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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(2): 74-80, abr./jun. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399545

ABSTRACT

As doenças de notificação obrigatória em bovinos podem gerar impactos sociais e econômicos significativos na cadeia pecuária brasileira, além de consequências negativas no mercado internacional devido a embargos sanitários. Para auxiliar no entendimento de como um sistema de vigilância epidemiológica com mais recursos pode gerar mais credibilidade para o país, foram realizadas análises de correlação entre a notificação de doenças e a estrutura veterinária disponível nos Órgãos Executores de Sanidade Agropecuária (OESAs), a partir dos dados contidos no Sistema Nacional de Informação Zoossanitária (SIZ), entre os anos de 2017 e 2019. Com base nos dados do serviço veterinário, foram produzidos o Índice de Estrutura Física Oficial (IEFO) e o Índice de Recursos Humanos do Serviço Oficial (IRHSO). Foi realizada análise de correlação entre a notificação de doenças de bovinos com a capacidade de estrutura física e recursos humanos de vigilância epidemiológica disponíveis no Serviço Veterinário brasileiro. Os estados AP, RR e SC foram os que mais notificaram brucelose e tuberculose no período e estão entre os melhores índices de estrutura e recursos humanos do país. A análise dos índices mostrou que a raiva não possui correlação significativa com estrutura e recursos humanos do serviço, entretanto, brucelose e tuberculose possuem correlação positiva com estrutura veterinária oficial disponível para a vigilância em bovinos. Portanto, melhorias na estrutura podem refletir no incremento dos índices de notificação das doenças de bovinos, assim como na qualidade de suas informações.


Notifiable diseases in cattle can generate significant social and economic impacts on the Brazilian livestock chain, in addition to impacts on the international market due to sanitary embargoes. To help understand how an epidemiological surveillance system with more resources can generate more credibility for the country, correlation analyzes were carried out between the notification of diseases and the veterinary structure available in the Executing Bodies of Agricultural Health (OESAs), based on the data contained in the National System of Zoosanitary Information (SIZ), between the years 2017 to 2019. Based on public data from the veterinary service, the Official Physical Structure Index (IEFO) and the Official Service Human Resources Index (IRHSO) were produced. Correlation analysis was performed between the notification of bovine diseases with the capacity of physical structure and human resources for epidemiological surveillance available in the Brazilian Veterinary Service. AP, RR and SC were the states that most notified brucellosis and tuberculosis in the period and are among the best indices of structure and human resources in the country. The analysis of correlation indices showed that the rabies disease does not have a significant correlation with the structure and the human resources of the service, however, brucellosis and tuberculosis does have a positive correlation with the official veterinary structure available for surveillance in cattle. Therefore, Improvements in the structure can reflect in the increase of the notification rates, as well as in the quality of its information.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Structure of Services , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Rabies/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Bovine/epidemiology , Brucellosis, Bovine/epidemiology
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 9-12, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393186

ABSTRACT

Mannheimia varigena was identified as the etiologic agent of lameness and coronary band lesion in 30% of cattle in a farm located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Swab samples from the lesions were cultured in McConkey Agar and Blood Agar for microbiological identification. Culture growth was submitted to Gram staining and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification. Antimicrobial susceptibility test based on disc diffusion was performed for three antibiotics: ceftiofur, gentamicin and florfenicol. Furthermore, molecular characterization of 16S rDNA gene sequencing was performed and the data was used in a phylogenetic analysis. For that purpose, total DNA was extracted by thermo extraction directly from the bacterial colonies and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Gram-negative Mannheimia varigena strain LBV010/22 was identified as the causative of the lesions. The strain was susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the analyzed strain is closely related to M. varigena strains from pyelonephritis and respiratory tract. Overall, this is the first report of M. varigena as the causative agent of coronary band injury in bovine. Therefore, our findings show the importance of an accurate microbiological identification of infectious agent in lameness cases in order to prevent the occurrence and perform an appropriate treatment in the future.


Mannheimia varigena foi identificada como agente etiológico de claudicação e lesão de banda coronária em 30% dos bovinos de uma fazenda localizada no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Amostras de swab das lesões foram cultivadas em Ágar McConkey e Ágar Sangue para identificação microbiológica. O crescimento da cultura foi submetido à coloração de Gram e identificação por Espectrometria de Massa de Ionização por Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz (MALDI-TOF MS). O teste de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana baseado na difusão em disco foi realizado para três antibióticos: ceftiofur, gentamicina e florfenicol. Além disso, foi realizada a caracterização molecular do sequenciamento do gene 16S rDNA e o resultado utilizado para análise filogenética. Para tanto, o DNA total foi extraído por termoextração diretamente das colônias bacterianas e uma reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi realizada. Foi identificada como causadora das lesões a cepa gram-negativa de Mannheimia varigenaLBV010/22. Ela foi suscetível a todos os antibióticos testados. A análise filogenética demonstrou que a cepa analisada está intimamente relacionada às M. varigena presentes em pielonefrite e no trato respiratório. No geral, este é o primeiro relato de M. varigenacomo agente causador de lesão de banda coronária em bovinos. Portanto, nossos achados mostram a importância de uma identificação microbiológica precisa do agente infeccioso nos casos de claudicação, a fim de prevenir a ocorrência e realizar um tratamento adequado no futuro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Mannheimia/pathogenicity , Hoof and Claw/injuries , Intermittent Claudication/veterinary
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 64-66, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1395514

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma vivax is considered the most important pathogenic Trypanosoma for cattle and causes great damage to the dairy and beef cattle industries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-T. vivax antibodies in dairy cattle from the municipality of Tapira, located in the Alto Paranaíba region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The 74 blood serum samples from dairy cattle were analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence reaction. The seroprevalence was 82.4 % (61/74), and the highest incidence observed can be correlated with the transit of untested animals, the presence of vectors, and needle sharing by owners. The data allowed defining Tapira as an area of expansion of T. vivax epizootic infections in the state of Minas Gerais.


