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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20180307, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1100875

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Acompanhar o uso do curativo gel de clorexidina em cateter venoso central de crianças e adultos submetidos ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas para verificar a ocorrência de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter e irritação cutânea na vigência deste curativo. Métodos Estudo observacional e prospectivo, com 25 pacientes com cateter venoso central inserido para realização do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas. Diariamente avaliou-se as características do curativo, da pele, clínicas do paciente e relacionadas a infecção. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a partir do primeiro dia da inserção do CVC até a sua remoção, até o limite de 45 dias a partir da data de inserção do CVC. Resultados A infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter ocorreu em 28% dos pacientes, houve associação entre neutropenia febril e infecção (p<0,01). A irritação cutânea foi identificada em 24% dos pacientes. Não foi identificada associação entre infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter e a irritação cutânea (p=0,51). Houve associação significativa entre irritação cutânea e suspensão do uso do curativo (p=0,03). As trocas não programadas ocorreram em 50% das trocas identificadas e o principal motivo foi a presença de sangue no curativo (57,8%). Conclusão O uso do curativo gel de clorexidina em pacientes submetidos ao TCTH demonstrou ser uma medida eficaz na redução da ocorrência de infecções relacionadas ao cateter, quando comparado aos dados da literatura. Os casos de ICSRC encontrados foram associados, principalmente, à condição de neutropenia, muito comum nesta população. Os casos de irritação cutânea relacionados ao curativo identificados e a presença de sangue como principal motivo de troca não programada salientam a importância do conhecimento relacionado ao uso do curativo por parte dos enfermeiros assistenciais, a fim de criar protocolos que indiquem o uso e manejo do curativo com segurança.


Resumen Objetivo Hacer un seguimiento del uso del vendaje gel de clorhexidina en catéter venoso central (CVC) en niños y adultos sometidos al trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas (TCMH) para verificar los casos de infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionados con el catéter (IFSRC) y la irritación cutánea durante la validez de este vendaje. Métodos Estudio observacional y prospectivo, con 25 pacientes con catéter venoso central insertado para realizar el trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas. Diariamente se evaluaron las características del vendaje y de la piel, las características clínicas del paciente y las relacionadas con la infección. Los pacientes recibieron un seguimiento a partir del primer día de la inserción del CVC hasta su retirada, con un límite de 45 días a partir de la fecha de inserción del CVC. Resultados La infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionada con el catéter se presentó en el 28% de los pacientes, hubo relación entre neutropenia febril e infección (p<0,01). Se identificó irritación cutánea en el 24% de los pacientes. No se identificó relación entre la infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionada con el catéter y la irritación cutánea (p=0,51). Hubo relación significativa entre la irritación cutánea y la suspensión del uso del vendaje (p=0,03). Los cambios no programados sucedieron en el 50% de los cambios registrados, y el motivo principal fue la presencia de sangre en el vendaje (57,8%). Conclusión El uso del vendaje gel de clorhexidina en pacientes sometidos al TCMH demostró ser una medida eficaz para la reducción de casos de infecciones relacionadas con el catéter, en comparación con los datos de la literatura. Los casos de IFSRC encontrados se relacionaron principalmente con la condición de neutropenia, muy común en esta población. Los casos identificados de irritación cutánea relacionados con el vendaje y la presencia de sangre como principal motivo de cambio no programado resaltan la importancia del conocimiento del uso del vendaje por parte de los enfermeros asistenciales, a fin de crear protocolos que indiquen el uso y manejo seguro del vendaje.


Abstract Objective Monitor the use of chlorhexidine gel dressing in the central venous catheter of children and adults submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to check for catheter-related bloodstream infection and skin irritation while using this dressing. Methods This is a prospective observational study with 25 patients with central venous catheters (CVC) inserted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Dressing characteristics, skin characteristics, clinical conditions of patients and infection-related characteristics were evaluated daily. Patients were monitored from the first day of CVC insertion until removal, up to 45 days from the CVC insertion date. Results Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) occurred in 28% of all patients, with an association between febrile neutropenia and infection (p<0.01). Skin irritation was identified in 24% of patients. No association was found between catheter-related bloodstream infection and skin irritation (p=0.51). A significant association was observed between skin irritation and dressing removal (p=0.03). Unscheduled dressing changes corresponded to 50% of all dressing changes identified during the study, and the main reason was presence of blood in the dressing (57.8%). Conclusion Using chlorhexidine gel dressing in patients submitted to HSCT proved to be an effective measure to reduce the occurrence of catheter-related infections, when compared to literature data. The cases of CRBSI found in this study were mainly associated with the condition of neutropenia, which is very common in this population. The cases of dressing-related skin irritation and presence of blood as the main reason for unscheduled change highlight the importance of nurses having proper knowledge about how to use this dressing in order to create protocols for safe dressing use and handling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Bandages, Hydrocolloid , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Central Venous Catheters , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 53-60, feb. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002587

