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1.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 86 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378701

ABSTRACT

Responsável por milhões de óbitos anuais e um grande custo para a saúde pública, o câncer é a segunda maior causa de mortes no mundo. Dentre seus diversos tipos, o câncer de pulmão, além da alta incidência, é um dos mais letais. A exposição a substâncias tóxicas provenientes da combustão de matéria orgânica, assim como o consumo de cigarro, são os principais responsáveis pela alta incidência de câncer de pulmão. Dentre estas substâncias, está o benzo[α]pireno (B[α]P), um carcinógeno completo, ou seja, capaz de iniciar e promover o processo de carcinogênese. Resultados anteriores obtidos pelo grupo demonstraram que células BEAS-2B expostas a 1 µM de B[α]P apresentaram alterações das concentrações de metabólitos intracelulares, indução de estresse redox e hipermetilação do DNA. A exposição a 1 µM de nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um dos precursores de NAD+, foi capaz de proteger as células BEAS-2B contra a transformação induzida por B[α]P, além de impedir totalmente que células não expostas a B[α]P formassem colônias em soft-agar. A utilização da proteômica neste trabalho permitiu verificar a abundância das proteínas nos quatro diferentes grupos de exposição: Controle, B[α]P, B[α]P + NR e NR. Após 120 h de exposição as células foram coletadas, as proteínas extraídas e preparadas para análise. Foram descobertas 3024 proteínas posteriormente analisadas com o objetivo de elucidar vias possivelmente envolvidas na proteção contra o processo de transfomação maligna. Os grupos NR e Controle demonstram ser mais parecidos em relação ao seu conteúdo, enquanto os grupos B[α]P e B[α]P + NR foram mais semelhantes entre si. A análise de proteínas exclusivas revelou menos processos relacionados ao reparo de DNA no grupo tratado apenas com B[α]P quando comparado com B[α]P + NR. A análise estatística do total de proteínas utilizando o teste ANOVA (p < 0,05, N = 5) revelou 564 proteínas diferencialmente expressas entre os grupos. A clusterização nos permitiu observar a diferença na abundância de proteínas entre os quatro tratamentos. As proteínas estão envolvidas em funções como a regulação do metabolismo, resposta a estresse, transdução de sinal, regulação de expressão gênica e morte celular. Um dos clusters (cluster 1), contendo 59 proteínas, revelou poucos processos na análise de enriquecimento, mas as proteínas contidas nele apresentam funções como controle da divisão celular, apoptose e proteção ao estresse redox. Nele podemos observar que, no geral, o tratamento com B[α]P aumentou a abundância de algumas proteínas, o que foi revertido no grupo B[α]P + NR. O tratamento apenas com NR diminuiu a abundância das proteínas contidas nesse cluster. Outro cluster (cluster 4) apresentou 51 proteínas de abundância diminuída durante a exposição ao B[α]P, o que se reverteu no grupo B[α]P + NR. As proteínas desse cluster estão envolvidas em etapas importantes da via glicolítica, de crescimento, adesão, migração e invasão celular. Apesar de ser descrito que a exposição a NR pode aumentar a eficiência do reparo de DNA, os resultados apresentados nesse trabalho indicam que o efeito protetor pode estar relacionado com a modulação do ciclo celular ou alterações na adesão celular