O Trypanosoma vivax é considerado o mais importante trypanosoma patogênico para bovinos e causa grandes prejuízos na pecuária de corte e leite. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência anticorpos de anti-Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos leiteiros do município de Tapira, localizado na região do Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. As 74 amostras de soro sanguíneo de bovinos leiteiros foram analisadas por meio de reação de imunofluorescência indireta. A soroprevalência foi de 82,4% (61/74), que pode estar relacionada ao trânsito de animais não testados, presença de vetores e compartilhamento de agulhas pelos proprietários. Os dados permitiram definir Tapira como uma área de expansão das infecções epizoóticas por Trypanosoma vivax no estado de Minas Gerais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trypanosoma vivax , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Antibodies/analysis
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009122, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394893

ABSTRACT

Abstract The lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus has an important role in cattle health and productivity worldwide, since infections can lead to substantial economic losses. Despite its importance, few studies investigating the epidemiological aspects of infection by this parasite have been conducted. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of lungworm infection in beef cattle herds reared in an area of livestock production in the northeastern region of Brazil. From September 2020 to August 2021, monthly fecal samples (n = 493) were collected from 46 beef cattle. Among all the animals assessed, lungworm larvae were detected in 8.7% (4/46). None of them presented any clinical sign suggestive of infection by lungworm parasites. Twenty larvae were retrieved, with the minimum number (n = 1) detected in October and December, and the maximum number (n = 13) in November. These presented a mean length of 363 μm (± 28.65 μm) and mean width of 19 μm (± 1.03 μm), and were morphologically similar to Dictyocaulus sp.. This study reports the occurrence of this parasite in this livestock production area. Lastly, local veterinarians need to be aware of inclusion of this parasite in the differential diagnosis of other respiratory infections in beef cattle.


Resumo O parasito pulmonar Dictyocaulus viviparus tem um papel importante na saúde e produtividade bovina em todo o mundo, uma vez que infecções podem levar a perdas econômicas. Além de sua importância, poucos estudos que investigam aspectos epidemiológicos das infecções por esse parasito têm sido realizados. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, relatar a ocorrência de infecção por nematódeos pulmonares em rebanhos bovinos de corte, criados em uma importante área de produção pecuária, na região Nordeste do Brasil. De setembro de 2020 a agosto de 2021, foram coletadas, mensalmente, amostras fecais (n = 493) de 46 bovinos de corte. De todos os animais avaliados, larvas de nematódeos pulmonares foram detectadas em 8,7% (4/46). Os animais não apresentaram nenhum sinal clínico sugestivo de infecção por parasitos pulmonares. Vinte larvas foram recuperadas, com o número mínimo (n = 1) detectado em outubro e dezembro, e o número máximo (n = 13) em novembro. Apresentavam comprimento médio de 363 μm (± 28,65 μm), largura média de 19 μm (±1,03 μm) e eram morfologicamente semelhantes a Dictyocaulus sp.. Este estudo relata a ocorrência desse parasito nesta área. Logo, os veterinários locais devem estar atentos à inclusão desse parasito no diagnóstico diferencial de outras infecções respiratórias em bovinos de corte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Dictyocaulus Infections/diagnosis , Dictyocaulus Infections/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Dictyocaulus/isolation & purification , Larva/anatomy & histology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e018021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360926

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate diagnostic techniques for trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma vivax, in naturally infected cattle in Minas Gerais, Zona da Mata. The deaths of six lactating cows with similar clinical conditions—characterized by hyporexia, hypogalactia, and recumbency—had been reported from one property. Initially, two animals were examined and diagnosed with trypanosomiasis through identification of the protozoan in a blood smear. After the initial diagnosis, all lactating cows (n=37) on the property were examined, and blood samples were collected for tests including whole blood smear, buffy coat smear, Woo's technique, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Woo's test, buffy coat smears, and whole blood smears indicated that 4/37 (10.81%) animals were positive for trypanosomiasis, whereas ELISA and PCR indicated that 33/37 (89.19%) and 27/37 (72.97%) animals, respectively, were positive. The agreement obtained between parasitological techniques was classified as high, while between ELISA and PCR, no agreement. In conclusion, parasitological techniques have a low capacity to identify infected animals in the chronic stage of T. vivax infection. Therefore, techniques such as PCR and/or ELISA should be used to minimize the occurrence of false negatives.


Resumo Este estudo objetiva avaliar as técnicas de diagnóstico da tripanossomíase, causada pelo Trypanosoma vivax, em bovinos naturalmente infectados, em Minas Gerais, Zona da Mata. A morte de seis vacas em lactação com condições clínicas semelhantes - caracterizadas por hiporexia, hipogalaxia e decúbito - foi relatada em uma propriedade. Inicialmente, dois animais foram examinados e diagnosticados com tripanossomíase através da identificação do protozoário em esfregaço sanguíneo. Após o diagnóstico inicial, todas as vacas em lactação (n = 37) na propriedade foram examinadas, e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para testes, incluindo esfregaço de sangue total, esfregaço de capa leucocitária, técnica de Woo, ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). O teste de Woo, os esfregaços de capa leucocitária e de sangue total indicaram que 4/37 (10,81%) animais foram positivos para tripanossomíase, enquanto ELISA e PCR indicaram que 33/37 (89,19%) e 27/37 (72,97%) animais, respectivamente, foram positivos. A concordância entre técnicas parasitológicas foi classificada como alta, enquanto entre ELISA e PCR, sem concordância. As técnicas parasitológicas apresentam baixa capacidade para identificar animais infectados na fase crônica da infecção por T. vivax. Dessa forma, técnicas como PCR e/ou ELISA devem ser utilizadas para minimizar a ocorrência de falsos negativos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Trypanosomiasis, African/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis, African/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis, African/epidemiology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Lactation , Cattle , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trypanosoma vivax
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06961, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356551