ABSTRACT

Representantes de la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI) y la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva (SATI) se reunieron para trabajar en la elaboración de recomendaciones concretas de diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de las infecciones asociadas a catéteres venosos centrales (IAC). La metodología utilizada fue el análisis de la bibliografía publicada en los últimos 10 años complementada con la opinión de expertos y datos locales. En este documento se pretende ofrecer herramientas básicas de optimización de diagnóstico sobre la base de criterios clínicos y microbiológicos, orientar acerca de los esquemas antibióticos empíricos y dirigidos, la posología y la administración de antibióticos en pacientes críticos, y promover las medidas efectivas para reducir el riesgo de IAC. Asimismo, se ofrece un algoritmo de diagnóstico y tratamiento para uso en la actividad asistencial y consideraciones sobre la dosificación de antibióticos. Este trabajo conjunto de infectólogos e intensivistas pone en evidencia la preocupación por el manejo de las IAC y la importancia de velar por la mejora en las prácticas cotidianas. A través de esta recomendación se establecen pautas locales para optimizar el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y la prevención de las IAC con el objeto de disminuir la morbimortalidad, los días de internación, los costos y la resistencia antimicrobiana.


Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) joined together to issue specific recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of intravascular catheter related infections (CRI). The methodology used was the analysis of the literature published in the last 10 years, complemented with the opinion of experts and local data. This document aims to promote effective measures to reduce the risk of CRI and to offer basic tools for diagnosis optimization based on clinical and microbiological criteria, orientation on empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, posology, and administration of antibiotics in critical patients. It also offers a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for use in the care activity, as well as considerations on the dosage of antibiotics. The joint work of both societies highlights the concern for the management of CRI and the importance of ensuring improvement in daily practices. Through this recommendation, local guidelines are established to optimize the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CRI in order to reduce morbidity and mortality, days of hospitalization, costs, and antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 663-666, oct. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973669

ABSTRACT

La Candida haemulonii forma parte de la especie Candida no albicans. La candidemia por C. haemulonii es sumamente infrecuente, pero mortal, en los recién nacidos. Se informa sobre los dos primeros recién nacidos con candidemia por C. haemulonii en China tratados con fluconazol y se revisan dos artículos informados con anterioridad. Nuestro informe incrementa la sensibilización sobre la candidemia por C. haemulonii en recién nacidos críticos y resalta la importancia de un diagnóstico y un tratamiento tempranos de esta infección mortal.


Candida haemulonii forms part of the non-albicans Candida species. The candidemia caused by C. haemulonii is extremely rare but fatal in neonates. We reported the first two neonates with C. haemulonii candidemia in China which were treated with fluconazole and reviewed two papers previously reported. Our report adds further awareness on C. haemulonii candidemia in critical neonates and points out the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of this fatal infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candida/isolation & purification , China , Treatment Outcome , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Candidemia/etiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 347-351, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream and venous catheter-related corynebacterial infections in paediatric patients with haematological cancer were investigated from January 2003 to December 2014 at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We observed that during cancer treatment, invasive corynebacterial infections occurred independent of certain factors, such as age and gender, underlying diseases and neutropenia. These infections were ssscaused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other non-diphtherial corynebacteria. All cases presented a variable profile of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, except to vancomycin. Targeted antibiotic therapy may contribute to catheters maintenance and support quality of treatment. Non-diphtherial corynebacteria must be recognized as agents associated with venous access infections. Our data highlight the need for the accurate identification of corynebacteria species, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Central Venous Catheters/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Corynebacterium Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 123-132, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959421

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones asociadas a diálisis peritoneal (DP), corresponden a la principal complicación de los pacientes pediátricos en esta terapia de reemplazo renal, disminuyendo la sobrevida de la membrana peritoneal y empeorando el pronóstico del paciente. El reconocimiento precoz y un tratamiento oportuno de éstas son fundamentales para preservar esta modalidad dialítica. Se presenta una revisión actualizada de la literatura científica, con el fin de entregar recomendaciones reproducibles en los distintos centros pediátricos que realizan diálisis peritoneal crónica en niños.


