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Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 67-78, May. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343435


BACKGROUND: Endometritis is the most common disease of dairy cows and traditionally treated with antibiotics. Lactic acid bacteria can inhibit the growth of pathogens and also have potential for treatment of endometritis. Using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, we sequenced the fulllength l6S rRNA of the microbiota in uterine mucus samples from 31 cows with endometritis, treated with lactic acid bacteria (experimental [E] group) and antibiotics (control [C] group) separately. Microbiota profiles taken before and after treatment were compared. RESULTS: After both treatments, bacterial species richness was significantly higher than before, but there was no significant difference in bacterial diversity. Abundance of some bacteria increased after both lactic acid bacteria and antibiotic treatment: Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas veronii. The bacterial species that significantly decreased in abundance varied depending on whether the cows had been treated with lactic acid bacteria or antibiotics. Abundance of Staphylococcus equorum and Treponema brennaborense increased after lactic acid bacteria treatment but decreased after antibiotic treatment. According to COG-based functional metagenomic predictions, 384 functional proteins were significantly differently expressed after treatment. E and C group protein expression pathways were significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that lactic acid bacteria could cure endometritis and restore a normal physiological state, while avoiding the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment, such as the reductions in abundance of beneficial microbiota. This suggests that lactic acid bacteria treatment has potential as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis in cattle.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Endometritis/drug therapy , Lactobacillales/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/drug effects , Uterus/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillales/genetics , Microbiota
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092688


Abstract An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.

Resumo O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos anti-helmínticos no desempenho de bezerros Simental x Nelore antes e após o desmame. Os bezerros foram alocados em três grupos: (1) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmínticos de baixa eficácia, ivermectina; (2) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmíntico de alta eficácia, albendazol e (3) controle não tratado. A média das contagens de ovos de nematoides durante o experimento foi inferior a 400 ovos por grama (OPG) em todos os grupos sem manifestação clínica de gastroenterite parasitária. As variáveis ​​sanguíneas mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de normalidade e nenhum bezerro apresentou anemia. Na maioria das coletas, as médias de OPG foram significativamente inferiores (P<0,05) no grupo tratado com albendazol. Os bezerros receberam suplementação antes e depois do desmame, o que lhes permitiu ganhar peso em todos os meses do experimento, atingindo peso corporal em torno de 250 kg, ao final do experimento, antes de completarem um ano de idade. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos anti-helmínticos no ganho em peso, o que permitiu concluir que bezerros Nelore x Simental não são afetados pelo parasitismo por nematoides gastrintestinais sob condições de pastejo, quando devidamente suplementados com concentrado.

Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(2): 112-122, Feb. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990243


Periodontal diseases are multifactorial infectious processes caused by complexes of microorganisms, with damage to health, production, and animal welfare. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of virginiamycin in the prevention and control of two early forms of periodontal disease: gingivitis and necrotizing gingivitis. Ten weaned calves, aged four to six months, were permanently kept in a single lot under the same rotational grazing regime in a newly reformed area of Panicum maximum. Five of the calves were orally administered 340mg of virginiamycin (Virginiamycin Group) daily for a period of 18 weeks, while the remaining five calves (Control Group) remained under the same food management but did not receive virginiamycin. During this period, animals underwent 18 weekly evaluations regarding periodontal health, with monitoring and recording of clinical parameters of the eight deciduous incisor teeth on the labial and lingual faces. At approximately two-week intervals, nine collections of subgingival sulcus material from five sites of the four right incisor teeth of each animal were performed and subjected to microbiological evaluation using polymerase chain reaction with primers of 25 microorganisms considered potentially pathogenic. After 1440 periodontal clinical evaluations of incisor teeth of the 10 calves, a total of 395 episodes of gingivitis were recorded, of which 267 occurred in the Control Group and 128 in the Virginiamycin Group. Similarly, 89 episodes of necrotizing gingivitis were recorded; 58 in the Control Group and 31 in the Virginiamycin Group. Comparison of between-group means found significant differences for teeth with gingivitis and necrotizing gingivitis (t test; p<0.05). The total number of teeth with gingivitis (p<0.01) and necrotizing gingivitis (p<0.01) in Control Group was significantly higher than that of gingivitis (p<0.01) and necrotizing gingivitis (p<0.05) in the Virginiamycin Group. There was a positive correlation between total occurrence of gingivitis and necrotizing gingivitis in the Virginiamycin Group by Pearson's test. Virginiamycin had a protective effect on treated animals compared with the Control Group (OR = 0.36: CI (95%) = 0.27-0.43). In the Control Group, Actinomyces israelli (4.74%), domain Archaea (1.58%), Eikenella corrodens (1.05%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (27.37%), class Mollicutes (5.26%); Porphyromonas endodontalis(5.26%); Porphyromonas gulae(0.53%), Prevotella buccae (6.32%), Prevotella loescheii (3.68%), Prevotella nigrescens (8.42%), Prevotella oralis (1.58%), Tannerella forsythia (0.53%), and Treponema denticola (4.21%) were detected at healthy sites, and gingivitis or necrotizing gingivitis samples. In the Virginiamycin Group, A. israelli (3.41%), domain Archaea (0.98%), F. nucleatum (9.27%), class Mollicutes(4.39%), P. endodontalis (4.39%), P. gulae (0.49%), P. buccae (8.29%), P. loescheii (6.83%), P. nigrescens (15.61%), P. oralis (1.46%), Selenomonas sputigena (0.49%), T. forsythia (0.49%), and T. denticola (2.44%) were detected. In conclusion, virginiamycin administered at a dosage of 340mg/animal/day significantly reduced the occurrence of gingivitis and necrotizing gingivitis in cattle maintained on reformed pastures, and was revealed to have action against periodontal bacterial microbiota considered to be potentially pathogenic.(AU)

