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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 83-86, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare but often debilitating and potentially fatal disease. We describe a case of bilateral orbital cellulitis with rapidly progressing cavernous sinus thrombosis and left sigmoidal sinus thrombosis in an immunocompetent 20-year-old military man who had undergone intensive physical training. The patient presented with rapid painful swollen left eye for 2 days. The examination results were gross proptosis with total ophthalmoplegia. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics and corticosteroid. At 1 week, visual acuity improved to 20/20 OU, with a normal intraocular pressure. There was a significant improvement in proptosis. The ocular motility of the right eye was fully restored, with slight residual ophthalmoplegia in the left eye. There was no residual illness or recurrence of illness at 3 months' follow-up.


RESUMO A trombose séptica do seio cavernoso é uma condição rara, mas frequentemente debilitante e potencialmente fatal. Descrevemos um caso de celulite orbital bilateral com progressão rápida para trombose do seio cavernoso e trombose do seio sigmoide esquerdo, em um militar imunocompetente de 20 anos de idade que havia sido submetido a treinamento físico intenso. O paciente apresentou um inchaço rápido e doloroso no olho esquerdo por 2 dias. Os resultados do exame foram proptose macroscópica com oftalmoplegia total. Ele foi tratado com antibióticos intravenosos e costicosteróide. Em 1 semana, a acuidade visual melhorou para 20/20, com pressão intraocular normal. Houve uma melhora significativa na proptose. A motilidade ocular do olho direito foi totalmente restaurada, com leve oftalmoplegia residual no olho esquerdo. Não houve doença residual ou recorrência da doença após três meses de acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cavernous Sinus , Exophthalmos , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis , Orbital Cellulitis , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Exophthalmos/etiology , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/etiology , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/drug therapy , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
2.
Más Vita ; 2(4): 74-79, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1373005

ABSTRACT

La trombosis séptica del seno cavernoso se conoce como una complicación rara y potencialmente mortal de las infecciones en el área de la cabeza y el cuello. Aunque el uso de antibióticos ha mejorado el pronóstico, todavía es conocida por sus altas tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad. Objetivo: Analizar la presencia de la trombosis séptica de seno cavernoso mediante el estudio de un caso único. Metodología: De tipo observacional, cualitativa y de corte transversal, apoyado con sustento bibliográfico. Resultado: Caso de una paciente joven de sexo femenino que presenta una semana después de tener sintomatología de Covid, cefalea holocraneana, oftalmoplejía derecha, disminución de la agudeza visual, dolor, eritema, edema, tumefacción orbitaria, secreción ocular amarillenta supurativa derecha, se le realiza tomografía de cerebro evidenciándose de forma incidental trombosis del seno cavernoso. Conclusiones: Se determinó que la trombosis séptica de seno cavernoso es un diagnóstico de poca frecuencia y rara. Asimismo, la trombosis del seno cavernoso tiene la tasa más alta de mortalidad. En raras ocasiones, la infección del oído medio puede ser una causa de trombosis séptica del seno cavernoso y la respuesta al tratamiento es deficiente(AU)


