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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 159-165, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287266

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo analítico que evaluó la epidemiología de las bacteriemias asociadas a catéter central (BAC) en 773 adultos internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires entre diciembre de 2018 y junio de 2020. Durante el pe riodo de estudio, la incidencia fue 8.7 eventos cada 1000 días catéter. El desarrollo de BAC se asoció con mala evolución clínica, que fue puesta en evidencia por una duración de la internación en UCI significativamente mayor que la de los pacientes sin BAC (mediana: 21.5 días vs. 4 días, p < 0.001). La mortalidad también fue mayor, pero sin significancia estadística (24% vs. 20%, OR 1.26 [0.61-2.63]). Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron bacterias Gram positivas (73%) y, entre ellas, Staphylococcus epidermidis fue la más frecuente (40%). De los 47 aislamientos de microorganismos relevados, 8 (17%) fueron gérmenes multirresistentes. El análisis multivariado identificó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter como factor de riesgo para desarrollar BAC (OR 1.10 [1.05 - 1.15], p < 0.001). En dicho análisis, una mayor tasa de BAC no fue influida por el sitio anatómico de inserción del catéter, el servicio donde se realizó el procedimiento (UCI o quirófano/servicio de emergencias), la experiencia previa del médico en el procedimiento, ni el uso de ultrasonido para guiar la cateterización. Con cluimos que las BAC son una complicación frecuente en nuestro servicio con consecuencias clínicas relevantes. Conocer la epidemiología y la problemática de cada servicio permite programar intervenciones dirigidas a corregir problemas concretos de salud pública.


Abstract A retrospective-observational analytical study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in 773 adult patients hospitalized in the inten sive care unit (ICU) of the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1 December 2018 and 30 June 2020. During the study period, the incidence of CRBSI was 8.7 cases per 1000 catheter days. The occurrence of CRBSI was found associated with a poor clinical evolution, as evidenced by a stay in the ICU significantly longer than the stay of patients without CRBSI (median: 21.5 days vs. 4 days, p < 0.001). CRBSI-associated mortality was not statistically higher (24% vs. 20%, OR 1.26 [0.61-2.63]). Gram-positive bacteria were the most frequently identified microorganisms (73%), being Staphylococcus epidermidis the most frequent (40%). Of the 47 isolates of microorganisms surveyed, 8 (17%) were multi-resistant germs. The permanence time of the catheter was identified as a risk factor for developing CRBSI (OR 1.10 [1.05 - 1.15], p < 0.001) in a multivariate analysis. In this analysis, the risk of infection was not influenced by the anatomical site of insertion of the catheter, the ward where the procedure was performed (ICU vs. operating room/external ward), the skill of the medical practitioner, or the use of ultrasound to guide vascular accesses. We conclude that CRBSIs are a frequent complication in our department with relevant clinical consequences. Knowing the epidemiology and the problems of each service allows programming interventions aimed to correct specific public health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Critical Care , Catheters , Intensive Care Units
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878718

ABSTRACT

Objective To verify the relationship between catheter-related urinary tract infection(CAUTI)and stress hyperglycemia during catheter retention in stroke patients. Methods We used nosocomial infection monitoring system to track the status of CAUTI in stroke patients in a hospital.The study cohort was all the patients who received retention catheterization from January 2016 to March 2020.According to the nested case-control design,multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between stress hyperglycemia and CAUTI in stroke patients with indwelling catheter. Results A total of 322 cases of CAUTI and 644 cases of non-CAUTI were enrolled in this study.The length of stay in the case group was(20.68 ± 3.73)d,significantly longer than that[(13.00 ± 4.01)d]in the control group(t=29.473,P <0.001).Compared with non-stress hyperglycemia,stress hyperglycemia posed a higher risk of CAUTI in the stroke patients with indwelling catheter(OR=2.020,95% CI=1.447-2.821,P=0.000)and led to the higher incidence of CAUTI in one thousand days(P<0.001). Conclusion Stress hyperglycemia in the stroke patients with indwelling catheter can significantly increase the risk of CAUTI.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Urinary Catheterization , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 509-514, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144244

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección del tracto urinario asociada al catéter urinario permanente (ITU/CUP) es un problema relevante en los centros de salud por su alta frecuencia. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo de ITU en pacientes adultos con CUP. Material y Método: Estudio caso control efectuado entre los años 2010-2016 en el Hospital Militar de Santiago. Se realizó un análisis estadístico univariado y multivariado por medio del modelo de regresión logística binaria, con variables como edad, duración e indicación del dispositivo, algunas comorbilidades y la instalación del dispositivo luego de 15 días hospitalización. Resultado: Se obtuvo un total de 63 casos y 123 controles. Fueron variables predictoras de ITU/CUP la duración del CUP desde el séptimo día en adelante (OR 2,6 IC 1,4-4,9, p = 0,004) y la instalación del CUP con una estadía de hospitalización previa de 15 días y más (OR 7,8 IC 2,920,9 p = 0,000). No se encontró asociación con la edad mayor de 80 años, comorbilidades como diabetes y vejiga neurogénica e indicación de instalación. Conclusiones: Los resultados permiten focalizar las intervenciones, evaluando la necesidad real de indicación de CUP en pacientes con estadía hospitalaria previa de dos semanas y fomentar el retiro de CUP antes del séptimo día de uso.


