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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312


ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.

Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 436-442, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977982


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os fatores de risco para contrair infecções da corrente sanguínea associadas a cateter de acesso central em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica, e investigar a incidência e a etiologia dessas infecções nas unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica com diferentes perfis. Métodos: Este foi um estudo prospectivo de coorte, conduzido em três hospitais. Um deles é um grande hospital público metropolitano, com duas unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica que contabilizam 19 leitos; o segundo é um hospital regional com oito leitos em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica; e o terceiro é um hospital privado com 15 leitos de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Incluíram-se pacientes com idades entre 1 mês e 18 anos, que utilizaram cateter de acesso venoso central por pelo menos 24 horas. Registramos a evolução diária dos pacientes. Colheram-se dados gerais sobre o paciente e sobre o cateter, utilizados como variáveis. Todos os dados foram analisados com utilização do pacote estatístico Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), versão 13.0, para comparação de pacientes com infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter com ou sem fatores de risco. Resultados: Durante o período do estudo admitiram-se às unidades de terapia intensiva 728 pacientes; deles, 170 tiveram cateter de acesso venoso central instalado por, no mínimo, 24 horas. A mediana de idade foi de 32 meses, e 97 (57%) dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A taxa de incidência de infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter foi de 3,9/1.000 cateteres venosos centrais-dias. A incidência variou entre os hospitais, sendo de 1,6 a 6,6. A taxa geral de mortalidade foi de 11,1%, e as taxas de mortalidade com e sem infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter foram, respectivamente, de 12,9% e 10,7%. Na análise multivariada, os fatores de risco para ocorrência de infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter foram maior tempo de uso do cateter venoso central (OR: 1,07; IC95% 1,00 - 1,14; p = 0,019) e o uso de mais de um cateter venoso central de uma vez (OR: 2,59; IC95% 1,17 - 5,73; p = 0,048). Conclusão: Maior duração do uso de cateter venoso central e mais de um cateter venoso central de uma vez foram os principais fatores de risco para infecções da corrente sanguínea associadas a cateter em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica.

ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the risk factors for acquiring central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) in pediatric intensive care units and to investigate the incidence and etiology of CLABSI in pediatric intensive care units with different profiles. Methods: The study was a prospective cohort study in three hospitals. One of the hospitals is a large metropolitan public hospital with two pediatric intensive care units and a total of nineteen pediatric intensive care unit beds, another is a regional hospital with eight pediatric intensive care unit beds, and the third is a private hospital with fifteen beds. Patients between the ages of 1 month old and 18 years old who used a central venous catheter for over 24 hours were included. We recorded patients' daily progress. General patient and catheter-related data were collected and used as variables. All the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 13.0, to compare patients with CLABSI with or without risk factors. Results: A total of 728 patients were admitted to the pediatric intensive care units, and 170 had a central line in place for at least 24 hours. The median age was 32 months, and 97 (57%) of the patients were males. The CLABSI incidence rate was 3.9/1000 central venous catheter-days. The incidence among hospitals varied from 1.6 to 6.6. The overall mortality rate was 11.1%, and the CLABSI and non-CLABSI mortality rates were 12.9% and 10.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for CLABSI were a longer duration of central venous catheter use (OR: 1.07; 95%CI 1.00 - 1.14; p = 0.019) and the use of more than one central venous catheter at once (OR: 2.59; 95%CI 1.17 - 5.73; p = 0.048). Conclusion: A longer duration of central venous catheter use and the use of more than one central venous catheter at once were the main risk factors for CLABSI in pediatric intensive care units.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Time Factors , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/mortality
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 123-132, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959421


Resumen Las infecciones asociadas a diálisis peritoneal (DP), corresponden a la principal complicación de los pacientes pediátricos en esta terapia de reemplazo renal, disminuyendo la sobrevida de la membrana peritoneal y empeorando el pronóstico del paciente. El reconocimiento precoz y un tratamiento oportuno de éstas son fundamentales para preservar esta modalidad dialítica. Se presenta una revisión actualizada de la literatura científica, con el fin de entregar recomendaciones reproducibles en los distintos centros pediátricos que realizan diálisis peritoneal crónica en niños.

