Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.811
São Paulo; s.n; 20220601. 109 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370762


O carcinoma secretório em glândula salivar é uma neoplasia recentemente descrita que tem os mesmos aspectos morfológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e genéticos do carcinoma secretório de origem mamária. O carcinoma secretório tem características celulares reminiscentes de uma célula secretora lactacional, isto é, um citoplasma vacuolado repleto de gotas lipídicas e um material secretado, por vezes de forma apócrina, que pode lembrar o leite. Mais recentemente, algum nível de diferenciação lactacional foi sugerida no carcinoma secretório de origem salivar. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se existe uma diferenciação do tipo lactacional em carcinomas secretórios de origem salivar, comparando a outros tipos de carcinomas salivares mais comuns. Foram realizadas reações imuno-histoquímicas para as seguintes proteínas: receptores hormonais (receptor de prolactina e receptor do hormônio do crescimento), proteínas associadas ao produto de secreção da glândula mamária lactacional (mucina-1 (MUC-1), MUC4, globulina de gordura 1 do leite humano, lactoferrina) e proteínas associadas à via Akt-mTOR (PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p4EBP1, eIF4E, pS6). A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foi negativa para receptor de prolactina e de hormônio do crescimento. Lactoferrina foi positiva em todos os grupos tumorais, porém somente em carcinoma secretório observou-se um padrão de marcação intensa, difuso tanto em célula como em secreção. Todos os casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para globulina de gordura do tipo 1, porém o mesmo padrão de marcação foi observado em outros tumores. A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para MUC1 e MUC4. Nenhum caso de carcinoma secretório foi positivo para Akt, mas PTEN foi difusamente expresso em 57,1% dos casos. mTOR foi expresso em mais da metade dos casos de carcinoma secretório e dos outros tumores salivares. Entre as proteínas à jusante de mTOR, somente eIF4E demonstrou alta expressão no grupo de estudo. A expressão de marcadores lactacionais não é exclusiva do carcinoma secretório, porém a expressão de lactoferrina é distinta neste grupo de tumores quando comparado aos demais tumores salivares estudados.

Cell Culture Techniques , Diphosphonates , Glucocorticoids
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 108-122, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372494


Cota tinctoria is a medicinal plant which has been used for management of cancer in folk medicine of various regions. The aim of present study is to investigate cytotoxic activity of different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of C. tinctoria flowers on gastric (AGS) and liver (Hep-G2) cancer cell lines as well as Human Natural GUM fibroblast (HUGU) cells. Cell mortality rates were examined after 24, 48 and 72 h incubations using the MTT assay. IC50of extract on AGS cells after 24, 48 and 72h was 1.46, 1.29 and 1.14 µg/mL respectively. The extract demonstrated IC50 of 5.15, 3.92 and 2.89 µg/mL on Hep-G2 cells after 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. No cytotoxic effect was detected on HUGU (Human Natural GUM fibroblast) cells. C. tinctoria seems to have a promising potential to be considered as a source for anticancer drug discovery. However, more experimental and clinical studies are required.

Cota tinctoria es una planta medicinal que se ha utilizado para el tratamiento del cáncer en la medicina popular de varias regiones. El objetivo del presente estudio es investigar la actividad citotóxica de diferentes concentraciones de extracto hidroalcohólico de flores de C. tinctoria en líneas celulares de cáncer gástrico (AGS) e hígado (Hep-G2), así como en células de fibroblasto GUM humano natural (HUGU). Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad celular después de incubaciones de 24, 48 y 72 h utilizando el ensayo MTT. La CI50 del extracto en células AGS después de 24, 48 y 72 h fue de 1,46; 1,29 y 1,14 µg respectivamente. El extracto demostró una CI50 de 5,15, 3,92 y 2,89 µg/mL en células Hep-G2 después de 24, 48 y 72 h, respectivamente. No se detectó ningún efecto citotóxico en las células HUGU (fibroblasto GUM humano natural). C. tinctoria parece tener un potencial prometedor para ser considerada como una fuente de descubrimiento de fármacos contra el cáncer. Sin embargo, se requieren más estudios experimentales y clínicos.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Culture Techniques , Anthemis/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 535-539, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935898


Salivary glands are important organs in the oral and maxillofacial region. Environment and genetic factors may cause salivary gland tumors or non-neoplastic diseases, but the mechanisms of those diseases are still unclear. One of the important reasons is the short of researching media and model. As a new technique and research model, organoids have been widely used in the research of various diseases. Organoid culture plays a bridging role between two-dimensional cell culture and living animal models, and it is also the most promising translational research model that could connect the clinical research to basic research. This review will discuss the recent development of organoid techniques in the culture of normal salivary glands and salivary gland tumors, also their applications and challenges in tissue engineering, etiological research, and tumor therapy.

Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Organoids , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Salivary Glands , Tissue Engineering
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935244


In the process of xenobiotic toxicity prediction and risk assessment, in vitro cell culture models possess high practical application value. With the rapid development of biological technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing, organoid culture and organ-on-a-chip systems, in vitro cell culture models have made great progress. Sharing the similarities in structure, function and the physiological environment with tissues or organs in vivo, hazard identification and dose-response analysis based on 3D cell culture models provide access to more accurate toxicity data as a theoretical basis for risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. This review summarizes the establishment of three typical 3D cell culture models, i.e., human cell line-based co-culture model, 3D-printed scaffold-based cell culture model and organoids, and their application in toxicity tests of xenobiotics.

Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Culture Techniques, Three Dimensional , Cell Line , Humans , Toxicity Tests , Xenobiotics/toxicity
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 138-144, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928493


PURPOSE@#The incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) in severe trauma patients is 48% and the mortality rate following acute respiratory distress syndrome evolved from ALI is up to 68.5%. Alveolar epithelial type 1 cells (AEC1s) and type 2 cells (AEC2s) are the key cells in the repair of injured lungs as well as fetal lung development. Therefore, the purification and culture of AEC1s and AEC2s play an important role in the research of repair and regeneration of lung tissue.@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats (3-4 weeks, 120-150 g) were purchased for experiment. Dispase and DNase I were jointly used to digest lung tissue to obtain a single-cell suspension of whole lung cells, and then magnetic bead cell sorting was performed to isolate T1α positive cells as AEC1s from the single-cell suspension by using polyclonal rabbit anti-T1a (a specific AEC1s membrane protein) antibodies combined with anti-rabbit IgG microbeads. Afterwards, alveolar epithelial cell membrane marker protein EpCAM was designed as a key label to sort AEC2s from the remaining T1α-neg cells by another positive immunomagnetic selection using monoclonal mouse anti-EpCAM antibodies and anti-mouse IgG microbeads. Cell purity was identified by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The purity of AEC1s and AEC2s was 88.3% ± 3.8% and 92.6% ± 2.7%, respectively. The cell growth was observed as follows: AEC1s stretched within the 12-16 h, but the cells proliferated slowly; while AEC2s began to stretch after 24 h and proliferated rapidly from the 2nd day and began to differentiate after 3 days.@*CONCLUSION@#AEC1s and AEC2s sorted by this method have high purity and good viability. Therefore, our method provides a new approach for the isolation and culture of AEC1s and AEC2s as well as a new strategy for the research of lung repair and regeneration.

Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Separation/methods , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Lung , Magnetic Phenomena , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191120, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394048


Abstract The aim of the current study was to assess the physicochemical characteristics and wound healing activity of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) crosslinked hydrogel containing recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rh-EGF) or recombinant mouse epidermal growth factor (rm-EGF). The hydrogels were prepared and analyses were made of the morphological properties, viscosity, water absorption capacity, mechanical and bio-adhesive properties. The viscosity of the formulations varied between 14.400 - 48.500 cPs, with the greatest viscosity values determined in K2 formulation. F2 formulation showed the highest water absorption capacity. According to the studies of the mechanical properties, H2 formulation (0.153±0.018 showed the greatest adhesiveness and E2 (0.245±0.001 mj/cm2) formulation, the highest bio-adhesion values. Hydrogels were cytocompatible considering in vitro cell viability values of over 76% on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT, CVCL-0038) and of over 84% on human fibroblast cells (NIH 3T3, CRL-1658) used as a model cell line. According to the BrdU cell proliferation results, B1 (197.82±2.48%) formulation showed the greatest NIH 3T3 and C1 (167.43±5.89%) formulation exhibited the highest HaCaT cell proliferation ability. In addition, the scratch closure assay was performed to assess the wound healing efficiency of formulation and the results obtained in the study showed that F2 formulation including PEGylated rh-EGF had a highly effective role.

Wound Healing , Hydrogels/analysis , Chitosan/chemical synthesis , Epidermal Growth Factor , Polyvinyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Wounds and Injuries/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Absorption
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 56 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396952


O câncer de pele pode ser classificado como não melanoma e melanoma. O melanoma apresenta baixa incidência entre os cânceres de pele, porém é a forma mais letal e é considerado um dos tipos mais resistentes ao tratamento. Devido à infiltração de células malignas nos tecidos, vasos linfáticos e vasos sanguíneos, o melanoma invade e se espalha rapidamente. Suas metástases são frequentemente localizadas em linfonodos, cérebro, fígado e outros órgãos. Melanomas metastáticos abrigam múltiplas mutações gênicas e muitos tumores apresentam resistência aos tratamentos, como por exemplo com inibidores BRAF, devido à mutações e ativação de vias paralelas. Ou seja, existe uma necessidade clara da busca de novas opções de tratamento. Em trabalho realizado por nosso grupo, Massaro et al mostraram que o derivado de estradiol 2- Metoxiestradiol induz apoptose em células de melanoma e senescência. Neste sentido, o composto STX140, (um análogo do estradiol com biodisponibilidade superior), que já se mostrou eficaz no combate ao câncer de mama em diversos estudos in vitro e in vivo, será então avaliado para sua ação no melanoma de forma inédita. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo explorar a ação antitumoral em células de melanoma do composto STX140, especialmente a indução de senescência. Utilizando a cultura de células de melanoma foram realizados os ensaios de: viabilidade celular - IC50, formação de colônias, análise do ciclo celular e caracterização de morte celular por citometria de fluxo, ensaio In vitro scratch, coloração para ß-galactosidase, PCR quantitativo e ELISA. Os resultados mostraram que o composto STX140: diminui a viabilidade celular, inibe a proliferação, formação de colônias e migração em linhagens de melanoma (não resistentes e resistentes ao vemurafenibe, inibidor de BRAF). Além do mais, o composto atuou diminuindo a secreção da interleucina pró-tumoral IL-8 em células resistentes. O STX140 induziu senescência nas células de melanoma que foram positivas para ß-galactosidase, também havendo aumento da expressão de genes chave de vias de senescência (CDKN1A e GADD45A) nas células de melanoma resistentes tratadas com o composto. Em conclusão, o STX140 mostrou ter um potencial antitumoral contra o melanoma, diminuindo sua viabilidade celular, inibindo sua proliferação e migração, induzindo senescência, diminuindo a secreção de interleucina pró- tumoral, com efeito mais acentuado nas linhagens de melanoma resistente