Responsible for millions of annual deaths and a great health expense, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Among its many types, lung cancer, besides its high incidence, is also one of the most lethal. Exposure to toxic substances resulting from the combustion of organic matter, as well as cigarette consumption, are the mainly responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer. One of these substances is benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), a complete carcinogen, able to initiate and promote the carcinogenesis process. Results obtained previously demonstrated that BEAS-2B cells exposed to 1 µM BaP presented alterations in the levels of intracellular metabolites, induction of oxidative stress, and hypermethylation of DNA. The exposure to 1 µM nicotinamide riboside (NR), one of the precursors of NAD+, was able to protect BEAS-2B cells against the transformation induced by B[α]P, moreover, it also totally prevented the colonies formation on soft agar in cells not exposed to B[α]P. The use of proteomics allowed us to verify the abundance of proteins in the four different exposure groups: Control, B[α]P, B[α]P + NR e NR. After 120h of exposure, the cells were collected followed by the extraction of the proteins. A total of 3024 proteins were identified and analyzed aiming to elucidate possible pathways involved in the protective effect against the malignant transformation induced by B[α]P. The NR and Control groups showed to be more similar, while B[α]P and B[α]P + NR were more similar. The analysis of exclusive proteins revealed fewer processes related to DNA repair in B[α]P when compared with B[α]P + NR. The statistical analysis of the total proteins using the ANOVA test (p <0.5, N = 5) revealed 564 proteins differentially expressed between the groups. The heatmap showed the difference in protein abundance between the four treatments. Proteins are involved in functionssuch asthe regulation of metabolism, stress response, signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, and cell death. One of the clusters (cluster 1), containing 59 proteins, revealed a few processes in the enrichment analysis, but the proteins contained in it have functions such as control of cell division, apoptosis, and protection from redox stress. It is possible to observe, in general, treatment with B[α]P increased the abundance of some proteins, which was partially reversed in group B[α]P + NR. On the other hand, the NR treatment decreased the abundance of proteins contained in this cluster. Another cluster (cluster 4) showed 51 proteins of decreased abundance during exposure to B [α] P, which was partially reversed in group B[α]P + NR. The proteins in this cluster are involved in important stages of the glycolytic pathway, also in growth, adhesion, migration, and cell invasion. Although it has been described that exposure to NR can increase the efficiency of DNA repair, the results presented in this work indicate that the protective effect may be related to the modulation of the cell cycle or cell adehsion modifications


Subject(s)
Proteomics/classification , Tobacco Products/classification , Carcinogenesis , Neoplasms , Cells/classification , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Cell Death , Niacinamide/agonists , Oxidative Stress , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of isobavachalcone (IBC) on cell death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of IBC, and the changes in cell proliferation were assessed using MTT assay. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells following treatment with 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L IBC was analyzed using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and fluorescence microscopy, and the expressions of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, Akt, p-Akt, p62, and LC3) were detected with Western blotting. Electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in submicrostructure of the cells following treatment with 40 μmol/L IBC. JC-1 assay kit, ATP assay kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kit were used to determine the effect of IBC on mitochondrial function of the cells.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that IBC significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 38.46, 31.31, and 28.26 μmol/L at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. IBC also concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. IBC-induced cell death was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor (P < 0.05), but not by the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Western blotting showed that IBC-induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis by increasing Bax expression and down-regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Akt and p-Akt-473 (all P < 0.05). With the increase of IBC concentration, the expression of autophagy-related protein p62 and the LC3-II/I ratio increased progressively. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of autophagic bodies in IBC-treated MCF-7 cells. IBC treatment also resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level and increased ROS accumulation in MCF-7 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#IBC is capable of inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells, suggesting the potential value of IBC as a lead compound in the development of anti-breast cancer agents.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Cell Death , Chalcones , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927885

ABSTRACT

Programmed necrosis,a mode of cell death independent of Caspase,is mainly mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1),receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3),and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL).Studies have demonstrated that programmed necrosis has the dual role of promoting and inhibiting tumor growth and thus we can control the development of tumor by regulating programmed necrosis.The drugs capable of inducing programmed necrosis show potential anti-tumor activity.In addition,inducing programmed necrosis is an effective way to overcome tumor resistance to apoptosis.This paper summarized the mechanisms of programmed necrosis and its relationship with tumors.We focused on the antitumor activity of programmed necrosis inducers including natural products,chemotherapeutic drugs,death receptor ligands,kinase inhibitors,inorganic salts,metal complexes,and metal nanoparticles.These agents will provide new therapeutic candidates for the treatment of tumors,especially the tumors acquiring resistance to apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Death , Humans , Necrosis/pathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinases/pharmacology
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 4-14, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927576

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to a clinical syndrome in which renal function declines rapidly in a short period of time caused by various pathological factors. During the development of AKI, renal tubules with the functions of reabsorption and excretion are prone to cell death due to external pathological stimuli, which is an important cause of impaired renal function. In recent years, a variety of new cell death pathways have been gradually recognized. Researchers have now found that regulated cell death (RCD), such as necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, are important regulatory mechanisms of AKI. This article will summarize the research advances of various types of RCD involved in the process of AKI, aiming to deepen the understanding of AKI and provide innovative thoughts for the clinical treatment of AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Cell Death , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Regulated Cell Death
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 415-422, Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248864