Peritoneal dialysis-related infections are the main complication in pediatric patients undergoing this renal replacement therapy, associating a high rate of morbidity, generating also a decreasing survival of the peritoneal membrane and worsening the patient outcome. We describe the recommended diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to treat dialysis-related in children.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Surgical Wound Infection/classification , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Anti-Infective Agents/classification
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 3-14, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894096


Abstract Objective: This was a systematic review of the incidence density and risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population. Data source: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, and LILACS databases were used without date or language restriction. Studies that analyzed risk factors for bloodstream infections in newborns were identified. Data synthesis: A total of 134 articles were found that met the eligibility criteria. Of these articles, 14 were selected that addressed risk factors for central venous catheter-related infection in neonates. Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain an important complication, as shown by the incidence rates reported in the studies included in this review. The observed risk factors indicate that low birth weight, prematurity, and longer catheter permanence are related to a higher incidence of bloodstream infections. It has been observed that low rates of catheter-related infections, i.e., close to zero, are already a reality in health institutions in developed countries, since they use infection surveillance and control programs. Conclusion: Catheter-related bloodstream infections still show high incidence density rates in developing countries. The authors emphasize the need for further longitudinal studies and the need for better strategies to prevent risk factors, aiming at the reduction of catheter-related infections.

Resumo Objetivo: Revisão sistemática sobre a densidade de incidência e de fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateter venoso central em população neonatal. Fontes dos dados: Usaram-se os bancos de dados Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Bdenf, Scielo e Lilacs, sem restrição de data ou de idioma. Identificaram-se os estudos que analisaram fatores de risco para infecção da corrente sanguínea em recém-nascidos. Síntese dos dados: Foram encontrados 134 artigos conforme os critérios de elegibilidade. Desses, foram selecionados 14 que abordaram fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateter venoso central em neonatos. A infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter continua a mostrar-se como uma importante complicação, conforme demonstram as taxas de incidência relatadas nos estudos incluídos nesta revisão. Os fatores de risco observados apontam que baixo peso ao nascer, prematuridade e maior tempo de permanência do cateter estão relacionados a maior incidência de infecção da corrente sanguínea. Observou-se que taxas de infecção associada a cateter em valores baixos, próximos a zero, já são uma realidade em instituições de saúde de países desenvolvidos, uma vez que usam programas de vigilância e controle de infecção. Conclusão: A infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter ainda apresenta altas taxas de densidade de incidência em países em desenvolvimento. Destaca-se a necessidade de mais estudos longitudinais e a necessidade de melhores estratégias de prevenção dos fatores de risco para a redução de infecção associada a cateter.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 783-787, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897025


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections are the second most common cause of death among patients on hemodialysis. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors associated with central venous catheter-related infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and to identify and characterize the type and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the primary microorganisms isolated during one year of follow-up. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2014 in a hemodialysis referral center. We included 200 outpatients with acute kidney injury who had no permanent venous access. A nurse assessed the patients for signs of infection three times per week during dressing changes. The clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with and without local or systemic infection were compared. RESULTS: Fifty-five episodes of catheter-related infections occurred in 43 (22%) patients; 38 (69%) were bloodstream infections and 17 (31%) were local infections. Thirty-two (75%) patients with infection had femoral vein catheter placement. In total, 6,240 hemodialysis sessions were performed; the rates of primary bloodstream and local infection were 6.1 and 2.7 episodes per 1,000 patients on daily dialysis, respectively. In the univariate analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with the development of infection, while level of education, ethnicity, age, and sex were not. Gram-negative bacteria were primarily isolated from blood culture specimens (55% of samples). Of the Gram-negative isolates, 56% were resistant to the carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a high incidence of catheter-related infections caused by resistant microorganisms in patients undergoing hemodialysis via central venous catheters.

Humans , Male , Female , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Time Factors , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Middle Aged
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(5): 311-314, oct. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887384


Trichosporon asahii es un hongo ubicuo que se ha aislado como parte de la microbiota humana. Recientemente, se ha visto una emergencia de este patógeno en infecciones tanto localizadas como sistémicas. En unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos para quemados, existen escasos reportes de infecciones del tracto urinario por este microorganismo. Se describen 2 pacientes pediátricos con internación prolongada por quemaduras extensas y múltiples tratamientos antibióticos previos. Ambos presentaron sepsis por infección del tracto urinario asociada a sonda vesical por Trichosporon asahii. En ambos pacientes, se realizó el recambio de la sonda vesical y tratamiento con voriconazol por 10 días, con buena evolución. En los casos presentados, debido a la ausencia de otros aislamientos microbiológicos y a la buena respuesta al tratamiento antifúngico junto con el recambio de la sonda vesical, se asumió al Trichosporon asahii como el probable agente causal de la sepsis.

