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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1056-1064, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the cytotoxic effect and its mechanism of the micromolecule compound on the leukemia cells.@*METHODS@#The cytotoxic effects of 28 Nilotinib derivatives on K562, KA, KG, HA and 32D cell lines were detected by MTT assays, and the compound Nilo 22 was screen out. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle on leukemia cells were detected by flow cytometry. The effect of compound screened out on leukemogenesis potential of MLL-AF9 leukemia mice GFP@*RESULTS@#Nilo 22 serves as the most outstanding candidate out of 28 Nilotinib derivatives, which impairs leukemia cell lines, but spares normal hematopoietic cell line. Comparing with Nilotinib, Nilo 22 could induce the apoptosis of GFP@*CONCLUSION@#Nilo 22 shows a significant cytotoxic effect on mice and human leukemia cells, especially for drug resistance cells. Nilo 22 is a promising anti-leukemia agent to solve the common clinical problems of drug resistance and relapse of leukemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Leukemia , Mice , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 13-18, Mar. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022495

ABSTRACT

Background: The suppression of cancer cell growth and invasion has become a challenging clinical issue. In this study, we used nanotechnology to create a new drug delivery system to enhance the efficacy of existing drugs. We developed layered double hydroxide by combing Au nanosol (LDH@Au) and characterized the compound to prove its function as a drug delivery agent. The anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin was loaded into the new drug carrier to assess its quality. We used a combination of apoptosis assays, cell cycle assays, tissue distribution studies, cell endocytosis, transwell invasion assays, and immunoblotting to evaluate the characteristics of LDH@Au as a drug delivery system. Results: Our results show that the LDH@Au-Dox treatment significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited cell invasion compared to the control Dox group. Additionally, our data indicate that LDH@Au-Dox has a better target efficiency at the tumor site and improved the following: cellular uptake, anti-angiogenesis action, changes in the cell cycle, and increased caspase pathway activation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the nano drug is a promising anti-cancer agent and has potential clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanotechnology , Cell Line, Tumor , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Endocytosis/drug effects , Hydroxides , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/prevention & control
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7665, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974250

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma (OS) has a high incidence, malignity, and frequency of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential anti-cancer effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on human OS MG63 cells as well as underlying mechanisms. Viability of MG63 cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay to determine the adequate concentration of APS. Then, effects of APS on MG63 cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and migration and invasion were analyzed by BrdU incorporation, PI staining, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of proteins involved in these physiological processes were assessed by western blot analysis. Afterwards, miR-133a level in APS-treated cells was determined by qRT-PCR, and whether APS affected MG63 cells through regulation of miR-133a was determined. Finally, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway was detected. We found that APS treatment suppressed the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of MG63 cells, as well as induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, APS enhanced the expression of miR-133a in MG63 cells. Knockdown of miR-133a reversed the APS treatment-induced MG63 cell proliferation, migration and invasion inhibition, as well as cell apoptosis. Furthermore, APS inactivated JNK pathway in MG63 cells. Knockdown of miR-133a reversed the APS treatment-induced inactivation of JNK pathway in MG63 cells. To conclude, APS repressed proliferation, migration, and invasion while induced apoptosis of OS MG63 cells by up-regulating miR-133a and then inactivating JNK pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Astragalus Plant/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , MicroRNAs/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 520-525, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781411

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the action of Hymenaea stigonocarpa bark hydroalcoholic extract against a mutagenic compound using A. cepa meristematic root cells as a test system. The treatment groups were: Negative Control (NC) – distilled water; Positive Control (PC) – paracetamol at a concentration of 0.008 mg/mL, Jatoba Control (JC) – aqueous fraction jatobá-do-cerrado at 0.5 or 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL, and Simultaneous Treatment (ST) - jatobá-do-cerrado aqueous fraction at a concentration of 0.5 or 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL associated with paracetamol solution at a concentration of 0.008 mg/mL. All groups were analyzed at 24 and 48 h. Five onion bulbs (five replications) were used for each treatment group. The root tips were fixed in Carnoy and slides prepared by the crush technique. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each treatment group at each exposure time. Mitotic indices were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p<0.05). From the results it was found that the ST group, at the three concentrations, significantly potentiated the antiproliferative effect of the test system cells when compared to PC, NC and TJ at the three concentrations. Furthermore, the three ST concentrations significantly reduced the number of cell aberrations when compared to the number of aberrant cells obtained for the PC, demonstrating antimutagenic action on the A. cepa test system cells.


Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a ação do extrato hidroalcólico do ritidoma de Hymenaea stigonocarpa frente a um composto mutagênico, utilizando como sistema teste as células meristemáticas de raízes de A. cepa. Os grupos tratamentos avaliados foram: Controle Negativo (CN) – água destilada; Controle Positivo (CP) – paracetamol na concentração de 0,008 mg/mL, Controle Jatobá (CJ) – fração aquosa de jatobá-do-cerrado na concentração de 0,5 ou 1,0 ou 1,5 mg/mL, e Tratamento Simultâneo (TS) – fração aquosa de jatobá-do-cerrado na concentração de 0,5 ou 1,0 ou 1,5 mg/mL associada a solução de paracetamol na concentração de 0,008 mg/mL. Todos os grupos foram analisados nos tempos de 24 e 48 h. Para cada grupo tratamento cinco bulbos de cebolas (cinco repetições) foram utilizados. As radículas foram fixadas em Carnoy e as lâminas preparadas pela técnica de esmagamento. Analisaram-se células em todo ciclo celular, totalizando 5.000 para cada grupo tratamento em cada tempo de exposição. Os índices mitóticos obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística do Qui-quadrado (p<0,05). A partir dos resultados verificou-se que o grupo TS, nas três concentrações, potencializou o efeito antiproliferativo significativo as células do sistema teste quando comparado ao CP, CN e TJ nas três concentrações. Ainda, o TS nas três concentrações reduziu de forma significativa o número de aberrações celulares quando comparado com o número de células aberrantes obtidas para o CP, demonstrando ação antimutagênica as células do sistema teste A. cepa.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onions/cytology , Onions/physiology , Hymenaea , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Time Factors , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Meristem , Plant Bark , Antimitotic Agents/pharmacology , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Mitotic Index/methods , Mutagens/metabolism , Mutagens/pharmacology
5.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-13, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computer-based technology is becoming increasingly essential in biological research where drug discovery programs start with the identification of suitable drug targets. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is a 17ß-estradiol metabolite that induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines including cervical cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Owing to 2ME2's poor in vivo bioavailability, our laboratory in silico-designed and subsequently synthesized a novel 2ME2 analogue, 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol), using receptor- and ligand molecular modeling. In this study, the biological effects of ESE-15-ol (180 nM) and its parent molecule, 2ME2 (1 µM), were assessed on morphology and apoptosis induction in cervical cancer cells. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and polarization-optical transmitted light differential interference contrast (PlasDIC) images demonstrated morphological hallmarks of apoptosis including apoptotic bodies, shrunken cells, vacuoles, reduced cell density and cell debris. Flow cytometry analysis showed apoptosis induction by means of annexin V-FITC staining. Cell cycle analysis showed that ESE-15-ol exposure resulted in a statistically significant increase in the G2M phase (72%) compared to 2ME2 (19%). Apoptosis induction was more pronounced when cells were exposed to ESE-15-ol compared to 2ME2. Spectrophotometric analysis of caspase 8 activity demonstrated that 2ME2 and ESE-15-ol both induced caspase 8 activation by 2- and 1.7-fold respectively indicating the induction of the apoptosis. However, ESE-15-ol exerted all of the above-mentioned effects at a much lower pharmacological concentration (180 nM) compared to 2ME2 (1 µM physiological concentration). CONCLUSION: Computer-based technology is essential in drug discovery and together with in vitro studies for the evaluation of these in silico-designed compounds, drug development can be improved to be cost effective and time consuming. This study evaluated the anticancer potential of ESE-15-ol, an in silico-designed compound in vitro. Research demonstrated that ESE-15-ol exerts antiproliferative activity accompanied with apoptosis induction at a nanomolar concentration compared to the micromolar range required by 2ME2. This study is the first study to demonstrate the influence of ESE-15-ol on morphology, cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction in HeLa cells. In silico-design by means of receptor- and ligand molecular modeling is thus effective in improving compound bioavailability while preserving apoptotic activity in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Computer-Aided Design , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , HeLa Cells , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Apoptosis/drug effects , Culture Media , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Estradiol/pharmacology , Caspase 8/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods , 2-Methoxyestradiol , Microscopy, Polarization
6.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-14, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heavy metals can cause great harm to Siberian tigers in the natural environment. Cadmium (Cd2+) is an environmental contaminant that affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. RESULTS: We investigated the apoptotic effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. Our research revealed the typical signs of apoptosis after Cd²+ exposure. Apoptosis was dose- (0-4.8 µM) and duration-dependent (12-48 h), and proliferation was strongly inhibited. Cd²+ increased the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and disrupted calcium homeostasis by causing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It also increased K+ efflux and altered the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, Fas, and p53. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Cd2+ triggers the apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts by disturbing intracellular homeostasis. These results will aid in our understanding of the effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tigers and in developing interventions to treat and prevent cadmium poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intracellular Space/drug effects , Tigers , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Homeostasis/drug effects , Siberia , DNA Damage , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Apoptosis/genetics , Caspases/analysis , Caspases/drug effects , Comet Assay/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcription , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Fibroblasts/physiology , Homeostasis/physiology
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1252-1259, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79766