Skin cancer can be classified as non-melanoma and melanoma. Melanoma has a low incidence among skin cancers, but it is the most lethal form and is considered one of the most resistant to treatment. Due to the infiltration of malignant cells into tissues, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels, melanoma invades and spreads rapidly. Its metastases are often located in lymph nodes, brain, liver and other organs. Metastatic melanomas presents multiple gene mutations and many tumors are resistant to treatments, such as with BRAF inhibitors, due to mutations and activation of parallel pathways. In other words, there is a clear need to search for new treatment options. In work carried out by our group, Massaro et al showed that the estradiol derivative 2- Methoxyestradiol induces apoptosis in melanoma cells and senescence. In this sense, the compound STX140, (an estradiol analogue with superior bioavailability), which has already been shown to be effective against breast cancer in vitro and in vivo studies will be then evaluated for its action on melanoma. The main objective of this work is to explore the antitumor action of the compound STX140 in melanoma cells, especially the induction of senescence. Using the melanoma cell culture the following assays were performed: cell viability - IC50, clonogenic, cell cycle analysis and cell death characterization by flow cytometry, wound assay, staining for ß-galactosidase, quantitative PCR and ELISA. Preliminary data from this work showed that the compound STX140: decreases cell viability, inhibits proliferation, colony formation and migration in melanoma cell lines (non-resistant and resistant to vemurafenib, BRAF inhibitor). It also decreased the secretion of pro-tumor interleukin IL-8 in resistant cells. STX140 induced senescence in melanoma cells, that were positive for ß-galactosidase, and there was also increased expression of key genes of senescence pathways (CDKN1A and GADD45A) in resistant melanoma cells treated with the compound. In conclusion, STX140 has been shown to have antitumor potential against melanoma, decreasing its cell viability, inhibiting its proliferation and migration, inducing senescence, decreasing pro-tumor interleukin secretion, with a more pronounced effect on resistant melanoma cell lines

Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Melanoma/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Aging/metabolism , Interleukin-8/adverse effects , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Neoplasm Metastasis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19660, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394027


Abstract In an attempt to increase molecular stability and provide controlled release, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was encapsulated into polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles. Both VEGF-free and VEGF-loaded PCL nanoparticles were formulated by w/o/w double emulsion of the dichloromethane-water system in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and rat serum albumin. To achieve the optimal formulation concerning particle size and monodispersity, studies were carried out with different formulation parameters, including PVA concentration, homogenization time and rate. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed respectively that particles had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and particle size varying between 58.68-751.9 nm. All of the formulations were negatively charged according to zeta potential analysis. In vitro release study was performed in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C and released VEGF amount was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. At the end of the 35th day, 10% of total encapsulated VEGF was released with a sustained-release profile, which fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. The bioactivation of the nanoparticles was evaluated using XTT and ELISA methods. As a result, the released VEGF was biologically active and also VEGF loaded PCL nanoparticles enhanced proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in cell culture.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Nanoparticles/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 515-523, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369061


To explore a new underlying molecular mechanism of Huangkui Extract Powder (HKEP) in the alleviation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Murine immortalized podocytes were divided into (i) normal glucose (NG, 5.6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0.45 g/L), (iii) HG, and (iv) HG + HKEP (0.45 g/L) groups. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the podocyte proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. Cell viability was inhibited, and apoptosis increased in(iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin significantly decreased in (iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). When compared with (iii) HG group, (iv) HG + HKEP group had higher cell viability, lower apoptotic rate and higher mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin (p<0.05). HKEP can attenuate HG-induced podocyte damage, which may be one of the mechanisms of HKEP for attenuating DN.

Explorar un nuevo mecanismo molecular subyacente del extracto del polvo de Huangkui (HKEP) en el alivio de la nefropatía diabética (ND). Los podocitos murinos inmortalizados se dividieron en (i) grupos de glucosa normal (NG, 5,6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0,45 g/L), (iii) HG y (iv) HG + HKEP (0,45 g/L). Se utilizaron el ensayo MTT y la citometría de flujo para detectar la proliferación de podocitos, la apoptosis y el ciclo celular. La viabilidad celular se inhibió y la apoptosis aumentó en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). La expresión de ARNm y proteínas de nefrina y podocina disminuyó significativamente en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). En comparación con el grupo (iii) HG, el grupo (iv) HG + HKEP tuvo una mayor viabilidad celular, una tasa de apoptosis más baja y una expresión de ARNm y proteínas más altas de nefrina y podocina (p<0,05). HKEP puede atenuar el daño de los podocitos inducido por HG, que puede ser uno de los mecanismos de HKEP para atenuar la DN.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Podocytes/drug effects , Powders , Plant Extracts/genetics , Cell Cycle , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glucose
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 101-104, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249655


ABSTRACT Approximately 80% of the world population experiences some type of back pain at some point in their life, and in 10% of this population the pain causes chronic disability resulting in a high cost for the treatment of these patients, in addition to compromising their work and social interaction abilities. Current treatment strategies include the surgical procedure for degenerated intervertebral disc resection, the nerve root block and physiotherapy. However, such treatments only relieve symptoms and do not prevent the degeneration of intervertebral discs. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies have emerged and include manipulating cells to recover the degenerated disc. This article will discuss the possible cell therapy alternatives used in the disc regeneration process, featuring a descriptive study of translational medicine that involves clinical aspects of new treatment alternatives and knowledge of basic research areas, such as cellular and molecular biology. Level of evidence V; Expert Opinion.