Abstract Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a relevant problem in health centers because of its high frequency. Objective: To identify UTI risk factors in adult patients with urinary catheter. Material and Method: Control case study carried out between the years 2010-2016 at the Military Hospital of Santiago, Chile. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed using the binary logistic regression model, variables such as age, duration and indication of the device, some comorbidities and the installation of the device after 15 days of hospitalization. Result: A total of 63 cases and 123 controls were obtained. Predictive variables of CAUTI for the duration of the urinary catheter from the 7th day onwards (OR 2.6 IC 1.4-4.9, p = 0.004) and the installation of the urinary catheter with a previous hospital stay of 15 days and more (OR 7.8 CI 2.9-20.9 p = 0.000). No association was found in age over 80 years, comorbidities such as diabetes and neurogenic bladder and indication. Conclusions: The results permitted to focus the interventions, evaluating the real need for indication of CUP in patients with previous hospital statistics of 2 weeks and encouraging the withdrawal of CUP before the 7th day of use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Risk Factors
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 436-442, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977982

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os fatores de risco para contrair infecções da corrente sanguínea associadas a cateter de acesso central em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica, e investigar a incidência e a etiologia dessas infecções nas unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica com diferentes perfis. Métodos: Este foi um estudo prospectivo de coorte, conduzido em três hospitais. Um deles é um grande hospital público metropolitano, com duas unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica que contabilizam 19 leitos; o segundo é um hospital regional com oito leitos em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica; e o terceiro é um hospital privado com 15 leitos de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Incluíram-se pacientes com idades entre 1 mês e 18 anos, que utilizaram cateter de acesso venoso central por pelo menos 24 horas. Registramos a evolução diária dos pacientes. Colheram-se dados gerais sobre o paciente e sobre o cateter, utilizados como variáveis. Todos os dados foram analisados com utilização do pacote estatístico Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), versão 13.0, para comparação de pacientes com infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter com ou sem fatores de risco. Resultados: Durante o período do estudo admitiram-se às unidades de terapia intensiva 728 pacientes; deles, 170 tiveram cateter de acesso venoso central instalado por, no mínimo, 24 horas. A mediana de idade foi de 32 meses, e 97 (57%) dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A taxa de incidência de infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter foi de 3,9/1.000 cateteres venosos centrais-dias. A incidência variou entre os hospitais, sendo de 1,6 a 6,6. A taxa geral de mortalidade foi de 11,1%, e as taxas de mortalidade com e sem infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter foram, respectivamente, de 12,9% e 10,7%. Na análise multivariada, os fatores de risco para ocorrência de infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter foram maior tempo de uso do cateter venoso central (OR: 1,07; IC95% 1,00 - 1,14; p = 0,019) e o uso de mais de um cateter venoso central de uma vez (OR: 2,59; IC95% 1,17 - 5,73; p = 0,048). Conclusão: Maior duração do uso de cateter venoso central e mais de um cateter venoso central de uma vez foram os principais fatores de risco para infecções da corrente sanguínea associadas a cateter em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the risk factors for acquiring central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) in pediatric intensive care units and to investigate the incidence and etiology of CLABSI in pediatric intensive care units with different profiles. Methods: The study was a prospective cohort study in three hospitals. One of the hospitals is a large metropolitan public hospital with two pediatric intensive care units and a total of nineteen pediatric intensive care unit beds, another is a regional hospital with eight pediatric intensive care unit beds, and the third is a private hospital with fifteen beds. Patients between the ages of 1 month old and 18 years old who used a central venous catheter for over 24 hours were included. We recorded patients' daily progress. General patient and catheter-related data were collected and used as variables. All the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 13.0, to compare patients with CLABSI with or without risk factors. Results: A total of 728 patients were admitted to the pediatric intensive care units, and 170 had a central line in place for at least 24 hours. The median age was 32 months, and 97 (57%) of the patients were males. The CLABSI incidence rate was 3.9/1000 central venous catheter-days. The incidence among hospitals varied from 1.6 to 6.6. The overall mortality rate was 11.1%, and the CLABSI and non-CLABSI mortality rates were 12.9% and 10.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for CLABSI were a longer duration of central venous catheter use (OR: 1.07; 95%CI 1.00 - 1.14; p = 0.019) and the use of more than one central venous catheter at once (OR: 2.59; 95%CI 1.17 - 5.73; p = 0.048). Conclusion: A longer duration of central venous catheter use and the use of more than one central venous catheter at once were the main risk factors for CLABSI in pediatric intensive care units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Time Factors , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/mortality
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(3): 376-384, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977963