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a prevalent chronic microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus involving disturbances in electrolytes and the acid-base balance caused by a disorder of glucose metabolism. NHE1 is a Na+/H+ exchanger responsible for keeping intracellular pH (pHi) balance and cell growth. Our study aimed to investigate roles of NHE1 in high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal epithelial tubular cell line HK-2 was cultured in medium containing 5 mM or 30 mM glucose. Then, cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, NHE1 expression, and pHi were evaluated. NHE1 siRNA and inhibitor were used to evaluate its role in cell apoptosis. RESULTS: HG significantly increased cell apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-OHdG (p<0.05). Meanwhile, we found that HG induced the expression of NHE1 and increased the pHi from 7.0 to 7.6 after 48 h of incubation. However, inhibiting NHE1 using its specific siRNA or antagonist DMA markedly reduced cell apoptosis stimulated by HG. In addition, suppressing cellular oxidative stress using antioxidants, such as glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine, significantly reduced the production of ROS, accompanied by a decrease in NHE1. We also found that activated cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I (PKG) signaling promoted the production of ROS, which contributed to the regulation of NHE1 functions. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that HG activates PKG signaling and elevates the production of ROS, which was responsible for the induction of NHE1 expression and dysfunction, as well as subsequent cell apoptosis, in renal tubular epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Tubules/cytology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 33-40, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) in combination with calcitriol modulates proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer (OCa) cell lines (SKOV3, OVCAR3, and OVCA433) and identify the signaling pathway by which MIS mediates apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCa cell lines were treated with MIS in the absence or presence of calcitriol. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation assay. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the signaling pathway. RESULTS: The cells showed specific staining for the MIS type II receptor. Treatment of OCa cells with MIS and calcitriol led to dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth and survival. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth, down-regulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and up-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspase-3, and caspase-9 through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: These results, coupled with a much-needed decrease in the toxic side effects of currently employed therapeutic agents, provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of MIS, alone or in combination with calcitriol, in the treatment of OCa.