Cavernous sinus septic thrombosis is a rare and life-threatening complication of infections in the head and neck area. Although the use of antibiotics has improved the prognosis, it still known for its high mortality and morbidity rates. Objective: To analyze the presence of cavernous sinus septic thrombosis by studying a single case. Methodology: Observational, qualitative and cross-sectional, supported by bibliographic support. Result: Case of a young female patient who presented one week after having symptoms of Covid, holocranial headache, right ophthalmoplegia, decreased visual acuity, pain, erythema, edema, orbital swelling, right suppurative yellowish eye discharge, was performed brain tomography, incidentally showing cavernous sinus thrombosis. Conclusions: It was determined that cavernous sinus septic thrombosis is an infrequent and rare diagnosis. In addition, cavernous sinus thrombosis has the highest mortality rate. In rare cases, middle ear infection can be a cause of cavernous sinus septic thrombosis and response to treatment is poor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Intracranial Thrombosis/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/mortality , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cavernous Sinus , Headache , Infections , Anti-Infective Agents
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Oculomotor nerve palsy is a kind of disease with many causes, showing eye movement disorders, abnormal eyelid position, and/or damage of the pupil. The etiology of oculomotor nerve palsy in different departments is different. The study discussed the etiology, localization of the lesion, and prognosis for oculomotor nerve palsy firstly diagnosed in department of ophthalmology.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 137 hospitalized patients with oculomotor nerve palsy at the Department of Ophthalmology, the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from 2009 to 2018 were retrospectively collected. The etiology and its distribution characteristics in different age groups, the location of the lesion, and the prognosis of patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In 137 patients, the top 3 causes for oculomotor nerve palsy were head trauma (38.69%), cavernous sinus lesions (12.40%), and orbital inflammation (9.49%). Other causes included intracranial aneurysm, the intracranial space-occupying lesion, cerebral vessel diseases, infection, orbital tumors, diabetes, the operation of nasal cavity. Traumatic oculomotor nerve palsy was more common in young adults aged 20-49 years and in the patients with cerebral vascular disease in elderly people aged 60-69 years, while diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy is common in middle-aged and elderly people aged 50-69 years. The age distribution of other etiological types was relatively balanced. Seventy-five cases of orbital apex lesions were due to trauma, inflammation, infection, and tumor; 40 cases of cavernous sinus lesions were due to inflammation, tumor, and thrombosis; 6 cases of subarachnoid lesions were due to aneurysms, tumors, and trauma; 5 cases were oculomotor nucleus lesions were due to infarction; 11 cases could not be allocated because of unknown etiology. After treatment, the corrected visual acuity of oculomotor nerve palsy side was not significantly improved. The patients with oculomotor nerve palsy caused by intracranial aneurysm, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus had the highest proportion of partial or complete recovery from ptosis and ocular dyskinesia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Oculomotor nerve palsy is a common cause of ophthalmoplegia and diplopia. Head trauma, cavernous sinus lesions, and orbital inflammation are the most common causes for oculomotor nerve palsy first diagnosed in ophthalmology department. Traumatic oculomotor nerve palsy is common in adolescents. Oculomotor nerve palsy caused by diabetes and cerebrovascular disease are common in the middle-aged and elderly people. Most of the lesions locate in the orbital apex and cavernous sinus. The prognosis of corrected visual acuity is poor. The prognosis of ptosis and ocular dyskinesia caused by intracranial aneurysm, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes is good. Figuring out the cause timely and accurately is the basis and key to treat oculomotor nerve palsy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cavernous Sinus , Humans , Middle Aged , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/etiology , Ophthalmoplegia , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
San Salvador; s.n; 2020. 55 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357730

ABSTRACT

Introducción En diciembre del 2019 se evidencio un nuevo coronavirus en la provincia de Hubei, China, denominada COVID-19. Este nuevo coronavirus cobra importancia clínica a nivel internacional por su alta letalidad decretándose pandemia por COVID-19 en marzo del 2020 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El COVID-19, causa principalmente síntomas respiratorios, aunque cada vez más se describen manifestaciones neurológicas con más frecuencia. Además, los estados procoagulantes producto de la infección viral posiblemente guardan relación directa con la aparición de complicaciones trombóticas a nivel arteriales y venosas, dependiendo de la severidad del cuadro. Objetivo: Conocer características clínicas de un paciente eventos trombóticos cerebrales asociados a infección por SARS-COV2. Método: Se realizó una revisión biográfica sobre manifestaciones neurológicas asociadas a infección por SARS-COV2 y su relación con la aparición de manifestaciones neurológicas que desencadenen cuadros isquémicos o trombóticos. Resultados: COVID-19 está asociado a compromiso neurológico, esto dependiendo de la severidad del cuadro, estas manifestaciones se han observado mas en pacientes con alto riesgo cardiovascular, hipertensos, diabéticos y dislipidémicos que se han asociado a peor pronóstico. El conocimiento preciso de la incidencia de complicaciones trombóticas en pacientes con COVID-19 es importante para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la intensidad de la tromboprofilaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Cavernous Sinus
6.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 107-111, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008961