Peritoneal dialysis-related infections are the main complication in pediatric patients undergoing this renal replacement therapy, associating a high rate of morbidity, generating also a decreasing survival of the peritoneal membrane and worsening the patient outcome. We describe the recommended diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to treat dialysis-related in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Surgical Wound Infection/classification , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Anti-Infective Agents/classification
7.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 19-22, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868820

ABSTRACT

Las levaduras del género Rhodotorula son patógenos oportunistas emergentes, especialmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 9 años con sarcoma de Ewing en tratamiento con quimioterapia que cursó con una probable fungemia por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Se identificaron varios factores de riesgo tales como la presencia de un catéter venoso central (CVC) y una neoplasia maligna sólida. El diagnóstico se realizó a través de un hemocultivo de una rama del CVC. Nuestra cepa fue identificada como R. Mucilaginosa por morfofisiología y pruebas bioquimicas. El éxito terapeutico se basó en el retiro del CVC y en el tratamiento con anfotericina B desoxicolato como primera alternativa.


Yeasts from Rhodotorula genus are opportunistic pathogen that emerge especially in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 9-years-old boy, he developed an Ewing’s sarcoma that was treated with chemotherapy an underwent with problable fungemia by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Several risk factors were identified such as presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) and a solid malignant neoplasm. The diagnosis was made by blood culture of a branch of the CVC. Our isolated was identified as R. mucilaginosa by morphofisiology and biochemical test. The therapy did success based on withdrawal of CVC and treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate as the first alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Central Venous Catheters/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Rhodotorula/pathogenicity , Rhodotorula/chemistry , Immunocompromised Host , Risk Factors , Sarcoma, Ewing
8.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 38(2): e58793, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-901590

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de flebite durante o uso de cateter intravenoso periférico (CIP) e pós-infusional e analisar a associação com fatores de risco em pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudo de coorte com 165 pacientes adultos internados em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre que totalizaram 447 acessos no período de dezembro 2014 a fevereiro 2015. A coleta dos dados foi diária, e a análise dos dados ocorreu pela estatística descritiva e analítica. Resultados A incidência de flebite durante o uso do CIP foi de 7,15% e de flebite pós-infusional, 22,9%. A flebite durante o uso do cateter associou-se com a Amoxicilina + Ácido Clavulânico. A flebite pós-infusional apresentou associação do grau de gravidade com a idade e com o uso de Amoxacilina + Ácido Clavulânico, Cloridrato de Tramadol e Anfotericina. Conclusão A incidência de flebite pós-infusional mostrou-se um indicador importante para a análise do cenário da qualidade da assistência em saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la incidencia de flebitis en el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso (CIP) y posinfusional y analizar la asociación con los factores de riesgo en pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudio de cohorte con 165 pacientes adultos ingresados en un hospital universitario de Porto Alegre, que ascendió a 447 accesos de diciembre 2014 a febrero de 2015. La recolección de datos fue diaria y el análisis de datos fue mediante estadística descriptiva y analítica. Resultados La incidencia de flebitis durante el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso fue del 7,15% y de la flebitis posinfusional fue del 22,9%. La flebitis durante el uso del catéter se asoció con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico. La flebitis posinfusional presentó una asociación del grado de gravedad con la edad, y con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico, Clorhidrato de tramadol y Anfotericina. Conclusión La incidencia de flebitis posinfuncional mostró ser un indicador importante para el análisis del escenario de la calidad de atención en salud.


ABSTRACT Objective to determine the incidence of phlebitis during and after the use of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIC), and analyse the association of this complication with risk factors. Methods cohort study with 165 adult patients admitted to a university hospital in Porto Alegre, totalling 447 accesses, from December 2014 to February 2015. Data were collected on a daily basis and analysed by means of descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The incidence of phlebitis during PIC was 7.15% and the incidence of post-infusion phlebitis was 22.9%. Phlebitis during catheter use was associated with the use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The grade of post-infusion phlebitis was associated with age and use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid, Tramadol Hydrochloride, and Amphotericin. Conclusion The incidence of post-infusion phlebitis proved to be an important indicator to analyse the quality of the healthcare setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Phlebitis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Phlebitis/etiology , Phlebitis/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Incidence , Age Factors , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(6): 634-638, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-773269

