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Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 384-389, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345308


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that endoscopy fellows can perform colonoscopy effectively and safely. However, little is known about the performance of surgical residents without prior knowledge of endoscopic techniques. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether quality indicators were met at an outpatient endoscopy center and whether surgical residents, without prior upper or lower endoscopy skills, could perform colonoscopy adequately. METHODS: A prospective non-randomized cohort study was undertaken. All exams were performed either by assistant physicians or by residents. Quality measures were compared between those groups. RESULTS: A total of 2720 colonoscopies were analyzed. In the resident group, we observed older patients (57.7±12.7 years vs 51.5±14.5 years, P<0.001), a higher prevalence of screening colonoscopies (52% vs 39.4%, P<0.001) and a higher prevalence of colorectal cancer (6.4% vs 1.8%, P<0.001). The cecal intubation rate was higher in the attending group (99.9% vs 89.3%; P<0.001). The polyp detection rate was 40.8%, and no differences were observed between the studied groups. The residents had a higher rate of perforation in all exams (0.4% vs 0%; P=0.02). Postpolypectomy bleeding and 7-day readmission rates were the same (0.2%). All readmissions in 7 days occurred due to low digestive bleeding, and none required intervention. CONCLUSION: Quality indicators were met at a university outpatient endoscopy center; however, medical residents achieved lower rates of cecal intubation and higher rates of perforation than the attending physicians.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Estudos recentes mostraram que médicos em treinamento podem realizar a colonoscopia de maneira eficaz e segura. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a performance dos médicos residentes de cirurgia sem o conhecimento prévio das técnicas endoscópicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se os indicadores de qualidade foram atendidos em um centro de endoscopia ambulatorial e se os residentes de cirurgia, sem habilidades anteriores em endoscopia alta ou baixa, realizaram a colonoscopia de forma adequada. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte prospectivo não randomizado. Todos os exames foram realizados por médicos assistentes ou residentes. Os indicadores de qualidade foram comparados entre esses grupos. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2.720 colonoscopias foram analisadas. No grupo de médicos residentes, observamos pacientes mais velhos (57,7±12,7 anos vs 51,5±14,5 anos, P<0,001), maior prevalência de colonoscopias de rastreamento (52% vs 39,4%, P<0,001) e maior prevalência de câncer colorretal (6,4% vs 1,8%, P<0,001). A taxa de intubação cecal foi maior no grupo de médicos assistentes (99,9% vs 89,3%; P<0,001). A taxa de detecção de pólipos foi de 40,8% e não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos estudados. Os médicos residentes tiveram maior índice de perfuração (0,4% vs 0%; P=0,02). O sangramento pós-polipectomia e as taxas de readmissão em 7 dias foram iguais (0,2%). Todas as readmissões em 7 dias ocorreram devido a hemorragia digestiva baixa e nenhuma intervenção foi necessária. CONCLUSÃO: Os indicadores de qualidade foram alcançados em um centro de endoscopia universitário; no entanto, os médicos residentes alcançaram taxas mais baixas de intubação cecal e taxas mais altas de perfuração do que os médicos assistentes.

Humans , Outpatients , Cecum , Universities , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Colonoscopy , Clinical Competence
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313


BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.

Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3385, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150006


Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the 50 IU/mL heparin solution compared to the 0.9% isotonic saline solution in preventing occlusion of the double lumen Hickman® catheter, 7 and 9 French, in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Method: a triple-blind randomized clinical trial. 17 double-lumen catheters (heparin group: n=7 and 0.9% isotonic saline group: n=10) were analyzed in which the two catheter routes were evaluated separately, totaling 34 lumens. The outcome variables were occlusion without reflux and complete occlusion. Descriptive analyses were performed using the Chi-square test and, of survival, according to the Kaplan-Meier test. Results: the mean number of days until the occlusion outcome was 52 in the heparin group and 13.46 in the 0.9% isotonic saline group in the white catheter route (p<0.001). In the red route, the mean follow-up days in the heparin group were 35.29, with no occlusion and 22.30 in the 0.9% isotonic saline group until the first occlusion (p=0.030). Conclusion: blocking with 50 IU/mL heparin solution is more effective than 0.9% isotonic saline in preventing occlusion of the Hickman® catheter. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-3ht499.

Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade da solução de heparina 50 UI/mL comparada à solução salina isotônica 0,9% na prevenção de oclusão do Cateter de Hickman® duplo lúmen, 7 e 9 french, em pacientes submetidos ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas. Método: ensaio clínico randomizado triplo cego. Foram analisados 17 cateteres duplo lúmen (grupo heparina n=7 e grupo solução salina isotônica 0,9% n=10) nos quais as duas vias do cateter foram avaliadas separadamente, totalizando 34 lúmens. As variáveis de desfecho foram oclusão sem refluxo e oclusão completa. As análises descritivas foram realizadas mediante o teste Qui-quadrado e, de sobrevida, sob o teste de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: a média de dias até o desfecho oclusão foi de 52 no grupo heparina e de 13,46 no grupo solução salina isotônica 0,9% na via branca do cateter (p<0,001). Na via vermelha, a média de dias de acompanhamento do grupo heparina foi de 35,29, sem ocorrência de oclusão, e de 22,30 no grupo solução salina isotônica 0,9% até a primeira oclusão (p=0,030). Conclusão: o bloqueio com solução de heparina 50 UI/mL é mais efetivo em relação à solução salina isotônica 0,9% na prevenção da oclusão do Cateter de Hickman®. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos: RBR-3ht499.

Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de la solución de heparina 50 UI/mL comparada con la solución salina isotónica al 0,9% para prevenir oclusiones en catéteres de Hickman® doble lumen, 7 y 9 French, en pacientes sometidos a trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas. Método: ensayo clínico aleatorizado triple ciego. Se analizaron 17 catéteres de doble lumen (grupo de heparina: n=7 y grupo de solución salina isotónica al 0,9%: n=10) en los que se evaluaron por separado las dos vías del catéter, totalizando 34 lúmenes. Las variables de resultado fueron oclusión sin reflujo y oclusión completa. Los análisis descriptivos se realizaron mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado y, los de sobrevida, con el test de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: la media de días hasta el resultado de oclusión fue de 52 en el grupo de heparina y de 13,46 en el grupo de la solución salina isotónica al 0,9% en la vía blanca del catéter (p<0,001). En la vía roja, la media de días de seguimiento del grupo de heparina fue de 35,29 sin oclusión y de 22,30 en el del grupo solución salina isotónica al 0,9% hasta la primera oclusión (p=0,030). Conclusión: el bloqueo con solución de heparina 50 UI/mL es más eficaz en relación con la solución salina isotónica al 0,9% para prevenir oclusiones en catéteres de Hickman®. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos: RBR 3ht499.

Effectiveness , Heparin , Sodium Chloride , Cecum , Randomized Controlled Trial , Aftercare , Disease Prevention , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Evidence-Based Nursing , Catheters , Catheter Obstruction , Central Venous Catheters
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811109


PURPOSE: Appendiceal tumoral lesions can occur as benign, malignant, or borderline disease. Determination of the extent of surgery through accurate diagnosis is important in these tumoral lesions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of preoperative CT and identified the factors affecting diagnosis.METHODS: Patients diagnosed or strongly suspected from July 2016 to June 2019 with appendiceal mucocele or mucinous neoplasm using abdominal CT were included in the study. All the patients underwent single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy with the margin of cecum secured at least 2 cm from the appendiceal base. To compare blood test results and CT findings, the patients were divided into a mucinous and a nonmucinous group according to pathology.RESULTS: The total number of patients included in this study was 54 and biopsy confirmed appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in 39 of them. With CT, the accuracy of diagnosis was 89.7%. The mean age of the mucinous group was greater than that of the nonmucinous group (P = 0.035). CT showed that the maximum diameter of appendiceal tumor in the mucinous group was greater than that in the nonmucinous group (P < 0.001). Calcification was found only in the appendix of patients in the mucinous group (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed that lager tumor diameter was a factor of diagnosis for appendiceal mucinous neoplasm.CONCLUSION: The accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in this study was 89.7%. Blood test results did not provide differential diagnosis, and the larger the diameter of appendiceal tumor on CT, the more accurate the diagnosis.

