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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 26-30, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178336

ABSTRACT

El pioderma gangrenoso ampollar es una variedad infrecuente de pioderma gangrenoso, que se asocia en el 50-70% de los casos con trastornos oncohematológicos. Se comunica el caso de una paciente de 59 años, que consultó por fiebre y ampollas purpúricas de rápida progresión, con compromiso cutáneo mucoso. Con sospecha de una enfermedad neutrofílica, ampollar, o infección por gérmenes oportunistas, se realizó biopsia de piel para estudio histopatológico, inmunofluorescencia directa y cultivo. Los cultivos y la inmunofluorescencia directa fueron negativos, y la anatomía patológica reveló un denso infiltrado inflamatorio con predominio neutrofílico en dermis. Ante el diagnóstico de pioderma gangrenoso ampollar, se realizó una punción-aspiración de médula ósea cuyo resultado fue compatible con leucemia mieloide aguda. Se instauró tratamiento con corticosteroides sistémicos, a pesar de lo cual la paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció a los 15 días de su ingreso hospitalario. Este caso ilustra la asociación de esta enfermedad cutánea con trastornos oncohematológicos y el mal pronóstico que esto implica a corto plazo. (AU)


Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum is an infrequent type of pyoderma gangrenosum, associated with onco hematological diseases in 50-70% of cases. We present the case of a 59-year-old patient with fever and mucocutaneous hemorrhagic bullous of rapid progression. A biopsy for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and skin culture was made, considering the possibility of neutrophilic dermatoses, bullous dermatosis or an opportunistic infection. The results of both the culture and the DIF were negative. The histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a dense dermal polymorphic infiltrate composed primarily of neutrophils. Considering bullous pyoderma gangrenosum as a potential diagnosis, a bone-marrow biopsy was performed. This study revealed an acute myeloid leukemia. Although systemic corticosteroid therapy was begun, the patient presented an unfavorable evolution that led to her death 15 days after her admission at the hospital. This case shows the association between bullous pyoderma gangrenosum and onco hematological diseases. In addition, it highlights the poor prognosis related to these diseases in the short term. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Syndromes/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Acyclovir/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Imipenem/administration & dosage , Sweet Syndrome/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Meropenem/administration & dosage
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 604-609, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249973

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existe poca información acerca de la efectividad de las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam en cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas en México. Objetivo: Determinar el perfil antimicrobiano de ambos antibióticos en nuestra comunidad. Método: El presente estudio de investigación fue prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Se incluyeron cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas a partir de cultivos de cepa pura durante el periodo de agosto de 2018 a enero de 2019 en Mexicali, Baja California, México. Resultados: Se analizaron 74 cepas de enterobacterias y 19 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftazidima/avibactam fue de 100 % contra enterobacterias y de 72.7 % contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftolozano/tazobactam fue de 90.5 % para enterobacterias y de 72.7 % para Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusiones: Las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam ofrecen buena sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro, tanto contra enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido como contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Se requieren más datos para valorar la respuesta clínica en pacientes que reciben esas combinaciones de antibióticos.


Abstract Introduction: There is limited information on the effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations on clinically relevant strains isolated in Mexico. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial profile of both antibiotic combinations in our community. Method: The present research study was prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional. Clinically relevant strains isolated from pure-strain cultures were included during the period from August 2018 to January 2019 in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Results: 74 enterobacteriaceae and 19 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were analyzed; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftazidime/avibactam was 100 % for enterobacteriaceae and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftolozane/tazobactam for enterobacteriaceae was 90.5 % and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations offer good antimicrobial sensitivity in vitro, both for ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More data are required to assess clinical response in patients receiving these antibiotic combinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Drug Combinations , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Tazobactam/therapeutic use , Mexico
3.
Infectio ; 24(2): 55-56, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114839

ABSTRACT

En Colombia, los Enterobacterales (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp y Enterobacter spp) ocupan los primeros lugares en la epidemiología de las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) y de las adquiridas en comunidad. Estas bacterias pueden desarrollar resistencia a carbapenemicos (Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem y Doripenem) por una combinación de mecanismos que incluye la producción de enzimas hidrolíticas (como las betalactamasas de espectro extendido o BLEEs, las cefalosporinasas AmpC y las carbapenemasas) y las mutaciones en proteínas de la membrana externa. Desde su aparición en 1996, las carbapenemasas han sido las enzimas más temidas. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) Verona integron-mediated metallo- ß-lactamase (VIM), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), Imipenemase (IMP) y oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) han sido las más estudiadas por su diseminación y alta mortalidad. En 2006 se reportó por primera vez la presencia de carbapenemasas en Colombia correspondiente a una KPC-24 . Desde entonces, varios reportes de diversas enzimas han sido publicados por grupos de investigación y por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) en cuyo último informe 66% de los Enterobacterales resistentes a carbapenémicos expresan KPC, 23% expresan NDM y 6% expresan VIM. Llama la atención un 12% de aislamientos sin carbapenemasas detectables.