RESUMO Aproximadamente 80% da população mundial sofre algum tipo de dor nas costas em alguma fase de vida, sendo que em 10% dessa população, as dores acarretam incapacidade crônica, deflagrando alto custo de tratamento desses pacientes, além de comprometer as habilidades de trabalho e convívio social desses indivíduos. As estratégias de tratamento atuais incluem o procedimento cirúrgico por ressecção do disco intervertebral degenerado, bloqueio de raízes nervosas e fisioterapia. Entretanto, tais tratamentos apenas aliviam os sintomas e não impedem que ocorra a degeneração de discos intervertebrais. Portanto, novas estratégias terapêuticas têm surgido e incluem a manipulação de células com o objetivo de recuperar o disco degenerado. No presente artigo, serão discutidas as diferentes possibilidades alternativas de terapias celulares no processo de regeneração discal, caracterizando um estudo descritivo da medicina translacional que envolve aspectos clínicos de novas alternativas de tratamento e o conhecimento de áreas básicas de pesquisa como biologia celular e molecular. Nível de evidência V; Opinião do Especialista.

RESUMEN Aproximadamente 80% de la población mundial sufre algún tipo de dolor de espalda en alguna etapa de la vida, y en 10% de esa población, los dolores causan incapacidad crónica, deflagrando alto costo de tratamiento de esos pacientes, además de comprometer las habilidades laborales y convivencia social de esos individuos. Las estrategias de tratamiento actuales incluyen el procedimiento quirúrgico para la resección del disco intervertebral degenerado, bloqueo de las raíces nerviosas y fisioterapia. Entretanto, tales tratamientos solo alivian los síntomas y no impiden que ocurra la degeneración de discos intervertebrales. Por lo tanto, han surgido nuevas estrategias terapéuticas e incluyen la manipulación de células con el objetivo de recuperar el disco degenerado. En el presente artículo se discutirán las diferentes posibilidades alternativas de las terapias celulares en el proceso de regeneración discal, caracterizando un estudio descriptivo de la medicina traslacional que involucra aspectos clínicos de nuevas alternativas de tratamiento y conocimiento de áreas básicas de investigación como biología celular y molecular. Nivel de evidencia V; Opinión del especialista.

Humans , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Intervertebral Disc
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 59-67, Mar. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292412


BACKGROUND: Cross talk of tumor­immune cells at the gene expression level has been an area of intense research. However, it is largely unknown at the alternative splicing level which has been found to play important roles in the tumor­immune microenvironment. RESULTS: Here, we re-exploited one transcriptomic dataset to gain insight into tumor­immune interactions from the point of AS level. Our results showed that the AS profiles of triple-negative breast cancer cells co-cultured with activated T cells were significantly changed but not Estrogen receptor positive cells. We further suggested that the alteration in AS profiles in triple-negative breast cancer cells was largely caused by activated T cells rather than paracrine factors from activated T cells. Biological pathway analyses showed that translation initiation and tRNA aminoacylation pathways were most disturbed with T cell treatment. We also established an approach largely based on the AS factor­AS events associations and identified LSM7, an alternative splicing factor, may be responsible for the major altered events. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the notable differences of response to T cells among breast cancer types which may facilitate the development or improvement of tumor immunotherapy.

T-Lymphocytes , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , Gene Expression , Alternative Splicing , Cell Culture Techniques , Receptor Cross-Talk , Transfer RNA Aminoacylation , Transcriptome , Immunotherapy
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 37-43, Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153307


Abstract Contamination of primary and cell cultures by mycoplasmas is one of the main economic and biological pitfalls in basic research, diagnosis and manufacture of biotechnological products. It is a common issue which may be difficult to conduct surveillance on. Mycoplasma presence may affect several physiological parameters of the cell, besides being considered an important source of inaccurate and/or non-reproducible scientific results. Each cell type presents characteristical symptoms, mainly morphological, that indicate a contamination by mycoplasma. HEp-2 cells originate from carcinoma of the larynx and are, therefore, part of the respiratory tract, which is one of mycoplasma habitats. Despite the importance these cells in several biological research (evaluation of cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, antiviral and antitumor compounds), the alterations induced by mycoplasma contamination in HEp-2 cells have not yet been described. Here, we describe the progressive morphological alterations in culture of HEp-2 cells infected with mycoplasma, as well as the-diagnosis of the infection and its treatment. Mycoplasma contamination described within this work led to cytoplasm elongation, cell-to-cell spacing, thin plasma membrane projections, cytoplasmic vacuoles, fusion with neighboring cells, and, finally, cell death. Contamination was detected by fluorescence imaging (DAPI) and PCR reactions. The cultures were treated with BM-Cyclin antibiotic to eliminate contamination. The data presented here will be of relevance to researchers whose investigations involve cell culture, especially respiratory and HEp-2 cells.