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se, em comparação ao início tardio, o início precoce da terapia de substituição renal se associa com menor mortalidade em pacientes com lesão renal aguda. Métodos: Conduzimos uma revisão sistemática e metanálise de ensaios clínicos randomizados e controlados, que compararam terapia de substituição renal com início precoce àquela com início tardio em pacientes com lesão renal aguda, sem sintomas relacionados à insuficiência renal aguda que oferecessem risco à vida, como sobrecarga hídrica ou distúrbios metabólicos. Dois investigadores extraíram os dados a partir de estudos selecionados. Utilizaram-se a ferramenta Cochrane Risk of Bias, para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos, e a abordagem Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), para testar a qualidade geral da evidência. Resultados: Incluíram-se seis estudos clínicos randomizados e controlados (1.292 pacientes). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o início precoce e tardio da terapia de substituição renal, no que se referiu ao desfecho primário (OR 0,82; IC95% 0,48 - 1,42; p = 0,488). Foi maior o risco de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter quando a terapia de substituição renal foi iniciada precocemente (OR 1,77; IC95% 1,01 - 3,11; p = 0,047). A qualidade da evidência gerada por nossa metanálise para o desfecho primário foi considerada baixa, em razão do risco de viés dos estudos incluídos e da heterogeneidade entre eles. Conclusão: O início precoce da terapia de substituição renal não se associou com melhora da sobrevivência. Entretanto, a qualidade da evidência atual é baixa, e os critérios utilizados para início precoce e tardio da terapia de substituição renal foram demasiadamente heterogêneos entre os estudos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether early initiation of renal replacement therapy is associated with lower mortality in patients with acute kidney injury compared to delayed initiation. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing early versus delayed initiation of renal replacement therapy in patients with acute kidney injury without the life-threatening acute kidney injury-related symptoms of fluid overload or metabolic disorders. Two investigators extracted the data from the selected studies. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the quality of the studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to test the overall quality of the evidence. Results: Six randomized controlled trials (1,292 patients) were included. There was no statistically significant difference between early and delayed initiation of renal replacement therapy regarding the primary outcome (OR 0.82; 95%CI, 0.48 - 1.42; p = 0.488), but there was an increased risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection when renal replacement therapy was initiated early (OR 1.77; 95%CI, 1.01 - 3.11; p = 0.047). The quality of evidence generated by our meta-analysis for the primary outcome was considered low due to the risk of bias of the included studies and the heterogeneity among them. Conclusion: Early initiation of renal replacement therapy is not associated with improved survival. However, the quality of the current evidence is low, and the criteria used for -early- and -delayed- initiation of renal replacement therapy are too heterogeneous among studies.


Subject(s)
Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Regression Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Renal Replacement Therapy/mortality
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 347-351, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream and venous catheter-related corynebacterial infections in paediatric patients with haematological cancer were investigated from January 2003 to December 2014 at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We observed that during cancer treatment, invasive corynebacterial infections occurred independent of certain factors, such as age and gender, underlying diseases and neutropenia. These infections were ssscaused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other non-diphtherial corynebacteria. All cases presented a variable profile of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, except to vancomycin. Targeted antibiotic therapy may contribute to catheters maintenance and support quality of treatment. Non-diphtherial corynebacteria must be recognized as agents associated with venous access infections. Our data highlight the need for the accurate identification of corynebacteria species, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Central Venous Catheters/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Corynebacterium Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 323-327, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Neoplasms/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
8.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(3): 1115-1121, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the incidence of infection in short-term central venous catheter for hemodialysis and to identify the associated risk factors. Method: Prospective cohort study conducted in a teaching hospital from September 2015 to April 2016. Patients requiring central venous catheter for hemodialysis were included and data was collected through direct and systematic observation of the catheter insertion procedure by the researchers. Results: The final sample consisted of 69 patients, who used 88 catheters. The incidence of infection was 9.1%, and the risk factors were length of hospital stay and insertion of the catheter in the left femoral vein. Conclusion: The observation of the actions performed during the insertion of the catheter made it possible to identify the risk factors associated with infection, and the research protocol may have contributed to the reduction of infection rates.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Medir la incidencia de infección en catéter venoso central de permanencia corta para hemodiálisis e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados. Método: Cohorte prospectivo, desarrollado en un hospital de enseñanza, durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2015 y abril de 2016. Se incluyeron pacientes con necesidad de catéter venoso central para hemodiálisis, mediante observación directa y sistemática del procedimiento de inserción del catéter por los investigadores. Resultados: La muestra final fue de 69 pacientes, que hicieron uso de 88 catéteres. La incidencia de infección fue del 9,1%, y los factores de riesgo fueron el tiempo de internación y la inserción del catéter en vena femoral izquierda. Conclusión: La observación de las acciones realizadas en la inserción del catéter posibilitó la identificación de los factores de riesgo asociados a infección y el protocolo de investigación utilizado puede haber contribuido con la reducción de los índices de infección.


RESUMO Objetivo: Mensurar a incidência de infecção em cateter venoso central de curta permanência para hemodiálise e identificar os fatores de risco associados. Método: Coorte prospectiva, desenvolvida em hospital de ensino no período de setembro de 2015 a abril de 2016. Foram incluídos pacientes com necessidade de cateter venoso central para hemodiálise, mediante observação direta e sistemática do procedimento de inserção do cateter pelos pesquisadores. Resultados: A amostra final foi de 69 pacientes, que fizeram uso de 88 cateteres. A incidência de infecção foi de 9,1%, e os fatores de risco foram o tempo de internamento e a inserção do cateter em veia femoral esquerda. Conclusão: A observação das ações realizadas na inserção do cateter possibilitou identificar os fatores de risco associados a infecção, e o protocolo de pesquisa utilizado pode ter contribuído com a redução nos índices de infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Incidence , Renal Dialysis/standards , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/standards , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis/methods , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units/standards , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 93-97, abr. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887453