Subject(s)
Anti-Mullerian Hormone/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Calcitriol/pharmacology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , DNA Fragmentation/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Female , Growth Inhibitors/metabolism , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Peptide , Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta , Signal Transduction/drug effects
9.
Gut and Liver ; : 310-317, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Statins act as antineoplastic agents through the inhibition of cell proliferation. This study sought to demonstrate the effects of statins on extrahepatic bile duct cancer cell apoptosis and to document the changes in protein expression involved in tumor growth and suppression. METHODS: Human extrahepatic bile duct cancer cells were cultured. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were performed to determine the effect of statins on cell proliferation. Apoptosis was measured by a cell death detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and caspase-3 activity assay, and flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. The protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and Akt was measured by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Simvastatin suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest in bile duct cancer cells. Furthermore, it induced apoptosis via caspase-3 activation, downregulated the expression of the Bcl-2 protein, and enhanced the expression of the Bax protein. Moreover, simvastatin suppressed the expression of the IGF-1 receptor and IGF-1-induced ERK/Akt activation. CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin induces apoptosis in bile duct cancer cells, which suggests that it could be an antineoplastic agent for bile duct cancer.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bile Duct Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Receptor, IGF Type 1/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology
10.
Clinics ; 70(5): 346-349, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the serum aminotransferase levels of patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease and establish their relationships with serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: Patients with chronic kidney disease were evaluated between September 2011 and May 2012. Aminotransferase and creatinine serum levels were measured using an automated kinetic method, and glomerular filtration rates were estimated using the Cockroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas to classify patients into chronic kidney disease stages. RESULTS: Exactly 142 patients were evaluated (mean age: 64±16 years). The mean creatinine serum level and glomerular filtration rate were 3.3±1.2 mg/dL and 29.1±13 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Patients were distributed according to their chronic kidney disease stages as follows: 3 (2.1%) patients were Stage 2; 54 (38%) were Stage 3; 70 (49.3%) were Stage 4; and 15 (10.5%) were Stage 5. The mean aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase serum levels showed a reduction in proportion to the increase in creatinine levels (p=0.001 and p=0.05, respectively) and the decrease in glomerular filtration rate (p=0.007 and p=0.028, respectively). Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels tended to be higher among patients classified as stage 2 or 3 compared with those classified as stage 4 or 5 (p=0.08 and p=0.06, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase serum levels of patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease decreased in proportion to the progression of the disease; they were negatively correlated with creatinine levels and directly correlated with glomerular filtration rate. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Foreskin/drug effects , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/toxicity , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere Shortening/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , DNA , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Activation , Foreskin/enzymology , Foreskin/ultrastructure , Keratinocytes/enzymology , Keratinocytes/ultrastructure , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Superoxides/metabolism , Telomere Shortening/genetics
11.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 3-11, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar por meio de parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais como a fibrose cística (FC) afeta o crescimento e estado nutricional de crianças submetidas ao tratamento de FC que não foram submetidas à triagem neonatal. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte histórica com 52 pacientes com FC menores de 10 anos foi acompanhada em um centro de referência em Campinas, Sudeste do Brasil. Peso e altura foram coletados de prontuários médicos até março de 2010, quando a triagem neonatal foi implementada. Entre setembro de 2009 a março de 2010 a altura dos pais foi medida. RESULTADOS: Quatro pacientes tiveram escores Z ≤ -2 para altura/idade (A/I) e índice de massa corporal/idade (IMC/A). As seguintes variáveis foram associadas com melhor razão A/I: menor número de hospitalizações, maior tempo entre a primeira consulta e o diagnóstico, maior tempo entre o nascimento e o diagnóstico e início tardio da doença respiratória. Capacidade vital forçada [CVF(%)], fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25-75% da CVF [FEF25-75(%)], volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo [VEF1(%)], idade gestacional, peso ao nascer e início dos sintomas respiratórios foram associados com melhor IMC/I. CONCLUSÕES: Maior número de hospitalizações, retardo no diagnóstico e início precoce da doença respiratória tiveram impacto negativo no crescimento. Menores valores espirométricos, menor idade gestacional, menor peso ao nascer e o início precoce dos sintomas respiratórios tiveram impacto negativo no estado nutricional. A desnutrição foi observada em 7,7% dos casos, mas 23% das crianças apresentaram risco nutricional. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Bacteria/growth & development , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Fungi/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Peptides/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemical synthesis , Structure-Activity Relationship , Selenium/chemistry , Sulfur/chemistry , Tellurium/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 886-889, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732298

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.