Trichosporon asahii is a ubiquitous fungus that has been isolated as part of human microbiota. There has been an emergence of this pathogen in recent years, causing superficial and deep seated infections. There are scarce reports of urinary tract infections in pediatric intensive care burn units caused by this agent. We describe the cases of 2 pediatric patients with prolonged hospitalization due to severe burns that had received several antibiotic courses for previous infections. Both presented sepsis secondary to catheter related urinary tract infection by Trichosporon asahii. Both patients underwent urinary catheter replacement and were treated effectively with voriconazole for 10 days. In the cases presented, sepsis was assumed to be due to Trichosporon asahii since no other microorganism was identified and the patients showed favorable outcome with the prescribed treatment with voriconazole and replacement of the urinary catheter.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Sepsis/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Trichosporonosis/etiology , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Burn Units , Burns/complications
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 38(2): e58793, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-901590


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de flebite durante o uso de cateter intravenoso periférico (CIP) e pós-infusional e analisar a associação com fatores de risco em pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudo de coorte com 165 pacientes adultos internados em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre que totalizaram 447 acessos no período de dezembro 2014 a fevereiro 2015. A coleta dos dados foi diária, e a análise dos dados ocorreu pela estatística descritiva e analítica. Resultados A incidência de flebite durante o uso do CIP foi de 7,15% e de flebite pós-infusional, 22,9%. A flebite durante o uso do cateter associou-se com a Amoxicilina + Ácido Clavulânico. A flebite pós-infusional apresentou associação do grau de gravidade com a idade e com o uso de Amoxacilina + Ácido Clavulânico, Cloridrato de Tramadol e Anfotericina. Conclusão A incidência de flebite pós-infusional mostrou-se um indicador importante para a análise do cenário da qualidade da assistência em saúde.

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la incidencia de flebitis en el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso (CIP) y posinfusional y analizar la asociación con los factores de riesgo en pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudio de cohorte con 165 pacientes adultos ingresados en un hospital universitario de Porto Alegre, que ascendió a 447 accesos de diciembre 2014 a febrero de 2015. La recolección de datos fue diaria y el análisis de datos fue mediante estadística descriptiva y analítica. Resultados La incidencia de flebitis durante el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso fue del 7,15% y de la flebitis posinfusional fue del 22,9%. La flebitis durante el uso del catéter se asoció con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico. La flebitis posinfusional presentó una asociación del grado de gravedad con la edad, y con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico, Clorhidrato de tramadol y Anfotericina. Conclusión La incidencia de flebitis posinfuncional mostró ser un indicador importante para el análisis del escenario de la calidad de atención en salud.

ABSTRACT Objective to determine the incidence of phlebitis during and after the use of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIC), and analyse the association of this complication with risk factors. Methods cohort study with 165 adult patients admitted to a university hospital in Porto Alegre, totalling 447 accesses, from December 2014 to February 2015. Data were collected on a daily basis and analysed by means of descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The incidence of phlebitis during PIC was 7.15% and the incidence of post-infusion phlebitis was 22.9%. Phlebitis during catheter use was associated with the use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The grade of post-infusion phlebitis was associated with age and use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid, Tramadol Hydrochloride, and Amphotericin. Conclusion The incidence of post-infusion phlebitis proved to be an important indicator to analyse the quality of the healthcare setting.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Phlebitis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Phlebitis/etiology , Phlebitis/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Incidence , Age Factors , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 25: e2951, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-961082