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones asociadas a catéteres (IAC) conllevan elevada morbimortalidad, con el aumento del uso de recursos hospitalarios. Objetivo. Describir los resultados de un programa para disminuir la tasa de IAC en las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio colaborativo multicéntrico, clínico-epidemiológico, cuasi experimental, de intervención antes y después. Se incluyen niños con catéter venoso central internados en 9 unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, conurbano y otras provincias desde junio de 2011 a abril de 2012. Se implementó un paquete de medidas basado en la educación del personal de salud para inserción de catéteres e higiene de manos y uso de listas de verificación con monitoreo de las medidas implementadas. Se compararon el número y la tasa anual de IAC y la tasa de uso de catéter venoso central previa y posterior a la implementación del programa (Stata 8.0). Resultados. El total de IAC preintervención fue de 117 vs. 74 en el pos. La tasa previa fue 8,6/1000 días de uso y la posintervención, de 5,8/1000 días, RR 0,82 (IC 95%: 0,68-0,98), p= 0,015. La tasa de uso de catéter venoso central se redujo de 54% a 49%, diferencia no significativa. Conclusiones. El programa logró un descenso significativo de las tasas de IAC. A partir de él, se implementó la vigilancia de las IAC en todas las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos participantes. La educación y la vigilancia continua son necesarias para mantener y mejorar los resultados alcanzados.


Catheter-related infections (CRIs) cause a high level of morbidity and mortality with the increasing use of hospital resources. Objective. To describe the outcomes of a program implemented to reduce the rate of CRIs in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Population and methods. Collaborative, multi center, clinical-epidemiological, quasiexperimental, before-and-after intervention study. Children who had a central venous catheter during hospitalization in 9 pediatric intensive care units in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Greater Buenos Aires, and other provinces between June 2011 and April 2012 were included. A bundle of measures based on health care staff training on catheter insertion, hand hygiene, and checklists was put into practice and implemented measures were monitored. The number and annual rate of CRIs and the rate of central venous catheter use before and after the program implementation were compared (Stata 8.0). Results. The total number of CRIs was 117 and 74 before and after the intervention, respectively. The rate of CRIs was 8.6/1000 days of central venous catheter use and 5.8/1000 days before and after the intervention, respectively; RR: 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.98), p= 0.015. The rate of central venous catheter use decreased from 54% to 49%, a non-significant difference. Conclusions. The program achieved a significant reduction in CRI rates. Based on the program, CRI surveillance was implemented in all participating pediatric intensive care units. Training and continuous surveillance are necessary to maintain and improve the outcomes accomplished with the program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Critical Care/methods , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Argentina , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Incidence , Treatment Outcome , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 3-14, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This was a systematic review of the incidence density and risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population. Data source: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, and LILACS databases were used without date or language restriction. Studies that analyzed risk factors for bloodstream infections in newborns were identified. Data synthesis: A total of 134 articles were found that met the eligibility criteria. Of these articles, 14 were selected that addressed risk factors for central venous catheter-related infection in neonates. Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain an important complication, as shown by the incidence rates reported in the studies included in this review. The observed risk factors indicate that low birth weight, prematurity, and longer catheter permanence are related to a higher incidence of bloodstream infections. It has been observed that low rates of catheter-related infections, i.e., close to zero, are already a reality in health institutions in developed countries, since they use infection surveillance and control programs. Conclusion: Catheter-related bloodstream infections still show high incidence density rates in developing countries. The authors emphasize the need for further longitudinal studies and the need for better strategies to prevent risk factors, aiming at the reduction of catheter-related infections.


Resumo Objetivo: Revisão sistemática sobre a densidade de incidência e de fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateter venoso central em população neonatal. Fontes dos dados: Usaram-se os bancos de dados Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Bdenf, Scielo e Lilacs, sem restrição de data ou de idioma. Identificaram-se os estudos que analisaram fatores de risco para infecção da corrente sanguínea em recém-nascidos. Síntese dos dados: Foram encontrados 134 artigos conforme os critérios de elegibilidade. Desses, foram selecionados 14 que abordaram fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateter venoso central em neonatos. A infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter continua a mostrar-se como uma importante complicação, conforme demonstram as taxas de incidência relatadas nos estudos incluídos nesta revisão. Os fatores de risco observados apontam que baixo peso ao nascer, prematuridade e maior tempo de permanência do cateter estão relacionados a maior incidência de infecção da corrente sanguínea. Observou-se que taxas de infecção associada a cateter em valores baixos, próximos a zero, já são uma realidade em instituições de saúde de países desenvolvidos, uma vez que usam programas de vigilância e controle de infecção. Conclusão: A infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter ainda apresenta altas taxas de densidade de incidência em países em desenvolvimento. Destaca-se a necessidade de mais estudos longitudinais e a necessidade de melhores estratégias de prevenção dos fatores de risco para a redução de infecção associada a cateter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 680-684, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041427

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31%) were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18%) and orthopedic implants (15%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%); other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Pseudomonas spp. (10%), Acinetobacter spp. (8%) and Candida species (7%). None of MRSA was resistant to vancomycin (MIC ≥16µg/mL). Resistance rates were 98% and 97% for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Escherichia coli and MRSA are major pathogens of medical device-related infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Time Factors , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 33(1): 14-20, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283792