Neste estudo investigou-se a ação citotóxica do extrato aquoso de Rosmarinus officinalis L. (alecrim) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Para isso obteve-se extratos aquosos brutos de folhas secas desta planta em quatro concentrações, 0,02; 0,04; 0,06 e 0,08mg/mL, que foram testadas em células meristemáticas de raízes de A. cepa, nos tempos de exposição 24 e 48h. As lâminas foram feitas pela técnica de esmagamento, e analisaram-se células em todo ciclo celular, totalizando 5.000 para cada grupo controle e concentração. A partir dos resultados verificou-se que as quatro concentrações testadas, inclusive a menor e considerada ideal para consumo, em todos os tempos de exposição tiveram ação antiproliferativa significativa sobre o ciclo celular deste sistema teste, e apresentaram um grande número de células em prófase. Dessa forma, o alecrim, nas condições analisadas, mostrou-se citotóxico.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Roots/drug effects , Rosmarinus/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Onions/cytology , Plant Roots/cytology , Time Factors
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153786

ABSTRACT

Wide spread use of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has made it a ubiquitous contaminant in today’s environment, responsible for possible carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects. In the present investigation an integrative toxico-proteomic approach was made to study the estrogenic potential of DEHP. In vitro experiments carried out with DEHP (0.1-100 μM) induced proliferations (E-screen assay) in human estrogen receptors-α (ERα) positive MCF-7 and ERα negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells irrespective of their ERα status. Further, DEHP suppressed tamoxifen (a potent anti-breast cancer drug) induced apoptosis in both cell types as shown by flowcytometric cell cycle analysis. Label-free quantitative proteomics analysis of the cell secretome of both the cell lines indicated a wide array of stress related, structural and receptor binding proteins that were affected due to DEHP exposure. The secretome of DEHP treated MCF-7 cells revealed the down regulation of lactotransferrin, an ERα responsive iron transport protein. The results indicated that toxicological effects of DEHP did not follow an ERα signaling pathway. However, the differential effects in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines indicate that ERα might have an indirect modulating effect on DEHP induced toxicity.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/metabolism , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Estrogen Receptor alpha/drug effects , Estrogen Receptor alpha/physiology , Estrogens , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , Lactoferrin/biosynthesis , Lactoferrin/genetics , Lactoferrin/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells/drug effects , MCF-7 Cells/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Microchemistry/instrumentation , Neoplasm Proteins/drug effects , Neoplasm Proteins/physiology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/pathology , Proteomics , Tamoxifen/antagonists & inhibitors , Tamoxifen/pharmacology
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(5): 465-472, sep.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733320

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Describir la tendencia de las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer oral (CaO) en Cali, Colombia durante el periodo 1962-2007. Material y métodos. Se obtuvieron las tasas estandarizadas por edad (población mundial) de incidencia (TIEE) y mortalidad (TMEE) por CaO con información del Registro Poblacional de Cáncer en Cali-Colombia (RPCC) y de la Secretaría de Salud Pública Municipal de Cali (SSPM), respectivamente. Se utilizó el porcentaje de cambio anual (APC) para describir la tendencia de las mismas. Resultados. Se registraron 1637 casos nuevos de CaO y la edad promedio al diagnóstico fue de 60 años. Las TIEE disminuyeron entre 1962-2007 en hombres APC= -1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6) y mujeres, APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4). Las TMEE disminuyeron entre 1984-2001 sólo en los hombres, APC= -2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5). Conclusión. La morbilidad y mortalidad por CaO ha disminuido de manera significativa en Cali, Colombia. El tipo de tumor asociado con estos cambios fue el carcinoma de células escamosas.