In Colombia, Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter spp) occupy the first places in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and community-acquired infections. These bacteria can develop resistance to carbapenemics (Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem and Doripenem) by a combination of mechanisms including the production of hydrolytic enzymes (such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases or BLEEs, AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases) and mutations in outer membrane proteins. Since their emergence in 1996, carbapenemases have been the most feared enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) Verona integron-mediated metallo- ß-lactamase (VIM), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), Imipenemase (IMP) and oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) have been the most studied because of their dissemination and high mortality. In 2006, the presence of carbapenemases in Colombia corresponding to a KPC-24 was reported for the first time. Since then, several reports of various enzymes have been published by research groups and by the National Institute of Health (INS) in whose last report 66% of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae express KPC, 23% express NDM and 6% express VIM. It is noteworthy that 12% of isolates had no detectable carbapenemases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Carbapenems , Ceftazidime , Health Care Costs , Colombia , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Substandard Drugs
4.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 28(103): 57-71, 20201100. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1349300

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevos antimicrobianos destinados a combatir infecciones causadas por microorganismos multirresistentes a drogas (MDR), incluyendo combinaciones entre agentes ß-lactámicos (BL) e inhibidores de ß-lactamasas (IBL). En nuestro país se encuentran disponibles dos nuevas combinaciones de BL/IBL: ceftolozano/tazobactam (C/T) y ceftazidima/avibactam (CAZ/AVI). La adición de tazobactam a ceftolozano incrementa la actividad in vitro contra microorganismos productores de BL de espectro extendido (BLEE), por lo que la combinación presenta una potente actividad intrínseca frente a P. aeruginosa. Por su parte, CAZ/AVI conserva las características que definen el perfil de actividad de ceftazidima, por lo que con el agregado de avibactam presenta una potente actividad inhibidora frente a las BLEE y carbapenemasas (KPC, ß-lactamasas de clase C y algunas de clase D). Se presenta a continuación una revisión de la evidencia publicada. A partir de la misma, y considerando la situación actual de tasas crecientes de resistencia antimicrobiana, particularmente en bacilos Gram negativos, se considera que el uso de C/T o CAZ/AVI constituye una excelente alternativa para el manejo de infecciones graves causadas por microorganismos multirresistentes. Sin embargo, su utilización en forma empírica no es recomendable, salvo en situaciones puntuales y estrictamente seleccionadas, y en el contexto un programa de uso racional de antibióticos, bajo el control por parte del equipo de infectología responsable


In recent years, new antimicrobials have been developed to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganism (MDR), including combinations between ß-lactam agents (BL) and ß-lactamase inhibitors (IBL). Two new combinations of BL / IBL are available in our country: ceftolozano / tazobactam (C / T) and ceftazidime / avibactam (CAZ / AVI). The addition of tazobactam to ceftolozano increases in vitro activity against microorganisms producing extended spectrum BL (ESBL), so the combination has a potent intrinsic activity against P. aeruginosa. For its part, CAZ / AVI retains the characteristics that define the activity profile of ceftazidime, to which with the addition of avibactam it presents a potent inhibitory activity against ESBL and carbapenemases (KPC, ß-lactamases of class C and some of class D). A review of the published evidence is presented below. Based on this, and considering the current situation of increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Gram-negative bacilli, we consider that the use of C/T or CAZ/AVI is an excellent alternative for the management of serious infections caused by multi-resistant microorganisms. However, its use empirically is not recommended, except in specific and strictly selected situations, and in the context of a program for the rational use of antibiotics, under the control of the responsible infectious disease team