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection associated to permanent catheterization is the most frequent infection associated to health care. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem, thus it is important to know the local pathogenic agents, their resistance and sensibility profiles to use an optimal treatment. OBJECTIVES: Describe the resistance and sensibility profiles in the most frequent microorganisms in urinary tract infections associated to permanent catheterization at the Internal Medicine Service of Hospital Regional de Talca. METHODS: We studied the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity of each microorganism isolated from urinary samples from patients with the antecedent of permanent urinary catheterization at the Internal Medicine Service of Hospital Regional de Talca since January 2013 to December 2016, according to the records at the Cross Infection Unit of this center. OUTCOMES: We collected 69 cases, there were 14 of them with two agents. The highest incidence of urinary tract infections associated to permanent urinary catheterization was at 2014, while the lowest at 2015. The most frequent agents detected were K. pneumoniae (34%), E. coli (20%), P. aeruginosa (20%) and A. baumannii (5%), holding a similar tendency in each year. We found 23 strains of Enterobacteriaceae producing Extended-spectrum ß- Lactamases. In general we found that Carbapenems and Amikacin had the best sensitivity while Nitrofurantoin and Ciprofloxacin had the highest resistance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
13.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 38(2): e58793, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-901590

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de flebite durante o uso de cateter intravenoso periférico (CIP) e pós-infusional e analisar a associação com fatores de risco em pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudo de coorte com 165 pacientes adultos internados em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre que totalizaram 447 acessos no período de dezembro 2014 a fevereiro 2015. A coleta dos dados foi diária, e a análise dos dados ocorreu pela estatística descritiva e analítica. Resultados A incidência de flebite durante o uso do CIP foi de 7,15% e de flebite pós-infusional, 22,9%. A flebite durante o uso do cateter associou-se com a Amoxicilina + Ácido Clavulânico. A flebite pós-infusional apresentou associação do grau de gravidade com a idade e com o uso de Amoxacilina + Ácido Clavulânico, Cloridrato de Tramadol e Anfotericina. Conclusão A incidência de flebite pós-infusional mostrou-se um indicador importante para a análise do cenário da qualidade da assistência em saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la incidencia de flebitis en el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso (CIP) y posinfusional y analizar la asociación con los factores de riesgo en pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudio de cohorte con 165 pacientes adultos ingresados en un hospital universitario de Porto Alegre, que ascendió a 447 accesos de diciembre 2014 a febrero de 2015. La recolección de datos fue diaria y el análisis de datos fue mediante estadística descriptiva y analítica. Resultados La incidencia de flebitis durante el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso fue del 7,15% y de la flebitis posinfusional fue del 22,9%. La flebitis durante el uso del catéter se asoció con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico. La flebitis posinfusional presentó una asociación del grado de gravedad con la edad, y con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico, Clorhidrato de tramadol y Anfotericina. Conclusión La incidencia de flebitis posinfuncional mostró ser un indicador importante para el análisis del escenario de la calidad de atención en salud.


ABSTRACT Objective to determine the incidence of phlebitis during and after the use of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIC), and analyse the association of this complication with risk factors. Methods cohort study with 165 adult patients admitted to a university hospital in Porto Alegre, totalling 447 accesses, from December 2014 to February 2015. Data were collected on a daily basis and analysed by means of descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The incidence of phlebitis during PIC was 7.15% and the incidence of post-infusion phlebitis was 22.9%. Phlebitis during catheter use was associated with the use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The grade of post-infusion phlebitis was associated with age and use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid, Tramadol Hydrochloride, and Amphotericin. Conclusion The incidence of post-infusion phlebitis proved to be an important indicator to analyse the quality of the healthcare setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Phlebitis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Phlebitis/etiology , Phlebitis/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Incidence , Age Factors , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 603-608, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844413

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious complications associated to central venous catheter (CVC) increase morbidity, mortality and costs. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is one of the risk factors described for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). The aim of this study was explore if TPN and time of exposition, are risk factors for CR-BSI among patient exposed to this therapy. Patients and Methods: Cohort study of patients with CVC exposed and not exposed to TPN with calculation of the relative risk (RR) for CR-BSI and percentage of CR-BSI according to different times of exposition to TPN. Study encompassed years 2010-2015 and only adult patients were included. Results: During the study period 51 events of CR-BSI were identified, with 27 occurring among those exposed to TPN and 24 among those not exposed. CR-BSI incidence rate was 6.3 in the group with TPN and 1.2 in those without this therapy (RR 5.4; IC 95 3.6-8.2). The percentage of patients with CR-BSI increased in parallel to exposition time (Pearson coefficient +0.91) and the OR increased for expositions ≥ 7 days (OR 2.8; IC 95 1.047.4; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposition to TPN increases the risk to CR-BSI in adult patients with CVC and this risk raise with exposition time.