As doenças periodontais são processos infecciosos multifatoriais causados por complexos de micro-organismos, que provocam danos à saúde, produção e ao bem-estar animal. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a eficácia da virginiamicina na prevenção e controle de duas formas de doença periodontal; a gengivite e a gengivite necrosante. Assim, dez bezerros desmamados, com idade entre 4 e 6 meses, foram mantidos permanentemente em lote único e sob o mesmo regime de pastejo rotacionado em área reformada de Panicum maximum. Cinco bezerros receberam via oral 340mg de virginiamicina (Grupo Virginiamicina) diariamente, por um período de dezoito semanas, enquanto o Grupo Controle permaneceu sob o mesmo manejo alimentar, mas sem receber a virginiamicina. No período, os animais passaram por 18 avaliações semanais quanto à saúde periodontal, com monitoramento e registro dos parâmetros clínicos dos oito dentes incisivos decíduos, nas suas faces labial e lingual. Em intervalos aproximadamente quinzenais foram realizadas nove coletas de material do sulco subgengival de cinco sítios de quatro dentes incisivos direitos de cada animal para avaliação microbiológica, com o emprego da reação em cadeia da polimerase e com iniciadores de 25 micro-organismos considerados potencialmente patogênicos. Ao final das 1440 avaliações clínicas periodontais dos dentes incisivos dos dez bezerros, pôde-se registrar um total de 395 episódios de dentes com gengivite, nos quais 267 foram registrados no Grupo Controle e 128 no Grupo Virginiamicina. De forma semelhante, do total de 89 registros de gengivite necrosante, 58 foram no Grupo Controle e 31 no Grupo Virginiamicina. Na comparação entre médias dos grupos as diferenças encontradas para dentes com gengivite e gengivite necrosante foram significativas pelo teste t (p<0,05). Assim, o total de dentes com gengivite (p<0,01) e gengivite necrosante (p<0,01) no Grupo Controle, foi significativamente superior ao de gengivite (p<0,01) e gengivite necrosante (p<0,05) do Grupo Virginiamicina. Houve correlação positiva entre o total de ocorrência de gengivite e gengivite necrosante no Grupo Virginiamicina pelo teste de Pearson. A virginiamicina possuiu um efeito protetor nos animais tratados em comparação com o controle (OR = 0,36: IC (95%) = 0,27-0,43). Na avaliação microbiológica do Grupo Controle foram detectados nas amostras de sítios sadios, com gengivite ou com gengivite necrosante Actinomyces israelli (4,74%), domínio Archaea (1,58%), Eikenella corrodens (1,05%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (27,37%), classe Mollicutes (5,26%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (5,26%), Porphyromonas gulae (0,53%), Prevotella buccae (6,32%), Prevotella loescheii (3,68%), Prevotella nigrescens (8,42%), Prevotella oralis (1,58%), Tannerella forsythia (0,53%) e Treponema denticola (4,21%). Enquanto no Grupo Virginiamicina foram detectados: A. israelli (3,41%), domínio Archaea (0,98%), F. nucleatum (9,27%), classe Mollicutes (4,39%), P. endodontalis (4,39%), P. gulae (0,49%), P. buccae (8,29%), P. loescheii (6,83%), P. nigrescens (15,61%), P. oralis (1,46%), Selenomonas sputigena (0,49%), T. forsythia (0,49%) e T. denticola (2,44%). Em conclusão, a virginiamicina administrada na dosagem de 340mg/animal/dia reduziu significativamente a ocorrência da gengivite e gengivite necrosante em bovinos mantidos em pastos reformados e revelou ter ação frente à microbiota bacteriana periodontal considerada potencialmente patogênica.(AU)

Animals , Infant , Cattle , Periodontal Diseases/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Virginiamycin/therapeutic use , Gingivitis/veterinary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 545-554, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977929