ABSTRACT

Baccharis vulneraria Backer is a sub-shrub frequently found in southern Brazil, which leads to gastrointestinal tract intoxication. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of two cases of B. vulneraria poisoning in cattle. Two bovines from two different municipalities in the Itajaí Valley, Santa Catarina, Brazil were necropsied and performed the histopathological evaluation and botanical classification of the plant found in the pasture. Bovine 1 had dehydration, ruminal atony, diarrhea, congested mucous membranes and hypothermia for 20 hours, and died during clinical care. At necropsy, there was moderate multifocal detachment and reddening of the forestomachs mucosa. Bovine 2 presented anorexia, dry feces, ruminal atony, vocalization and muscle tremors for ten days, unresponsive to treatments, evolving to death. At necropsy were seen loosening of the mucosa with marked diffuse reddening and transmural edema. The microscopic exam revealed degeneration, necrosis, vesiculation, and detachment of the forestomachs' mucosa, associated with moderate multifocal neutrophilic infiltrate (Bovine 1); marked diffuse transmural necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and marked fibrinous exudation (Bovine 2). A large amount of B. vulneraria was found in the pastures, with signs of consumption. In this report, a case of subacute evolution of B. vulneraria poisoning was observed, since the poisoning by this plant is usually acute. More knowledge about poisoning by this plant is necessary for the prevention and control, avoiding new mortality cases.(AU)


Baccharis vulneraria Backer é um subarbusto frequentemente encontrado no sul do Brasil, que leva a um quadro de intoxicação nocivo ao trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de dois casos de intoxicação por B. vulneraria em bovinos. Foram necropsiados dois bovinos de dois municípios do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com avaliação histopatológica dos órgãos e classificação botânica dos exemplares da planta localizada nos piquetes. No exame clínico do Bovino 1 foram constatados desidratação, atonia ruminal, diarreia, mucosas congestas e hipotermia durante 20 horas, com morte durante atendimento clínico. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento e avermelhamento multifocais moderados na mucosa dos proventrículos. Já o Bovino 2 teve manifestações clínicas de anorexia, fezes secas, atonia ruminal, vocalização e tremores musculares por 10 dias, não responsivas a tratamento, evoluindo para óbito. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento da mucosa dos proventrículos, com avermelhamento e edema transmural difusos acentuados. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose da mucosa proventricular, vacuolização e desprendimento do epitélio, infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal moderado (Bovino 1), e necrose transmural difusa acentuada, edema, hemorragia e exsudação fibrinosa acentuados (Bovino 2). Grande quantidade de B. vulneraria foi encontrada nas pastagens dos bovinos, com sinais de consumo. É relatado um caso de evolução subaguda de intoxicação por B. vulneraria, visto que a intoxicação por essa planta geralmente tem curso agudo. Conhecimentos acerca desta planta são necessários para prevenção e controle da intoxicação, evitando novos casos de mortalidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/pathology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Baccharis/poisoning , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Plants, Toxic , Fatal Outcome
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06961, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487683

ABSTRACT

Baccharis vulneraria Backer is a sub-shrub frequently found in southern Brazil, which leads to gastrointestinal tract intoxication. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of two cases of B. vulneraria poisoning in cattle. Two bovines from two different municipalities in the Itajaí Valley, Santa Catarina, Brazil were necropsied and performed the histopathological evaluation and botanical classification of the plant found in the pasture. Bovine 1 had dehydration, ruminal atony, diarrhea, congested mucous membranes and hypothermia for 20 hours, and died during clinical care. At necropsy, there was moderate multifocal detachment and reddening of the forestomachs mucosa. Bovine 2 presented anorexia, dry feces, ruminal atony, vocalization and muscle tremors for ten days, unresponsive to treatments, evolving to death. At necropsy were seen loosening of the mucosa with marked diffuse reddening and transmural edema. The microscopic exam revealed degeneration, necrosis, vesiculation, and detachment of the forestomachs' mucosa, associated with moderate multifocal neutrophilic infiltrate (Bovine 1); marked diffuse transmural necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and marked fibrinous exudation (Bovine 2). A large amount of B. vulneraria was found in the pastures, with signs of consumption. In this report, a case of subacute evolution of B. vulneraria poisoning was observed, since the poisoning by this plant is usually acute. More knowledge about poisoning by this plant is necessary for the prevention and control, avoiding new mortality cases.


Baccharis vulneraria Backer é um subarbusto frequentemente encontrado no sul do Brasil, que leva a um quadro de intoxicação nocivo ao trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de dois casos de intoxicação por B. vulneraria em bovinos. Foram necropsiados dois bovinos de dois municípios do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com avaliação histopatológica dos órgãos e classificação botânica dos exemplares da planta localizada nos piquetes. No exame clínico do Bovino 1 foram constatados desidratação, atonia ruminal, diarreia, mucosas congestas e hipotermia durante 20 horas, com morte durante atendimento clínico. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento e avermelhamento multifocais moderados na mucosa dos proventrículos. Já o Bovino 2 teve manifestações clínicas de anorexia, fezes secas, atonia ruminal, vocalização e tremores musculares por 10 dias, não responsivas a tratamento, evoluindo para óbito. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento da mucosa dos proventrículos, com avermelhamento e edema transmural difusos acentuados. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose da mucosa proventricular, vacuolização e desprendimento do epitélio, infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal moderado (Bovino 1), e necrose transmural difusa acentuada, edema, hemorragia e exsudação fibrinosa acentuados (Bovino 2). Grande quantidade de B. vulneraria foi encontrada nas pastagens dos bovinos, com sinais de consumo. É relatado um caso de evolução subaguda de intoxicação por B. vulneraria, visto que a intoxicação por essa planta geralmente tem curso agudo. Conhecimentos acerca desta planta são necessários para prevenção e controle da intoxicação, evitando novos casos de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Baccharis/poisoning , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Plant Poisoning/pathology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Plants, Toxic
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1023-1028, Sept.-Oct. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345254