ABSTRACT

Background: Nosocomial infections are common adverse events associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs of patient care. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are nosocomial infections associated with higher medical costs. Aims: To evaluate CR-BSI associated costs in the Hospital Militar of Santiago, Chile, during year 2013. Methods: Comparative study between cases (CR-BSI) and matched controls using the Pan American Health Organization protocol. Variables were excess in length of stay (LOS), antimicrobial use according to daily defined doses (DDD), and total number of microbial cultures per hospitalization which were compared with non-parametric tests. Results: We included 10 cases and 10 matched controls. Mean LOS among cases was 40 days vs. 20.3 among controls (excess 20.3 days per event; p < 0.05). Antimicrobial consumption was higher among cases (DDD 36 vs. 10.5; p < 0.05) and there was a trend to an increased number of bacterial cultures among cases (9 vs. 5; p = 0.057). The additional cost for the 10 subjects was 38 Chilean million pesos (USD 72,869) with a mean of 7,286 USD per event. Conclusions: During one year, CR-BSI generated an excess in LOS, antimicrobial consumption, and costs (7,286 USD per event of CR-BSI).


Antecedentes: Las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) son eventos adversos frecuentes que determinan aumento de la morbi-mortalidad y de los costos hospitalarios. La infección del torrente sanguíneo asociado a catéter vascular central (ITS/CVC) es una de las localizaciones que causa mayores costos. Objetivo: Cuantificar el costo de las ITS/CVC en el Hospital Militar de Santiago en el año 2013. Material y Método: El estudio se realizó en un hospital de alta complejidad, utilizando la metodología comparativa del Protocolo OPS. Los casos se identificaron desde los registros de vigilancia epidemiológica y los controles desde pacientes hospitalizados durante el mismo período, pareados por servicio, edad y sexo. Los indicadores económicos seleccionados fueron el exceso de días de hospitalización, de consumo de antimicrobianos en dosis diaria definida (DDD) y de cultivos. Las comparaciones se hicieron mediante pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Se evaluaron 10 casos de ITS/CVC con sus respectivos controles. La estadía adicional promedio hospitalaria fue de 20,3 días por paciente (40 vs 20,3 días; p < 0,05), el consumo de antimicrobianos fue superior en los casos (mediana DDD 36 vs 10,5; p < 0,05) y hubo una tendencia a un mayor número de cultivos por paciente (9 vs 5; p: 0,057). El gasto adicional alcanzó los 38 millones de pesos chilenos (USD 72.869) para el grupo total y USD 7.286 por paciente. Conclusiones: Las ITS/CVC representaron para el año 2013 en nuestro hospital un exceso de días de hospitalización, consumo de antimicrobianos y gastos adicionales (USD 7.286 por evento).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Bacteremia/economics , Catheter-Related Infections/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Length of Stay
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 67-80, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712423

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Prevenir las infecciones adquiridas en los hospitales, en especial las causadas por microorganismos resistentes, es una prioridad. Por esta razón, Colombia inició la vigilancia nacional de estos eventos realizando una prueba piloto. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de las infecciones asociadas a dispositivos, resistencia bacteriana y consumo de antibióticos en instituciones con unidades de cuidados intensivos durante el 2011. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional descriptivo en 10 instituciones de salud de Antioquia, Valle del Cauca y Bogotá. Se diseñaron protocolos de vigilancia para cada evento, implementados por profesionales de salud entrenados. Se diseñó una herramienta en línea para la notificación y análisis de tasas de infección, porcentajes de utilización de dispositivos y dosis diarias definidas de antibióticos. Mediante el software Whonet 5.6 se reportaron y analizaron los perfiles y fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana. Resultados. La infección del torrente sanguíneo fue la más frecuente (tasa mayor de 4,8 por 1.000 días-catéter), seguida de la neumonía asociada al respirador e infección urinaria asociada a catéter, con amplia variación entre instituciones. Se observó un mayor consumo de meropenem en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (dosis diarias definidas, 22,5 por 100 camas-día), resistencia elevada a carbapenémicos (>11,6 %) y cefalosporinas de tercera generación (>25,6 %) en enterobacterias en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y en otras áreas de hospitalización. El porcentaje de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue mayor en otras áreas de hospitalización (34,3 %). Conclusiones. Se trata de la primera aproximación integral a la problemática de estos eventos en Colombia. Es necesario implementar la vigilancia nacional que permita orientar acciones gubernamentales e institucionales para la prevención y control de infecciones, contención de la resistencia y promoción del uso prudente de antibióticos acompañados de un proceso de seguimiento y supervisión.