Abstract This study involved two field trials with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of diflubenzuron, via mineral supplementation, against Haematobia irritans parasitizing cattle. Concomitantly with the main trial, a stall test was conducted to ascertain the effects of a different formulation with the same active ingredient against Rhipicephalus microplus, along with the action of diflubenzuron on the reproductive parameters of R. microplusfemales that had naturally detached from cattle. Against H. irritans, it was observed that the efficacy indexes fordiflubenzuron were low (≤ 31.3% or 44.6%) or null (0.0%) throughout the study. The anti- R. microplus efficacy of diflubenzuron, at weekly intervals, ranged from 0.0 to 13.7% over the entire experimental period. Null efficacy (0.0%) was registered for diflubenzuron in relation to the reproductive parameters of R. microplusfemales that had naturally detached from cattle. The different diflubenzuron formulations, administered via mineral salt supplementation, did not show satisfactory efficacy indexes against H. irritans and R. microplus parasitizing cattle, within the experimental design of the present study. In addition, this agent did not present any deleterious effects on the reproductive parameters of R. microplus females.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do diflubenzuron, administrado via suplementação mineral, contra Haematobia irritans parasitando bovinos, em dois testes à campo. Concomitantemente, foi realizado testes em estábulo para determinar os efeitos de uma formulação diferente, com o mesmo princípio ativo, contra Rhipicephalus microplus , bem como a ação do diflubenzuron nos parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas de R. microplus recolhidas após desprendimento natural do hospedeiro bovino. Contra H. irritans, foi observado que foram baixos (≤ 31,3% ou 44,6%) ou nulos (0,0%) os índices de eficácia do diflubenzuron. A eficácia anti-R. microplus do diflubenzuron, observada em intervalos semanais, variaram de 0,0% a 13,7% durante todo o período experimental. Com relação aos parâmetros reprodutivos das fêmeas de R. microplus recolhidas, foi observada eficácia nula (0,0%) para o diflubenzuron. Conclui-se que as diferentes formulações administradas via sal mineral no atual estudo, contra H. irritans e R. microplus parasitando bovinos, não apresentaram eficácia satisfatória. Este agente também não mostrou efeito deletério sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas de R. microplus.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Muscidae/drug effects , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diflubenzuron/administration & dosage , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Dietary Supplements , Ectoparasitic Infestations/drug therapy
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 113-122, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714788


Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle.

Carrapatos e as doenças por eles transmitidas causam grandes perdas econômicas ao gado dos países tropicais. Alternativas não-químicas incluem o uso de raças de gado que sejam resistentes, controle biológico e vacinas. No entanto, o método mais utilizado é a aplicação de diferentes classes químicas de acaricidas e lactonas macrocíclicas. Populações de piolhos de gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistentes aos organofosfatos (OP), piretoides sintéticos (SP), amitraz e fipronil, foram descritas no México. Lactonas macrocíclicas são as drogas antiparasitárias mais vendidas no mercado veterinário mexicano. Populações de R. (B.) microplus resistentes à irvemectina foram relatadas no Brasil, Uruguai e especialmente no México (Veracruz e Yucatan). Embora os níveis de resistência à ivermectina no R. (B.) microplus do México tenha sido relativamente baixa, na maioria dos casos, algumas populações campestres de R. (B.) microplus mostraram altos níveis de resistência à ivermectina. A população CHPAT mostrou uma razão de resistência de 10,23 e 79,6 na concentração letal de 50% e 99%, respectivamente. Muitas populações campestres de R. (B.) microplus são resistentes a múltiplas classes de drogas antiparasitárias, incluindo organofosfatos (clorpirifós, coumafos e diazinon), piretoides (flumetrina, deltametrina e cipermetrina), amitraz e ivermectina. Este artigo relata o estado atual de resistência do R. (B.) microplus aos acaricidas, especialmente ivermectina, no gado mexicano.

Animals , Cattle , Acaricides/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Agriculture , Acaricides/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lactones/pharmacology , Lactones/therapeutic use , Mexico , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Tick Infestations/veterinary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 129-135, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714789


Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR) on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR) and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P< 0.15 and/or odds ratio (OR) > 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole) in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3) and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3), whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5) and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9). The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