Antecedentes: Las complicaciones infecciosas asociadas a dispositivos vasculares centrales tienen impacto en morbi-mortalidad y costos. Diferentes factores de riesgo han sido identificados en las ITS/CVC, incluyendo la nutrición parenteral total (NPT). Objetivo: Determinar si la NPT y el tiempo de exposición constituyen factores de riesgo para desarrollar ITS/CVC. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohortes de diseño prospectivo, de pacientes adultos con catéter venoso central (CVC) convencional, internados en el Hospital Militar entre los años 2010 y 2015 y que estuvieron expuestos o no expuestos a NPT, calculando el riesgo relativo (RR) y la distribución porcentual de las ITS/CVC a diferentes intervalos de exposición de NPT con análisis de coeficiente de correlación y cálculo de Odds Ratio (OR). Resultados: Durante el período de estudio se registraron 51 eventos de ITS/CVC en pacientes adultos con CVC, de los cuales 27 estuvieron expuestos a NPT y 24 no. Incidencia de 6,3 por 1.000 días en expuestos a NPT vs 1,2 en no expuestos (RR de 5,4; IC 95 3,6 a 8,2). La proporción de pacientes con ITS/CVC aumentó a medida que aumentaba la exposición a NPT (coeficiente correlación r = +0,91), siendo significativa para exposiciones ≥ 7 días (OR 2,8; IC 95 1,04-7,4; p < 0,05). Conclusiones: La exposición a NPT aumenta el riesgo de ITS/CVC en pacientes adultos hospitalizados respecto a aquellos pacientes que no reciben NPT, además este riesgo aumenta con el tiempo de exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Parenteral Nutrition, Total/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Time Factors , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units
15.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 60(4): 337-341, out.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847780

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O acesso venoso é um procedimento elementar e essencial tanto no atendimento hospitalar quanto no ambulatorial. Tal relevância pode ser destacada na assistência médica de pacientes oncológicos, na qual cateteres venosos para acesso central são utilizados com alta frequência. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a utilização de cateteres venosos centrais de curta permanência em uma unidade oncológica, visando identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes, aspectos relacionados à punção e suas complicações. Método: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, transversal, observacional e analítico. Os dados foram coletados com informações de prontuários de pacientes admitidos em uma Unidade de Transplante de Medula Óssea, durante 1º de julho de 2013 a 30 de julho de 2014. Resultados: Foram analisados 174 acessos venosos centrais com cateter de curta permanência, em 119 pacientes. A idade média foi de 46,2 anos, com prevalência semelhante entre gêneros. Os principais diagnósticos foram mieloma múltiplo (36,97%) e linfoma não hodgkin (33,61%). A veia femoral direita foi o local de escolha em 56,90% dos casos e o cateter venoso central calibroso foi utilizado em 76,44% das punções. As complicações relacionadas à punção ocorreram em 13 casos (7,47%), sendo o hematoma (92,3%) a mais representativa; e as relacionados à presença do cateter em 25 (14,37%), sendo a suspeita clínica de infecção (76,0%) a principal. Conclusão: O cateter venoso central de curta permanência se mostrou um método seguro para utilização de rotina em pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas (AU)


Introduction: Venous access is an elementary and essential procedure in both hospital and outpatient care. Such relevance can be highlighted in the medical care of cancer patients, in which central access venous catheters are used with high frequency. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of short-term central venous catheters in an oncologic unit, aiming to identify the epidemiological profile of the patients, aspects related to the puncture and its complications. Method: A retrospective, transversal, observational and analytical study was carried out. Data were collected from records of patients admitted to a Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, from July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2014. Results: A total of 174 central venous accesses with a short-term catheter were analyzed in 119 patients. The mean age was 46.2 years, with a similar prevalence between genders. The main diagnoses were multiple myeloma (36.97%) and NonHodgkin lymphoma (33.61%). The right femoral vein was the site of choice in 56.90% of the cases and central venous catheter was used in 76.44% of the punctures. Puncture-related complications occurred in 13 cases (7.47%), with hematoma (92.3%) being the most representative one, and those related to the presence of the catheter in 25 (14.37%), with clinical suspicion of infection (76.0%) being the main one. Conclusion: Short-term central venous catheter has proven to be a safe method for routine use in patients with hematological malignancies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Central Venous Catheters/statistics & numerical data , Bone Marrow Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Cross Infection/etiology
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(2): 141-149, abr. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784864

ABSTRACT

Background: Knowing the local epidemiology and etiology of bloodstream infections allows tailoring the empirical initial antimicrobial therapy to obtain a better outcome for these episodes. Aim: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological aspects as well as the factors associated with mortality in patients with bloodstream infection in Colombian hospitals. Methods: Sub-analysis of a prospective cohort study of 375 consecutive patients with bloodstream infection in 10 hospitals in Colombia, admitted between September first 2007 and Febrnary 29, 2008. Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria were Gram-negative bacilli in 54% of patients, followed by Gram-positive cocci in 38.4%. The source of infection was known in 67%, unknown in 24% and associated with intravascular catheter in 9%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (46%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.9%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.8%). Staphylococcus aureus was methicillin sensitive in 82% of patients (46/56). Overall 28-day mortality was 25% and their independent associated factors were age, SOFA score and APACHE II score. Conclusions: In our study the most frequently isolated bacteria in bloodstream infections were Gram-negative bacilli, contrasting those reported in developed countries. The overall mortality rate was high and the factors associated with mortality were age and severity scores.