Objective. To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC) in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Materials and methods. Age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH) respectively. Annual percentage change (APC) was used to measure the changes in rates over time. Results. 1637 new cases of oral cancer were registered in the CPCR and the mean age upon diagnosis was 60 years. The ASIR decreased from 1962-2007 in men APC= 1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6) and women APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4).The ASMR decreased from 1984-2001 only in men, APC=2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5). Conclusions. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and mortality rates for OC in Cali, Colombia. The type of tumor associated to these changes was the squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Chromosome Aberrations , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Sister Chromatid Exchange , Cells, Cultured , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Species Specificity , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/drug effects
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 420-424, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731056

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the following irrigating solutions on the microhardness of root canal dentin: 2% sodium hypochlorite (2NaOCl), 5% sodium hypochlorite (5NaOCl), super-oxidized water (400 ppm Sterilox - Sx) and 17% EDTA (E). Eighty roots from bovine incisors were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10): 2NaOCl, 5NaOCl, Sx, and 2NaOCl + E, 5NaOCl + E, Sx + E (associated with E as final irrigant for 5 min), E solely and distilled water (dH2O) as the negative control. Root canal preparation was performed by hand instruments, using one of the irrigation protocols for 30 min. Then, 5 mm of the cervical root third were cut out from each sample and subjected to the Vickers microhardness test, at two points, one at approximately 500-1000 µm from the root canal lumen (distance 1), and the other at approximately 500-1000 µm from the external root surface (distance 2). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests at 5% significance level. Microhardness values at distance 1 were significantly lower than those at distance 2 for all groups, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E groups (p>0.05). EDTA showed the lowest microhardness values. However, no statistically significant difference was detected among groups at distance 1 and EDTA was significantly different only from Sx at distance 2. In conclusion, all tested solutions showed lower microhardness at the most superficial root canal dentin layer compared to the one found near the external root surface, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E; EDTA promoted lower microhardness values in comparison to Sterilox at this site.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência das seguintes soluções irrigadoras na microdureza da dentina do canal radicular: hipoclorito de sódio a 2% (NaOCl2), hipoclorito de sódio a 5% (NaOCl5), água superoxidada (Sterilox(r) 400 ppm - Sx) e EDTA a 17% (E). Oitenta raízes de incisivos bovinos foram divididas aleatoriamente em 8 grupos (n=10): NaOCl2, NaOCl5, Sx e NaOCl2 + E, NaOCl5 + E, Sx + E (associados ao E como irrigante final por 5 min), E isolado e água destilada (H2Od), como controle negativo. O preparo dos canais radiculares foi realizado com instrumentos manuais, usando um dos protocolos de irrigação por 30 min. A seguir, 5 mm do terço cervical de cada amostra foram cortados perpendicularmente e submetidos ao teste de microdureza de Vickers, em dois pontos, um aproximadamente 500-1000 µm da luz do canal radicular (distância 1), e o outro aproximadamente 500-1000 µm da superfície externa da raiz (distância 2). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Wilcoxon e Kruskal-Wallis com um nível de significância de 5%. Os valores de microdureza na distância 1 foram significativamente menores do que na distância 2 para todos os grupos, exceto NaOCl5 e NaOCl5 +E (p>0,05). O EDTA mostrou os menores valores de microdureza. No entanto, não foi detectada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos na distância 1 e o EDTA foi significativamente diferente apenas do Sx na distância 2. Pode-se concluir que todas as soluções testadas mostraram menor microdureza na camada de dentina mais superficial do canal radicular em comparação aos valores encontrados próximo à superfície radicular externa, exceto NaOCl5 e NaOCl5 + E; o EDTA promoveu menor microdureza em comparação ao Sterilox(r) neste ponto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Sulindac/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , DNA Primers/chemistry , Flow Cytometry , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Up-Regulation
16.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 48(spe): 45-52, 08/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731291

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore beliefs, values and practices related to the use of medicinal plants among low-income black families. Method The research method was ethnography and the participant observation process was done in a low-income community in the peripheral area of the City of São Paulo. Twenty black women were interviewed. Results Two cultural sub-themes, I do use medicines that I learned to make with my mother and with religious practitioners to care for diseases and Home medicines are to treat problems that are not serious, and the cultural theme I do use home medicines to treat simple diseases because I always have them at my disposal, they are free and I don’t need a medical prescription represent beliefs, values, and practices related to the use of medicinal plants among low-income black families. Conclusion The development of such practices, which can hide ethnic and social vulnerability, reveals the resilience of low-income black women in the process of confronting problems during the health-illness process. .