Fatores de risco para resistência anti-helmíntica (AR) em fazendas de criação de bovinos foram estudados de dados obtidos de um levantamento em 50 propriedades. Em todas foram conduzidos testes de redução de contagem de ovos (opg) e um questionário preenchido pelos proprietários sobre o manejo e o controle de verminose nessas fazendas. Um estudo com desenho de caso controlado foi realizado e casos de AR estavam presentes em 26 rebanhos. Associações foram avaliadas entre a variável binária produzida (AR versus sem AR) e fatores de risco registrados nos questionários. Variáveis associadas com o resultado de interesse a P<0.15 e/ou razão de prevalência (OR) > 2 foram usados num modelo de regressão logística multivariável. Os principais efeitos contribuintes para AR geral (avermectina AVM e/ou benzimidazole), no modelo final, foram número total de tratamentos anuais (OR 7,68; 95% IC 2,4 a 28,3) e uso no passado mais que 75% de AVM (OR= 18,6; 95% IC 1,3 a 97,3), e para resistência à AVM foram número total de tratamentos anuais (OR=11,5; 95% IC 2,9 a 45,5), número de tratamentos com AVM de novembro a janeiro (OR= 5,8; 95% IC 1,71 a 47,9). Estes resultados mostraram que a frequência dos tratamentos, a época do ano em que foram feitos os tratamentos e a frequência dos tratamentos no passado com uma única droga foram os principais fatores de risco implicado no desenvolvimento de AR.

Animals , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Cattle/parasitology , Drug Resistance , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Nematoda/drug effects , Agriculture , Argentina , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(4): 1747-1758, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-703925


The spatial and temporal distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle has been little studied in Mexico. Previous studies have described periods of higher larval presence, vertical and horizontal migration in grasslands, and the frequency of adult nematodes; as well as the effect of pasture trichomes on the migration and survival of Haemonchus larvae. The aim of this study was to determine the time-space layout and spread of gastrointestinal nematode larvae on pasture, and to estimate the effect of ivermectin applied to cattle on the time-dependent abundance of their eggs in a ranch in Veracruz. To determine the spatio-temporal arrangement, monthly morning grass samples were obtained from 30 sampling points from July 2008 to June 2009. Third stage larvae (L3) from each point were counted, and aggregation patterns were estimated through variance/mean and negative binomial K indices. Additionally, the number of eggs per gram in cattle feces was determined, from samples with (CI) and without ivermectin (SI), using standard techniques. A total of 20 276L3 larvae were recovered in the pasture, of which an 80% corresponded to Haemonchus contortus. The highest nematode density with more than 5 000L3/kgDM was detected in October 2008, and the lowest in February and March 2009. The L3 showed an aggregated spatial pattern of varying intensity throughout the year. The number of eggs in the stool was not reduced with the ivermectin application to cattle, which suggested a failure of control. However, the highest parasite loads were observed from July to November 2008. We concluded that the application of ivermectin was not effective to control nematodes eggs, and that L3 populations fluctuated on pasture for ten months, providing an infection source to grazing animals afterwards. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (4): 1747-1758. Epub 2013 December 01.

El conocer la disposición espacio-temporal y diseminación de las larvas de nematodos gastrointestinales en los pastizales, y estimar el efecto de la ivermectina aplicada a bovinos sobre la abundancia de sus huevecillos, permite estimar dónde y cuándo se presentan las poblaciones más altas, que puede servir para establecer planes de muestreo y orientar medidas de control, así como para definir el riesgo de contaminación de los pastizales de manera diferencial. Para la determinación de la disposición espacio-temporal de L3 en el pastizal, se recolectaron, contaron e identificaron mensualmente las larvas en 30 puntos de muestreo, posteriormente se generaron mapas de disposición espacial con los datos obtenidos de los conteos de L3 en cada punto y mes de muestreo, y se calculó el patrón de disposición mediante los índices varianza/media y K binomial negativa. El número de huevecillos por gramo de heces de los bovinos con (CI) y sin ivermectina (SI), se calculó con la técnica de McMaster. En el pastizal se recuperaron 20 276L3, correspondiendo el 80% a H contortus. En octubre 2008 se detectó la más alta densidad de nematodos con más de 5 000L3/kgMS. Las L3 presentaron un patrón espacial agregado de intensidad variable durante todo el año. Las mayores densidades poblacionales de nematodos fueron en octubre 2008 y las menores en febrero y marzo 2009. La aplicación de ivermectina a los bovinos no redujo el número de huevecillos presentes en las heces, debido a que los tratamientos fueron estadísticamente iguales. De julio a noviembre 2008, se observaron las mayores cargas parasitarias.

Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Feces/parasitology , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Larva , Mexico , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Poaceae/parasitology , Space-Time Clustering
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 502-510, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698018


The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbal, homeopathic and allopathic treatments for parasites in beef heifers during two experimental cycles of 318 and 313 days. Treatments: NC - negative control (untreated); HH - treated with homeopathic preparation Homeo bovis Parasitário®; PC - (positive control) - treated with 10% moxidectina® and an acaricide formulation of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and piperonyl butoxide®; HF – treated with homeopathic preparation Fator C&MC®; and FN - treated with neem cake (torta de neem®) and with neem oil (óleo de neem®). Parasite egg count (EPG), horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) assessment and animal weighting were performed at 28-day intervals. Blood samples were collected at the first cycle to assess the immune response. Horn fly infestation was not affected by any treatment (P>0.05). The mean number of ticks, which was low in both cycles, was lower (P<0.05) in the first cycle in animals that received PC treatment. In both experimental cycles, the mean EPG of the PC-treated animals was lower (P<0.05) than the animals receiving other treatments. Treatments had no effect on the immune response (P>0.05). The animals treated with allopathic drugs were 22 to 30 kg heavier (P<0.05) than untreated animals or animals treated with alternative drugs.