Appendix , Biopsy , Cecum , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Mucins , Mucocele , Multivariate Analysis , Pathology , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1483-1487, set.-out. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1038669


Uma mula hígida, de cinco anos de idade, foi atendida portando um aumento de volume na região abdominal lateral direita, estendendo-se da região inguinal até 25cm cranial à prega pré-crural, de 60 dias de evolução, após trauma com um touro. O volume era redutível e sem dor à palpação, com presença de intestino grosso envolvido por área circular hiperecogênica na imagem ultrasonográfica. O diagnóstico foi hérnia inguinal, e a paciente foi submetida à anestesia geral inalatória para abordagem cirúrgica pela região inguinal, onde se visualizou o ceco emergindo pelo anel inguinal externo, cujo diâmetro era de aproximadamente 10cm. O ceco apresentava coloração e conteúdo normais e parte do corpo e o ápice projetavam-se cranialmente para uma bolsa de tecido subcutâneo, que foi aberta para facilitar o reposicionamento do órgão ao abdômen, bem como para ampliar o anel inguinal externo. A paciente teve alta 18 dias após o internamento. Com base neste relato, é possível concluir que a hérnia inguinal indireta não encarcerada pode se desenvolver em fêmeas equídeas após trauma. De acordo com a literatura consultada, o presente estudo é a primeira descrição desse tipo de hérnia em uma fêmea equídea e a primeira envolvendo o ceco.(AU)

A five-year-old healthy mule was referred with enlarged volume in the ventral right side of the abdomen, with 25cm in length from the inguinal region to precrural fold, developed 60 days previously due to a traumatic confrontation with a bull. The mass had no pain and was reductible on palpation and the ultrasonographic examination revealed large intestine surrounded by a hyperecoic ring. Based on these findings, the diagnosis was non incarcerated inguinal hernia. Under general anesthesia, the patient was submitted to surgery by direct approach on the inguinal region, when the cecum was seen emerging from a 10cm overture of the external inguinal ring and projecting to a subcutaneous fold cranially to the ring. This fold and the external inguinal ring were opened to facilitate the reposition of the cecum back to the abdomen. Eighteen days after the surgery the patient was discharged with a satisfactory recovery. Based on this report, it is possible to conclude that females can develop indirect non incarcerated inguinal hernias with the involvement of the cecum with good prognosis. Based on the consulted literature, this is the first report of this type of hernia in a female equine.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cecum/surgery , Equidae/surgery , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Hernia, Inguinal/veterinary
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 440-444, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040241


Abstract Hyperkalemia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders, responsible for a high number of adverse outcomes, including life-threatening arrhythmias. Potassium binders are largely prescribed drugs used for hyperkalemia treatment but unfortunately, there are many adverse events associated with its use, mostly gastrointestinal. Identification of patients at highest risk for the serious complications associated with the current potassium binders, such as colon necrosis and perforation, could prevent fatal outcomes. The authors present a case of a 56-year-old man with secondary diabetes and chronic renal disease that was treated for hyperkalemia with Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate (CPS). He later presented with acute abdomen due to cecum perforation and underwent ileocecal resection but ultimately died from septic shock a week later. During surgery, a solid white mass was isolated in the lumen of the colon. The mass was identified as a CPS bezoar, a rare drug-mass formed in the gastrointestinal tract that contributed to the perforation. A previous history of partial gastrectomy and vagothomy was identified as a probable risk factor for the CPS bezoar development. Hopefully, the two new potassium binders patiromer and (ZS-9) Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate will help treat such high-risk patients, in the near future.

Resumo A hipercalemia é um dos distúrbios eletrolíticos mais comuns, responsável por um grande número de desfechos adversos, incluindo arritmias potencialmente fatais. Quelantes de potássio são amplamente prescritos para o tratamento da hipercalemia, mas infelizmente são muitos os eventos adversos associados ao seu uso, em particular os gastrointestinais. A identificação de pacientes com risco mais elevado para complicações graves associadas aos quelantes de potássio atualmente em uso, como necrose e perfuração do cólon, pode evitar desfechos fatais. O presente artigo descreve o caso de um homem de 56 anos com diabetes secundário e doença renal crônica em tratamento por hipercalemia com poliestirenossulfonato de cálcio (PSC). Posteriormente o paciente apresentou abdômen agudo devido a perfuração do ceco e foi submetido a uma ressecção ileocecal, mas acabou indo a óbito por choque séptico uma semana mais tarde. Durante a cirurgia, uma massa branca sólida foi isolada no lúmen do cólon. A massa foi identificada como um bezoar de PSC, uma massa de fármaco de rara ocorrência formada no trato gastrointestinal que contribuiu para a perfuração. História pregressa de gastrectomia parcial e vagotomia foi identificada como provável fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do bezoar de PSC. Espera-se que os dois novos quelantes de potássio - patiromer e ciclossilicato de zircônio sódico - ajudem a tratar pacientes de alto risco em um futuro próximo.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polystyrenes/therapeutic use , Bezoars/complications , Cecum/pathology , Hyperkalemia/drug therapy , Intestinal Perforation/etiology , Silicates/therapeutic use , Fatal Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Hyperkalemia/etiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776550