ABSTRACT

Bovine Trichomoniasis (BT) is an infectious disease caused by Tritrichomonas foetus that can be transmitted either sexually or by fomites. In males, the disease is asymptomatic and permanent. T. foetus has been detected in semen samples where it is able to remain viable even when frozen. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of T. foetus in 27 samples of commercial frozen bovine semen by culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Samples were thawed in water at 37°C. Part of the samples was inoculated in a test tube containing Diamond's medium and incubated at 35°C. Growth was evaluated every 24 hours via direct examination under a microscope. The other part was placed in an Eppendorf tube and frozen for later molecular analysis. After 10 days of culture, all samples were negative for T. foetus. The Quick-DNA Miniprep Kit (Zymo Research) without proteinase K was used for DNA extraction. The primers used in PCR were TRF3 and TRF4. PCR results were negative for all samples. In conclusion, bovine semen samples were negative for T. foetus in both diagnostic methods, according to the adopted methodology.(AU)


A tricomonose genital bovina (TGB), uma doença infectocontagiosa causada pelo Tritrichomonas foetus, é transmitida por via venérea e fômites contaminados. Em machos a doença é assintomática e permanente. O agente já foi encontrado em amostras de sêmen e é capaz de permanecer viável quando congelado. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a presença de T. foetus em 27 amostras de sêmen bovino comercial congelado, por meio de cultivo e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). As amostras foram descongeladas em água a 37ºC; parte foi inoculada em tubo de ensaio contendo meio Diamond, incubada a 35ºC com consequente avaliação de crescimento e avaliada a cada 24 horas, via exame direto em microscópio, e a outra parte foi diluída em PBS para análise molecular. Após 10 dias de cultivo, todas as amostras foram negativas. Para a detecção molecular foi utilizado o kit Quick-DNA Miniprep (Zymo Research) sem proteinase K para extração do DNA. Os iniciadores utilizados na PCR foram TRF3 e TRF4. O resultado da PCR foi negativo para todas as amostras. Conclui-se que as amostras utilizadas foram realmente negativas para a presença do patógeno em ambos os métodos diagnósticos, o que comprovou a inocuidade do sêmen testado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Semen/parasitology , Trichomonas Infections/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1029-1038, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345270

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the most common diseases during the rearing period of Holstein calves in a high-production dairy farm. The calves (n = 600) were allocated to three groups based on age: G1 (1-7 days, n = 216), G2 (30-40 days, n = 188), and G3 (69-85 days, n = 196). They were evaluated over 60 days at eight different times. The morbidity rates were 47.67% (286/600) for diarrhea, 73.00% (438/600) for bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and 3.83% (23/600) for umbilical inflammation (UI). The mortality rate was 2.33% (14/600) for all the animals studied. The morbidity differed in the groups, with higher rates of diarrhea (78.85%, 166/216) and UI (6.94%, 15/216) in G1, and the highest rate of BRD in G3 (79.59%, 156/196). Diarrhea was associated with the occurrence of BRD in G1 and G2. Even in farms with good management practices, there is high morbidity associated with diarrhea and BRD, with the morbidity rate for diarrhea decreasing and that for BRD increasing as the animals get older. In addition, diarrhea is an important risk factor for BRD, especially in younger animals.(AU)


O presente estudo objetivou investigar a morbidade e a mortalidade associadas às doenças mais comuns no período de criação de bezerras da raça Holandesa, em uma fazenda leiteira de alta produção. As bezerras (n = 600) foram alocadas em três grupos de acordo com a idade: G1 (1-7 dias, n = 216); G2 (30-40 dias, n = 188); G3 (69-85 dias, n = 196). Os animais foram avaliados durante 60 dias, em oito momentos diferentes. A morbidade foi de 47,67% (286/600) para diarreia, 73,00% (438/600) para doença respiratória bovina (DRB) e 3,83% (23/600) para inflamação umbilical (IU). A taxa de mortalidade foi de 2,33% (14/600), para o total de animais avaliados. A morbidade foi diferente entre os grupos, com maior frequência de diarreia (78,85%, 166/216) e IU (6,94%, 15/216) no G1, sendo a maior ocorrência de DRB no G3 (79,59%, 156/196). A diarreia foi associada à DRB no G1 e no G2. Mesmo em fazendas com boas práticas de manejo, há alta morbidade por diarreia e DRB, com a taxa de morbidade por diarreia diminuindo e a de DRB aumentando à medida que os animais envelhecem. Além disso, a diarreia é um importante fator de risco para DRB, especialmente em animais mais jovens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/mortality , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex/mortality , Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/mortality , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 138-141, jul./set. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366221

ABSTRACT

This report aims to discuss the occurrence of protozoan infestation in a Girolanda cattle herd in the state of Bahia / BA. Bovine trypanosomiasis is a severe disease that is harmful to cattle, inducing large productive and economic losses. The animals are affected by protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma spp., giving rise to infestations in the vast majority of them in a silent and lasting way. In the Bahian rural property described, 10% of adult cows died and the rest of the animals showed clinical signs of anemia, drop in milk production, low body score, apathy, among others. Among the information obtained through the farm manager, who helped in the diagnosis and in ordering tests for the respective disease were: purchase of cattle from the region of the state of Minas Gerais and dubious management of oxytocin for improvements in milk production (suspected shared needles). Faced with the suspicion and in conjunction with the information obtained, laboratory tests and molecular tests were carried out to confirm the suspicion. After the examinations, it was found that the animals were affected by protozoa of the genus Trypanossoma vivax. The animals were treated with volume replenishers and drugs such as isometamidium chloride in a single dose calculated according to the body weight.


