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2.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(1): 86-90, 29/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362246

ABSTRACT

Paragangliomas are rare, benign and slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that can arise from the adrenal medulla (85­90%) or from the extra-adrenal paraganglia. In the central nervous system (CNS), they can be found at several sites, but more often at the cauda equina and filum terminale region, where they account for between 2.5 and 3.8% of total tumor cases of that region. There are only 8 cases described in the literature that mention the presence of the gangliocytic variant of this entity at the filum terminale. We present the case of a 41-year-old man with chronic lumbar pain refractory to medical treatment, without any associated neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intradural, extramedullar oval lesion with regular contours and homogeneous caption of contrast at L1 level. He was submitted to surgical treatment, with complete resection of the lesion. The histological analysis revealed a gangliocytic paraganglioma of the filum terminale. At 5 years of follow-up, he remains asymptomatic and without any signs of relapse. These are lesions with an overall good prognosis with gross total resection. Although the recurrence rate is extremely low, prolonged observation is recommended due to the slow-growing nature of the tumor, being estimated that between 1 and 4% can recur even after gross total removal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Paraganglioma/surgery , Paraganglioma/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/surgery , Cauda Equina/surgery , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cauda Equina/injuries , Low Back Pain , Laminectomy/methods
3.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 582-585, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the characteristics of sacral cysts containing fila terminale and to explore the surgical treatment methods.@*METHODS@#The clinical features, imaging characteristics and surgical methods of 21 cases of sacral cysts containing fila terminale from July 2010 to March 2017 were reviewed and analyzed. Lumbosacral and perineal pain, weakness of the lower limbs and bladder and bowel dysfunction were the common clinical symptoms. MRI showed that the cysts located in the sacral canal. The lower T1 and higher T2 signals were found on MRI. There were fila terminale within the cysts which tethered the spinal cord. No enhancement was visible within the lesion. The key steps of operation included the resection of the cyst wall, the cutting off of the fila terminale, the release of the tethered cord and the reconstruction of the cisterna terminalis.@*RESULTS@#The total and subtotal resections of cyst walls were achieved in 14 and 7 cases, respectively. The fila terminales were separated and cut off in all the cases, and the tethered cords were released completely. The reconstructions of the cisterna terminalis were accomplished in all the cases. There was no new-onset dysfunction except for 7 cases of mild numbness around anus postoperatively. Pathological examinations confirmed that the cyst wall was fibrous connective tissue, and hyperplasia of fibrous tissue and/or adipose tissue was found within the thickened fila terminale. The lumbosacral and perineal pain disappeared. The weakness of the lower extremities and the bladder and bowel dysfunction gradually improved. The period of follow-up ranged from 3 months to 7 years (average: 2.25 years). The spinal function of all the patients restored to McCormick grade Ⅰ. Only 1 case encountered recurrence of cyst.@*CONCLUSION@#The sacral cysts containing fila terminale are rare. The common symptoms include lumbosacral and perineal pain and symptoms of tethered cord. MRI is helpful to the diagnosis, which shows the signal of cerebrospinal fluid and the fila terminale in the cyst as well as tlow-placed conus medullaris. Microsurgery should remove the cyst wall, cut off the fila terminale, release the tethered cord and reconstruct the cisterna terminalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cauda Equina , Cysts , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neural Tube Defects , Spinal Cord
4.
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(1): 42-45, ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248632

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Antecedentes: El síndrome de Bruns Garland (amiotrofia diabética) es una condición con pocos casos reportados en la literatura. La diferenciación clínica de una amiotrofia diabética o un síndrome de cauda equina puede ser difícil. El problema de un mal diagnóstico ha sido discutido como una razón para un mal resultado después de una cirugía de la columna lumbar. Se presenta un caso de amiotrofia diabética que imita un síndrome de cauda equina. Descripción del caso: Masculino de 59 años de edad con diabetes, comienza repentinamente con debilidad en las extremidades inferiores y pérdida del control de los esfínteres. Este paciente fue atendido en la sala de urgencias, las radiografías anteroposterior y lateral de la columna lumbosacra evidenciaron espondilolistesis L5-S1 nivel II de Meyerding. Sin embargo, la IRM no mostró ninguna compresión del canal vertebral, compresión de la raíz nerviosa, ni extrusión del disco. El estudio de electrodiagnóstico reveló amiotrofia diabética (síndrome de Bruns Garland). El paciente rápidamente mejoró con el tratamiento basado en antineuríticos, control diabético, terapia física y rehabilitación. Cuatro meses después del diagnóstico, el paciente recuperó su fuerza muscular, no mostró alteraciones en la marcha, ni pérdida del equilibrio, su sensibilidad se conserva y no manifiesta dolor. Discusión: Deberán utilizarse estudios de electrodiagnóstico y radiológicos en todo paciente diabético que presente dolor en la pierna y/o debilidad para diferenciar una neuropatía diabética de un síndrome de cauda equina. El tratamiento en ambas enfermedades puede ser necesario para aliviar el dolor del paciente.