Objetivo Explorar las creencias, valores y prácticas sobre el uso de las plantas medicinales entre las familias negras de bajos ingresos. Método El método de investigación fue la etnografía y el proceso de observación participante fue desarrollado en una comunidad de bajos ingresos en las afueras de la Ciudad de São Paulo. Se entrevistó a veinte mujeres negras. Resultados Dos subtemas culturales Uso remedios que aprendí a hacer con mi madre y con los religiosos para cuidar de enfermedades y Remedios caseros se utilizan para resolver problemas que no son graves y el tema cultural Uso remedio casero para resolver enfermedades simples porque tengo todo lo que necesito, es gratuito y no necesita una receta médica simbolizam las prácticas de las mujeres. Conclusión Estas prácticas, que pueden estar enmascarando vulnerabilidades étnicas y sociales, ponen de manifiesto la resiliencia de las mujeres negras de bajos ingresos en el confrontamiento de los problemas del proceso salud-enfermedad. .


Objetivo Explorar crenças, valores e práticas relativas ao uso das plantas medicinais entre famílias negras de baixa renda. Método Pesquisa etnográfica cujo processo de observação participante foi desenvolvido em uma comunidade de baixa renda da periferia da Cidade de São Paulo. Vinte mulheres negras foram entrevistadas. Resultados Dois subtemas culturais, Uso remédios que aprendi a fazer com minha mãe e com os religiosos para cuidar das doenças e Remédios caseiros servem para resolver problemas que não são graves, e o tema cultural Uso remédio caseiro para resolver doenças simples, pois tenho sempre que preciso, é de graça e não precisa de receita médica representam as crenças, valores e práticas relativos ao uso das plantas medicinais entre famílias negras de baixa renda. Conclusão O desenvolvimento dessas práticas, que pode estar mascarando vulnerabilidades étnicas e sociais, revela a resiliência das mulheres negras de baixa renda no enfrentamento dos problemas que encontram no processo saúde-enfermidade. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Sulindac/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Umbilical Veins
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Apr; 51(2): 127-134
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154250

ABSTRACT

The peptides produced enzymatically from various plants have shown various biological activities including cytotoxicity. Different types of cytotoxic peptides have been reported from the seeds and leaves of Violaceae, Rubiaceae and Annonaceae families. In this study, we report purification and characterization of peptide(s) showing cytotoxic activity against A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines from the seeds of Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae). Seed proteins of P. longifolia were extracted and hydrolyzed using trypsin. The enzyme hydrolysate was applied on to a Sephadex G10 column and eluted using Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5). Two fractions F1 and F2 were obtained, of which F2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against lung (A549) cancer cells at 10 µg/mL and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines at 30 µg/mL, as revealed by the MTT assay. DNA fragmentation was observed in the tested cancer cell lines treated with F2 peptide at a concentration of 10 µg/mL and 30 µg/mL, respectively. Further, increased number of apoptotic cells was observed in sub-G0 phase of cell cycle of A549 and HeLa cell lines, when treated with 10 µg/mL and 30 µg/mL of F2, as revealed by the flow cytometric analyses. FTIR spectrum of F2 peptide detected the presence of stretching vibrations of carboxylic acid OH residue with peak at 3420 cm-1 and carbonyl (C=O) groups at 1636 cm-1, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis of F2 peptide showed a single peak at a retention time of 12.8 min detected at 280 nm, depicting the purity of F2 to be more than 90%. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed the average theoretical mass of F2 to be 679.8 using m/z ratios. In conclusion, the findings suggest that F2 peptide is an effective inducer of apoptosis of cancer cells, thus offers an important strategy in the development of cancer therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Fragments/isolation & purification , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Polyalthia/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tumor Cells, Cultured
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Oct; 50(5): 419-427
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150251