Introducción: Conocer la epidemiología y etiología regional de las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo permite orientar una terapia antimicrobiana inicial empírica mejorando el resultado final del episodio. Objetivo: Describir los aspectos epidemiológicos, microbiológicos y factores asociados a la mortalidad de pacientes con infección del torrente sanguíneo en hospitales colombianos. Métodos: Sub-análisis de cohorte prospectivo de 375 pacientes consecutivos en 10 hospitales de Colombia con diagnóstico de infección del torrente sanguíneo, hospitalizados entre 1 de septiembre de 2007 y 29 de febrero de 2008. Resultados: Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron los bacilos gramnegativos en 54% de los pacientes; seguidos por las cocáceas grampositivas en 38,4%. La fuente de infección fue secundaria a un foco conocido en 67%, desconocido en 24% y asociada a catéter intravascular en 9%. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Escherichia coli 46%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa 16%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8,9% y Staphylococcus aureus 7,8%. Staphylococcus aureus fue sensible a meticilina en 82% de los pacientes (46/56). La mortalidad global fue de 25%. Los factores asociados con mayor mortalidad fueron: edad, puntaje SOFA y puntaje APACHE II. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio, los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados en pacientes que cursaron con bacteriemia fueron los bacilos gramnegativos, a diferencia de lo reportado en países desarrollados. La mortalidad general es alta y los factores asociados con riesgo de muerte fueron: la edad y los mayores puntajes de gravedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Colombia/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(6): 634-638, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-773269

ABSTRACT

Background: Nosocomial infections are common adverse events associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs of patient care. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are nosocomial infections associated with higher medical costs. Aims: To evaluate CR-BSI associated costs in the Hospital Militar of Santiago, Chile, during year 2013. Methods: Comparative study between cases (CR-BSI) and matched controls using the Pan American Health Organization protocol. Variables were excess in length of stay (LOS), antimicrobial use according to daily defined doses (DDD), and total number of microbial cultures per hospitalization which were compared with non-parametric tests. Results: We included 10 cases and 10 matched controls. Mean LOS among cases was 40 days vs. 20.3 among controls (excess 20.3 days per event; p < 0.05). Antimicrobial consumption was higher among cases (DDD 36 vs. 10.5; p < 0.05) and there was a trend to an increased number of bacterial cultures among cases (9 vs. 5; p = 0.057). The additional cost for the 10 subjects was 38 Chilean million pesos (USD 72,869) with a mean of 7,286 USD per event. Conclusions: During one year, CR-BSI generated an excess in LOS, antimicrobial consumption, and costs (7,286 USD per event of CR-BSI).


Antecedentes: Las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) son eventos adversos frecuentes que determinan aumento de la morbi-mortalidad y de los costos hospitalarios. La infección del torrente sanguíneo asociado a catéter vascular central (ITS/CVC) es una de las localizaciones que causa mayores costos. Objetivo: Cuantificar el costo de las ITS/CVC en el Hospital Militar de Santiago en el año 2013. Material y Método: El estudio se realizó en un hospital de alta complejidad, utilizando la metodología comparativa del Protocolo OPS. Los casos se identificaron desde los registros de vigilancia epidemiológica y los controles desde pacientes hospitalizados durante el mismo período, pareados por servicio, edad y sexo. Los indicadores económicos seleccionados fueron el exceso de días de hospitalización, de consumo de antimicrobianos en dosis diaria definida (DDD) y de cultivos. Las comparaciones se hicieron mediante pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Se evaluaron 10 casos de ITS/CVC con sus respectivos controles. La estadía adicional promedio hospitalaria fue de 20,3 días por paciente (40 vs 20,3 días; p < 0,05), el consumo de antimicrobianos fue superior en los casos (mediana DDD 36 vs 10,5; p < 0,05) y hubo una tendencia a un mayor número de cultivos por paciente (9 vs 5; p: 0,057). El gasto adicional alcanzó los 38 millones de pesos chilenos (USD 72.869) para el grupo total y USD 7.286 por paciente. Conclusiones: Las ITS/CVC representaron para el año 2013 en nuestro hospital un exceso de días de hospitalización, consumo de antimicrobianos y gastos adicionales (USD 7.286 por evento).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Bacteremia/economics , Catheter-Related Infections/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Length of Stay
18.
Acta paul. enferm ; 28(6): 517-523, dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-773419

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Estimar a incidência de complicações locais associadas ao cateterismo periférico e identificar os fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento da complicação mais frequente. Métodos Coorte prospectiva realizada com 92 adultos submetidos a cateterismo venoso periférico, internados em unidades clínicas e cirúrgicas. Mediante observação diária do cateter, determinou-se o tempo de permanência e as complicações locais advindas do uso do Cateter de Segurança Completo, após capacitação das equipes de enfermagem. Utilizou-se os testes Exato de Fisher, G de Williams, Qui-quadrado, U de Mann-Whitney e Risco Relativo. Resultados Observou-se 56,52% de complicações locais. O tempo de permanência superior a 72 horas aumenta o risco para desenvolvimento de flebite em 2,34 (RR; p=0,0483; IC [0,91; 6,07]). Conclusão A incidência de complicações locais foi elevada, havendo predominância de flebite; o tempo de permanência superior a 72 horas foi detectado como fator de risco para sua ocorrência.


Objective To estimate the incidence of local complications associated with peripheral catheters and identify risk factors for the development of most common complications. Methods This prospective cohort study included 92 adult inpatients at clinical and surgical units who had peripheral catheterization. By daily observance of the catheters we determined time of permanence and local complications due to the use of a complete safety catheter. All actions began after training of nursing teams. Statistical tests used were the Fisher exact test, G test (Williams), chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and relative risk. Results Local complications occurred in 56.2% of cases. Time of catheter permanence over 72 hours increased the risk for phlebitis development in 2.34% of cases (RR; p=0.0483; CI [0.91; 6.07]). Conclusion Incidence of local complications was high. Phlebitis was the predominant complication and the time of catheter permanence over 72 hours was a considered risk factor for this complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 23(5): 902-909, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-763284

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home.Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p<0.05 as level of statistical significance.Results: by comparing the frequency of peritonitis and the length of treatment, it was found that patients over two years of peritoneal dialysis were more likely to develop peritonitis (X²=6.39; p=0.01). The number of episodes of peritoneal catheter exit-site infection showed association with the length of treatment (U=224,000; p=0.015).Conclusion: peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection are associated with the length of treatment.