Abstract: Background: The Bruns Garland syndrome (diabetic amyotrophy) it is a very rare condition, with few cases reported in the literature. Clinical differentiation of diabetic amyotrophy or cauda equine syndrome may be difficult. The issue of misdiagnosis has been discussed as a reason for poor outcome after lumbar spine surgery. We report a case of diabetic amyotrophy that mimics a cauda equina syndrome. Case description: A 59 years old man diabetic patient that suddenly begins with weakness of lower extremities and loss of sphincters control. The patient was seen in the emergency room, the anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the lumbosacral spine evidenced spondylolisthesis L5-S1 level II of Meyerding. However, the MRI show no vertebral canal compression, nerve root compression or disc extrusion. Electrodiagnostic study revealed diabetic amyotrophy (Bruns Garland syndrome). The patient rapidly improves with treatment based in antineuritics, diabetes control, physical therapy and rehabilitation. Four months after the diagnosis he recover his muscle strength, has no alterations in the march, no loss of balance, his sensitive is preserved and has no pain. Conclusion: Electrodiagnostic and radiologic studies should be used in every diabetic patient presenting with leg pain and/or weakness to differentiate diabetic neuropathy from cauda equina syndrome. Treatment of both diseases may be needed for relief of the patient's pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cauda Equina , Cauda Equina Syndrome/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Lumbar Vertebrae , Middle Aged
5.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 198-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762935

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective comparative analysis of 64 patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES), who underwent either decompression alone (NF) or fusion (F) surgery. PURPOSE: We compared the outcomes and timing effects. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: CES can cause loss of autonomic control of vesicular function and lower limb neurological deficits. Prompt diagnosis and emergency surgery markedly improve outcome. Although decompression only is a mainstream technique, there is guarded recovery of vesicular dysfunction. Decompression ventrally in a narrow window requires manipulation of neural tissue in an already jeopardised critical canal and may accentuate irreversible damages. In F surgery, the adequate exposure leads to a lower neural manipulation. METHODS: Until January 2008, we treated CES with decompression (laminectomy and/or discectomy). However, from that month forward, all our single-level CES patients have received a fusion operation. In this study, characteristic categorical variables and outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: In a retrospective analysis of 64 patients, NF (n=37) and F (n=27) who received treatment, we found that both groups improved significantly on follow-up in all objective parameters. Although, the comparison of clinical and functional outcome data between the two groups was statistically insignificant, the average value of objective outcome such as vesicular function, low back pain (LBP), and complications was better for patients in F group compared with NF group. However, the patient satisfaction for the F group was also lower, in view of their residual symptoms and disabilities. Contrary to common perceptions, we found that the timing of surgery does not influence the recovery rate for either approach. CONCLUSIONS: Although both the techniques appear to be equally effective, the fusion approach overall showed a definite edge over non-fusion, with respect to reduced incidence of iatrogenic dural tears, LBP, and overall outcome, even despite the lower patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cauda Equina , Constriction, Pathologic , Decompression , Diagnosis , Diskectomy , Emergencies , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Low Back Pain , Lower Extremity , Patient Satisfaction , Polyradiculopathy , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fusion , Tears
6.
The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association ; : 361-365, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770068