ABSTRACT

Los meningiomas de nervio óptico y de seno cavernoso son patologías poco frecuentes, y hasta el momento no ha habido ningún reporte de que se presenten ambos en un mismo paciente. Cabe resaltar que cuando llega un paciente a consulta diagnosticado con alguna patología, asumimos que este diagnóstico es adecuado y pertinente. Pero en nuestro caso, el paciente presentó signos y síntomas de etiología desconocida que hicieron que se re-evaluarán los diagnósticos oftalmológicos que traía la paciente, encontrando que había sido tratada por un diagnóstico que no le correspondía y a su vez este hallazgo nos ayudó a encontrar la verdadera causa(AU)


Optic nerve and cavernous sinus meningiomas are uncommon pathologies, and so far there have not been previously reported to occur in the same patient. It should be emphasized that when a patient arrives at a doctor's office diagnosed with pathology, we assume that this diagnosis is appropriate and pertinent. But in our case, the patient presented signs and symptoms of unknown etiology that led to a re-evaluation of the previous ophthalmological diagnoses that the patient brought, finding that she had been treated for a diagnosis that did not match with all her clinical sign and symptoms and this helped us to find the real cause(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cavernous Sinus/pathology , Optic Nerve Neoplasms/diagnosis , Meningioma/diagnosis , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Eye Movement Measurements , Fundus Oculi
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 271-273, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013685

ABSTRACT

Resumo A síndrome de Tolosa-Hunt (STH) é uma doença rara caracterizada por oftalmoplegia dolorosa unilateral de início súbito causada por uma inflamação granulomatosa inespecífica no seio cavernoso ou fissura orbital superior (ou ambos). A oftalmoparesia ocorre quando os nervos cranianos III, IV e VI são acometidos pela inflamação. Disfunções pupilares podem estar presentes e está relacionado com acometimento das fibras simpáticas que passam pelo seio cavernoso na porção da artéria carótida interna ou fibras parassimpáticas ao redor do nervo oculomotor. O acometimento do primeiro ramo do trigêmeo pode provocar parestesia território correspondente à distribuição desde ramo (testa). Raramente, pode haver extensão da inflamação para além do seio cavernoso ou fissura orbital superior podendo acometer também o nervo óptico. Há uma boa resposta com o uso de corticoides e pode haver remissões espontâneas. Recidivas ocorrem em 40% dos casos. A doença é mais comum após a segunda década de vida. Afeta ambos os gêneros de forma igualitária. O presente estudo trata-se de um relato de caso de um paciente que se apresentou com oftalmoplegia dolorosa de início súbito à direita com 4 dias de evolução seguido de amaurose ipslateral após um dia do início da dor.


Abstract Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (STH) is a rare disease characterized by sudden onset unilateral painful ophthalmoplegia caused by non-specific granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure (or both). Ophthalmoparesis occurs when the cranial nerves III, IV and VI are affected by inflammation. Pupillary dysfunctions may be present and is related to involvement of the sympathetic fibers that pass through the cavernous sinus in the portion of the internal carotid artery or parasympathetic fibers around the oculomotor nerve. The involvement of the first branch of the trigeminal can cause paresthesia corresponding to the distribution from the first branch (forehead). Rarely, there may be extension of inflammation beyond the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure and may also affect the optic nerve. There is a good response with the use of corticosteroids and there may be spontaneous remissions. Relapses occur in 40% of cases. The disease is most common after the second decade of life. It affects both genders equally. The present study is a case report of a patient who presented with painful ophthalmoplegia of sudden onset on the right with 4 days of evolution followed by ipsilateral amaurosis after one day of onset of pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain , Ophthalmoplegia/diagnosis , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/diagnosis , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cavernous Sinus/pathology , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , International Classification of Diseases , Cranial Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/classification , Diagnosis, Differential , Headache
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 199-206, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014438