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of the implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles on the rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection in an intensive care unit. Method: This is a quasi-experimental, before-and-after study with a non-equivalent control group. During a six-month period, insertion and maintenance bundles for the central venous catheters were implemented. Supervision guidelines were developed to assess compliance with the bundle and catheter characteristics. Results: A total of 444 central catheters corresponding to 390 patients were observed, of which 68.7% were inserted in the unit. The maintenance and insertion bundles reached 62.9% and 94.7% compliance, respectively, and 50.7% of the insertions were supervised. It was possible to observe a 54.5% decrease in the rate of central catheter infection (3.48 vs 1.52 x 1000 days/catheter, p<0.05) when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The simultaneous implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles has a positive impact on the reduction of catheter-related bloodstream infection; therefore it is an efficient alternative to improve the quality and safety of care in high complexity units.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da implementação de bundles de inserção e manutenção nas taxas de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter venoso central numa unidade de terapia intensiva. Método: Trata-se de um estudo quase-experimental do tipo antes e depois com grupo de controle não equivalente. Durante um período de seis meses, foram implementados bundles para inserção e manutenção dos cateteres venosos centrais. Foram elaboradas diretrizes de supervisão para avaliar a conformidade com os bundles e as características dos cateteres. Resultados: Observaram-se 444 cateteres centrais correspondentes a 390 pacientes, dos quais 68,7% foram inseridos na unidade. Os bundles de manutenção e inserção atingiram 62,9% e 94,7% de conformidade respectivamente, e 50,7% das inserções foram supervisadas. Comparado com o grupo de controle, foi possível observar uma diminuição de 54,5% na taxa de infeção do cateter central (3,48 v/s 1,52 x 1000 dias/cateter, p<0.05). Conclusão: O uso simultâneo de bundles de inserção e manutenção tem impacto positivo na diminuição da taxa de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter venoso central, representando uma alternativa eficiente para melhorar a qualidade e segurança assistencial em unidades de alta complexidade.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la implementación de un bundle de inserción y mantención en las tasas de infección del torrente sanguíneo relacionada a catéter venoso central en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Método: Estudio cuasi experimental de tipo antes-después con grupo de control no equivalente. Durante un periodo de seis meses, se implementó un bundle para la inserción y mantención de los catéteres venosos centrales. Se elaboraron pautas de supervisión para evaluar el cumplimiento de los bundles y las características de los catéteres. Resultados: Se observaron 444 catéteres centrales, correspondientes a 390 pacientes, de los cuales un 68,7% fueron insertados en la unidad. Los bundles de mantención e inserción alcanzaron un 62,9% y 94,7% de cumplimiento respectivamente, lográndose supervisar un 50,7% de las inserciones. En comparación con el grupo control, se observó una disminución del 54,5% en la tasa de infección de catéter central (3,48 v/s 1,52 x 1000 días/catéter, p<0.05). Conclusión: El uso simultaneo de un bundle para la inserción y mantención impacta positivamente en la disminución de la tasa de infección del torrente sanguíneo relacionada a catéter venoso central, convirtiéndolos en una alternativa efectiva para mejorar la calidad y seguridad asistencial en unidades de alta complejidad.

Humans , Critical Illness , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Patient Care Bundles , Retrospective Studies
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 603-608, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844413


Background: Infectious complications associated to central venous catheter (CVC) increase morbidity, mortality and costs. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is one of the risk factors described for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). The aim of this study was explore if TPN and time of exposition, are risk factors for CR-BSI among patient exposed to this therapy. Patients and Methods: Cohort study of patients with CVC exposed and not exposed to TPN with calculation of the relative risk (RR) for CR-BSI and percentage of CR-BSI according to different times of exposition to TPN. Study encompassed years 2010-2015 and only adult patients were included. Results: During the study period 51 events of CR-BSI were identified, with 27 occurring among those exposed to TPN and 24 among those not exposed. CR-BSI incidence rate was 6.3 in the group with TPN and 1.2 in those without this therapy (RR 5.4; IC 95 3.6-8.2). The percentage of patients with CR-BSI increased in parallel to exposition time (Pearson coefficient +0.91) and the OR increased for expositions ≥ 7 days (OR 2.8; IC 95 1.047.4; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposition to TPN increases the risk to CR-BSI in adult patients with CVC and this risk raise with exposition time.

Antecedentes: Las complicaciones infecciosas asociadas a dispositivos vasculares centrales tienen impacto en morbi-mortalidad y costos. Diferentes factores de riesgo han sido identificados en las ITS/CVC, incluyendo la nutrición parenteral total (NPT). Objetivo: Determinar si la NPT y el tiempo de exposición constituyen factores de riesgo para desarrollar ITS/CVC. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohortes de diseño prospectivo, de pacientes adultos con catéter venoso central (CVC) convencional, internados en el Hospital Militar entre los años 2010 y 2015 y que estuvieron expuestos o no expuestos a NPT, calculando el riesgo relativo (RR) y la distribución porcentual de las ITS/CVC a diferentes intervalos de exposición de NPT con análisis de coeficiente de correlación y cálculo de Odds Ratio (OR). Resultados: Durante el período de estudio se registraron 51 eventos de ITS/CVC en pacientes adultos con CVC, de los cuales 27 estuvieron expuestos a NPT y 24 no. Incidencia de 6,3 por 1.000 días en expuestos a NPT vs 1,2 en no expuestos (RR de 5,4; IC 95 3,6 a 8,2). La proporción de pacientes con ITS/CVC aumentó a medida que aumentaba la exposición a NPT (coeficiente correlación r = +0,91), siendo significativa para exposiciones ≥ 7 días (OR 2,8; IC 95 1,04-7,4; p < 0,05). Conclusiones: La exposición a NPT aumenta el riesgo de ITS/CVC en pacientes adultos hospitalizados respecto a aquellos pacientes que no reciben NPT, además este riesgo aumenta con el tiempo de exposición.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Parenteral Nutrition, Total/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Time Factors , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 23(5): 902-909, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-763284


Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home.Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p<0.05 as level of statistical significance.Results: by comparing the frequency of peritonitis and the length of treatment, it was found that patients over two years of peritoneal dialysis were more likely to develop peritonitis (X²=6.39; p=0.01). The number of episodes of peritoneal catheter exit-site infection showed association with the length of treatment (U=224,000; p=0.015).Conclusion: peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection are associated with the length of treatment.

Objetivo: analisar as complicações relacionadas à peritonite e infecção de orifício de saída do cateter, em pacientes em diálise peritoneal no domicílio.Método: estudo quantitativo e transversal, realizado com 90 pacientes em diálise peritoneal no domicílio, em um município do Nordeste brasileiro. Para coleta de dados utilizaram-se dois roteiros estruturados e consulta aos prontuários de saúde. Foram utilizadas análises descritivas e testes de comparação entre grupos independentes, considerando o nível de significância estatística de p<0,05.Resultados: comparando-se a frequência de peritonite e o tempo de tratamento, constatou-se que pacientes com mais de dois anos de diálise peritoneal apresentaram maior chance de ter peritonite (X²=6,39; p=0,01). O número de episódios de infecção de orifício de saída do cateter peritoneal mostrou associação com o tempo de tratamento (U=224,000; p=0,015).Conclusão: a peritonite e infecção de orifício de saída do cateter estão associadas ao tempo de tratamento.

Objetivo: analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con la peritonitis e infección del orificio de salida del catéter, en pacientes en diálisis peritoneal en casa.Método: estudio cuantitativo y transversal, realizado con 90 pacientes en diálisis peritoneal, en casa en una ciudad en el Nordeste de Brasil. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron dos guiones estructurados y consulta de los registros médicos. Se utilizaron análisis descriptivos y pruebas de comparación entre grupos independientes, teniendo en cuenta el nivel de significación estadística de p<0,05.Resultados: al comparar la frecuencia de peritonitis y el tiempo de tratamiento, se encontró que los pacientes con más de dos años de diálisis peritoneal eran más propensos a tener peritonitis (X²=6,39; p=0,01). El número de episodios de infección del orificio de salida del catéter peritoneal mostró asociación con el tiempo de tratamiento (U=224.000; p=0,015).Conclusión: la peritonitis e la infección de orificio de salida del catéter se asocian con el tiempo de tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Peritonitis/microbiology , Peritonitis/epidemiology , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hemodialysis, Home/adverse effects
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 22(5): 842-847, Sep-Oct.2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-730638


OBJECTIVE: to relate the variables from a surveillance form for intravenous devices in high risk newborn infants with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection. METHODOLOGY: approximately 15 variables were studied, being associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection, this being defined by blood culture results. The variables analyzed were obtained from the surveillance forms used with intravenous devices, attached to the medical records of newborn infants weighing between 500 and 1,499 g. The statistical association was defined using the Chi-squared and Student t tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira under process N. 140.703/12. RESULTS: 63 medical records were analyzed. The infection rate observed was 25.4%. Of the variables analyzed, only three had a statistically-significant relationship with the blood culture - the use of drugs capable of inhibiting acid secretion, post-natal steroid use, and undertaking more than one invasive procedure (p-value of 0.0141, 0.0472 and 0.0277, respectively). CONCLUSION: the absence of significance of the variables of the form may be related to the quality of the records and to the absence of standardization. It is recommended that the teams be encouraged to adhere to the protocol and fill out the form. .