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the hypothesis that hydrogen could ameliorate cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced lung injury of rats by inhibiting cystathionine-gamma-lyase/hydrogen sulfide (CSE/HS) system.@*METHODS@#A total number of 24 healthy male SD rats weighting 250~300 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group): sham operation group(sham group), hydrogen-rich saline control group(H group), CLP group and hydrogen-rich saline treatment group(CLP+H group). The rats were treated with hydrogen-rich saline or saline 10 min before CLP or sham operation. At 8 h of sham or CLP operation, lung samples were obtained to detect the changes of the CSE/HS system using biochemical and RT-PCR methods. In order to further confirm the role of HS during hydrogen improve the lung injury of CLP rats, we also observed the effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the lung injury induced by HS donor-sodium sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Thirty-two healthy male SD rats (250~300 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control group, HS group, HS+H group and H group. Saline(10 mg/kg) or NaHS(HS donor, 56 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg) respectively into rats in the control rats or HS group. For rats in the HS+H and H group, hydrogen-rich saline (10 mg/kg) was injected 10 min before saline or NaHS administration. Eight hours after the LPS saline or NaHS administration, lung coefficient, MDA content, and MPO activity were detected. The contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in lung tissue were measured, and the morphological changes of lung tissue were also observed.@*RESULTS@#CSE/HS system up-regulating were observed in animals exposed to CLP. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly inhibited CSE/HS system as indicated by significantly reduced HS production in lung, along with a decreased CSE activity and CSE mRNA expression (all P<0.05). Importantly, the results showed that lung injury and lung tissue inflammation were observed in animals exposed to NaHS. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated lung injury as indicated by significantly improved histological changes in lung, significantly reduced index of quantitative assessment (IQA), MDA content and lung coefficient (all P<0.05). MPO activity in lung tissue was significantly reduced along with decreased productions of TNF-α and IL-6, and an increased production of IL-10 in the presence of hydrogen (all P<0.05), demonstrating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen in NaHS-induced ALI.@*CONCLUSION@#These results indicate that hydrogen-rich saline peritoneal injection improves the lung injury induced by CLP operation. The therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich saline may be related to suppressing the production of HS.

Animals , Cecum , General Surgery , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Hydrogen , Pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Ligation , Lung Injury , Therapeutics , Male , Punctures , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution , Pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764299


BACKGROUND: High-fat diet is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders related to an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-fat diet for intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations which are related to inflammation-associated colon cancer risk. METHODS: Both male and female rats of 6, 31, 74 and 104-week of age were fed chow diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly during the feeding period. Intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography from luminal contents of ileum and cecum. RESULTS: Male rats showed greater weight change than female rats in every age. Calorie-adjusted food intake was also higher in male rats compared to female rats. Male rats showed similar intake of food in every age while 31-week old female rats showed increased intake, which was decreased at 74-week and 104-week of age. The ileal acetic acid concentration was increased in male rats fed high-fat diet, while female rats fed high-fat diet showed no significant change in the ileal acetic acid level. On the other hand, butyric acid almost disappeared in high-fat diet fed rats regardless of sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-fat diet increases the intestinal acetic acid concentration while reducing the butyric acid concentration which may account for increased risk of inflammation-associated colon cancer.

Acetic Acid , Animals , Body Weight , Butyric Acid , Cecum , Chromatography, Liquid , Colonic Neoplasms , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Eating , Female , Hand , Humans , Ileum , Male , Phenobarbital , Rats
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 620-623, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785660


Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used for the treatment of colorectal neoplasia in patients who are candidates for endoscopic resection. In particular, pyogenic liver abscess (PLA), although rare, can occur. To our knowledge, there are no reports of PLA cases after ESD. Therefore, we report a rare case of PLA caused by ESD. A 76-year-old man was referred from a local clinic and admitted to our hospital for colonic ESD for a large polypoid mass. During colonoscopy, a 5-cm mass was seen in the cecum. ESD was performed. Four days after the procedure, he complained of myalgia and abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography revealed a 5.4-cm PLA in the medial segments of the liver. He was treated with antibiotics, and a percutaneous drainage catheter was inserted. Here, we report a very rare complication (PLA) after ESD. In conclusion, comprehensive awareness of the development of PLA is needed in ESD cases.

Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catheters , Cecum , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonoscopy , Drainage , Endoscopy , Humans , Liver , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Myalgia
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772949


Inulin has been used as a prebiotic to alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in mice and humans by modulating the gut microbiota. However, the mechanism underlying the alleviation of metabolic disorders by inulin through interactions between the gut microbiota and host cells is unclear. We use ob/ob mice as a model to study the effect of inulin on the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and its interaction with host cells by transcriptomics. The inulin-supplemented diet improved glucose and lipid metabolism disorder parameters in ob/ob mice, alleviating fat accumulation and glucose intolerance. The α diversity of gut microbial community of ob/ob mice was reduced after inulin treatment, while the β diversity tended to return to the level of wild type mice. Interestingly, Prevotellaceae UCG 001 (family Prevotellaceae) was obviously enriched after inulin treatment. A comparative analysis of the gene expression profile showed that the cecal transcriptome was changed in leptin gene deficiency mice, whereas the inulin-supplemented diet partially reversed the changes in leptin gene-related signaling pathways, especially AMPK signaling pathway, where the levels of gene expression became comparable to those in wild type mice. Further analysis indicated that Prevotellaceae UCG 001 was positively correlated with the AMPK signaling pathway, which was negatively correlated with markers of glycolipid metabolism disorders. Our results suggest that the inulin-supplemented diet alleviates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders by partially restoring leptin related pathways mediated by gut microbiota.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Animals , Cecum , Metabolism , Microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inulin , Therapeutic Uses , Leptin , Genetics , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Microbiology , Mice , Mice, Obese , Prebiotics , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
VozAndes ; 30(2): 48-51, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050827


El carcinoma neuroendocrino (Neuroendocrine carcinoma ­ NEC) del colon es un tumor raro y muy agresivo, generalmente diagnosticado de forma incidental y durante la resolución de complicaciones como perforación u obstrucción. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 58 años quien fue intervenido quirúrgicamente por presentar cuadro de peritonitis localizada secundario a un tumor neuroendocrino de ciego perforado. Se realizó hemicolectomía derecha con resección ganglionar D2 y anastomosis primaria íleo ­ transversa. El examen histopatológico describió un carcinoma neuroendocrino bien diferenciado de células pequeñas, sin infltración vascular ni neuronal. Al momento el paciente se encuentra en espera de quimioterapia sin necesidad revisión quirúrgica secundaria

Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the colon is a rare and very aggressive tumor, generally diagnosticated in an incidental way and during resolution of complications such as perforation or intestinal obstruction. The case of a 58-year-old male patient who was surgically intervened for presenting localized peritonitis pedhora scan to a perforated blind neuroendocrine tumor. Right hemicolectomy whit ganglion D2 resection and ileo ­ transverse primary anastomosis was performed. Histopathological examination described a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of small cells, with no vascular or neuronal infltration. Now the patient is awaiting chemotherapy without the need for secondary surgical review

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peritonitis , Colectomy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Cecum , Neoplasms
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(1): 21-25, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103777


Ogilvie syndrome, or Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (ACPO) is characterized by colonic distension in the absence of mechanical obstruction. In general, it evolves favorably following a conservative treatment, and surgical procedures are not necessary6. We describe a case of ACPO with evolution of two days, in a 79-year old male patient, with asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension and policystic kidneys. After failure of conservative treatment based on support measures and neostigmine, percutaneous endoscopic support cecostomy, using a gastrostomy tube. The technique and its early execution were chosen considering that it was easy to be implemented, low cost and need for immediate colonic decompression due to high risk of ischemia and perforation of the colon, associated to a rapid clinical deterioration of the patient

El síndrome de Ogilvie o Pseudoobstrucción colónica aguda (ACPO) se caracteriza por la distensión del colon en ausencia de obstrucción mecánica. En general, el tratamiento conservador es favorable, no siendo necesaria una intervención quirúrgica. Describimos el caso de una ACPO con dos días de evolución, en paciente masculino de 79 años, asmático, portador de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensión arterial sistémica y riñones poliquísticos. Después del fracaso del tratamiento conservador con medidas de soporte y neostigmina, se optó por la realización de cecostomía endoscópica percutánea de protección, utilizando una sonda de gastrostomía. La elección de la técnica y su realización precoz se dio teniendo en vista su facilidad de ejecución, su bajo costo y la necesidad de descompresión colónica inmediata por el elevado riesgo de isquemia y perforación del colon, asociado al rápido empeoramiento clínico del paciente.