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia de tratamentos fitoterápicos, homeopáticos e alopáticos contra ecto e endoparasitas na recria de novilhas, em dois ciclos experimentais subsequentes de 318 e 313 dias. Tratamentos: CN - controle negativo - não tratado; tratamento HH - tratado com homeopático Homeo bovis Parasitário®; tratamento CP – controle positivo – tratado com moxidectina 10%® e uma formulação acaricida contendo cypermetrina, clorpirifós e butóxido de piperonila®; tratamento HF - tratado com homeopático Fator C&MC® e tratamento FN - tratados com torta de neem® e com óleo de neem®. A contagem de ovos nas fezes (OPG), a infestação por Haematobia irritans, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus e pesagem dos animais foram realizadas em intervalos de 28 dias. No primeiro ciclo foi coletado sangue para avaliar a resposta imume. A infestação por mosca-dos-chifres não foi influenciada por nenhum dos tratamentos (P>0,05). Nos dois ciclos o número médio de carrapatos foi baixo e apenas no primeiro foi menor (P>0.05) no tratamento CP em relação aos demais. A média de OPG no tratamento CP foi mais baixa que nos demais tratamentos nos dois ciclos experimentais (P<0,05). Não houve efeito de tratamentos na resposta imune. Os animais do tratamento CP ganharam entre 22 a 30 kg de peso vivo a mais (P<0,05) que os não tratados ou tratados com medicamentos alternativos.

Animals , Cattle , Male , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Weight Gain , Complementary Therapies
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 554-558, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698019


The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.

Com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do tratamento parcial de animais infestados por mosca-dos-chifres, foram utilizadas 45 vacas da raça Guzerá, com idade entre 4 e 7 anos, divididas em três grupos de 15 animais. Os animais dos grupos G33 (33,3% tratados) e G100 (100% tratados) receberam um brinco inseticida/animal, com diazinon 40%, e os do grupo GC não receberam tratamento (controle). A cada 14 dias foram realizadas contagens das moscas sobre a região cervico-dorso-lombar das vacas dos três grupos. O estudo foi realizado de setembro de 2006 a setembro de 2009. Neste período, seis tratamentos com quatro meses cada, e com intervalo de um a dois meses, foram realizados nos animais dos grupos G33 e G100. Os animais do grupo G33 apresentaram maior infestação que os do grupo G100, o número de mosca variou de 12 a 27 no grupo G33 e de 3 a 11 no grupo G100. No entanto, os grupos G33 e G100 apresentaram menores infestações que as observadas nos animais do grupo GC, que apresentou de 45 a 87 moscas. O tratamento parcial de bovinos infestados por mosca-dos-chifres com a utilização de inseticida diazinon 40% é uma alternativa eficiente no controle deste ectoparasita.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diazinon/administration & dosage , Ectoparasitic Infestations/drug therapy , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Muscidae , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(1): 32-36, jan.-mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624845


Four groups of six Holstein calves were inoculated with 3.6 × 10(7) erythrocytes parasitized with Anaplasma marginale. The criteria for treatment of calves were increasing A. marginale rickettsemia and 30% reduction of baseline packed cell volume (PCV) of each animal. Group 1 (G1) received 7.5 of enrofloxacin in a single dose; Group 2 (G2) 7.5 of enrofloxacin twice every three days; Group 3 (G3) 20 of long-acting oxytetracycline in a single dose; and Group 4 (G4) a single dose of PBS. Physical examinations, blood smears and PCV were performed daily. On day treatment, G1, G2 and G3 animals had a mean rickettsemia of 17, 23 and 12%, respectively. At 2 days after treatment (DAT) G1 and G2 animals showed a significant reduction of rickettsemia (p < 0.05) compared to G3. G3 animals had high rates of rickettsemia in the first 2 DAT and a slow decrease until stabilization on 9 DAT. The mean PCV in G1 and G2 increased and stabilized after 7 and 8 DAT, respectively. PCV stabilization was achieved in G3 at 13 DAT. Both enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline were effective for the treatment of anaplasmosis, but enrofloxacin was faster reduction of rickettsemia and PCV recuperation (p < 0.05) compared to oxytetracycline.