ABSTRACT

Spinal adhesive arachnoiditis is an inflammation and fibrosis of the subarachnoid space and pia mater caused by infection, trauma, spinal vascular anomalies, and iatrogenic (surgery and/or puncture). Adhesive arachnoiditis develops various symptoms and signs (gait disturbances, radiating pain, paralysis, and incontinence). On the other hand, adhesive arachnoiditis associated with cauda equina syndrome has not been reported in Korea until now. The authors experienced cauda equina syndrome caused by adhesive arachnoiditis of the lumbar spine with satisfactory results following decompression. We report this case with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Arachnoid , Arachnoiditis , Cauda Equina , Decompression , Fibrosis , Hand , Inflammation , Korea , Paralysis , Pia Mater , Polyradiculopathy , Spine , Subarachnoid Space
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(1): 107-112, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The primary objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of cases admitted to hospital with cauda equina syndrome (CES) at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology (IOT) from 2005 to 2015. Secondly, this article is a continuation of the epidemiological work of the same base published in 2013, and will be important for other comparative studies to a greater understanding of the disease and its epidemiology. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the medical records of admissions due to CES at IOT in the period 2005-2015 with diagnosis of CES and neuropathic bladder. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, etiology of the disease, topographic level of the injury, time interval between injury and diagnosis, presence of neurogenic bladder, time interval between diagnosis of the CES and surgery, and reversal of the deficit or of the neurogenic bladder. Results: Since this is a rare disease, with a low global incidence, it was not possible, just with the current study to establish statistically significant correlations between the variables and outcomes of the disease. However, this study demonstrates the shortcomings of the Brazilian public health system, both with the initial management of these patients and the need for urgent surgical treatment. Conclusion: The study shows that despite well-defined basis for the conduct of CES, a higher number of sequelae caused by the pathology is observed in Brazil. The delay in diagnosis and, therefore, for definitive treatment, remains as the major cause for the high number of sequelae. Level of evidence: 4, case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as características e os desfechos dos casos internados por síndrome da cauda equina (SCE) no Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia (IOT) da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 2005-2015. Secundariamente, este artigo é a continuação do trabalho epidemiológico de mesma base publicado em 2013 e servirá de base para outros estudos comparativos com vistas a um entendimento maior da doença e de sua epidemiologia. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários das internações por SCE no IOT de 2005 a 2015 com diagnósticos de SCE e bexiga neuropática. As seguintes variáveis foram analisadas: sexo, idade, etiologia da doença, nível topográfico da lesão, tempo de história da lesão até o diagnóstico, presença de bexiga neurogênica, tempo entre o diagnóstico da SCE e a cirurgia e reversão do déficit ou da bexiga neurogênica. Resultados: Por se tratar de uma doença rara, com uma incidência global baixa, não foi possível, somente com o estudo atual, estabelecer correlações estatisticamente significativas entre as variáveis analisadas e os desfechos da doença. Porém, este estudo continua a evidenciar as deficiências do sistema público de saúde brasileiro, tanto no manejo inicial desses pacientes quanto na necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico de urgência. Conclusão: O trabalho mostra que, apesar de bem definidas as bases para conduta da SCE, observa-se no Brasil um número maior de sequelas causadas pela patologia. O atraso no diagnóstico e, a partir desse, no tratamento definitivo mantém-se como a causa para o alto número de sequelas. Nível de evidência: 4, série de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cauda Equina , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
8.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 380-384, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases has been increasing with the aging of the population, and antiplatelet drugs (APDs) are more frequently used than in the past. With the average age of spinal surgery patients also increasing, there has been a great concern on the adverse effects of APD on spine surgery. To our knowledge, though there have been many studies on this issue, their results are conflicting. In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of APDs on spine surgery in terms of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative spinal epidural hematoma complication. METHODS: Patients who underwent posterior thoracolumbar decompression and instrumentation at our institution were reviewed. There were 34 APD takers (APDT group). Seventy-nine non-APD takers (NAPDT group) were selected as a control group in consideration of demographic and surgical factors. There were two primary endpoints of this study: the amount of bleeding per 10 minutes and cauda equina compression by epidural hematoma measured at the cross-sectional area of the thecal sac in the maximal compression site on the axial T2 magnetic resonance imaging scans taken on day 7. RESULTS: Both groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex (demographic factors), the number of fused segments, operation time, and primary/revision operation (surgical factors), and the number of platelets, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time (coagulation-related factors). However, the platelet function analysis-epinephrine was delayed in the APDT group than in the NAPDT group (203.6 seconds vs. 170.0 seconds, p = 0.050). Intraoperative bleeding per 10 minutes was 40.6 ± 12.8 mL in the APDT group and 43.9 ± 9.9 mL in the NAPDT group, showing no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.154). The cross-sectional area of the thecal sac at the maximal compression site by epidural hematoma was 120.2 ± 48.2 mm2 in the APDT group and 123.2 ± 50.4 mm2 in the NAPDT group, showing no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.766). CONCLUSIONS: APD medication did not increase intraoperative bleeding and postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. Therefore, it would be safer to perform spinal surgery without discontinuation of APD therapy in patients who are vulnerable to cardiovascular and neurovascular complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , Blood Platelets , Cauda Equina , Decompression , Hematoma , Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prothrombin Time , Spine
9.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 194-199, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714780