OBJETIVO: relacionar as variáveis de um formulário de vigilância para dispositivos intravenosos em recém-nascido de alto risco, com infecção relacionada ao uso de cateter central de inserção periférica. METODOLOGIA: foram estudadas cerca de 15 variáveis associando-as à infecção por uso do cateter central de inserção periférica, sendo essa definida pelo resultado da hemocultura. As variáveis analisadas foram obtidas nos formulários de vigilância do uso de dispositivo intravenoso, anexados aos prontuários de recém-nascidos de 500 a 1.499g. A associação estatística foi definida pelos testes qui-quadrado e t de Student. O estudo encontra-se aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Instituto Fernandes Figueira sob nº140.703/12. RESULTADOS: foram analisados 63 prontuários. A taxa de infecção observada foi de 25,4%. Das variáveis analisadas, apenas três apresentaram relação estatisticamente significativa com a hemocultura - o uso de drogas inibidoras de secreção ácida, o uso de esteroides pós-natal e a realização de mais de um procedimento de quebra de barreira (p-valor de 0,0141, 0,0472 e 0,0277, respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: a ausência de significância das variáveis do formulário pode estar relacionada com a qualidade dos registros e ausência de padronização. Recomenda-se incentivo às equipes para a aderência ao protocolo e preenchimento do formulário. .

OBJETIVO: relacionar las variables de un formulario de vigilancia para dispositivos intravenosos en recién nacido de alto riesgo con infección relacionada al uso de catéter central de inserción periférica. METODOLOGÍA: fueron estudiadas cerca de 15 variables asociándolas a la infección por uso del catéter central de inserción periférica, siendo esta definida por el resultado del hemocultivo. Las variables analizadas fueron obtenidas en los formularios de vigilancia del uso de dispositivo intravenoso anexados a las fichas médicas de recién nacidos de 500 a 1499g. La asociación estadística fue definida por las pruebas Chi-cuadrado y t de Student. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación del Instituto Fernandes Figueira con el nº 140.703/12. RESULTADOS: fueron analizadas 63 fichas médicas. La tasa de infección observada fue de 25,4%. De las variables analizadas, apenas tres presentaron una relación estadísticamente significativa con el hemocultivo: uso de drogas inhibidoras de secreción ácida, uso de esteroides postnatal y realización de más de un procedimiento de quiebra de barrera (p-valor de 0,0141, 0,0472 y 0,0277, respectivamente). CONCLUSIÓN: la ausencia de significación de las variables del formulario puede estar relacionada con la calidad de los registros y la ausencia de estandarización. Se recomienda incentivar a los equipos para que adhieran al protocolo y al correcto llenado del formulario. .

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheterization, Peripheral , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology
Invest. clín ; 54(1): 68-73, mar. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740337


Rhizobium radiobacter es una bacteria Gram-negativa, fijadora de nitrógeno que se encuentra principalmente en el suelo. Rara vez causa infecciones en humanos. Ha sido asociada a bacteriemia secundaria a colonización de catéteres intravasculares en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El objetivo de este trabajo es informar un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por R. radiobacter. Se trata de paciente masculino, de 47 años de edad, con diagnóstico de enfermedad renal crónica estadio 5 en tratamiento sustitutivo con hemodiálisis, quien acude a centro asistencial por presentar fiebre de dos semanas de evolución. Es hospitalizado, se toman muestras de sangre periférica para hemocultivo y se inicia antibioticoterapia empírica con cefotaxime más vancomicina. El ecocardiograma transtorácico revelo vegetación fusiforme en válvula tricúspide con regurgitación grado III-IV/IV. Al séptimo día del inicio de la antibioterapia el paciente presenta mejoría clínica y paraclínica. La bacteria identificada por hemocultivo es Rhizobium radiobacter resistente a ceftriaxona y sensible a imipenem, amikacina, ampicilina y ampicilina/sulbactam. Debido a la mejoría clínica se decide continuar tratamiento con vancomicina y se anexa imipenem. A los 14 días de iniciada la antibioterapia el paciente es dado de alta con tratamiento ambulatorio con imipenen hasta cumplir seis semanas de tratamiento. En el ecocardiograma control se evidencio ausencia de la vegetación en la válvula tricúspide. Este caso sugiere que R. radiobacter puede ser una causa de endocarditis en pacientes portadores de catéteres intravasculares.