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La rinosinusitis bacteriana aguda es la infección de la mucosa nasal y de senos paranasales, que se manifiesta con congestión nasal, rinorrea purulenta y fiebre, de curso generalmente autolimitado. La trombosis del seno cavernoso (TSC) es una complicación poco frecuente, que se asocia a compromiso del seno esfenoidal y etmoidal, manifestándose clínicamente con cefalea, fiebre, alteración de pares craneanos y síntomas oculares. Ante su sospecha el estudio imagenológico es fundamental. En estos exámenes se debe buscar un defecto de llene en el seno cavernoso comprometido. El tratamiento debe iniciarse de forma precoz y contempla: antibioticoterapia, drenaje quirúrgico del seno afectado y anticoagulación. Se presenta a un paciente pediátrico masculino con TSC derecha posterior a una rinosinusitis esfenoidal no tratada, que respondió favorablemente al tratamiento. Se describe la clínica y manejo de esta patología, que presenta alta morbimortalidad, y que puede disminuirse considerablemente con un tratamiento precoz y agresivo.


ABSTRACT Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is the infection of the nasal and paranasal mucous membrane, with symptoms such as nasal congestion, purulent rhinorrhea and fever, usually self-limiting. Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare complication, which is associated with sphenoid and ethmoid sinus involvement, clinically manifest with headache, fever, cranial nerve involvement and ocular symptoms. When suspected, imaging studies will confirm the clinical impression. They will show abnormal flow parameters in the compromised cavernous sinus. The treatment has to start as soon as possible and consists in broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics, surgical drainage of the site of the infection and anticoagulation. We present a patient with a right CST secondary to a non-treated sphenoidal sinusitis, that responded favorably to treatment. The clinical and management of this pathology is described, which presents a high morbidity and mortality that can be reduced considerably with an early and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Sphenoid Sinusitis/complications , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/etiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/surgery , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
9.
Neurointervention ; : 9-16, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741678

ABSTRACT

Intracranial and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are vascular pathologies of the dural membrane with arteriovenous shunts. They are abnormal communications between arteries and veins or dural venous sinuses that sit between the two sheets of the dura mater. The dura propria faces the surface of brain, and the osteal dura faces the bone. The location of the shunt points is not distributed homogeneously on the surface of the dural membrane, but there are certain areas susceptible to DAVFs. The dura mater of the olfactory groove, falx cerebri, inferior sagittal sinus, tentorium cerebelli, and falx cerebelli, and the dura mater at the level of the spinal cord are composed only of dura propria, and these areas are derived from neural crest cells. The dura mater of the cavernous sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence surrounding the hypoglossal canal are composed of both dura propria and osteal dura; this group is derived from mesoderm. Although the cause of this heterogeneity has not yet been determined, there are some specific characteristics and tendencies in terms of the embryological features. The possible reasons for the segmental susceptibility to DAVFs are summarized based on the embryology of the dura mater.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Brain , Cavernous Sinus , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Colon, Sigmoid , Dura Mater , Embryology , Membranes , Mesoderm , Neural Crest , Pathology , Population Characteristics , Spinal Cord , Veins
10.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 250-254, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762239