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sacral dimples are a common cutaneous anomaly in infants. Spine ultrasonography (USG) is an effective and safe screening tool for patients with a sacral dimple. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical manifestations in patients with an isolated sacral dimple and to review the management of spinal cord abnormalities identified with USG. METHODS: We reviewed clinical records and collected data on admissions for a sacral dimple from March 2014 through February 2017 that were evaluated with spine USG by a pediatric radiologist. During the same period, patients who were admitted for other complaints, but were found to have a sacral dimple were also included. RESULTS: This study included 230 infants under 6-months-old (130 males and 100 females; mean age 52.8±42.6 days). Thirty-one infants with a sacral dimple had an echogenic filum terminale, and 57 children had a filar cyst. Twenty-seven patients had a low-lying spinal cord, and only one patient was suspected of having a tethered cord. Follow-up spine USG was performed in 28 patients, which showed normalization or insignificant change. CONCLUSION: In this study, all but one infant with a sacral dimple had benign imaging findings. USG can be recommended in infants with a sacral dimple for its convenience and safety.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Cauda Equina , Diagnostic Imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Lumbosacral Region , Mass Screening , Skin Abnormalities , Spinal Cord , Spine , Ultrasonography
10.
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 30-34, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765594

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of widespread lumbosacral subdural abscess in a patient who underwent bee venom therapy. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Subdural abscess is rare, but has a poor prognosis. Therefore, prompt recognition and appropriate treatment are paramount. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 54-year-old woman was hospitalized due to severe back pain. Two days previously, she had undergone bee venom therapy. The patient then visited the emergency room because of severe back pain. However, a paraspinal infection was not detected on enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Six days after admission, the patient showed signs of meningeal irritation and an emergency cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed typical findings of bacterial meningitis. Although adequate antibiotic treatment was administered, 20 days after admission, the patient's symptoms became aggravated. Pachymeningeal enhancement, myelomeningitis, and subdural abscess compressing the cauda equina were found on enhanced MRI. Thus, laminectomy between L3–L4 and L5–S1 was performed, as well as subdural abscess drainage. Antibiotic agents were applied for 6 weeks after the operation, and resolution of the subdural abscess was identified on follow-up MRI. RESULTS: In this patient, lumbosacral subdural abscess occurred due to bee venom therapy. It was cured by adequate surgical and antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bee venom therapy can cause subdural abscess of the spinal cord. Even if it is a rare case, this possibility is worth consideration in the Korean medical context.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Abscess , Back Pain , Bee Venoms , Bees , Cauda Equina , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Follow-Up Studies , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningitis, Bacterial , Prognosis , Spinal Cord , Spine
11.
Ultrasonography ; : 129-133, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731154

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The filum terminale (FT) is a fibrous band that connects the conus medullaris to the posterior body of the coccyx. Considering the advances of ultrasonography (US) technology and improvements in the resolution of US images, we aimed to re-establish the US features of the normal FT in infants younger than 6 months of age. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 30 spinal US scans, stored as video clips. The internal structure of the FT and the marginal echogenicity of the FT were assessed, and transverse and longitudinal US were compared. RESULTS: On US, a central echogenic line was defined in 18 (60%) normal FTs; however, there was no visible internal structure in 12 cases (40%). The marginal echogenicity of the FT was hyperechoic in eight cases (27%) in comparison with the cauda equina and was isoechoic in 22 cases (73%). In differentiating the normal FT from the surrounding nerve roots, transverse US was superior in 18 cases (60%), while longitudinal US was superior in two cases (7%). CONCLUSION: On US, the central canal of the FT was defined in 60% of normal FTs. Hyperechoic marginal echogenicity and the use of transverse US were helpful in distinguishing the normal FT from the nerve roots of the cauda equina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Cauda Equina , Coccyx , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord , Ultrasonography
12.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(2): 69-75, sep.-dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894322

ABSTRACT

ResumenEl presente artículo ahonda en un repaso en cuanto a aspectos que el médico forense debe siempre tener en cuenta a la hora de analizar casos de pacientes con lumbalgia, ya que esto será la base para poder establecer la relación de causalidad en determinado hecho.