Resumo A contaminação de culturas primárias e celulares por micoplasmas é uma das principais armadilhas econômicas e biológicas da pesquisa básica, diagnóstico e fabricação de produtos biotecnológicos. Trata-se de uma contaminação rotineira, mas de difícil acompanhamento. A presença de micoplasma pode afetar vários parâmetros fisiológicos da célula, além de ser considerada uma importante fonte de resultados científicos imprecisos e/ou não reprodutíveis. Cada tipo de célula apresenta sintomas característicos, principalmente morfológicos, que indicam uma contaminação por micoplasma. As células HEp-2 são originárias do carcinoma da laringe e, portanto, fazem parte do trato respiratório, um dos habitats do micoplasma. Apesar da importância destas células em diversas pesquisas biológicas (avaliação da proliferação e migração celular, apoptose, compostos antivirais e antitumorais), as alterações decorrentes da contaminação por micoplasma nestas células ainda não foi descrita. Aqui, descrevemos as alterações morfológicas progressivas na cultura de células HEp-2 infectadas por micoplasma, bem como o diagnóstico da infecção e seu tratamento. A contaminação por micoplasma descrita neste trabalho resultou em alongamento citoplasmático, espaçamento entre células, projeções delgadas da membrana plasmática, vacúolos citoplasmáticos, fusão de células vizinhas e, finalmente, morte celular. A contaminação foi detectada por imagens de fluorescência (DAPI) e reações de PCR. As culturas foram tratadas com antibiótico BM-Cyclin para eliminar a contaminação. Os dados aqui apresentados serão de relevância para pesquisadores cujas investigações envolvem cultura celular, principalmente células respiratórias e HEp-2.

Mycoplasma/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180856


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression in various L-PRF concentrations on the hDPSC differentiation process. Material and Methods: hDPSC cell cultures were subjected to serum starvation by reducing FBS levels in the hDPSC culture media. Lysate PRF was obtained from the PRF gel, which was then incubated at 4°C for 24 h. The supernatant was dried, transferred to a 2-ml Eppendorf tube, and stored at −20°C. The evaluation of TGF-β1 expression in 1%, 5%, 10%, and 25% L-PRF samples and 10% FBS (control) during the process of hDPSC differentiation was quantified using an ELISA reader on day 7. The expression of TGF-β1 was subjected to a one-way ANOVA test, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test with significant values (p<0.05). Results: Significant differences were noted in TGF-β1 expression between 1%, 5%, 10%, and 25% L-PRF and the control group (10% FBS). The highest TGF-β1 expression occurred with 25% L-PRF (0.645 ± 0.048), followed by 10% L-PRF (0.461 ± 0.035), 10% FBS (0.374 ± 0.013), 5% L-PRF (0.275 ± 0.045), and the lowest expression was with 1% L-PRF (0.160 ± 0.045). Conclusion: The best result of TGF-B1 expression in hDPSC differentiation was in the 25% L-PRF group.

Humans , Cell Culture Techniques , Culture Media/analysis , Dental Pulp , Platelet-Rich Fibrin/microbiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transforming Growth Factors , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Indonesia
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1289-1294, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888554


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 to platelet activation by tumor cell culture medium.@*METHODS@#The peripheral blood platelets of BALB/c mice were isolated. The platelets were activated in 4T1 culture fluid for 24 h. The platelets were divided into 7 groups: control group, activation group, 1 nmol/L vitamin D3 group, 10 nmol/L vitamin D3 group, 50 nmol/L vitamin D3 group, 100 nmol/L vitamin D3 group, and positive drug (0.1 μmol/L eptifibatide) group. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the platelet proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of CD61 and CD62p and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) at 24, 48 and 72 h. ELISA was used to detect the level of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) at 24, 48 and 72 h.@*RESULTS@#The CD41@*CONCLUSION@#Vitamin D3 shows antiplatelet effect and can inhibit platelet proliferation and activation.

Animals , Blood Platelets , Cell Culture Techniques , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , P-Selectin , Platelet Activation
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e005721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288700


Abstract Two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus are known in Brazil: the temperate or southern and the tropical or northern populations. The distribution patterns of both lineages of R. sanguineus have epidemiological implications that can affect vectorial competence concerning Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Intending to identify the microbiomes of both lineages and compare microorganisms in R. sanguineus, we used the 16S rRNA (V4-V5 region) gene-based metataxonomic approach, through NGS sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform. We selected specimens of females from the environment and samples of primary embryonic cell cultures, from both lineages, and this was the first study to investigate the prokaryotic microbiome in tick cell cultures. The results showed that many bacterial taxa detected in the samples were typical members of the host environment. A significant diversity of microorganisms in R. sanguineus females and in embryonic cell cultures from both lineages was found, with emphasis on the presence of Coxiella in all samples, albeit in different proportions. The Coxiella species present in the two lineages of ticks may be different and may have co-evolved with them, thus driving different patterns of interactions between ticks and the pathogens that they can harbor or transmit to vertebrate hosts.

Resumo Duas linhagens de Rhipicephalus sanguineus são conhecidas no Brasil: populações da linhagem temperada ou do sul, e tropical ou do norte. Os padrões de distribuição de ambas as linhagens de R. sanguineus têm implicações epidemiológicas, podendo afetar a competência vetorial de Ehrlichia canis, o agente etiológico da erliquiose monocítica canina. Com a intenção de identificar os microbiomas de ambas as linhagens e comparar microrganismos de R. sanguineus, foi utilizada a metataxonomia, baseada no gene 16S rRNA (região V4-V5), por meio do sequenciamento de nova geração na plataforma MiSeq Illumina. Foram selecionadas amostras de fêmeas do ambiente e cultivo primário de células embrionárias, considerando-se as duas linhagens conhecidas do Brasil. Este é o primeiro estudo que investiga o microbioma procariótico de células de cultura de carrapato. Os resultados mostram que muitos grupos de bactérias detectadas nas amostras são membros típicos do ambiente do hospedeiro. Uma diversidade significativa de microrganismos em fêmeas e cultura de células embrionárias nas duas linhagens de R. sanguineus foi encontrada, com ênfase na presença de Coxiella em todas as amostras, ainda que em diferentes proporções. Possivelmente, as espécies de Coxiella presentes nas duas linhagens de carrapatos são diferentes e co-evoluíram com essas linhagens, conduzindo a diferentes padrões de interação entre carrapatos e patógenos que podem abrigar ou transmitir aos hospedeiros vertebrados.