ABSTRACT

The superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) drains the venous blood from most of the superolateral surface of the brain and drains typically into the cavernous sinus as mentioned in standard textbooks. But the drainage of the SMCV is variable as indicated by various radiological studies. Although variations in the drainage of the SMCV exist, there is a shortage in the literature providing cadaveric evidence for the same. The present study was designed to identify the variations in the drainage pattern of the SMCV in fetal cadavers. During the dissection of formalin-fixed full-term fetuses, deviation in the drainage of the SMCV was observed in five out of 30 cases. In three out of 30 specimens (10%), SMCV was observed draining into superior petrosal sinus; and in two specimens (6.6%) into the transverse sinus. In the remaining specimens, the SMCV drained directly into the cavernous sinus. Knowledge of the variations noted in the present study is essential, not only for diagnosing several diseases involving the cavernous sinus or paracavernous sinuses but also in surgeries of paracavernous sinus lesions and endovascular treatment of arteriovenous fistulas. The SMCV and superior petrosal sinus can be a venous refluxing route in patients with arteriovenous fistulas.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Brain , Cadaver , Cavernous Sinus , Cerebral Veins , Drainage , Fetus , Humans
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the surgical results of the intradural transpetrosectomy for petrous apex meningiomas (PAMs). In addition, we describe the methods and techniques used to expose and manage superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study of 16 patients with PAMs operated by the senior author via the intradural transpetrosectomy between February 2012 to May 2017. We reviewed patient data regarding the general characteristics, surgical technique and surgery-related outcomes and adopted a combined follow-up strategy of clinic and telephone contacts to evaluate postoperative complications. RESULTS: Simpson grade I and II resection was performed in 10 out of 16 cases (62.5%), and grade III resection were reported in the remaining six cases (37.5%) with no resultant mortality. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score was 85.6 preoperatively and improved to 91.9 postoperatively, with a mean follow-up period of 34.4 months (range, 6–66 months). Tumor recurrence was found in two patients and they underwent the second surgical operation. CONCLUSION: PAMs could be completely resected by the intradural transpetrosectomy with an improved survival rate and postoperative life quality. Superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve should be managed properly in avoidance of postoperative complications. Finally, most meningioma inside cavernous sinus or adhered to brainstem could be totally removed without postoperative complications.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem , Cavernous Sinus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Neurosurgical Procedures , Petrous Bone , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Telephone , Veins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated whether SCA-associated clinical profiles were more aggressive than hormonally negative adenomas (HNA). METHODS: Among 627 patients with pathologically proven endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas between 2004 and 2013, positive immunohistochemistry revealed 55 SCAs and 411 HNAs. Surgical outcomes and radiological and endocrinological characteristics were compared. RESULTS: Strong female predominance was observed in the SCA group (p<0.001). Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 22 (40%) SCA patients and 72 (17.6%) HNA patients (p<0.001). There were no differences in ACTH or cortisol levels between the two groups. The incidence of preoperative hypopituitarism and postoperative hormonal outcome did not differ between two groups. Total resection was achieved in 35 patients (63.7%) with SCA and 332 patients (80.8%) with HNA (p=0.007). When tumors were completely removed, recurrence rates were not statistically different between two groups (p=0.60). When complete resection was not achieved, tumors regrew from these remnants in seven patients (35.0%) with SCA and 12 patients (15.2%) with HNA (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: Total surgical resection for SCA is often challenging as these tumors frequently invade a cavernous sinus. Early remnant tumor intervention is justified, because untreated residual pituitary tumors regrow when patients were followed up for a long time. Prophylactic radiotherapy is not warranted for completely resected SCAs as tumor recurrence is uncommon.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cavernous Sinus , Corticotrophs , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
13.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(3): 226-230, maio-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009756

ABSTRACT

Otite externa necrotizante (OEN), conhecida antigamente como otite externa maligna (OEM), atinge o conduto auditivo externo, causando otalgia intensa, otorreia fétida, e em casos mais severos, comprometimento dos ossos do crânio e déficit neurológico. O agente etiológico mais comum é a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acomete principalmente pacientes idosos, diabéticos e imunodeprimidos. O comprometimento de nervo craniano levando a paralisia facial e trombose dos seios intracranianos são de piores prognósticos. O diagnóstico depende da suspeita clínica inicialmente. Os exames complementares são imprecisos, embora essenciais no seguimento. A abordagem multidisciplinar é sempre recomendada. O objetivo do trabalho é relatar as complicações clínicas de um caso de otite externa necrotizante com paralisia facial que evoluiu para trombose do seio cavernoso, levando ao óbito.