AbstractThis article delves into a review of aspects that the forensic doctor should always take into account when analyzing cases of patients with low back pain, since this will be the basis for establishing the causal relationship in a given event.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Examination , Cauda Equina , Low Back Pain , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Acute Pain , Forensic Medicine , Intervertebral Disc , Lumbar Vertebrae
13.
The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association ; : 556-561, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646774

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old woman presented with bilateral leg weakness, accompanied by severe axial back and radicular pain, after a L4–5 epidural injection. She had been receiving misappropriated epidural injections for the last few months. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance image showed rim enhancing, spinal canal compromising cystic lesion at the posterior epidural space of L4–5. During surgery, a severely central compromised non-communicating cystic lesion located at posterior epidural space was resected. A histological report of this lesion confirmed a pseudocyst containing a degenerated synovial tissue. Herein, we report our experience of cauda equine syndrome after epidural injection with successful treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Cauda Equina , Epidural Space , Injections, Epidural , Leg , Polyradiculopathy , Spinal Canal
14.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 158-161, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222734

ABSTRACT

Spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) following diagnostic lumbar puncture is very rare. Generally, SSH is more likely to occur when the patient has coagulopathy or is undergoing anticoagulant therapy. Unlike the usual complications, such as headache, dizziness, and back pain at the needle puncture site, SSH may result in permanent neurologic deficits if not properly treated within a short period of time. An otherwise healthy 43-year-old female with no predisposing factors presented with fever and headache. Diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed under suspicion of acute meningitis. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed due to hypoesthesia below the level of T10 that rapidly progressed after the lumbar puncture. SSH was diagnosed, and high-dose steroid therapy was started. Her neurological symptoms rapidly deteriorated after 12 hours despite the steroids, necessitating emergent decompressive laminectomy and hematoma removal. The patient’s condition improved after the surgery from a preoperative motor score of 1/5 in the right leg and 4/5 in the left leg to brace-free ambulation (motor grade 5/5) 3-month postoperative. The patient was discharged with no neurologic deficits. Critical complications such as SSH can be fatal. Therefore, a patient undergoing lumbar puncture must be carefully observed. A hematoma that convincingly compresses the spinal cord or cauda equina on imaging results requires early surgical decompression and hematoma removal.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Back Pain , Cauda Equina , Causality , Decompression, Surgical , Dizziness , Fever , Headache , Hematoma , Hypesthesia , Laminectomy , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningitis , Needles , Neurologic Manifestations , Punctures , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Puncture , Steroids , Walking
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 1079-1084, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43920

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, radiological study. PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between clinical symptoms and the extent of tumor occupation of the spinal canal by cauda equina schwannoma. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Little is known about the relationship between the size of tumors of the cauda equina and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. We analyzed this relationship by estimating the percentage of tumor occupation (PTO) in the spinal canal in cauda equina schwannomas and by correlating this parameter with the presence and severity of clinical symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (9 men and 13 women; age, 19–79 years; mean age, 55.3 years) who were radiologically diagnosed with schwannomas of the cauda equina between April 2004 and July 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. PTO was measured in axial and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging slices in which the cross-sectional area of the tumor was the largest. Data regarding clinical symptoms and results of physical examinations were collected from patient medical records. PTO differences between symptom-positive and -negative groups were analyzed for each variable. RESULTS: In the 4 cases in which tumor presence was not related to clinical symptoms, PTO was 5%–10% (mean, 9%) in axial slices and 23%–31% (mean, 30%) in sagittal slices. In the 18 cases in which symptoms were associated with the tumor, PTO was 11%–86% (mean, 50%) in axial slices and 43%–88% (mean, 71%) in sagittal slices. PTO in axial slices was significantly higher in the presence of Déjèrine symptoms and/or muscle weakness, a positive straight leg raise test, and a positive Kemp sign. CONCLUSIONS: PTO >20% in axial slices and >40% in sagittal slices can be an indication of symptomatic cauda equina schwannoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Cauda Equina , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Muscle Weakness , Neurilemmoma , Occupations , Physical Examination , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Canal
16.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 711-718, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148225