Rhizobium radiobacter is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is found mainly on the ground. It rarely causes infections in humans. It has been associated with bacteremia, secondary to colonization of intravascular catheters, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this paper was to report the case of an infective endocarditis caused by R. radiobacter, in a 47-year-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease stage 5, on replacement therapy with hemodialysis and who attended the medical center with fever of two weeks duration. The patient was hospitalized and samples of peripheral blood were taken for culture. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started with cefotaxime plus vancomycin. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed fusiform vegetation on the tricuspid valve, with grade III-IV/IV regurgitation. On the seventh day after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient had a clinical and paraclinical improvement. The bacterium identified by blood culture was Rhizobium radiobacter, ceftriaxone-resistant and sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, ampicillin and ampicillin/ sulbactam. Because of the clinical improvement, it was decided to continue treatment with vancomycin and additionally, with imipenem. At 14 days after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged with outpatient treatment with imipenem up to six weeks of treatment. The control echocardiogram showed the absence of vegetation on the tricuspid valve. This case suggests that R. radiobacter can cause endocarditis in patients with intravascular catheters.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Therapy, Combination , Equipment Contamination , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/etiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/etiology , Imipenem/administration & dosage , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Subclavian Vein , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 33(4): 200-210, dez. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-669575


Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou identificar intervenções baseadas em evidência que compõem o método bundle, designados à redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central. Para a coleta de dados online, em bases nacionais e internacionais, foram utilizados a palavra-chave bundle e os descritores catheter-related infection, infection control e central venous catheterization, resultando, após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, amostra de quinze artigos. Este trabalho evidenciou cinco intervenções como as mais frequentemente empregadas na construção dos bundles: higienização das mãos, gluconato de clorexidina como antisséptico para pele, uso de barreira máxima de precaução durante a inserção cateter, evitar acessar veia femoral e verificar necessidade diária de permanência do cateter, com sua remoção imediata quando não mais indicado. A maioria dos estudos demonstrou resultados estatisticamente significantes na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central.

Esta es una revisión integradora tuvo como objetivo identificar intervenciones basadas en evidencias que componen método bundle de reducción de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéter intravenoso central. Para recopilar los datos en las bases brasileñas e internacionales, utilizando la palabra clave bundle y los descriptores infecciones relacionadas con catéteres, control de infecciones y cateterización venosa central, identificando, con los criterios de inclusión, muestra de quince artículo. Este estudio muestra cinco intervenciones como comúnmente empleadas en los métodos bundles: higiene de las manos, clorhexidina como antiséptico para la piel, uso de precaución de barrera máxima durante la inserción del catéter, evitar el acceso de la vena femoral y comprobar la necesidad diaria del catéter con su retirada inmediata cuando posible. La mayoría de los estudios analizados mostraron una reducción significante de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéteres intravenosos centrales.

This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Blood-Borne Pathogens , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2012; 5 (1): 57-62
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-118161


Red cell exchange/transfusion is frequently used in the management of patients with medical complications related to acute severe sickle cell disease [SCD]. However, peripheral venous access is often difficult without central venous catheters [CVCs] in adult patients with moderate or severe SCD. To review our experience with the use of the PORT-A-CATH device in sixteen patients with SCD undergoing exchange or simple transfusions. Among a cohort of 550 patients who frequently visited the inpatient service, sixteen SCD patients required the insertion of a PORT-A-CATH device. These patients included 3 males and 13 females, aged 25-44years [31.1 +/- 2.3; mean +/- [SD]. A total of 24 PORT-A-CATH devices were implanted in these 16 patients during the study period. Eleven patients had 1 device implanted, three patients had 2 devices, one patient had 3 devices, and one patient had 4 devices implanted. Out of the 24 devices implanted, 17 required removal, due to either infection associated with sepsis and/or thrombosis. The organisms involved were Candida spp. [3], C. Parapsilosis [2], C. albicans [1], C. famata [1], C. lusitanice [1], Staphylococcus spp. [6], and S. aureus [3], as well as the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus [2], alpha hemolytic Streptococcus [1], Diphtheroidbacilli [2], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [2], Ps. Spp. [3], Escherichia coli [3], Klebsiella oxytoca [1], Klebsiella pneumoniae [1], Klebsiella spp. [1], Serratia liquefaciens [1], Serra-tia fanticola [1], Achromobacter spp. [2] Chromobacterium violaceum [1], Delftia acidovirans [1], Stenotrophomonas maltophile [1], Alcaligenes faecalis [1], and Enterobacter cloacae [1]. Two episodes of documented thrombosis were observed

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood/instrumentation , Sepsis/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 18(6): 1212-1220, Nov.-Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-574927


Dressing is an intervention aimed to prevent infection in central venous catheter. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of catheter-related infection and skin toxicity in the use of transparent film in Hickman’s catheter in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A case series with 10 cases was carried out. Due to the presence of exudate on the average for 12 days, sterile gauze dressing was used for 12.9 days (average). Transparent film was used, on average, for 15.1 days. Catheters were precociously removed due to infection in four cases. The highest degree of skin toxicity occurred in a case that used gauze dressing and in three cases with film. The transparent film permitted visualization of the exit site of the catheter and changes with longer intervals.