Introduction: Preventing healthcare associated infections, especially for resistant microorganisms, is a priority. In Colombia, the surveillance of such events was started through a national pilot study. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of device-associated infections, bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption patterns in institutions with intensive care units (ICU), 2011. Materials and methods: Descriptive observational study in 10 health institutions from three Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, and Bogotá. Surveillance protocols were designed and implemented by trained health professionals in each hospital. A web tool was designed for data reporting and analysis. Infection rates, device-use percentages and antibiotics defined daily dose (DDD) were calculated. Bacterial resistance phenotypes and profiles were reported and analyzed using Whonet 5.6. Results: The most common event was bloodstream infection (rate > 4.8/1000 catheter-days) followed by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-related urinary tract infection, showing a wide variability among institutions. A high consumption of meropenem in the ICU (DDD 22.5/100 beds-day) was observed, as well as a high carbapenem resistance (> 11.6%) and a high frequency of third generation cephalosporins resistance (> 25.6%) in Enterobacteriaceae in ICUs and hospitalization wards. The percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was higher in hospitalization wards (34.3%). Conclusions: This is the first experience in measuring these events in Colombia. It is necessary to implement a national surveillance system aimed at guiding governmental and institutional actions oriented to infection prevention and control, to resistance management and to the promotion of antibiotics rational use, along with a follow-up and monitoring process.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Population Surveillance , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
13.
Invest. clín ; 54(1): 68-73, mar. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740337

ABSTRACT

Rhizobium radiobacter es una bacteria Gram-negativa, fijadora de nitrógeno que se encuentra principalmente en el suelo. Rara vez causa infecciones en humanos. Ha sido asociada a bacteriemia secundaria a colonización de catéteres intravasculares en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El objetivo de este trabajo es informar un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por R. radiobacter. Se trata de paciente masculino, de 47 años de edad, con diagnóstico de enfermedad renal crónica estadio 5 en tratamiento sustitutivo con hemodiálisis, quien acude a centro asistencial por presentar fiebre de dos semanas de evolución. Es hospitalizado, se toman muestras de sangre periférica para hemocultivo y se inicia antibioticoterapia empírica con cefotaxime más vancomicina. El ecocardiograma transtorácico revelo vegetación fusiforme en válvula tricúspide con regurgitación grado III-IV/IV. Al séptimo día del inicio de la antibioterapia el paciente presenta mejoría clínica y paraclínica. La bacteria identificada por hemocultivo es Rhizobium radiobacter resistente a ceftriaxona y sensible a imipenem, amikacina, ampicilina y ampicilina/sulbactam. Debido a la mejoría clínica se decide continuar tratamiento con vancomicina y se anexa imipenem. A los 14 días de iniciada la antibioterapia el paciente es dado de alta con tratamiento ambulatorio con imipenen hasta cumplir seis semanas de tratamiento. En el ecocardiograma control se evidencio ausencia de la vegetación en la válvula tricúspide. Este caso sugiere que R. radiobacter puede ser una causa de endocarditis en pacientes portadores de catéteres intravasculares.


Rhizobium radiobacter is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is found mainly on the ground. It rarely causes infections in humans. It has been associated with bacteremia, secondary to colonization of intravascular catheters, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this paper was to report the case of an infective endocarditis caused by R. radiobacter, in a 47-year-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease stage 5, on replacement therapy with hemodialysis and who attended the medical center with fever of two weeks duration. The patient was hospitalized and samples of peripheral blood were taken for culture. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started with cefotaxime plus vancomycin. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed fusiform vegetation on the tricuspid valve, with grade III-IV/IV regurgitation. On the seventh day after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient had a clinical and paraclinical improvement. The bacterium identified by blood culture was Rhizobium radiobacter, ceftriaxone-resistant and sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, ampicillin and ampicillin/ sulbactam. Because of the clinical improvement, it was decided to continue treatment with vancomycin and additionally, with imipenem. At 14 days after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged with outpatient treatment with imipenem up to six weeks of treatment. The control echocardiogram showed the absence of vegetation on the tricuspid valve. This case suggests that R. radiobacter can cause endocarditis in patients with intravascular catheters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Therapy, Combination , Equipment Contamination , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/etiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/etiology , Imipenem/administration & dosage , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Subclavian Vein , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123275