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Morbidity , Mortality , Intraabdominal Infections/drug therapy , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Tazobactam/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is one of the major public health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an efflux pump gene adeJ for the multidrug resistance of A. baumannii clinical isolates.METHODS: Two groups (MDRAB and SAB) of A. baumannii clinical isolates were studied. The SAB group consisted of strains that did not meet the criteria of MDRAB and were susceptible to more categories of antibiotics than MDRAB. Antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by VITEKII system were used in data analysis and bacterial group allocation. We performed real-time reverse transcription PCR to determine relative expression of adeJ. We compared relative expression of adeJ in comparison groups by considering two viewpoints: i) MDRAB and SAB groups and ii) susceptible and non-susceptible groups for each antibiotic used in this study.RESULTS: The mean value of relative expression of adeJ of MDRAB and SAB groups was 1.4 and 0.92, respectively, and showed significant difference (P=0.002). The mean values of relative expression of adeJ of susceptible and non-susceptible groups to the antibiotics cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, and gentamicin showed statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: The overexpression of adeIJK might contribute to the multi-drug resistance in A. baumannii clinical isolates. Further, the overexpression of adeIJK might be one of the factors contributing to the resistance to numerous antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Gentamicins , Imipenem , Piperacillin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Reverse Transcription , Statistics as Topic
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of corneal collagen cross-linking for corneal ulcer caused by the Moraxella group.CASE SUMMARY: A 77-year-old male had decreased visual acuity for several days in his right eye. The patient showed severe stromal ring infiltrates with a corneal epithelial defect measuring (5.0 × 7.0 mm), a corneal endothelial plaque, and a hypopyon measuring less than 1.0 mm in height in the anterior chamber of the right eye. There was no abnormal finding in the right eye using B-scan ultrasonography. Before starting treatment, a corneal culture was conducted. The culture tests showed the presence of the Moraxella group. Because the patient was diagnosed with a corneal ulcer caused by the Moraxella group, corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) was performed. The antimicrobial susceptibility test confirmed that this Moraxella group was sensitive to ceftazidime, so the patient was treated with 5% ceftazidime eye drops and 0.5% moxifloxacin eye drops every 2 hours for 9 months after corneal collagen CXL. The uncorrected visual acuity was 0.1 in the right eye, and there was almost no corneal stromal melting on anterior segment optical coherence tomography.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known case of a corneal ulcer, in the Republic of Korea, caused by the Moraxella group and treated with corneal collagen CXL. Corneal collagen CXL should be considered as a surgical treatment for patients who have an impending corneal perforation due to a corneal ulcer because it is a simple procedure and causes fewer serious complications than other treatments.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anterior Chamber , Ceftazidime , Collagen , Cornea , Corneal Perforation , Corneal Ulcer , Freezing , Humans , Male , Moraxella , Ophthalmic Solutions , Republic of Korea , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Ultrasonography , Visual Acuity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762470

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance culture (ASC) can help detect hidden reservoirs, but the routine use of ASC for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is controversial in an endemic situation. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (EBSL-Kpn) colonization among intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients. Prospective screening of ESBL-Kpn colonization was performed for ICU-admitted patients within 48 hours for two months. A perirectal swab sample was inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL ceftazidime. ESBL genotype was determined by PCR-sequencing, and clonal relatedness was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The risk factors of ESBL-Kpn colonization were evaluated. The ESBL-Kpn colonization rate among the 281 patients at ICU admission was 6.4% (18/281), and bla(CTX-M-15) was detected in all isolates. ESBL producers also showed resistance to fluoroquinolone (38.9%, 7/18). All isolates had the same ESBL genotype (bla(CTX-M-15)) and a highly clustered PFGE pattern, suggesting cross-transmission without a documented outbreak. In univariate analysis, the risk factor for ESBL-Kpn colonization over the control was the length of hospital stay (odds ratio=1.062; P=0.019). Routine use of ASC could help control endemic ESBL–Kpn for ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Agar , Ceftazidime , Colon , Critical Care , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterobacteriaceae , Genotype , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Infectio ; 23(4): 358-368, Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1019866

ABSTRACT

Abstract The global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has become a public health problem. Not all CPE are resistant to carbapenems creating a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Furthermore, as resistance to carbapenems can also be mediated by other β-lactamases combined with defects in membrane permeability, their detection can be difficult by microbiology laboratories that lack molecular tools, which may limit and often delay the correct antibiotic selection. There is only limited evidence regarding infection control measures to contain the spread of CPE. However, recomendations have been published from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Prevention Center and Disease Control (ECDC). Because of the lack of randomized control trials, treatment regimens are mostly based on observational clinical studies. Several of those studies have reported that combination therapy with two or more in vitro-active agents including a carbapenem is superior to monotherapy. On the other hand, a new β-lactamase inhibitor in combination with ceftazidime has shown clinical efficacy Against KPC and some OXA-type producing Enterobacteriaceae