Humans , Male , Aged , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction/surgery , Cecostomy/methods , Syndrome , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Gastrostomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cecum/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719435


A 49-year-old man visited the emergency room of Korea University Ansan Hospital with hematochezia starting the day before the visit. Recently, he was on anti-platelet medication due to hypertension. The patient had no definite symptoms other than hematochezia. Digital rectal exam was positive and laboratory tests showed severe anemia. Sigmoidoscopy was initiated and almost no fecal material was observed in the intestinal tract, allowing insertion into the cecum. Active bleeding from the appendiceal opening was noted. On abdominal CT, contrast enhancement was observed at the tip of the appendix. Under suspicion of acute appendicitis, we consulted with a surgeon. The patient underwent appendectomy with partial cecal resection. Pathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of appendix bleeding due to acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient had no further bleeding after surgery and was discharged in a stable state. Careful observation by the endoscopist is necessary for accurate diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Appendiceal hemorrhage is very rarely reported, but it has various pathophysiologies. CT scan is useful when appendiceal hemorrhage is confirmed by endoscopic findings. Surgical treatment was needed in almost all cases reported worldwide. If bleeding from the appendix is confirmed, surgical treatment should be considered for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

Anemia , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Appendix , Cecum , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Middle Aged , Sigmoidoscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(4): 1921-1927, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958662


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine and diosmin-hesperidin in an experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods: The study used 20 Wistar adult male rats divided into the following groups: control (laparotomy with no induction of abdominal sepsis), sepsis (experimental model of sepsis with cecal ligation and puncture), N-acetylcysteine + sepsis and diosmin-hesperidin + sepsis. The evaluation contemplated physiological parameters (temperature, glycemia, and average blood pressure), kidney function (creatinine clearance), oxidative stress (urinary peroxides) and kidney histology. Results: The animals submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis) presented lower body temperature, lower average blood pressure, reduced creatinine clearance and increased urinary hydrogen peroxide levels. Treatment with diosmin-hesperidin improved kidney function and led to a reduction in the excretion of oxidative metabolites. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the protective antioxidant action of diosmin-hesperidin in the experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la acción antioxidante de agentes como la N-acetilcisteína y Diosmina-Hesperidina en modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis en ratones. Método: Fueron utilizados veinte ratones Wistar, adultos y machos, divididos en los grupos: Control (laparotomía sin inducción de sepsis abdominal), Sepsis (modelo experimental de sepsis con ligadura y punción de ciego-LPC), N-acelsisteína+Sepsis y Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepsis. Se evaluaron parámetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glucemia y presión arterial promedio), la función renal (clearance de creatinina), el estrés oxidativo (peróxidos urinarios) e histología renal. Resultados: Los animales sometidos a LPC (sepsis) presentaron reducción de la temperatura corporal, de la presión arterial promedio, del clearance de creatinina e incremento de niveles de peróxidos de hidrógeno urinarios. El tratamiento con Diosmina-Hesperidina mejoró la función renal, reduciendo la excreción de metabolitos oxidativos. Conclusión: Este estudio destacó la acción renoprotectora antioxidante de la Diosmina-Hesperidina en el modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antioxidante de agentes como a N-acetilcisteína e diosmina-hesperidina em modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse em ratos. Método: Foram utilizados vinte ratos Wistar, adultos e machos, divididos nos seguintes grupos: Controle (laparotomia sem indução de sepse abdominal), Sepse (modelo experimental de sepse com ligadura e punção do cécum- LPC), N-acetilcisteína+Sepse e Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepse. Foram avaliados parâmetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glicemia e pressão arterial média), função renal (clearance de creatinina), estresse oxidativo (peróxidos urinários) e histologia renal. Resultados: Os animais submetidos à LPC (sepse) apresentaram redução da temperatura corporal, da pressão arterial média, do clearance de creatinina e elevação nos níveis de peróxidos de hidrogênio urinários. O tratamento com a Diosmina-Hesperidina melhorou a função renal com redução na excreção dos metabólitos oxidativos. Conclusão: Este estudo destacou a ação renoprotetora antioxidante da Diosmina-Hesperidina no modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse.