Quatro grupos de seis bezerros da raça Holandesa foram inoculados com 3,6 × 10(7) eritrócitos parasitados com Anaplasma marginale. Os critérios para o tratamento dos bezerros foram aumento da rickettsemia do A. marginale e redução de 30% do valor basal de volume globular (VG) de cada animal. O Grupo 1 (G1) recebeu 7,5 de enrofloxacina em dose única; o Grupo 2 (G2), 7,5 de enrofloxacina duas vezes a cada três dias; o Grupo 3 (G3), 20 de oxitetraciclina de longa ação em dose única; e o Grupo 4 (G4) uma única dose de PBS. Exames físicos, esfregaço sanguíneo e VG foram realizadas diariamente. No dia do tratamento, os animais G1, G2 e G3 apresentaram rickettsemia média de 17, 23 e 12%, respectivamente. Nos primeiros 2 dias após o tratamento (DAT) os animais do G1 e G2 mostraram uma redução significativa de rickettsemia (p < 0,05) em relação ao G3. Animais do G3 tiveram altas taxas de rickettsemia nos 2 DAT e uma diminuição lenta até à estabilização em 9 de DAT. O VG médio no G1 e G2 aumentou e estabilizou após 7 e 8 DAT, respectivamente. A estabilização do VG do G3 foi aos 13 DAT. A enrofloxacina e a oxitetraciclina foram efetivas no tratamento da anaplasmose, mas a enrofloxacina apresentou redução da rickettsemia e recuperação do VG (p < 0,05) mais rápida em comparação com oxitetraciclina.

Animals , Cattle , Male , Anaplasmosis/drug therapy , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Animal Experimentation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65167


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 x 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection.

Administration, Oral , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Feces/microbiology , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Lactose/metabolism , Male , Pediococcus/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Salmonella Infections, Animal/drug therapy , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Tissue Distribution
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(2): 115-120, Apr.-June 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604692


Eighty-four half-blood Gir × Holstein (F1) calves aged six months who were naturally infected by gastrointestinal helminths and maintained in rotational grazing received different anthelmintic treatments. Group A received anthelmintics according to the usual management in the property (eight treatments, seven including a macrocyclic lactone agent). Group B received strategic treatment (ivermectin 3.15 percent) at the beginning and at the end of the rainy period. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts and genus of larvae from fecal cultures were determined on a monthly basis from April 2002 to December 2003. There was no significant reduction (p > 0.05) in EPG counts in any group after anthelminthic treatment, and the larvae in fecal cultures observed were Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum and a few Trichostrongylus. Cooperia was the most prevalent genus in the first four months of the experiment and Haemonchus in the following months. In 2003, tracer calves were introduced onto the pastures monthly and they showed high nematode burden many times throughout the year, and Cooperia punctata and Haemonchus contortus were the main species identified. The results suggest that there is anthelminthic resistance in this farm, mainly to macrocyclic lactones, and the development of immunity by crossbred animals was vital to reduce nematode burden.

Oitenta e quatro bezerras meio sangue Gir × holandês (F1) com seis meses de idade, naturalmente infectadas por helmintos gastrintestinais e mantidas em pastejo rotacionado receberam diferentes tratamentos anti-helmínticos. O grupo A recebeu anti-helmínticos segundo manejo empregado na propriedade (oito tratamentos, sete com produtos à base de lactonas macrocíclicas). O grupo B recebeu tratamento estratégico (ivermectina 3,15 por cento) no inicio e final de período chuvoso. Mensalmente, no período de abril de 2002 a dezembro de 2003, foram realizadas contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e coproculturas. Não houve redução significativa (p > 0,05) nas contagens de OPG em nenhum dos grupos após os tratamentos anti-helmínticos, e as larvas encontradas na coprocultura foram Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum e poucos Trichostrongylus, com predominância de Cooperia nos quatro meses iniciais e Haemonchus nos meses seguintes. No ano de 2003, bezerros traçadores foram alocados mensalmente nos pastos, apresentando altas cargas parasitárias na maioria dos meses do ano, sendo as principais espécies identificadas: Cooperia punctata e Haemonchus contortus. Os resultados indicam que os nematódeos da fazenda apresentam resistência anti-helmíntica, principalmente às lactonas macrocíclicas, e o desenvolvimento de imunidade foi primordial para reduzir a carga parasitária dos animais mestiços.

Animals , Cattle , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Brazil , Dairying , Drug Resistance , Seasons
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(3): 183-185, July-Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604666


To evaluate the necessary time and to identify the differences among anthelmintics for the reduction of parasite eggs shed in feces, five groups of cattle were treated with moxidectin, ivermectin, levamisole phosphate, and albendazole sulphoxide. Levamisole promoted a reduction in egg count per gram (EPG-R) of 97.4 percent after 24 hours, moxidectin 98.3 percent after 36 hours, and albendazole sulphoxide 95.9 percent after 36 hours post- treatment. Cooperia spp. and Haemonchus spp. showed resistance to ivermectin. The results demonstrated that the diagnosis of parasite resistance in cattle can be based on a count of eggs per gram (EPG) carried out as soon as seven days after the treatment.