Objetivo: analisar as complicações relacionadas à peritonite e infecção de orifício de saída do cateter, em pacientes em diálise peritoneal no domicílio.Método: estudo quantitativo e transversal, realizado com 90 pacientes em diálise peritoneal no domicílio, em um município do Nordeste brasileiro. Para coleta de dados utilizaram-se dois roteiros estruturados e consulta aos prontuários de saúde. Foram utilizadas análises descritivas e testes de comparação entre grupos independentes, considerando o nível de significância estatística de p<0,05.Resultados: comparando-se a frequência de peritonite e o tempo de tratamento, constatou-se que pacientes com mais de dois anos de diálise peritoneal apresentaram maior chance de ter peritonite (X²=6,39; p=0,01). O número de episódios de infecção de orifício de saída do cateter peritoneal mostrou associação com o tempo de tratamento (U=224,000; p=0,015).Conclusão: a peritonite e infecção de orifício de saída do cateter estão associadas ao tempo de tratamento.


Objetivo: analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con la peritonitis e infección del orificio de salida del catéter, en pacientes en diálisis peritoneal en casa.Método: estudio cuantitativo y transversal, realizado con 90 pacientes en diálisis peritoneal, en casa en una ciudad en el Nordeste de Brasil. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron dos guiones estructurados y consulta de los registros médicos. Se utilizaron análisis descriptivos y pruebas de comparación entre grupos independientes, teniendo en cuenta el nivel de significación estadística de p<0,05.Resultados: al comparar la frecuencia de peritonitis y el tiempo de tratamiento, se encontró que los pacientes con más de dos años de diálisis peritoneal eran más propensos a tener peritonitis (X²=6,39; p=0,01). El número de episodios de infección del orificio de salida del catéter peritoneal mostró asociación con el tiempo de tratamiento (U=224.000; p=0,015).Conclusión: la peritonitis e la infección de orificio de salida del catéter se asocian con el tiempo de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Peritonitis/microbiology , Peritonitis/epidemiology , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hemodialysis, Home/adverse effects
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(3): 278-282, jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753484

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bacteremia associated to vascular catheters is the most frequent nosocomial infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Units and increases cost and mortality. Objective : To know the risk of bacteremia related to vascular devices in hospitalized newborns, stratified by birth weight. Method: A surveillance system was established considering birth weight and type of catheters in order to detect bacteremia and look for the risks associated to type of catheters and birth weight in the period 2005 to 2011, according to Chilean Ministry of Health’s surveillance. Results: We registered bacteremia associated to vascular devices in newborns considering birth weight between less than 1,000 g to more than 2,500 g from years 2005 and 2011. In the period, 4,704 patients were surveyed with 25,130 catheter days and 70 bacteremia were detected. The rates of bacteremia were 0.9 per 1,000 catheter days in peripheral catheters, 3.0 per 1000 catheter days in peripheral inserted central catheters and 9.6 per 1,000 catheter days in umbilical catheters (UC). On the other side the risk of bacteremia was 6.4% in newborns with birth weight less 1,000 g and 1.5% in newborns with birth weight over 2,500 g. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most frequent isolate agents. Conclusions: The risk of developing bacteremia is associated with lower birth weight and the use of UC independent of weight.


Introducción: La bacteriemia asociada al uso de dispositivos intravasculares constituye la infección nosocomial más frecuente en las unidades de cuidado intensivo neonatal, asociándose a mayores costos y letalidad. Objetivo: Conocer el riesgo de bacteriemias relacionadas al uso de dispositivos intravasculares en recién nacidos hospitalizados, de acuerdo a su peso de nacimiento. Material y Métodos: Vigilancia epidemiológica de baeteriemia en neonatos con catéteres vasculares para asociarlos con los tipos de catéteres y el peso de nacimiento, durante el período 2005 a 2011, utilizando el sistema de vigilancia vigente en el país. Resultados: Se registraron las bacteriemias asociadas a dispositivos vasculares en neonatos considerando peso de nacimiento entre menos a 1.000 g a más de 2.500 g entre los años 2005 y 2011. Se vigilaron 4.704 pacientes con 25.130 días de uso de catéter y se detectaron 70 bacteriemias. La mayor utilización de la vía venosa fue por catéteres venosos periféricos. Las tasas de bacteriemias fueron de 0,9 por mil días catéter en venoso periférico, 3,0 en catéter central por vía percutánea y 9,6 en catéter umbilical (CU). El riesgo de bacteriemia fue de 6,4% en los neonatos de peso < 1.000 g y 1,5% en > 2.500 g. Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa fue el agente más frecuentemente aislado. Conclusiones: El riesgo de desarrollar bacteriemia se asoció a menor peso de nacimiento y a la utilización de CU en forma, independiente del peso.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Vascular Access Devices/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Chile/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Vascular Access Devices/microbiology
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