Animals , Female , Dogs , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Dog Diseases , Microbiota , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 126 p. tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378785


Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a set of diseases caused by obligatory parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. And it has cutaneous and visceral eishmaniasis as its main forms. Treatment includes pentavalent antimonials. These drugs have several disadvantages, such as the need for parenteral administration, use of high dosages, long duration of treatment, severe toxicity, resistance and variable efficacy. The candidate for hydroxymethylnitrofural drug (NFOH), a prodrug derived from nitrofural, showed high activity in cell cultures infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and less toxicity when compared to nitrofural. Due to its low solubility in water and reduced bioavailability, NFOH has failed the in vivo efficacy tests. Nanostructured drug delivery systems have the potential to overcome these challenges due to their evident advantages: greater therapeutic efficacy, less toxicity, modified drug release and increased gastrointestinal absorption of drugs with low water solubility. The objective of this project will be the preparation and evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of a nanostructured lipid carrier containing hydroxymethylnitrofural (NLC-NFOH). The NFOH showed the highest solubility in Miglyol® 840 among the tested liquid lipids. For solid lipids, Gelucire® 50/13 and Precirol® ATO5 proved to be more suitable for the solubilization of NFOH. The optimized NLC-NFOH consisted of these three lipids. These lipids were selected using a quick Technobis Crystal 16TM methodology, microscopy and DSC. Different lipid selection tools provided scientific knowledge relevant to the development of NLC. The NLC-NFOH had an average z of 198.6 ± 5.4 nm, a PDI of 0.11 ± 0.01 and a zeta potential of -13.7 ± 0.7 mV. This study allowed a design space development approach of the first NLC-NFOH with the potential to treat leishmaniasis orally. The development of a sensitive bioanalytical method using HPLC and evaluation of some analytical figures of merit for the validation allowed the quantification of NFOH and NF. The bioanalytical method for analysis of NFOH and NF use Zorbax SB-C18, 5µm, (4.6x250mm) HPLC column. The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile:water (20:80 v/v) with flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, at UV detection of 370 nm. The linearity of NFOH and NF was found in the range 0.0253.0 µg/ml with a correlation coefficient of r > 0.98. The precision was 2.44 to 13.77% for NFOH and 2.61 to 18.42%; the accuracy was 2.66 to 14.28% for NFOH and 2.09 to 19.06% for NF. The method showed to be suitable for effectively evaluation of NFOH is serum. NLC-NFOH (2.8 mg/kg) was administered to animals by gavage, and the blocking flow of the chylomicrons model was performed with an intraperitoneal injection of cycloheximide. The presence of NFOH in serum was evaluated with and without cycloheximide. The cytotoxicity assay of NLC-NFOH and blank-NLC showed more than 90% viable cells at the maximum concentration used (2560 µM). NFOH and NF were detected at 1h after the gavage of DMSO-NFOH or NLC-NFOH, without the pretreatment with cycloheximide. The concentration found for DMSO-NFOH and NLC-NFOH were 0.0316 and 0.0291 µg/mL, respectively. The NLC presented the NFOH absorption by the lymphatic system, demonstrated by blocking chylomicrons flow