Resumen La diseminación global de las Enterobacteriaceae productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública. No todas las EPC son resistentes a los carbapenémicos, por lo que representan un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. Adicionalmente, como la resistencia a los carbapenémicos puede ser mediada por otras β-lactamasas en combinación con cambios de la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática, su detección puede ser difícil en laboratorios de microbiología que no cuentan con técnicas de diagnóstico molecular, lo que puede restringir y frecuentemente retrasar el inicio de la terapia antimicrobiana adecuada. La evidencia respecto a las medidas para la contención de las EPC es escasa. Sin embargo, existen recomendaciones por parte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y del European Prevention Center and Disease Control (ECDC). Debido a la ausencia de estudios controlados y aleatorizados, los esquemas terapéuticos se basan en estudios clínicos observacionales. Varios de estos estudios han reportado mejores resultados con la terapia combinada de dos o más agentes activos in vitro, incluyendo a los carbapenémicos, en comparación con la monoterapia. Por otra parte, un nuevo inhibidor de β-lactamasas en combinación con ceftazidime, ha mostrado eficacia clínica contra infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae productoras de KPC y algunas carbapenemasas de tipo OXA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Enterobacteriaceae , Laboratories , Therapeutics , Carbapenems , Ceftazidime , Treatment Outcome , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 304-311, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013788

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La expresión de β-lactamasas CTX-M pertenecientes a los grupos 1 y 9 en Klebsiella pneumoniae produce grados altos de resistencia a ceftazidima, y presentan una amplia distribución mundial. Objetivo: Identificar y caracterizar los genes blaCTX-M-Grupo1 y blaCTX-M-Grupo9 en aislados de K. pneumoniae resistentes a ceftazidima en un hospital de San José de Cúcuta, Colombia. Material y Método: Se diseñaron partidores para la identificación de K. pneumoniae y los genes blaCTX-M mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC). Posteriormente se realizó el análisis de la relación genética de estos aislados por medio de la RPC basada en secuencias repetitivas (RPC-REP). Resultados: Treinta y ocho por ciento de los 24 aislados identificados por RPC como K. pneumoniae presentaron los genes blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15 y blaCTX-M-32 (Grupo CTX-M-1) y 42% los genes blaCTX-M14, blaCTX-M-24 y blaCTX-M-27 (Grupo CTX-M-9). El análisis filogenético agrupó los aislados de K. pneumoniae en cuatro clusters, mostrando correlación en los clusters I, II y IV, al comparar los perfiles genéticos con el tipo de muestra y grupo de genes. Discusión: Se encontró una frecuencia similar de los genes blaCTX-M-Grupo1 y blaCTX-M-Grupo 9 en aislados de K. pneumoniae resistentes a ceftazidima. La correlación entre la RPC-REP con los grupos de CTX-M y el tipo de muestra reveló la presencia de tres patrones clonales.


Background: The expression of CTX-M β-lactamases belonging to groups 1 and 9 in Klebsiella pneumoniae produces high levels of resistance to ceftazidime, and they have a wide distribution worldwide. Aim: To identify and characterize the blaCTX-M-Group1 and blaCTX-M-Group9 genes in K. pneumoniae isolates resistant to ceftazidime in a hospital in San José de Cúcuta, Colombia. Material and Methods: Primers were designed for the identification of K. pneumoniae and blaCTX-M genes by PCR. Subsequently, the genetic relationship of these isolates was analyzed by REP-PCR. Results: A 38% of the 24 isolates identified by PCR as K. pneumoniae showed blaCTX-M-3. blaCTX-M-15 y blaCTX-M-32 genes (Group CTX-M-1) and 42% blaCTX-M14. blaCTX-M-24 y blaCTX-M-27 genes (Group CTX-M-9). The phylogenetic analysis grouped the K. pneumoniae isolates into 4 clusters, showing correlation in clusters I, II and IV, when comparing the genetic profiles with the type of sample and group of genes. Discussion: We found a similar frequency of blaCTX-M-Group 1 and blaCTX-M-Group 9 genes in isolates of K. pneumoniae resistant to ceftazidime. The correlation between the REP-PCR with the CTX-M groups and the type of sample revealed the presence of three clonal patterns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Typing , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Phylogeny , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , Ceftazidime , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Colombia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766893