O presente relato tem por objetivo discorrer sobre a ocorrência da infestação protozoária em um rebanho bovino da raça Girolanda no estado da Bahia/BA. A tripanossomíase bovina é uma doença severa e prejudicial aos bovinos, induzindo-os a grandes perdas produtivas e econômicas. Os animais são afetados por protozoários do gênero Trypanosoma spp., dandoorigem a infestações em sua grande maioria de forma silenciosa e duradoura. Na propriedade rural baiana descrita, 10% das vacas adultas morreram e o restante dos animais apresentava sinais clínicos de anemia, queda da produção leiteira, baixo escore corpóreo, apatia, prostração, entre outros. Dentre as informações obtidas através do gerente da fazenda, que auxiliaram no diagnóstico e na requisição de exames para a respectiva doença estavam: compra de bovinos da região do estado de Minas Gerais e manejo duvidoso de ocitocina para melhorias na produção leiteira (suspeita de agulhas compartilhadas). Diante da suspeita e em conjunto com informações obtidas, foram realizados exames laboratoriais e testes moleculares para confirmar a suspeita. Após a realização dos exames, constatou-se que os animais estavam acometidos por protozoários do gênero Trypanossoma vivax. Os animais foram tratados com repositores de volume e fármacos como o cloreto de isometamidium em uma única dose calculada de acordo com o peso corpóreo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Protozoan Infections , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine , Cattle Diseases , Trypanosoma , Livestock
11.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(2): 51-60, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376407

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la seroprevalencia de Neospora caninum en los bovinos de los tambos del Valle del Lerma (Salta, Argentina) y los factores de riesgo asociados a la transmisión de este parásito en esta región. Se tomaron muestras de suero de aproximadamente 40 vacas en cada tambo, que fueron analizadas por ELISA indirecto para detectar anticuerpos contra N. caninum. También se discriminó entre infecciones crónicas y agudas midiendo la avidez de dichos anticuerpos. Todos los tambos presentaron al menos un bovino seropositivoy la media fue de 35,3 ± 14,9% de animales positivos. También se detectaron anticuerpos específicos en caninos presentes en 9 de los 16 tambos, con un valor de seropositi- vidad del 71,7 ± 19,9%. El 56,3% de los bovinos seropositivos cursaban infecciones agudas. Se halló una asociación negativa entre la seroprevalencia y el índice de avidez de los anticuerpos específicos, lo que indica que la presencia de animales con infecciones agudas se asocia a mayor seroprevalencia. Los campos con pastoreo presentaron mayor cantidad de infecciones recien tes. Estos resultados revelan por primera vez la importancia de este parásito en los tambos de la región y la necesidad de propiciar el desarrollo de programas de control considerando los distintos factores de riesgo que afectan la situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad.


Abstract The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in cattle in Valle de Lerma, province of Salta, Argentina, and the risk factors associated with the disease. Serum samples were taken from 40 cows in each dairy herd, which were analyzed by indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Chronic and acute infections were discriminated by measuring the avidity of these antibodies. All the herds exhibited at least one seropositive animal, the mean being 35.3 ± 14.9% of positive animals. Specific antibodies were also detected in dogs present in 9of the herds, which showed a seropositivity value of 71.7% ± 19.9%. Among the seropositive animals, 56.3% showed acute infections. A negative association was found between seroprevalence and the avidity index of specific antibodies, indicating that the presence of animals with acute infections is associated with higher seroprevalence. Fields with grazing showed more recent infections. These results show for the first time the importance of this parasite in this particular region and the need to promote the development of control programs considering the different risk factors that affect the epidemiological situation of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dogs , Female , Cattle Diseases , Coccidiosis , Neospora , Argentina/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Farms
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 67-78, May. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endometritis is the most common disease of dairy cows and traditionally treated with antibiotics. Lactic acid bacteria can inhibit the growth of pathogens and also have potential for treatment of endometritis. Using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, we sequenced the fulllength l6S rRNA of the microbiota in uterine mucus samples from 31 cows with endometritis, treated with lactic acid bacteria (experimental [E] group) and antibiotics (control [C] group) separately. Microbiota profiles taken before and after treatment were compared. RESULTS: After both treatments, bacterial species richness was significantly higher than before, but there was no significant difference in bacterial diversity. Abundance of some bacteria increased after both lactic acid bacteria and antibiotic treatment: Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas veronii. The bacterial species that significantly decreased in abundance varied depending on whether the cows had been treated with lactic acid bacteria or antibiotics. Abundance of Staphylococcus equorum and Treponema brennaborense increased after lactic acid bacteria treatment but decreased after antibiotic treatment. According to COG-based functional metagenomic predictions, 384 functional proteins were significantly differently expressed after treatment. E and C group protein expression pathways were significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that lactic acid bacteria could cure endometritis and restore a normal physiological state, while avoiding the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment, such as the reductions in abundance of beneficial microbiota. This suggests that lactic acid bacteria treatment has potential as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Endometritis/drug therapy , Lactobacillales/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/drug effects , Uterus/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillales/genetics , Microbiota
14.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 53-56, jan./mar. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1368815

