados que se determinó fue Cu>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Co, para los peces se determinó una mayor concentración media de cobre (0.297±0.022g/g), cadmio (0.011±0.007μg/g), hierro (0.371±0.489μg/g) y plomo (0.008±0.008μg/g). En el agua, el orden se determinó como sigue: Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Cd>Co, con una mayor concentración promedio de hierro (0.009±0.00μg/g), cobre (0.015±0.01g/g), plomo (0.0002±0.00μg/g), cadmio (0.0006±0.001μg/g) y zinc (0.0036±0.003μg/g), se observaron en la superficie del agua, respectivamente. La mayor concentración promedio de cobre (0.037±0.03μg/g), hierro (0.053±0.04μg/g), plomo (0.0002±0.00μg/g), cobalto (0.0002±0.00μg/g), cadmio (0.0006±0.001g/g) y zinc (0.009±0.0015μg/g) se observó en el agua del fondo. En los sedimentos, el orden de concentración fue: Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd, la mayor concentración media fue de 0.057±0.04μg/g, 0.043±0.03μg/g, 0.0006±0.00μg/g, 0.0002±0.00μg/g, 0.0009±0.00μg/g y 0.099±0.00404μg/g para hierro, cobre, plomo, cobalto, cadmio y zinc, respectivamente, no se detectó cromo. La mayoría de los metales pesados por debajo de los niveles máximos permisibles establecidos por la OMS, FEPA y USEPA, con excepción de zinc cuya concentración media fue de 0.099±0.00404μg/g estuvo por encima del límite recomendado de 0.0766μg/g de EPA en el sedimento de la Estación I (Ikom). Esto implica que la capacidad de asimilación de residuos del río es alta, un fenómeno que podría atribuirse a la dilución, la sedimentación y el intercambio continuo de agua. Lo cual es una indicación de que efluentes vertidos en el Cross River por zonas urbanas e industriales tienen un efecto significativo en el equilibrio ecológico del río. Así, las especies de peces del Río Cross son seguras para el consumo humano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Geologic Sediments/chemistry , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Rivers/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Catfishes/classification , Nigeria , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Feb; 48(1): 35-41
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135298

ABSTRACT

Crystallins are a diverse group of proteins that constitute nearly 90% of the total soluble proteins of the vertebrate eye lens and these tightly packed crystallins are responsible for transparency of the lens. These proteins have been studied in different model and non-model species for understanding the modifications they undergo with ageing that lead to cataract, a disease of protein aggregation. In the present investigation, we studied the lens crystallin profile of the tropical freshwater catfish Rita rita. Profiles of lens crystallins were analyzed and crystallin proteome maps of Rita rita were generated for the first time. A-crystallins, member of the -crystallin family, which are molecular chaperons and play crucial role in maintaining lens transparency were identified by 1-and 2-D immunoblot analysis with anti-A-crystallin antibody. Two protein bands of 19-20 kDa were identified as A-crystallins on 1-D immunoblots and these bands separated into 10 discrete spots on 2-D immunoblot. However, anti-B-crystallin and antiphospho-B-crystallin antibodies were not able to detect any immunoreactive bands on 1- and 2-D immunoblots, indicating B-crystallin was either absent or present in extremely low concentration in Rita rita lens. Thus, Rita rita -crystallins are more like that of the catfish Clarias batrachus and the mammal kangaroo in its A- and B-crystallin content (contain low amount from 5-9% of aB-crystallin) and unlike the dogfish, zebrafish, human, bovine and mouse -crystallins (contain higher amount of B-crystallin from 25% in mouse and bovine to 85% in dogfish). Results of the present study can be the baseline information for stimulating further investigation on Rita rita lens crystallins for comparative lens proteomics. Comparing and contrasting the -crystallins of the dogfish and Rita rita may provide valuable information on the functional attributes of A- and B-isoforms, as they are at the two extremes in terms of A-and B-crystallin content.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cataract/pathology , Catfishes/metabolism , Cattle , Crystallins/isolation & purification , Crystallins/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/methods , Humans , Macropodidae/metabolism , Mice , Proteome/metabolism , alpha-Crystallin A Chain/isolation & purification , alpha-Crystallin A Chain/metabolism , alpha-Crystallin B Chain/isolation & purification , alpha-Crystallin B Chain/metabolism , alpha-Crystallins/isolation & purification , alpha-Crystallins/metabolism
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