Animals , Rats , Sepsis/complications , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Brazil , Cecum/drug effects , Cecum/injuries , Sepsis/drug therapy , Diosmin/therapeutic use , Diosmin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hesperidin/therapeutic use , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776922


Cardiac dysfunction, a common consequence of sepsis, is the major contribution to morbidity and mortality in patients. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of Tanshinone IIA (TA), a main active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebral system diseases. In the present study, the effect of STS on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction was investigated and its effect on survival rate of rats with sepsis was also evaluated. STS treatment could significantly decrease the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), cardiac troponin T (cTn-T), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced) septic rats and improve left ventricular function, particularly at 48 and 72 h after CLP. As the pathogenesis of septic myocardial dysfunction is attributable to dysregulated systemic inflammatory responses, several key cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), were detected to reveal the possible mechanism of attenuation of septic myocardial dysfunction after being treated by STS. Our study showed that STS, especially at a high dose (15 mg·kg), could efficiently suppress inflammatory responses in myocardium and reduce myocardial necrosis through markedly reducing production of myocardial TNF-α, IL-6 and HMGB1. STS significantly improved the 18-day survival rate of rats with sepsis from 0% to 30% (P < 0.05). Therefore, STS could suppress inflammatory responses and improve left ventricular function in rats with sepsis, suggesting that it may be developed for the treatment of sepsis.

Animals , C-Reactive Protein , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cecum , General Surgery , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Female , Heart , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Ligation , Male , Myocardium , Allergy and Immunology , Phenanthrenes , Chemistry , Punctures , Rats , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Troponin T , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740758


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) are common in children, the accurate pathogenesis of FAPDs is not known yet. Micro-inflammation, particularly tissue eosinophilia of gastrointestinal (GI) tract, has been suggested as the pathophysiology observed in several GI disorders. We aimed to evaluate eosinophilic infiltration throughout the entire GI tract in children with FAPDs, compared to those with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and to normal reference values. METHODS: We included 56 children with FAPDs, 52 children with Crohn’s disease, and 23 children with ulcerative colitis. All subjects underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopic and colonoscopic examination with biopsies. Tissue eosinophil counts were assessed in 10 regions throughout the GI tract. RESULTS: Eosinophil counts of the gastric antrum, duodenum, terminal ileum, cecum, and ascending colon were significantly higher in children with FAPDs compared to normal reference values. Eosinophil counts of the stomach and the entire colon were observed to be significantly higher in children with IBD than in those with FAPDs. Even after selecting macroscopically uninvolved GI segments on endoscopy in children with IBD, eosinophil counts of the gastric body, cecum, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and the rectum were also significantly higher in children with IBD than those with FAPDs. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly high eosinophil counts of the stomach and colon were observed in the order of IBD, followed by FAPDs, and normal controls, regardless of endoscopically detected macroscopic IBD lesions in children. This suggests some contribution of GI tract eosinophils in the intrinsic pathogenesis of FAPDs in children.

Abdominal Pain , Biopsy , Cecum , Child , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colon, Descending , Colon, Sigmoid , Duodenum , Endoscopy , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Ileum , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Pyloric Antrum , Rectum , Reference Values , Stomach
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740102


BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota contributes to intestinal and immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Distribution of the gut microbiota differs according to the location in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the microbiota properties change with age, evidence for the regional difference of gut microbiota has been restricted to the young. The aim of this study is to compare the gut microbiota between terminal ileum and cecum of old rats. METHODS: We analyzed gut microbiome of luminal contents from ileum and cecum of 74-week-old and 2-year-old rats (corresponding to 60-year and 80-year-old of human age) by metagenome sequencing of 16S rRNA. RESULTS: Inter-individual variation (beta diversity) of microbiota was higher in ileum than in cecum. Conversely, alpha diversity of microbiota composition was higher in cecum than in ileum. Lactobacillaceae were more abundant in ileum compared to cecum while Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were more enriched in cecum. The proportions of Deltaproteobacteria were increased in cecal microbiota of 2-year-old rats compared to 74-week-old rats. CONCLUSIONS: Major regional distinctions of microbiota between ileum and cecum of old rats appear consistent with those of young rats. Age-related alterations of gut microbiota in old rats seem to occur in minor compositions.

Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Animals , Cecum , Child, Preschool , Deltaproteobacteria , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract , Homeostasis , Humans , Ileum , Lactobacillaceae , Metagenome , Microbiota , Phenobarbital , Rats
Intestinal Research ; : 134-141, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740014


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) are known to be precursors of colorectal cancer (CRC). The proper interval of follow-up colonoscopy for SSAs is still being debated. We sought to determine the proper interval of colonoscopy surveillance in patients diagnosed with SSAs in South Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with SSAs who received 1 or more follow-up colonoscopies. The information reviewed included patient baseline characteristics, SSA characteristics, and colonoscopy information. RESULTS: From January 2007 to December 2011, 152 SSAs and 8 synchronous adenocarcinomas were identified in 138 patients. The mean age of the patients was 62.2 years and 60.1% patients were men. SSAs were located in the right colon (i.e., from the cecum to the hepatic flexure) in 68.4% patients. At the first follow-up, 27 SSAs were identified in 138 patients (right colon, 66.7%). At the second follow-up, 6 SSAs were identified in 65 patients (right colon, 66.7%). At the 3rd and 4th follow-up, 21 and 11 patients underwent colonoscopy, respectively, and no SSAs were detected. The total mean follow-up duration was 33.9 months. The mean size of SSAs was 8.1±5.0 mm. SSAs were most commonly found in the right colon (126/185, 68.1%). During annual follow-up colonoscopy surveillance, no cancer was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Annual colonoscopy surveillance is not necessary for identifying new CRCs in all patients diagnosed with SSAs. In addition, the right colon should be examined more carefully because SSAs occur more frequently in the right colon during initial and follow-up colonoscopies.

Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Cecum , Colon , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Male , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 66-71, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739690


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because of the national screening program for colorectal carcinoma in The Netherlands, the number of colonoscopies has increased. In case of incomplete colonoscopy, computed tomography colonography (CTC) and double-balloon colonoscopy (DBc) are alternative options. This study evaluated cecal intubation rate and pathology detection rate in the previously unexplored part of the colon, complication rate of DBc, and CTC results after incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary referral hospital regarding DBc and CTC reports from cases with incomplete colonoscopy. RESULTS: Sixty-three DBcs were performed after incomplete colonoscopy. Cecal intubation rate was 95%. Detection rate was 58% (5% carcinoma and 3% high-grade dysplastic adenoma). CTC preceded 54% of DBcs and 62% of CTC findings were confirmed. In 16%, a biopsy was taken, and in 60%, an intervention (mostly polypectomy) was performed. One major complication (1.5%) occurred, i.e., arterial bleeding due to polypectomy necessitating right hemicolectomy. CTC (n=213) showed a possible lesion in 35%, and could be confirmed by follow-up endoscopy or surgery in 65%. CONCLUSIONS: DBc is effective and safe for completion of colon inspection in incomplete colonoscopy. In patients with a high likelihood of pathology, DBc is preferred over CTC.

Biopsy , Cecum , Colon , Colonography, Computed Tomographic , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intubation , Mass Screening , Netherlands , Observational Study , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739563


PURPOSE: Intra-abdominal adhesions (IAA) are among the most frequently seen pathologies in general surgery practice with an increased morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the effect of locally applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on IAA. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar Albino rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into three groups including: Sham, control, and MSCs group. On day 0, cecum was reached under anesthesia in all groups, except the Sham group. Scraping with a sponge was performed until petechial bleeding occurred. The control group received no treatment. In the stem cell group, MSCs were applied topically immediately after surgery on adhesions. The rats were sacrificed on day 10 and colon tissues and blood samples were collected for macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: In our study, E-selectin, P-selectin, TNF-α and IL-1 levels were statistically significantly lower in the MSC group than the control group, while the sham group has the lowest levels. In both the macroscopic and histopathological analyses (Zühlke's scale), the least amount of adhesion was observed in the Sham group. In addition, although there was less adhesion in the MSC group than the control group, the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Topical MSC application immediately after surgery suppresses the inflammatory process. However it was found to be ineffective in histopathological and macroscopic examinations performed on the 10th day.

Anesthesia , Animals , Cecum , Colon , E-Selectin , Hemorrhage , Interleukin-1 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Models, Animal , Morphological and Microscopic Findings , Mortality , P-Selectin , Pathology , Porifera , Rats , Selectins , Stem Cells