ABSTRACT

Candida haemulonii, one of the non-albicans Candida species, is an emerging yeast pathogen that is known to be resistant to amphotericin B and other antifungal agents such as azoles. These anti-fungal agents have often been associated with clinical treatment failure, so no treatment regimen has been clearly established for invasive C. haemulonii infections. We investigated a catheter-related infection of C. haemulonii candidemia in an adult patient in long-term hospital care. In the early stages, the candidemia remained persistent despite treatment with fluconazole. However, after changing the antifungal agent to caspofungin, the candidemia was resolved. Fluconazole and amphotericin B are not reliable empirical antifungal agents for invasive C. haemulonii infections, as shown in previous case reports. An echinocandin such as caspofungin may be an appropriate empirical choice of antifungal agent for an invasive C. haemulonii infection.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Echinocandins/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Phylogeny
16.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 42(4): 274-278, oct.-dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634666

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos nosocomiales y produce una alta morbimortalidad en numerosos hospitales del mundo. Además, la incidencia de bacteriemias por este microorganismo ha aumentado significativamente en las últimas décadas. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar los factores de riesgo que favorecen la aparición de resistencia a la meticilina en aislamientos de S. aureus y los factores que afectan la mortalidad por bacteriemias asociadas a este patógeno, así como evaluar la sensibilidad a la vancomicina de las cepas resistentes a la meticilina. Se estudiaron 39 aislamientos de S. aureus provenientes de hemocultivos de pacientes internados con bacteriemia en la Nueva Clínica Chacabuco de Tandil (Pcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina) en el período 01/2006-12/2008. La mortalidad global fue del 51,3% y estuvo significativamente asociada con la resistencia a la meticilina (OR: 4,20; IC95%: 1,08-16,32; p: 0,05); aunque dicho factor no fue un predictor independiente de mortalidad. La cirugía previa (OR: 17,23; IC95%: 1,80-164,60) y la estancia previa en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (OR: 21,12; IC95%: 2,33-191,30) fueron predictores independientes de la resistencia a la meticilina y la asistencia respiratoria mecánica (OR: 15,99; IC: 3,24-78,86) fue un predictor independiente de la mortalidad. No se detectaron cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a la vancomicina. Todos los aislamientos estudiados fueron sensibles in vitro a la vancomicina, con una CIM50 y una CIM90 de 0,5 μg/ml.


Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide. Besides, the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia has significantly increased over the past decades. The aims of this study were to detect the risk factors for methicillin resistance and mortality and to evaluate vancomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant isolates. Thus, 39 S. aureus isolates from blood cultures of hospitalized patients with bacteremia were studied in Nueva Clínica Chacabuco Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina during 01/2006-12/2008. The overall mortality was 51.3%, which was significantly associated with methicillin resistance (OR: 4.20, IC95%: 1.08-16.32, p: 0.05), even though it was not an independent mortality predictor as it was the mechanical ventilation (OR: 15.99, IC95%: 3.24 - 78.86). Previous surgery (OR: 17.23, IC95%: 1.80-164.60) and hospitalization in intensive care units (OR: 21.12, IC95%: 2.33-191.30) were independent predictors of meticillin-resistance. No isolates were found with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. All the studied isolates were in vitro susceptible to vancomycin with a MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 μg/ml.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/mortality , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Vancomycin Resistance , Argentina/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Population Surveillance , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Risk Factors , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15543

ABSTRACT

Candidaemia associated with intravascular catheter-associated infections is of great concern due to the resulting high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic lock technique (ALT) was previously introduced to treat catheter-associated bacterial infections without removal of catheter. So far, the efficacy of ALT against Candida infections has not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated in vitro activity of ALT against Candida biofilms formed by C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis using five antifungal agents (caspofungin, amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, and voriconazole). The effectiveness of antifungal treatment was assayed by monitoring viable cell counts after exposure to 1 mg/mL solutions of each antibiotic. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole eliminated detectable viability in the biofilms of all Candida species within 7, 10, and 14 days, respectively, while caspofungin and amphotericin B did not completely kill fungi in C. albicans and C. glabrata biofilms within 14 days. For C. tropicalis biofilm, caspofungin lock achieved eradication more rapidly than amphotericin B and three azoles. Our study suggests that azoles may be useful ALT agents in the treatment of catheter-related candidemia.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candida tropicalis/drug effects , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheterization, Central Venous , Drug Administration Routes , Echinocandins/administration & dosage , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Humans , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Triazoles/administration & dosage
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(4): 317-318, Aug. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539772

ABSTRACT

This is the first case reported of central venous catheter-related fungemia due to C. neoformans. A patient with chronic renal failure developed a fungemia during the treatment of a dialysis-associated bacteremia. Cryptococcus neoformans grew in the catheter tip and blood culture. We addressed questions about this catheter-related fungemia.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Fungemia/microbiology , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
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