No intuito de avaliar o tempo necessário para redução dos valores de OPG visando identificar o início de atuação dos anti-helmínticos, cinco grupos de novilhos, naturalmente infectados por nematódeos gastrintestinais foram tratados com moxidectina, ivermectina, fosfato de levamisol e sulfóxido de albendazol. O levamisol promoveu redução no número de ovos de nematódeos eliminados nas fezes (R-OPG) de 97,4 por cento 24 horas após a aplicação, a moxidectina de 98,3 por cento após 36 horas, e o sulfóxido de albendazol de 95,9 por cento após 36 horas. Foi registrada a presença de Cooperia spp. e Haemonchus spp. com resistência a ivermectina. A contagem de OPG realizada aos sete dias pós-tratamento apresentou resultados similares aos obtidos nas contagens realizadas 10 e 14 dias após a aplicação dos anti-helmínticos avaliados, demonstrando que o intervalo adequado entre o tratamento anti-helmíntico e o exame para verificar a redução do OPG pode ser de 7 dias.

Animals , Male , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/parasitology
Ciênc. rural ; 39(3): 817-824, maio-jun. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-514069


Atualmente, o estudo da atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas medicinais em ruminantes tem atraído bastante interesse. Mentha villosa Huds. (Lamiaceae) é uma das espécies de hortelã que tem sido utilizada popularmente devido às diversas propriedades medicinais, inclusive para o controle de verminoses. O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar a atividade anti-helmíntica do hidrolato dessa planta em bezerras infectadas por nematóides gastrintestinais, tanto in vitro, pelo método de coprocultura quantitativa, quanto in vivo, por meio do teste de redução no número de ovos de nematóides nas fezes dos hospedeiros. No teste in vitro, o hidrolato nas concentrações de 40 por cento, 60 por cento e 80 por cento e 100 por cento apresentou porcentagem de eficácia de 91,88 por cento, 94,15 por cento, 98,40 por cento e 100 por cento, respectivamente, mostrando atividade ovicida significativa sobre nematóides gastrintestinais em bezerras. Entretanto, os resultados do teste in vivo mostraram ausência de atividade anti-helmíntica do hidrolato de M. villosa na dose de 0,1ml kg dia-1, nos animais tratados.

Currently, it has been of great interest to study the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants in ruminants. Mentha villosa Huds. (Lamiaceae) is one of the mint species that has been popularly used based on various medicinal properties, even for the control of nematode infections. This study aimed to test the anthelmintic activity of hidrolact of this plant, both in vitro, by the quantitative coproculture method, and in vivo, in calves infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, through the egg count reduction test in feces of the hosts. In in vitro tests, the hidrolact at the concentrations 40 percent, 60 percent and 80 percent and 100 percent obtained percentage of effectiveness of 91.88 percent, 94.15 percent, 98.40 percent and 100 percent respectively, showing significant ovicidal activity against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. However, the hidrolact of M. villosa showed no in vivo anthelmintic activity at 0.1ml kg-1 day-1 on the treated animals.

Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Helminthiasis, Animal/drug therapy , Mentha , Nematoda , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91380


Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.

Animal Feed , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diet , Matricaria/chemistry , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Stress, Physiological/drug therapy
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Sep; 42(9): 933-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57794


Thirteen strains of M. bovoculi, 6 from frozen bull-semen (3.5% of 168), 3 from neat bull-semen (3.0% of 100), one each from heart blood and stomach contents of aborted foetus of 85 (1.18%) bovine-abortions, one each from stomach contents and pooled internal organs of 9 (11.1%) stillborn calves, were isolated. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and sensitive to spiramycin, vibramycin, demeclocyclin, oxytetracycline, lincomycin and tylosin. However, variation in resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, neomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin was observed. The gross lesions like congestion of lungs, liver, kidney and spleen were noted only in stillborn calf. However, significant microscopic lesions were encountered in internal tissues of both the aborted bovine fetuses and stillborn calf. Thickened alveolar wall, congestion of blood vessels, mesenchymal cell proliferation along with infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages were observed in lungs. The liver showed mild infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages in hepatic triad and necrosis of hepatic cells. The kidney tissues had focal lymphocytic infiltration in the interstitium. One strain of M. bovoculi (isolate # SBC-7/84,IO) isolated from a stillborn calf was found abortigenic upon experimental inoculation in pregnant guinea pigs.