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência de animais soro reagentes à brucelose bovina em fazendas localizadas no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, por meio de exame sorológico utilizando o Antígeno Acidificado Tamponado (AAT) e discutir as possíveis diferenças entre as soroprevalências de fêmeas e machos. Foram avaliados, a partir do teste de triagem com Antígeno Acidificado Tamponado (AAT), 724 bovinos da raça Nelore, sendo 274 machos e 450 fêmeas, provenientes de oito propriedades com histórico de problemas reprodutivos. O teste foi procedido conforme o protocolo determinado pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA). Os resultados demonstraram baixa soroprevalência da doença nos bovinos testados, sendo detectada prevalência para a doença de 1,10% nos machos e 2,88% nas fêmeas.Quando se considera o touro isoladamente nos rebanhos, pode-se perceber que a fertilidade é muito mais importante nos machos do que nas fêmeas individualmente, uma vez que os touros podem se acasalar com um número muito maior de fêmeas, seja na monta natural ou na inseminação artificial, demonstrando a importância do inquérito epidemiológico na população geral, principalmente nos machos. A maior frequência da doença foi encontrada nas fêmeas podendo estar relacionada à infecção por Brucella spp. no ambiente decorrente de parto ou aborto tornando as fêmeas transmissoras permanentes da doença.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of seroreactive animals to bovine brucellosis in farms located in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, by means of a serological examination using the Acidified Buffered Antigen (AAT) and to discuss the possible differences between the seroprevalence of females and males. A total of 724 Nellore cattle, 274 males and 450 females, from eight farms with a history of reproductive problems, were evaluated using the screening test with Acidified Buffered Antigen (AAT). The test was carried out according to the protocol determined by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA).The results showed a low seroprevalence of the disease in the tested cattle, with a prevalence of 1.10% in males and 2.88% in females.When considered the bull alone in herds, it can be shown that fertility is much more important in males than in females individually, since bulls can mate with a much larger number of females, either in natural mating or in artificial insemination, demonstrating the importance of epidemiological survey in the general population, especially in males. The highest frequency of the disease was found in females and may be related to infection by Brucella spp. in the environment from childbirth or abortion making females permanent transmitters of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Brucella abortus/pathogenicity , Brucellosis, Bovine/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Health Surveys/methods , Abortion, Veterinary/pathology , Farms
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e020620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288685

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ectoparasitic infestation in dairy cattle, the most common being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, causes significant loss in production. The control of ectoparasites often occurs incorrectly, resulting in resistance to the active ingredients and residues in milk. To understand of acaricide use in the microregion of Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil), questionnaires were applied to the owners of 100 dairy farms in the region and were selected randomly. Dairy farms were allocated according to production scale: up to 150 liters/day, 151-400 liters/day and more than 400 liters/day. The interviewees were asked about production characteristics, acaricide management and active ingredients. The interview answers were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results showed that all properties, independent of production-scale, used acaricides. The most cited was: Cypermethrin Chlorpyrifos Citronellal (31%), Fluazuron (18.6%) and Fipronil (17%). Among the interviewed, 41,1% use drugs that have restrictions that are not allowed in legislation for use in lactating dairy cows (fluazuron, fipronil, ivermectin). 15% affirmed they weren't aware of the "withdrawal period" of medication and 73% change in the active ingredient used. In order to revert this antiparasitic drug's resistance situation and contamination of milk with drug residues, it is necessary to focus on the awareness of milk producers and training of labor.


Resumo A infestação por ectoparasitas em bovinos leiteiros, sendo o mais comum o Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, causa prejuízos significativos na produção. No entanto, o controle dos ectoparasitas geralmente ocorre incorretamente, resultando em resistência aos princípios ativos e presença de resíduos no leite. Para entender os padrões de uso de acaricidas na microrregião de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram aplicados questionários aos proprietários de 100 fazendas leiteiras que foram classificadas de acordo com uma escala de produção: até 150 litros/dia, de 151 a 400 litros/dia e mais de 400 litros/dia. Os entrevistados foram questionados sobre características da produção, manejo do acaricida de gado e conhecimento sobre os princípios ativos. Todas as propriedades, independentemente da escala de produção, usavam acaricidas. Foram citados com maior frequência: Cipermetrina + Clorpirifós + Citronelal (31%), Fluazuron (18.6%) e Fipronil (17%). Entre os produtores entrevistados, 41,1 % fazem uso de drogas com restrição que não são atualmente permitidas na legislação para uso em vacas em lactação (fluazuron, fipronil, ivermectina). 15% dos produtores de leite afirmaram não estar cientes do "período de carência" dos medicamentos; outros relatam trocas constantes do princípio ativo utilizado. Para reverter a situação do uso indiscriminado de antiparasitários, é necessário focar na conscientização dos produtores de leite e na formação do trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cattle Diseases , Rhipicephalus , Acaricides , Brazil , Lactation , Cattle , Farms
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e003621, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288706

ABSTRACT

Abstract The macroscopic, histological, and molecular aspects of Sarcocystis spp. were examined in the tissues of two cattle and four sheep, 16 and eight fragments analyzed respectively, condemned in the slaughterhouse. All 24 samples were collected and analyzed for detecting macrocysts and macroscopic lesions. Subsequently, subdivided for direct examination, polymerase chain reaction and histopathological examination. All sheep tissues samples had grossly white round to oval tissue cysts, ranging from 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter. In contrast, cattle tissues did not present grossly visible cysts but had randomly distributed white-yellow foci with irregular contours. All samples from cattle and sheep had microscopic cysts. In the histological examination of sheep tissues, circular to elongated, encapsulated, basophilic structures ranging from 30 to 3,000 µm in length and 20 to 1,000 µm in width were observed within the skeletal muscle fibers. In cattle tissues, all cardiac muscle four fragments analyzed contained circular to elongated basophilic structures inside cardiomyocytes and in some Purkinje fibers. PCR were performed using the primers: 2L and 3H. In conclusion, all 24 tissues were infected with Sarcocystis spp., and S. gigantea (in sheep) and S. cruzi (in cattle). were the identified species by sequencing.