O curativo é intervenção que visa a prevenção de infecção no cateter venoso central. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar a frequência de infecção, relacionada ao cateter, e toxicidade cutânea, na utilização do curativo de poliuretano no cateter de Hickman, implantado em pacientes submetidos ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas alogênico. Para tal, realizou-se uma série de casos, constituída por 10 casos. O exsudato esteve presente em média por 12 dias, sendo necessário o uso do curativo de gaze estéril, com fita adesiva, por 12,9 dias (média). O curativo de poliuretano foi utilizado, em média, por 15,1 dias. A retirada precoce do cateter por infecção ocorreu em quatro casos. O maior grau de toxicidade cutânea aconteceu em um caso que utilizou o curativo de gaze e em três casos com filme. O filme transparente permitiu a visualização do sítio de saída do cateter e a troca com intervalos maiores.

El curativo es una intervención que tiene por objetivo la prevención de infección en el catéter venoso central. El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la frecuencia de infección relacionada al catéter y la toxicidad cutánea en la utilización del curativo de poliuretano en el catéter de Hickman implantado en pacientes sometidos al trasplante de células tronco hematopoyéticas alogénicas. Para esto se realizó una serie de 10 casos. El exudado estuvo presente en promedio por 12 días, siendo necesario el uso del curativo de gasa estéril con cinta adhesiva por 12,9 días (promedio). El curativo de poliuretano fue utilizado en promedio por 15,1 días. La retirada precoz del catéter debido a surgimiento de infección ocurrió en cuatro casos. El mayor grado de toxicidad cutánea ocurrió en un caso que se utilizó el curativo de gasa y en tres casos que utilizaron la película. La película transparente permitió la visualización del sitio de salida del catéter y la realización del cambio en intervalos mayores.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Polyurethanes , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Young Adult
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(5): 335-340, Oct. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-544985


The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from an open (glass or semi-rigid plastic) infusion container to a closed, fully collapsible plastic infusion container (Viaflex®) on rate and time to onset of central lineassociated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). An open-label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in three intensive care units in Brazil. The CLABSI rate using open infusion containers was compared to the rate using a closed infusion container. Probability of acquiring CLABSI was assessed over time and compared between open and closed infusion container periods; three-day intervals were examined. A total of 1125 adult ICU patients were enrolled. CLABSI rate was significantly higher during the open compared with the closed infusion container period (6.5 versus 3.2 CLABSI/1000 CL days; RR=0.49, 95 percentCI=0.26- 0.95, p=0.031). During the closed infusion container period, the probability of acquiring a CLABSI remained relatively constant along the time of central line use (0.8 percent Days 2-4 to 0.7 percent Days 11-13) but increased in the open infusion container period (1.5 percent Days 2-4 to 2.3 percent Days 11-13). Combined across all time intervals, the chance of a patient acquiring a CLABSI was significantly lower (55 percent) in the closed infusion container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.45, p= 0.019). CLABSIs can be reduced with the use of full barrier precautions, education, and performance feedback. Our results show that switching from an open to a closed infusion container may further reduce CLABSI rate as well as delay the onset of CLABSIs. Closed infusion containers significantly reduced CLABSI rate and the probability of acquiring CLABSI.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/instrumentation , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Incidence , Length of Stay , Prospective Studies
Pakistan Journal of Pathology. 2009; 20 (1): 1-2
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-119596


To establish the bacteriological profile of catheter related infections in patients having various indwelling medical devices. Descriptive study. The study was conducted in the Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore during November 2005 to March 2006. A total of 100 culture positive samples from these patients were included comprising of 68 samples of Endotracheal Tubes, 14 samples of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters, 11 samples of Urinary Catheters and 7 samples of Central Venous Catheters. The most frequent catheter colonizing bacteria were Pseudomonas spp. [34.7%], Klebsiella spp. [27.8%]. Escherichia coli [23.5%], Staphylococcus aureus [5.2%], Coagulase negative Staphylococci [3.5%], Proteus spp. [3.5%], Streptococcus pyogenes [0.9%] and non-haemolytic Streptococci [0.9%]. Catheter related infection remains an ongoing problem which cannot be completely eradicated; however by basic rules of hygiene it can be minimized

Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheters, Indwelling/microbiology , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Child , Bacteria , Urinary Catheterization , Catheterization, Central Venous , Intubation, Intratracheal , Peritoneal Dialysis