Necrotizing external otitis (NEO), formerly known as malignant external otitis (MEO), strikes the external auditory canal, causing severe otalgia, fetid otorrhea, and in more severe cases, impairment of the skull bones and neurological deficit. The most common etiological agent is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It mainly affects elderly, diabetic and immunodepressed patients. Cranial nerve impairment leading to facial paralysis and intracranial sinus thrombosis are of bad prognos. The diagnosis depends on the clinical suspicion. Complementary exams are imprecise, although essential in the follow-up. The multidisciplinary approach is always recommended. The objective of this paper is to report the clinical complications of a case of necrotizing external otitis with facial paralysis and cavernous sinus thrombosis, leading to death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Otitis Externa/complications , Cavernous Sinus , Intracranial Thrombosis , Facial Paralysis/complications , Immunity
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the surgical results of the intradural transpetrosectomy for petrous apex meningiomas (PAMs). In addition, we describe the methods and techniques used to expose and manage superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve.METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study of 16 patients with PAMs operated by the senior author via the intradural transpetrosectomy between February 2012 to May 2017. We reviewed patient data regarding the general characteristics, surgical technique and surgery-related outcomes and adopted a combined follow-up strategy of clinic and telephone contacts to evaluate postoperative complications.RESULTS: Simpson grade I and II resection was performed in 10 out of 16 cases (62.5%), and grade III resection were reported in the remaining six cases (37.5%) with no resultant mortality. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score was 85.6 preoperatively and improved to 91.9 postoperatively, with a mean follow-up period of 34.4 months (range, 6–66 months). Tumor recurrence was found in two patients and they underwent the second surgical operation.CONCLUSION: PAMs could be completely resected by the intradural transpetrosectomy with an improved survival rate and postoperative life quality. Superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve should be managed properly in avoidance of postoperative complications. Finally, most meningioma inside cavernous sinus or adhered to brainstem could be totally removed without postoperative complications.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem , Cavernous Sinus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Neurosurgical Procedures , Petrous Bone , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Telephone , Veins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated whether SCA-associated clinical profiles were more aggressive than hormonally negative adenomas (HNA).METHODS: Among 627 patients with pathologically proven endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas between 2004 and 2013, positive immunohistochemistry revealed 55 SCAs and 411 HNAs. Surgical outcomes and radiological and endocrinological characteristics were compared.RESULTS: Strong female predominance was observed in the SCA group (p<0.001). Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 22 (40%) SCA patients and 72 (17.6%) HNA patients (p<0.001). There were no differences in ACTH or cortisol levels between the two groups. The incidence of preoperative hypopituitarism and postoperative hormonal outcome did not differ between two groups. Total resection was achieved in 35 patients (63.7%) with SCA and 332 patients (80.8%) with HNA (p=0.007). When tumors were completely removed, recurrence rates were not statistically different between two groups (p=0.60). When complete resection was not achieved, tumors regrew from these remnants in seven patients (35.0%) with SCA and 12 patients (15.2%) with HNA (p=0.05).CONCLUSION: Total surgical resection for SCA is often challenging as these tumors frequently invade a cavernous sinus. Early remnant tumor intervention is justified, because untreated residual pituitary tumors regrow when patients were followed up for a long time. Prophylactic radiotherapy is not warranted for completely resected SCAs as tumor recurrence is uncommon.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cavernous Sinus , Corticotrophs , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775969

ABSTRACT

Extracerebral cavernous hemangioma typically occurs in cavernous sinus in middle cranial fossa,showing iso-or hypointensity on T1WI,obvious hyperintensity on T2WI,and evident enhancement after contrast administration during magnetic resonance imaging(MRI).In this article we report one case of atypical cavernous hemangioma of the trigeminal nerve,with atypical MRI findings including isotense or slight long T2 signal,dotty short T1 signal,and non-enhancement on T1WI.