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report a case of infectious keratitis caused by Shewanella putrefaciens in a patient after fishing. CASE SUMMARY: A 75-year-old male with no underlying disease other than hypertension was admitted to our hospital because of decreased visual acuity and congestion in his left eye for 2 weeks. At the first ophthalmic examination, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the left eye was counting fingers. Slit lamp examination showed stromal infiltrates with 2.0 × 2.0 mm corneal epithelial defects, endothelial inflammatory plaques and 1 mm height hypopyon with severe inflammation in the anterior chamber. Bacterial culture tests were performed by corneal scraping, which were positive for Shewanella putrefaciens, followed by treatment with moxifloxacin and ceftazidime topical antibiotics. After 2 months of treatment, the BCVA of the left eye improved to 0.4 and the corneal lesion clinically improved with residual mild stromal opacity. CONCLUSIONS: Shewanella putrefaciens should be considered as a causal pathogen of infectious keratitis in patients after fishing. We report a case of infectious keratitis caused by Shewanella putrefaciens, which has never previously been reported in the Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anterior Chamber , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Corneal Ulcer , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Fingers , Humans , Hypertension , Inflammation , Keratitis , Male , Republic of Korea , Shewanella putrefaciens , Shewanella , Slit Lamp , Visual Acuity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacilli (GNB), mediated by carbapenemase production, has necessitated the development of a simple and accurate device for detecting minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and resistance mechanisms, especially carbapenemase production. We evaluated the performance of the BD Phoenix NMIC-500 panel (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD, USA) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and carbapenemase-producing organism (CPO) detection. METHODS: We used 450 non-duplicate clinical GNB isolates from six general hospitals in Korea (409 Enterobacteriaceae and 41 glucose non-fermenting bacilli [GNFB] isolates). AST for meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, ceftazidime, and ceftazidime/avibactam, and CPO detection were performed using the Phoenix NMIC-500 panel. Broth microdilution was used as the reference method for AST. The rates of categorical agreement (CA), essential agreement (EA), minor error (mE), major error (ME), and very major error (VME) were calculated in each antimicrobial. In addition, PCR and sequencing were performed to evaluate the accuracy of CPO detection by the BD Phoenix NMIC-500 panel, and the rate of correct identification was calculated. RESULTS: The CA rates were >90% for all antimicrobials tested with the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, except for imipenem (87.2%). The GNFB CA rates ranged from 92.7% to 100% for all antimicrobials. The ME rates were 1.7% for Enterobacteriaceae and 0% for GNFB. The panel identified 97.2% (243/250) of the carbapenemase-producing isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The BD Phoenix NMIC-500 panel shows promise for AST and CPO detection.


Subject(s)
Ceftazidime , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae , Glucose , Hospitals, General , Imipenem , Korea , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing CTX-M extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were assessed for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes varied by group of enzymes. METHODS: A total of 1,338 blood isolates, including 959 E. coli and 379 K. pneumoniae, were studied. All the strains were collected between January and July 2017 from eight general hospitals in South Korea. The species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion methods and ESBL phenotypes by double-disk synergy tests using disks containing cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, and clavulanic acid (CA). The genes for β-lactamases were identified by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Of total microbes, 31.6% (303/959) E. coli and 24.0% (91/379) K. pneumoniae were resistant to cefotaxime and 28.1% (269/959) E. coli and 20.1% (76/379) K. pneumoniae were CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Among the detected CTX-M ESBLs, 58.0% (156/269) in E. coli and 86.8% (66/76) in K. pneumoniae belonged to group 1, 46.8% (126/269) in E. coli and 14.5% (11/76) in K. pneumoniae were group 9. Ten E. coli and one K. pneumoniae isolates co-produced both groups of CTX-M ESBL. The group 1 CTX-M producers had a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam and exhibited stronger synergistic activities when combined with CA compared to group 9. CONCLUSION: ESBL phenotypes differ by CTX-M ESBL group and phenotype testing with drugs including 4th generation cephalosporins and monobactams is critical for screening CTX-M-producers with better sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Aztreonam , Cefotaxime , Ceftazidime , Cephalosporins , Clavulanic Acid , Diffusion , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, General , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Mass Screening , Mass Spectrometry , Monobactams , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738628