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid may promote growth of cardiac and vascular myocytes, indicating its novel role in cell growth and proliferation, without appreciable inhibition of the sodium pump. The mechanism(s) by which low dose of ouabain produces pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, a prerequisite for right ventricular hypertrophy, is currently unknown. Here, we analyzed the effects of low dose of ouabain (10 nM) on increase in [Ca2+]i, m-calpain and protein kinase C (PKC) activities on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and determined their sequential involvement in this scenario. We treated bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with a low dose of ouabain (10 nM) and determined [Ca2+]i in the cells by fluorometric assay using fura2-AM, m-calpain activity by fluorometric assay using SLLVY-AMC as the substrate, PKC activity using an assay kit and assay of Na+/K+ATPase activity spectrophotometrically. We purified m-calpain and PKCα by standard chromatographic procedure by HPLC and then studied cleavage of the purified PKCα by m-calpain using Western immunoblot method. Subsequently, we performed cell proliferation assay utilizing the redox dye resazunin. We used selective inhibitors of [Ca2+]i (BAPTA-AM), m-calpain (MDL28170), PKCα (Go6976) and determined their involvement in ouabain (10 nM)-mediated smooth muscle cell proliferation. Our results suggested that treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with a low dose of ouabain (10 nM) increased [Ca2+]i and subsequently stimulated m-calpain activity and proteolytically activated PKCα in caveolae (signaling microdomain also known as signalosomes) of the cells. Upon activation, PKCα increased the smooth muscle cell proliferation via Go/G1 to S/G2-M phase transition. Thus, [Ca2+]i-mCalpain-PKCα signaling axis plays a crucial role during low dose of ouabain-mediated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Calpain/metabolism , Cattle , Caveolae/drug effects , Caveolae/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Molecular Sequence Data , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Ouabain/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C-alpha/chemistry , Protein Kinase C-alpha/metabolism , Proteolysis/drug effects , Pulmonary Artery/cytology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(8): 670-675, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684531

ABSTRACT

Ziyuglycoside II is an active compound of Sanguisorba officinalis L. that has anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antibiosis, and homeostasis properties. We report here on the anticancer effect of ziyuglycoside II on human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells. We investigated the effects of ziyuglycoside II on cell growth, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis of this cell line. Our results revealed that ziyuglycoside II could inhibit the proliferation of BGC-823 cells by inducing apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest, which was associated with regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Our study is the first to report the antitumor potential of ziyuglycoside II in BGC-823 gastric cancer cells. Ziyuglycoside II may become a potential therapeutic agent against gastric cancer in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , /metabolism , /metabolism , Saponins/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , /metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Carcinoma/drug therapy , /drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Fluorometry , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , /drug effects , Sanguisorba/chemistry , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , /drug effects
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(3): 187-196, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618051

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) in combination with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 cells. The HL-60 cells were treated with 300 µg/mL TMP, 0.5 µM As2O3, and 300 µg/mL TMP combined with 0.5 µM As2O3, respectively. The proliferative inhibition rates were determined with MTT. Differentiation was detected by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test, Wright’s staining and the distribution of CD11b and CD14. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were employed to detect the expressions of c-myc, p27, CDK2, and cyclin E1. Combination treatment had synergistic effects on the proliferative inhibition rates. The rates were increased gradually after the combination treatment, much higher than those treated with the corresponding concentration of As2O3 alone. The cells exhibited characteristics of mature granulocytes and a higher NBT-reducing ability, being a 2.6-fold increase in the rate of NBT-positive ratio of HL-60 cells within the As2O3 treatment versus almost a 13-fold increase in the TMP + As2O3 group. Cells treated with both TMP and As2O3 expressed far more CD11b antigens, almost 2-fold compared with the control group. Small doses of TMP potentiate As2O3-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells, possibly by regulating the expression and activity of G0/G1 phase-arresting molecules. Combination treatment of TMP with As2O3 has significant synergistic effects on the proliferative inhibition of HL-60 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Arsenicals/pharmacology , /drug effects , Oxides/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Flow Cytometry , /cytology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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