Subject(s)
Cavernous Sinus , Diagnostic Imaging , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Trigeminal Nerve , Pathology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739208

ABSTRACT

A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is a rare condition in which an abnormal communication exists between the internal or external carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. It typically occurs within a few weeks after craniomaxillofacial trauma. In most cases, the carotid-cavernous sinus fistula occurs on the same side as the craniomaxillofacial fracture. We report a case of delayed carotidcavernous sinus fistula that developed symptoms 7 months after the craniomaxillofacial fracture. The fistula developed on the side opposite to that of the craniomaxillofacial fracture. Based on our experience with this case, we recommend a long follow-up period of 7–8 months after the occurrence of a craniomaxillofacial fracture. We also recommend that the follow-up should include consideration of the side contralateral to the injury.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, External , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula , Cavernous Sinus , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1480-1484, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975725

ABSTRACT

El foramen de Warwick o foramen venoso órbito cavernoso, es un foramen inconstante del ala mayor del esfenoides, situado entre la fisura orbitaria superior y el foramen rotundo. Comunica la órbita con la fosa craneal media y/o con la fosa pterigopalatina y permitiría el paso de la vena oftálmica inferior. La presencia del foramen venoso órbito cavernoso varía entre el 0,38 % y el 0,74 %. Se describe con forma redondeada o crescéntica (semilunar), unilateral o bilateral. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evidenciar la presencia y las características de foramen venoso órbito cavernoso en cráneos secos de individuos adultos chilenos de ambos sexos. Se analizaron 138 cráneos de individuos adultos y de ambos sexos, en búsqueda del foramen venoso órbito cavernoso para determinar la frecuencia, localización, forma, tamaño, orientación y distancias con respecto a la fisura orbitaria superior y el foramen rotundo. Los forámenes encontrados fueron fotografiados, explorados y medidos. La presencia del foramen venoso órbito cavernoso fue del 2,17 % de la muestra, encontrándose en forma unilateral (1,45 %) y bilateral (0,17 %). Con forma redondeada en 3 casos y semilunar en 1 caso. Con orientación hacia la órbita (2 casos) y hacia la fosa pterigopalatina (2 casos). También se evidenció que cuando está presente el foramen venoso órbito cavernoso, la separación entre la fisura orbitaria superior y el foramen rotundo es mayor que en su ausencia. Nuestro estudio demuestra la presencia del foramen venoso órbito cavernoso en la población chilena, con una frecuencia más alta que la observada en otras poblaciones. La localización, orientación y formas coinciden con la literatura, pero difiere en el tamaño (en forámenes redondeados). También pudimos determinar que la fisura orbitaria superior y el foramen rotundo tienden a encontrarse más cercanos en ausencia del foramen venoso órbito cavernoso y por lo tanto más distante cuando esta estructura está presente. Este hecho no está descrito en la literatura. Los resultados de este estudio son importantes para la anatomía, oftalmología, traumatología, imagenología, cirugía e identificación humana. Finalmente y en virtud de la TAI, proponemos llamar a este foramen, foramen venoso órbito cavernoso.