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report polymicrobial keratitis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. CASE SUMMARY: A 53-year-old female complained of pain and secretion in her right eye, which started 6 weeks before her visit. She applied steroid ointment, which was received from the dermatologist, to her eyelid 7 days prior to her visit but this treatment worsened her symptoms. At the initial visit, the visual acuity of the right eye was light perception, and purulent secretions were observed. Using a slit lamp, severe conjunctival hyperemia, hypopyon, and a ring-shaped central corneal ulcer were observed. The anterior chamber and fundus were not observed due to corneal lesions but ultrasonography showed no intraocular inflammation. Infectious keratitis was suspected and cultured by corneal scraping. During the incubation period, 0.5% moxifloxacin, 2% voriconazole, and 1% cyclopentolate were administered. A total of 400 mg of moxifloxacin and 100 mg of doxycycline were given orally. In the primary culture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were identified so 5% ceftazidime, which was sensitive for the antibiotic susceptibility results was further instilled. Thereafter, the keratitis improved but the keratitis again worsened while maintaining the topical treatment. A secondary culture was positive for Ochrobactrum anthropi. Treatment with 1.4% gentamicin, which was sensitive for the antibiotic susceptibility test was added and the keratitis improved. A conjunctival flap was performed because of the increased risk of perforation. CONCLUSIONS: We report polymicrobial keratitis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Ochrobactrum anthropi for the first time in the Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Anterior Chamber , Ceftazidime , Corneal Ulcer , Cyclopentolate , Doxycycline , Eyelids , Female , Gentamicins , Humans , Hyperemia , Inflammation , Keratitis , Middle Aged , Ochrobactrum anthropi , Ochrobactrum , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas , Republic of Korea , Slit Lamp , Ultrasonography , Visual Acuity , Voriconazole
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763522

ABSTRACT

Musical hallucinations remain a poorly understood clinical phenomenon, possibly because these types of hallucination have multiple causes and are rarely the focus of published reports. Here, the case of a 51-year-old female patient with a hearing impairment who developed musical hallucinations during treatment with ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is presented. She responded to the discontinuation of ceftazidime and the initiation of low-dose olanzapine treatment. Musical hallucinations associated with ceftazidime are very rare, and the mechanisms underlying its occurrence remain unknown. Further studies will be necessary to determine the pathophysiology of adverse psychiatric reactions associated with ceftazidime.


Subject(s)
Ceftazidime , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Hallucinations , Hearing Loss , Hearing , Humans , Middle Aged , Music
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 239-242, May-June 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Febrile Neutropenia represents a medical emergency and the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is essential for a better outcome. Although being time-consuming, conventional cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility tests remain the golden standard practices for microbiology identification. Final reports are typically available within several days. Faster diagnostic tools, such as species identification trough Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) and molecular techniques might help to shorten time to diagnostic and also guide definitive therapy in this scenario. Here we present a case in which the use of a diagnostic molecular workflow combining MALDI-TOF and real-time PCR for relevant genes codifying antibiotic resistant integrated with instant communication report, led to a tailored and more appropriate treatment in a patient presenting with febrile neutropenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ceftazidime/administration & dosage , Azabicyclo Compounds/administration & dosage , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology , Febrile Neutropenia/drug therapy , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Combinations , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(3): 253-263, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896448

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (CIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (CUTIs) with meta-analysis method. Method: We included six randomized clinical trials identified from Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, "ISRCTN Register" and "ClinicalTrials.gov" which compared ceftazidime-avibactam with comparison group. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager software version 5.3. Results: Ceftazidime-avibactam versus active comparisons demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of microbiological response success on microbiological evaluable populations at the test-of-cure visit (95CI 1.10-2.38, p=0.02) and late-follow-up visit (95CI 1.09-2.23, p=0.02) for the treatment of CUTIs. Ceftazidime-avibactam versus active comparisons demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of microbiological response success on EME populations at the test-of-cure visit (95CI 1.08-4.27, p=0.03) and late-follow-up visit (OR=1.75, 95CI 1.33-2.29, p<0.0001) for the treatment of CUTIs. Similar results were obtained at the late-follow-up visit (OR = 1.58, 95CI 1.26-1.97, p<0.0001) on microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) populations for the treatment of CUTIs. We can find better eradication rates for E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae based on mMITT populations. In terms of AEs, SAEs and mortality, ceftazidime-avibactam had a safety and tolerability profile broadly similar to the comparison group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence of the efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam as a potential alternative for the treatment of patients with CUTIs, and CIAIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Intraabdominal Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Safety , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Combinations , Intraabdominal Infections/microbiology
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