Abortion, Veterinary/microbiology , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Female , Fetus/microbiology , Guinea Pigs/microbiology , Mycoplasma/drug effects , Mycoplasma Infections/drug therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 20(3): 119-25, jul.-set. 2000. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-279693


Trinta focos de polioencefalomalacia (PEM) foram diagnosticados no período de agosto de 1993 a outubro de 1997. Vinte e nove focos ocorreram no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) e um no estado de São Paulo (SP). Foram afetados bovinos de 4 a 84 meses de idade. A morbidade dos rebanhos afetados variou de 0,02% a 14,28% e a letalidade de 42,5% a 100%. A doença não apresentou uma sazonalidade e ocorreu em vários municípios do MS. Em todos os focos estudados os animais afetados eram criados em regimes de criação extensiva, com exceção de um foco. Os sinais clínicos observados foram exclusivamente nervosos e a evolução dos casos variou de 12 horas a 4 dias. A maioria dos animais tratados com tiamina e dexametasona recuperou-se. Histologicamente, as lesões consistiam de necrose laminar do córtex cerebral. Adicionalmente em 2 casos observaram-se hemorragias submeningeanas e corticais, e em 9 casos presença de infiltrado de eosinófilos. A dosagem de sódio no líquor apresentou-se elevada em um caso. A etiologia da PEM não está esclarecida, porém em alguns casos a intoxicação por cloreto de sódio/privação de água pode estar envolvida na etiologia da enfermidade. A PEM representa 4,78% dos casos de enfermidades de bovinos diagnosticadas no Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica da UFMS. Com bases nos resultados, verifica-se a importância da enfermidade no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças com quadro clínico neurológico no MS, principalmente a raiva, a meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (HVB-5) e o botulismo.

Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Encephalomalacia/veterinary , Brazil , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Diagnosis, Differential , Cattle Diseases/etiology , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Encephalomalacia/drug therapy , Encephalomalacia/etiology , Thiamine/therapeutic use
Ciênc. rural ; 30(1): 167-70, jan.-mar. 2000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-267174


A açäo da enrofloxacina pela administraçäo via intramamária e sistêmica na mastite bovina subclínica por Staphylococcus aureus foi avaliada. Como tratamento local, infundiram-se, após as ordenhas da manhä e da tarde, 250mg do produto, diluídos em água estéril, a um volume final de 10ml, durante três dias. O tratamento sistêmico constituiu na aplicaçäo de 5mg/kg do produto, pela via intramuscular, uma vez ao dia, durante o mesmo período. A estimativa de cura deu-se através da realizaçäo do California Mastitis Test (CMT) e do cultivo bacteriano em agar sangue e MacConkey, três semanas após o término do tratamento. Dos 184 quartos acometidos por Staphylococcus aureus, a droga mostrou-se eficiente em 72,0 por cento e 75,0 por cento, pelas vias intramamária e sistêmica, respectivamente. A análise dos resultados mostrou näo haver diferença estatística significante, com p<0,50 para as duas formas de tratamento.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Mastitis, Bovine/drug therapy
Rev. bras. genét ; 17(4): 439-42, dez. 1994. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-164717


Costs of drugs for pneumoenteritis and plasmosis treatment were evaluated in 614 bucket reared female calves of six Holstein-Friesian (HF) x Guzera crossbred groups (1/4 to > 31/32 HF gene fraction). Important heterosis effects resulted in lowest health costs for F(l) (US$ 4.33 per calf) and highest costs for > 31132 HF calves (US$ 8.01).

Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Health Care Costs , Hybrid Vigor , Analysis of Variance
Vet. Méx ; 23(4): 309-13, oct.-dic. 1992. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-118382


Para evaluar el efecto del Factor de Transferencia (FT) en la respuesta leucocitaria en becerros clínicamente enfermos, se formaron tres grupos de diez animales cada uno. El grupo I (testigo) fue tratado con antibióticos, el II con FT más antibióticos y el III con la aplicación de tres dosis de FT (una cada tres días). Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas a todos los animales a los 0, 3, 5 y 14 días postratamiento, con el fin de realizar pruebas de Biometría Hemática y Rosetas "E" (para evaluar niveles de linfocitos "T"). Todos los animales se mantuvieron en observacióne durante 60 días (periodo de lactancia). Los resultados obtenidos fueron: El grupo I (testigo) tuvo un aumento de 3.87 porciento en la cuenta de roseras "E", el cual no fue significativo (P>0.05). Asimismo, los días de recuperación del cuadro clínico respiratorio (Neumonía) y digestivo (Síndrome Diarreico Neonatal, SDN), fueron de nueve para el primero de cinco para el segundo; existió un 20 porciento de mortalidad para este grupo. En el grupo II (FT + antibiótico) se encontró un aumento significativo (P<0.01) en la respuesta leucocitaria, dada por linfocitosis significativa (P<0.01); los días de recuperación fueron de ocho días con cuadro clinico respiratorio N y de cuatro con SDN, con mortalidad de 20 porciento. Los resultados obtenidos de laboratorio de los grupos II y III fueron semejantes, pues el aspecto clínico del grupo III y la recuperación de los animales fueron de cinco días para ambos cuadros clínicos y no hubo mortalidad.

Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Cattle/immunology , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Leukocytes/drug effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Galvanic Skin Response , Transfer Factor/therapeutic use