The Warwick's foramen or cavernous orbital venous foramen, is an inconstant foramen from the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, located between the superior orbital fissure and the rotundum foramen. It connects the orbit with the middle cranial fossa and/or with the pterygopalatine fossa and allows for the passage of the inferior ophthalmic vein. The presence of the cavernous orbital venous foramen varies between 0.38 % and 0.74 % in human skulls. It is described as having a rounded or crescentic (semilunar), unilateral or bilateral shape. The objective of the present work was to demonstrate the presence and characteristics of the cavernous orbital venous foramen in dry skulls of Chilean adult individuals of both sexes. One hundred and thirty-eight adult skulls of both sexes were analyzed in search of the cavernous orbital venous foramen to determine the frequency, location, shape, size, orientation and distances with respect to the superior orbital fissure and the rotund foramen. Found foramina were photographed, explored and measured. The cavernous orbital venous foramen was present in 2.17 % of the sample, and was both unilateral (1.45 %) and bilateral (0.17 %). It had a rounded and lunate shape in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. Moreover, it was orientated towards the orbit (2 cases) and towards the pterygopalatine fossa (2 cases). It was also evidenced that when the cavernous orbital venous foramen is present, the separation between the superior orbital fissure and the rotund foramen is greater than in its absence. Our study demonstrates the presence of the cavernous orbital venous foramen in the Chilean population, with a higher frequency than described previously. The location, orientation and observed forms agree with the literature, but differ in size (in rounded shape foramen). We could also determine that the superior orbital fissure and the rotundum foramen tend to be closer in the absence of the cavernous orbital venous foramen and, therefore, are more distant when this structure is present. This fact is not described in the literature. The results of this study are important for anatomy, ophthalmology, traumatology, imaging, surgery and human identification. Finally, and by virtue of the International Anatomical Terminology (IAT), we propose to call this structure the cavernous orbital venous foramen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Cavernous Sinus/anatomy & histology , Cranial Fossa, Middle/anatomy & histology , Chile
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(5): 289-291, set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977864

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case study of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, a rare idiopathic disease, that is characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia of strong intensity, generally affecting the third cranial nerve, and, less frequently, the fourth or the sixth cranial nerves. Usually, there is no visual impairment. The treatment is based on corticosteroids with satisfactory results in most cases although recurrences can occur at intervals from months to years. In our case, the patient presented sudden pain periorbital associated with cranial nerves involvement, which have an excellent outcome after treatment with corticosteroids, with no relapses until today.


Resumo Nós apresentamos um caso de Síndrome de Tolosa-Hunt, uma doença idiopática rara, caracterizada por oftalmoplegia dolorosa, de forte intensidade, geralmente afetando o terceiro par craniano, e, menos frequentemente, o quarto e/ou o sexto par. Geralmente, não há acometimento visual. O tratamento é feito com base em corticóides com resultados satisfatórios na maior parte dos casos, embora recorrências possam ocorrer após meses a anos. Relatamos caso de paciente masculino de 36 anos, com diagnóstico prévio de sífilis congênita e esquizofrenia, com dor periocular súbita associada com envolvimento de pares cranianos, que teve melhora total após vigência de corticoterapia, sem recorrências até a presente data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/diagnosis , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/drug therapy , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Schizophrenia , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Syphilis, Congenital , Blepharoptosis/etiology , Visual Acuity , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Mydriasis , Ophthalmoplegia/etiology , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/complications , Diagnosis, Differential
20.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 454-462, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739003

ABSTRACT

A 54-year-old man, suffering from severe headache and ophthalmoplegia after undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery was referred to a tertiary hospital. Computed tomography (CT) revealed soft tissue density lesions in the left sphenoid sinus. The internal carotid artery was shown to be occluded in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans without any other cerebral lesion. Endoscopic view of left nasal cavity shows whitish hyphae in the ethmoid and the sphenoid sinuses. We diagnosed him with cavernous sinus syndrome caused by mucormycosis and conducted endoscopic sinus surgery to remove remaining lesions and decompress orbit and optic nerves. After the revision surgery the patient's headache and ophthalmoplegia were improved. However, multifocal cerebral infarctions were newly discovered in a postoperative CT scan. We experienced a case of mucormycosis of sphenoid sinus resulting in occlusion of internal carotid artery and multifocal cerebral infarction, and report it with a brief review of these disease entities.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cavernous Sinus , Cerebral Infarction , Headache , Humans , Hyphae , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis , Nasal Cavity , Ophthalmoplegia , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Sphenoid Sinus , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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