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Fifty patients surgically treated for tethered cord syndrome (TCS) were retrospectively studied at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi from 2010 until 2014. PURPOSE: To assess the common presentations of TCS in our part of the world and the surgical outcome of the different presentations. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: TCS is a stretch-induced functional disorder of the spinal cord with its caudal part anchored by an inelastic structure, which results in characteristic symptoms and signs. Due to the variety of lesions and clinical presentations and the absence of high-quality clinical outcome data, the decision regarding treatment is difficult. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with TCS were reviewed retrospectively with a follow-up period of 12–48 months. The majority of the patients were 0-15 years of age with the mean age of 4 years. The presenting complaints and the associated pathologies were documented, and the patients were assessed using the new Karachi TCS severity scale for clinical assessment. RESULTS: Eighty five percent of the patients with thickened filum terminale improved. Sixty six percent of the patients with diastematomyelia, 60% with lipoma and only 46% with myelomeningocele showed clinical improvement postoperatively. Sixty two percent of the patients who presented with paraperesis improved following surgery while 37% remained stable and only one patient deteriorated. Back and leg pain improved in 93% of patients and 50% of patients with urinary impairment improved. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome of patients with TCS varies according to pathology and severity of symptoms. Diastematomyelia and thickened filum had the best outcome. The Karachi TCS severity scale is a valid tool for future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cauda Equina , Follow-Up Studies , Leg , Lipoma , Meningomyelocele , Neural Tube Defects , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord , Spine
17.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 346-349, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179066

ABSTRACT

We describe two patients with acute myeloradiculitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). They were previously healthy and immunocompetent and had no history of herpes infection or rash. Myeloradiculitis manifested as an acute flaccid paralysis that primarily involved the conus medullaris and cauda equina. laccid paralysis can be caused by HSV-2 myeloradiculitis, and so early antiviral treatment should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cauda Equina , Exanthema , Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 2, Human , Myelitis , Paralysis , Radiculopathy , Simplexvirus , Spinal Cord
18.
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 121-126, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219354

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVES: To report a rare case of extensive epidermoid cysts in the lumbosacral spine. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The intradural epidermoid cyst with extensive involvement is rare, and previous reports have reported only extensive intramedullary epidermoid cysts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 75-year-old male presented with progressive motor weakness of both extremities beginning 3 days prior. MRI showed extensive intradural extramedullary epidermoid cysts in the lumbosacral region. We performed total laminectomy from the L1 to the L5 level, and the cystic mass was removed. RESULTS: We confirmed the epidermoid cyst on histopathologic examination. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive extramedullary epidermoid cysts are difficult to remove completely. Attempting complete removal may result in neurological deficit. Therefore, when surgical intervention is planned, the poor postoperative prognosis should be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Cauda Equina , Epidermal Cyst , Extremities , Laminectomy , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Polyradiculopathy , Prognosis , Spine
19.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 159-162, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122135

ABSTRACT

Very rarely, spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) can occur without any direct spinal injury in patients with traumatic intracranial SAH. A-59-year-old male with traumatic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with pain and numbness in his buttock and thigh two days after trauma. Pain and numbness rapidly worsened and perianal numbness and voiding difficulty began on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intraspinal hemorrhage in the lumbosacral region. The cauda equina was displaced and compressed. Emergent laminectomy and drainage of hemorrhage were performed and SSAH was found intraoperatively. The symptoms were relieved immediately after the surgery. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage who present with delayed pain or neurological deficits should be evaluated for intraspinal hemorrhage promptly, even when the patients had no history of direct spinal injury and had no apparent symptoms related to the spinal injury in the initial period of trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Brain Injuries , Buttocks , Cauda Equina , Drainage , Hemorrhage , Hypesthesia , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Laminectomy , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Injuries , Spine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thigh
20.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 945-949, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125097

ABSTRACT

We report two patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) secondary to L5 giant cell tumour (GCT) who achieved good neurological recovery after treatment with denosumab without surgery. The first patient was a 26-year-old man with L5 GCT causing CES who regained bowel and urinary control, muscle power improvement from grade 2 to grade 4 and Oswestry disability index (ODI) improvement from 48 to 23 after denosumab treatment. The second patient was a 25-year-old woman with L5 GCT causing CES who regained bowel and urinary control, muscle power improvement from grade 0 to grade 4 and ODI improvement from 42 to 20 after denosumab treatment. The usage of denosumab in the treatment of patients with CES due to GCT allows potential neurological recovery without any surgical intervention. If surgery is not contraindicated, more time is obtained to prepare the patient preoperatively to attain safer surgery and to achieve complete tumour clearance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cauda Equina , Denosumab , Giant Cells , Polyradiculopathy , Spine
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