Resumo Os aspectos macroscópicos, histológicos e moleculares de Sarcocystis spp. foram examinados nos tecidos de dois bovinos e quatro ovinos, 16 e oito fragmentos analisados, respectivamente, condenados no matadouro. Todas as 24 amostras foram coletadas e analisadas para detecção de macrocistos e lesões macroscópicas. Posteriormente, subdivididas para exame direto, reação em cadeia da polimerase e exame histopatológico. Todas as amostras de tecidos de ovelha apresentavam cistos grosseiramente visíveis, caracterizados como brancos, de redondos a ovais e estruturas variando de 0,3 a 1 cm de diâmetro. Em contraste, os tecidos de bovinos não apresentavam cistos grosseiramente visíveis, mas tinham focos branco-amarelos com contornos irregulares, distribuídos aleatoriamente. Todas as amostras de bovinos e ovinos apresentavam cistos microscópicos. No exame histológico de tecidos ovinos foram observadas estruturas basofílicas circulares a alongadas, encapsuladas, variando de 30 a 3.000 µm de comprimento e 20 a 1.000 µm de largura dentro das fibras do músculo esquelético. Nos tecidos de bovinos, todos os quatro fragmentos de músculo cardíaco analisados continham estruturas basofílicas circulares a alongadas, dentro dos cardiomiócitos e em algumas fibras de Purkinje. PCRs foram realizadas utilizando-se os "primers" 2L e 3H. Em conclusão, todos os 24 tecidos estavam infectados com Sarcocystis spp., sendo S. gigantea (em ovinos) e S. cruzi (em bovinos) as espécies identificadas por sequenciamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Cattle , Sheep , Abattoirs
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(1)2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1507800

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Indigenous people in a far-flung mountainous area without basic facilities, mainly rely on medicinal plants to cope with various veterinary health problems. Objective: The present study was carried out to explore the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Kaghan Valley, district Mansehra, Western Himalayas-Pakistan. Method: Ethnoveterinary data were collected between February to October 2014 from nine villages of the Kaghan Valley by involving 80 local people include traditional healers using a semi-structured interview. Results: A sum of 41 plant taxa of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was documented for treating livestock ailments. Out of which, herbaceous plants were recorded with high percentage (27 species, 65.8 %). Most of the species were used to treat gastrointestinal diseases (12 taxa), followed by health improvement (7 taxa). The widely used part of plants for livestock aliments was the whole plant (9 species) followed by leaves (7 species), and preparation were paste (18 species) followed by powder with 10 species. The highest used values were recorded for Arisaema costatum (0.82), Primula denticulata (0.76), and high relative frequency citations for Berberis lyceum and Dryopteris ramosa with 0.37 each. Among the plant species Skimmia laureola, Thymus linearis and Phytolacca latbenia were among the taxa with cent fidelity level. Conclusion: The flora used in traditional remedies of the valley was found mostly endemic due to excessive utilization. Thus, further chemical investigation, better utilization and conservation of indigenous use of the reported species should be considered for future work.


Introducción: Los pueblos indígenas de zonas montañosas lejanas sin facilidades básicas dependen principalmente de las plantas medicinales para afrontar problemas de salud de tipo veterinario. Objetivo: Explorar el conocimiento tradicional en las prácticas etnoveterinarias en el valle de Kaghan, distrito de Mansehra, Himalaya occidental-Pakistán. Métodos: Se recopilaron datos etnoveterinarios mediante una entrevista semiestructurada entre febrero y octubre de 2014 en nueve aldeas del valle de Kaghan, con la participación de 80 habitantes locales, incluidos curanderos tradicionales. Resultados: Se documentó un total de 41 taxones de plantas medicinales etnoveterinarias para el tratamiento de enfermedades del ganado. Se registró un alto porcentaje de plantas herbáceas (27 especies, 65.8 %). La mayoría de las especies utilizadas han sido para tratar enfermedades gastrointestinales (12 taxones), y mejora de la salud (7 taxones). Para el tratamiento de enfermedades del ganado, lo más usual fue utilizar la planta entera (9 especies), seguida de las hojas (7 especies), con preparación en pasta (18 especies) y en polvo (10 especies). Las especies registradas con más uso fueron: Arisaema costatum (0.82), Primula denticulata (0.76) y Berberis lyceum y Dryopteris ramosa con la misma alta frecuencia relativa (0.37 cada una). Las especies Skimmia laureola, Thymus linearis y Phytolacca latbenia se reportaron entre los taxones con mayor nivel de fidelidad porcentual. Conclusión: La flora utilizada en los remedios tradicionales del valle de Kaghan fue mayoritariamente endémica. Se propone para trabajos futuros mayor investigación química, y mayor utilización y conservación en las especies de plantas reportadas por los indígenas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/therapy , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Pakistan
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e009621, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cattle are an important source of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium, identify the species and determine the risk factors relating to environment, animals and management among dairy calves in eight Brazilian states. A total of 408 fecal samples from calves aged 1-60 days were analyzed. An epidemiological questionnaire was completed. Sample screening was performed using Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the positive samples were subjected to nested PCR. Cryptosporidium species were identified by means of the PCR-RFLP technique, using SSPI, ASEI and MBOII enzymes. The Ziehl-Neelsen technique showed that 89.7% (35/39) of the farms and 52.9% (216/408) of the samples were positive. Through nested PCR, these protozoa were detected in 54.6% of the samples. The 56 samples subjected to PCR-RFLP presented Cryptosporidium parvum. There was higher prevalence of the parasite in animals aged 7 to 28 days (62.6%). Diarrhea, ages between seven and 28 days and a spring water source were factors associated with the risk of infection. The calf hutch-type management system was associated with reduced infection. These findings demonstrate the high level of Cryptosporidium spp. circulation in cattle herds and the predominance of the species C. parvum.