A leishmaniose, uma doença tropical negligenciada (DTN), é um conjunto de doenças causadas por protozoários parasitas obrigatórios do gênero Leishmania. E tem como formas principais a leishmaniose cutânea e visceral. O tratamento inclui antimoniais pentavalentes. Esses fármacos apresentam várias desvantagens, como necessidade de administração parenteral, uso de altas dosagens, longa duração do tratamento, toxicidade grave, resistência e eficácia variável. O candidato ao fármaco hidroximetilnitrofural (NFOH), um pró-fármaco derivado do nitrofural, apresentou alta atividade em culturas de células infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi e menor toxicidade quando comparado ao nitrofural. Devido à sua baixa solubilidade em água e biodisponibilidade reduzida, o NFOH falhou nos testes de eficácia in vivo. Os sistemas nanoestruturados de liberação de fármacos têm potencial para superar esses desafios devido às suas vantagens evidentes: maior eficácia terapêutica, menor toxicidade, liberação modificada do fármaco e aumento da absorção gastrointestinal de fármacos com baixa solubilidade em água. O objetivo deste projeto será a preparação e avaliação das características físico-químicas de um carreador lipídico nanoestruturado contendo hidroximetilnitrofural (NLC-NFOH). O NFOH apresentou a maior solubilidade no Miglyol® 840 entre os lipídios líquidos testados. Para lipídios sólidos, Gelucire® 50/13 e Precirol® ATO5 se mostraram mais adequados para a solubilização de NFOH. O NLC-NFOH otimizado consistiu desses três lipídios. Esses lipídios foram selecionados usando Technobis Crystal 16TM, microscopia e DSC. Diferentes ferramentas de seleção de lipídios forneceram conhecimento científico relevante para o desenvolvimento de NLC. O NLC-NFOH teve z-average de 198,6 ± 5,4 nm, PDI de 0,11 ± 0,01 e potencial zeta de -13,7 ± 0,7 mV. Este estudo permitiu o desenvolvimento por abordagem de Design Space do primeiro NLC-NFOH com potencial para tratar a leishmaniose por via oral. O desenvolvimento de um VIII método bioanalítico sensível utilizando HPLC e a avaliação de algumas figuras analíticas de mérito para a validação permitiram a quantificação de NFOH e NF em soro. O método bioanalítico para análise de NFOH e NF usou coluna de HPLC Zorbax SB-C18, 5 µm, (4,6 x 250 mm). A fase móvel foi constituída por acetonitrila: água (20:80 v / v) com vazão de 1,2 ml / min, com detecção no UV de 370 nm. A linearidade de NFOH e NF foi encontrada na faixa de 0,0253,0 µg / ml com um coeficiente de correlação de r> 0,98. A precisão foi de 2,44 a 13,77% para NFOH e 2,61 a 18,42%; a precisão foi de 2,66 a 14,28% para NFOH e 2,09 a 19,06% para NF. O método mostrou-se adequado para avaliação efetiva do NFOH no soro. NLC-NFOH (2,8 mg / kg) foi administrado aos animais por gavagem, e o modelo de bloqueio do fluxo de quilomícrons foi realizado com injeção intraperitoneal de cicloheximida. A presença de NFOH no soro foi avaliada com e sem cicloheximida. O ensaio de citotoxicidade de NLC-NFOH e brancoNLC mostrou mais de 90% de células viáveis na concentração máxima utilizada (2560 µM). NFOH e NF foram detectados 1h após a gavagem de DMSO-NFOH ou NLC-NFOH, sem o pré-tratamento com cicloheximida. As concentrações encontradas para DMSO-NFOH e NLC-NFOH foram 0,0316 e 0,0291 µg / mL, respectivamente. O NLC apresentou a absorção do NFOH pelo sistema linfático, demonstrada pelo bloqueio do fluxo dos quilomícrons

Leishmaniasis/pathology , Chemistry, Physical/classification , Administration, Oral , Tropical Medicine/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Methodology as a Subject , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Absorption/drug effects , Lymphatic System
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 150 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379876


Neste trabalho foram sintetizados e caracterizados três complexos de cobre com ligantes imínicos, com o objetivo de avaliar sua atividade tripanocida. Esses complexos foram caracterizados por diversas técnicas espectroscópicas, como UV-Vis, Infravermelho e EPR, além de análise elementar e espectrometria de massa. Juntamente com outros complexos similares previamente sintetizados pelo nosso grupo, tiveram suas atividades avaliadas frente à forma tripomastigota do parasita T. cruzi, responsável pela fase aguda da doença de Chagas, por ensaios de viabilidade celular, com determinação do valor de seus IC50, concentração em que observamos a morte de 50% da cultura celular, pela metodologia denominada MTT. Todos os complexos mostraram-se eficientes frente a tripomastigotas, apresentando valores de IC50 abaixo de 10 µM, com quatro deles obtendo índice de seletividade maior que 10, fator importante para definir agentes promissores antichagásicos. Complexos selecionados também tiveram sua atividade verificada frente à forma amastigota do parasita, responsável pela fase crônica da doença, utilizando método de imageamento por microscópio de fluorescência e contagem celular. Estudos de inibição da cruzaína, uma cisteíno-protease importante para o metabolismo do parasita foram conduzidos em colaboração com o laboratório do Prof. Wagner Alves de Souza Júdice, da Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes. Quatro dos compostos testados apresentaram atividade inibitória frente a cruzaína, sendo dois de cobre, um de zinco e um ligante livre. Os estudos também permitiram diferenciar os mecanismos de inibição dos compostos, com os complexos de cobre apresentando um mecanismo de inibição clássico e o composto de zinco e o ligante livre apresentando o mecanismo de inibição competitiva parabólica com cooperatividade

In this work, three copper complexes with iminic ligands were synthesized and characterized, with the objective of evaluating their trypanocidal activity. These complexes were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Vis, Infrared and EPR, in addition to elementary analysis and mass spectrometry. Together with other similar complexes previously synthesized by our group, their activities were evaluated against the trypomastigote form of the parasite T. cruzi, responsible for the acute phase of Chagas disease, by cell viability tests, with determination of the value of their IC50, concentration in that we observed the death of 50% of the cell culture, by the methodology called MTT, all presenting IC50 values below 10 µM, with four of them obtaining a selectivity index greater than 10, important factor for defining promising antichagasic agents. Selected complexes also had their activity verified against the amastigote form of the parasite, responsible for the chronic phase of the disease, using a fluorescence microscope and cell counting imaging method. Inhibition studies of cruzain, a cysteine protease important for the metabolism of the parasite, were conducted in collaboration with the laboratory of Professor Wagner Alves de Souza Júdice at the University of Mogi das Cruzes. Four of the tested compounds showed inhibitory activity against cruzain, two of copper, one of zinc and a free ligand. The studies also allowed to differentiate the mechanisms of inhibition of the compounds, with the copper complexes presenting a classic inhibition mechanism and the zinc compound and the free ligand presenting the competitive parabolic inhibition mechanism with cooperativity

Chagas Disease/pathology , Copper/chemistry , Imines/agonists , Antiparasitic Agents , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Ligands
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(83): 67-74, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343747