Resumo O gado é uma fonte importante de espécies zoonóticas de Cryptosporidium para o homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a presença de Cryptosporidium, identificar a espécie e determinar os fatores de risco relacionados ao meio ambiente, aos animais e ao manejo em bezerros leiteiros em oito estados brasileiros. Um total de 408 amostras fecais de bezerros, com idade entre 1 e 60 dias, foram analisadas. Um questionário epidemiológico foi preenchido. A triagem das amostras foi realizada pela técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen, e as amostras positivas foram submetidas à "nested" PCR. As espécies de Cryptosporidium foram identificadas pela técnica de PCR-RFLP, utilizando-se as enzimas SSPI, ASEI e MBOII. A técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen mostrou que 89,7% (35/39) das fazendas e 52,9% (216/408) das amostras foram positivas. Por meio de nested PCR, esses protozoários foram detectados em 54,6% das amostras. As 56 amostras submetidas à PCR-RFLP apresentaram Cryptosporidium parvum. Houve maior prevalência do parasita em animais de 7 a 28 dias (62,6%). Diarreia, idade entre sete e 28 dias, e fonte de água mineral foram fatores associados ao risco de infecção. O sistema de manejo do tipo "casinha" para bezerros foi associado à redução da infecção. Esses achados demonstram o alto nível de Cryptosporidium spp. em circulação nos rebanhos bovinos e o predomínio da espécie C. parvum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/genetics , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Prevalence , Feces , Farms
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e014321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found in ruminants' erythrocytes and is the etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis. The bacterium's genetic diversity has been characterized based on sequences of major surface proteins (MSPs), such as MSP1α. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. marginale in cattle in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. To this end, 343 blood samples were harvested and subjected to iELISA assays using the recombinant surface protein MSP5. Out of 343 blood samples, 235 (68.5%) were randomly chosen and submitted to DNA extraction, qPCR and conventional PCR targeting the msp1α gene to determine amino acid sequences and classify the genotypes. The iELISA results showed 81.34% seropositivity (279/343), whereas qPCR revealed 224 positive samples (95.32%). Among these qPCR-positive samples, 67.4% (151/224) were also positive in the cPCR. Among the 50 obtained sequences, 21 strains had not been previously reported. Regarding the genotypes, H (26/50) and E (18/50) were identified most often, while genotypes F and C were only identified twice each and B and G once each. In conclusion, high prevalence and genetic diversity for A. marginale were observed in dairy cattle herds in the state of Maranhão.


Resumo Anaplasma marginale é uma bactéria Gram-negativa intracelular obrigatória de eritrócitos de ruminantes e responsável pela anaplasmose bovina. A diversidade genética de A. marginale tem sido caracterizada com base nas sequências das principais proteínas de superfície (MSPs), como a MSP1α. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a diversidade genética de A. marginale em bovinos no estado do Maranhão, Nordeste do Brasil. Dessa forma, 343 amostras de sangue foram submetidas ao ensaio iELISA, utilizando-se a proteína recombinante MSP5. Das 343 amostras de sangue, 235 (68,5%) foram escolhidas aleatoriamente e submetidas à extração de DNA, qPCR e PCR convencional para gene msp1α, para determinação das sequências de aminoácidos e classificação dos genótipos. Os resultados do iELISA mostraram 81,34% de soropositividade (279/343), enquanto qPCR revelou 224 amostras positivas (95,32%). Dentre estas na qPCR, 67,4% (151/224) mostraram-se positivas no PCR convencional. Das 50 sequências obtidas, 21 cepas não haviam sido relatadas anteriormente. Em relação aos genótipos, H (26/50) e E (18/50) foram os mais frequentes, enquanto os genótipos F e C foram identificados apenas duas vezes cada, e B e G uma vez cada. Em conclusão, alta prevalência e marcante diversidade genética de A. marginale foram observadas em rebanhos leiteiros no estado do Maranhão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle Diseases , Anaplasma marginale/genetics , Anaplasmosis , Genetic Variation , Brazil , Cattle , Genotype
20.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1833, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363712

ABSTRACT

Pathological changes in the umbilical region are common in calves. Among such alterations, omphalitis is included. This term is used to define inflammation and infection of the external structures of the umbilicus. According to the affected structures, it can be subclassified into omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, omphalourachitis and panvasculitis. These inflammations are usually associated with bacterial infections. There are predisposing conditions that include inadequate handling such as poor hygiene and neglect of primary care. Omphalitis can affect the animal in a multisystemic way, compromising its well-being and bringing economic losses. In treatment, the use of antimicrobials does not always solve the problem. Thus, surgical treatment can be used, which has good results and should be the choice in the disease. The objective of this work is to report 30 cases of omphalitis in calves, submitted to surgical or conservative treatment. Thirty cases of omphalitis in calves treated in the routine of the Veterinary Hospital of the Paranaense University was analyzed. On physical examination, the animals presented fever, apathy, hyporexia or anorexia and increase of umbilical volume, usually with purulent secretion. Some animals had sepsis and arthritis. In animals with sepsis, hyperemia of the episcleral vessels, dehydration and severe apathy were observed. In calves with arthritis, increased joint volume, pain on palpation and lameness were observed. In animals where the owners did not authorize the surgery, treatment was instituted with sulfadoxine and flunixim meglumine. In dehydrated calves, fluid therapy was used. Animals that were surgically treated received the same clinical treatment protocol as non-operated animals. The surgical procedure was performed under general anesthesia and consisted of resection of the affected umbilical structures. Omphalophlebitis was the most common illness. The most frequent complication was sepsis. Calves treated surgically had a higher survival rate (86.66%) than those treated clinically (46.67%). The clinical signs presented by all animals converged with the literature, allowing for clinical diagnosis. Clinical examination is essential for diagnosis in omphalitis cases. Complementary methods include ultrasound, thermography and laparoscopy, which are important to identify changes in intra-abdominal umbilical structures. Accurate diagnosis of the involved structures was only possible in animals surgically, as well as alterations in organs such as the liver and bladder. There is great variability related to the umbilical structures involved, according to initial care, breeds, seasonality or even the method of conception. Unlike what is observed in the literature, in the present study, there was a higher prevalence of omphalophlebitis, demonstrating variability in relation to the umbilical structures involved. Sepsis, observed in 16.7% of cases, results from bacterial ascension of the umbilical structures. Lameness due to polyarthritis was found in 10% of animals. Meningoencephalitis was observed in 3.3%. Hepatic and retroperitoneal abscedation were observed in 6.7% and 3.3% of cases, respectively. Conservative treatment with antibiotics and local antiseptics has a limited effect on this type of condition, which was proven in the present study, since the survival rate was statistically higher in animals surgically treated.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Umbilicus/pathology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Hernia, Umbilical/surgery , Hernia, Umbilical/drug therapy , Hernia, Umbilical/veterinary , Cattle
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