El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo principal el aislar, expandir y caracterizar inmunofenotípicamente células madre mesenquimales de la pulpa dental humana, según los criterios mínimos propuestos por The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT), como así también establecer la puesta a punto de las técnicas y protocolos de procedimientos para tal fin. Los cultivos fueron permanentemente monitoreados mediante microscopio invertido con contraste de fase y la inmunotipificación fue realizada por citometría de flujo (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Tissue Engineering , Dental Pulp , Adult Stem Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Phenotype , Argentina , Schools, Dental , Cell Culture Techniques , Regenerative Medicine
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0018, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288632


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe ocular surface findings in impression cytology obtained from healthy rabbit conjunctiva treated with interferon alpha-2b eyedrop, and compare them to findings after use of mitomycin C 0.02%. Methods: An experimental study using a rabbit model was performed between September 2013 and October 2014 at the Faculdade de Medicina de Marília, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Clínica de Olhos Moacir Cunha. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 6 groups and received interferon alpha-2b or mitomycin C 0.02%. Impression cytology (IC) was performed prior to topical applications and at15, 30 and 60 days of use. The following variables were analyzed in impression cytology: goblet cells, cellularity, cell-to-cell adhesion, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, nuclear chromatin, inflammatory cells keratinization, and cytomegaly. Results: The major findings in impression cytology after us of interferon alpha-2b included loss of goblet cells (50.8%), reduced cell-to-cell adhesion (26.2%), abnormal nucleus/cytoplasm ratio (20%) and reduced cellularity (15.4%). After use of mitomycin C 0.02%, the most common changes included loss of goblet cells (46.2%), abnormal nucleus/cytoplasm ratio (25.6%), less cell-to-cell adhesion (23.1%), and reduced cellularity (20.5%). There were no significant differences in any variable when comparing impression cytology after interferon alpha-2b and after mitomycin C 0.02%. Goblet cell loss was more pronounced at days 30 and 60, as compared to impression cytology at day 15 for both drugs. Conclusion: The loss of goblet cells, reduced cell-to-cell adhesion and cellularity, along with abnormal nucleus/cytoplasm ratio were the most common findings in impression cytology after use of interferon alpha-2b. These findings are similar to those described for use of mitomycin C 0.02%. ..

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os achados em citologia de impressão de conjuntiva sadia de coelho submetida ao uso de colírio de interferon alfa-2b e compará-los ao que foi encontrado após uso da mitomicina C 0,02%. Métodos: Estudo experimental realizado em modelo animal no período entre setembro de 2013 e outubro de 2014 nas dependências da Faculdade de Medicina de Marília, da Universidade Federal de São Paulo e da Clínica de Olhos Moacir Cunha. Trinta coelhos albinos da raça Nova Zelândia foram divididos em seis grupos e receberam interferon alfa-2b ou mitomicina C. A citologia de impressão foi realizada antes do início dos colírios e após 15, 30, 60 dias de seu uso. As seguintes variáveis foram analisadas na citologia de impressão: células caliciformes, celularidade, adesão intercelular, razão núcleo/citoplasma, cromatina, células inflamatórias, queratinização e citomegalia. Resultados: Os principais achados na citologia de impressão após o uso do interferon alfa-2b foram a redução de células caliciformes (50,8%), a diminuição da adesão intercelular (26,2%), a alteração da razão N/C (20%) e a redução da celularidade (15,4%). Após o uso da mitomicina C 0,02%, foram mais frequentes a redução das células caliciformes (46,2%), a alteração da razão N/C (25,6%), a adesão intercelular (23,1%) e a redução da celularidade (20,5%). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para nenhuma das variáveis estudas quando se compararam as citologias de impressão após interferon alfa-2b com as citologias de impressão após mitomicina C 0,02%. Independentemente da substância utilizada, as citologias colhidas 30 e 60 dias após início das drogas apresentaram maior redução de células caliciformes quando comparadas com as citologias de impressão colhidas após 15 dias. Conclusão: A redução das células caliciformes, a diminuição da adesão intercelular, a alteração da razão N/C e a diminuição da celularidade foram as alterações mais frequentes na citologia de impressão colhida após o uso de interferon alfa-2b. Os achados em citologias de impressão após o uso de interferon alfa-2b são semelhantes àqueles encontrados após o uso da mitomicina C 0,02%.

Animals , Rabbits , Mitomycin/pharmacology , Conjunctiva/cytology , Cornea/cytology , Interferon alpha-2/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Cellulose , Cytological Techniques , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Conjunctiva/drug effects , Conjunctiva/ultrastructure , Conjunctival Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Culture Techniques , Cornea/drug effects , Cornea/ultrastructure , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Micropore Filters
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101632, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350317


ABSTRACT Emerging human coronaviruses, including the recently identified SARS-CoV-2, are relevant respiratory pathogens due to their potential to cause epidemics with high case fatality rates, although endemic coronaviruses are also important for immunocompromised patients. Long-term coronavirus infections had been described mainly in experimental models, but it is currently evident that SARS-CoV-2 genomic-RNA can persist for many weeks in the respiratory tract of some individuals clinically recovered from coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), despite a lack of isolation of infectious virus. It is still not clear whether persistence of such viral RNA may be pathogenic for the host and related to long-term sequelae. In this review, we summarize evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA persistence in respiratory samples besides results obtained from cell culture and histopathology describing long-term coronavirus infection. We also comment on potential mechanisms of coronavirus persistence and relevance for pathogenesis.

Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 , Respiratory System , Cell Culture Techniques , SARS-CoV-2