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: É sabido que a resistência à insulina e a hiperglicemia são causas patológicas importantes no desenvolvimento de cardiomiopatia diabética (CMD). Entretanto, seus mecanismos moleculares precisos na patogênese da CMD ainda não estão claros. Objetivos: Estudos recentes revelam que os microRNAs (miRNAs) desempenham papéis essenciais na patogênese da CMD. Este projeto tem o objetivo de determinar os papéis de miR-34a e miR-125b na morte celular de cardiomiócitos causada por hiperglicemia. Métodos: Cardiomiócitos primários de ratos foram isolados e expostos a concentrações de glicose normais e altas. A viabilidade das células foi medida utilizando-se o ensaio MTT. As expressões de miR-34a e miR-125b foram detectadas por qRT-PCR. Alvos potenciais de miR-34a e miR-125b foram previstos pelo www.Targetscan.org, e validados a partir de tecidos cardíacos humanos. Um p<0,05 foi considerado significância estatística. Resultados: Demonstra-se neste estudo que o miR-34a e o miR-125b têm resposta celular reduzida no coração humano diabético. Além disso, os dados in vitro de cardiomiócitos primários de ratos demonstraram que o tratamento com glicose alta em curto prazo estimula a expressão de miR-34a e miR-125b. Demonstrou-se que, em condições de glicose alta, os cardiomiócitos de ratos apresentaram metabolismo de glicose intracelular, e a captação de glicose e a produção de lactato aumentaram significativamente. Foi identificado que as principais enzimas metabólicas da glicose, hexoquinase 2 (HK2) e lactato desidrogenase-A (LDHA) eram alvos diretos de miR-125b e miR-34a, respectivamente. A superexpressão de miR-125b e miR-34a poderia evitar a morte de celular de cardiomiócitos causada por hiperglicemia. Por fim, a recuperação de HK2 e LDHA em cardiomiócitos com superexpressão de miR-125b e miR-34a restaurou a sensibilidade de cardiomiócitos à hiperglicemia. Conclusões: Nossos resultados propõem um mecanismo molecular para proteção cardiovascular diabética mediada por microRNA e contribuirão para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de tratamento de disfunção cardiovascular associada a diabetes.


Abstract Background: It is well-known that insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are important pathological causes for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, its precise molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DCM remain unclear. Objectives: Recent studies reveal that microRNAs (miRNA) play essential roles in the pathogenesis of DCM. This project aimed to determine the roles of miR-34a and miR-125b in hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Methods: Rat primary cardiomyocytes were isolated and exposed to normal and high concentrations of glucose. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Expressions of miR-34a and miR-125b were detected by qRT-PCR. Potential targets of miR-34a and miR-125b were predicted from www.Targetscan.org and validated from human heart tissues. A statistical significance of p<0.05 was considered. Results: The present study shows that miR-34a and miR-125b are downregulated in a human diabetic heart. Moreover, in vitro data from rat primary cardiomyocytes showed that short-term high glucose treatment stimulates miR-34a and miR-125b expressions. Under high glucose, it was found that rat cardiomyocytes displayed increased intracellular glucose metabolism, and glucose uptake and lactate production were significantly increased. It was also found that the key glucose metabolic enzymes, Hexokinase 2 (HK2) and Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA), were direct targets of miR-125b and miR-34a, respectively. Overexpression of miR-125b and miR-34a could prevent hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Finally, the restoration of HK2 and LDHA in miR-125b and miR-34a overexpressed cardiomyocytes recovered the cardiomyocytes' sensitivity to hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Our results proposed a molecular mechanism for the microRNA-mediated diabetic cardiovascular protection and will contribute to developing treatment strategies for diabetes-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hyperglycemia , Cell Death , Myocytes, Cardiac , Glucose
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 922-932, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922502

ABSTRACT

Aberrant de novo lipid synthesis is involved in the progression and treatment resistance of many types of cancers, including lung cancer; however, targeting the lipogenetic pathways for cancer therapy remains an unmet clinical need. In this study, we tested the anticancer activity of orlistat, an FDA-approved anti-obesity drug, in human and mouse cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and we found that orlistat, as a single agent, inhibited the proliferation and viabilities of lung cancer cells and induced ferroptosis-like cell death in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that orlistat reduced the expression of GPX4, a central ferroptosis regulator, and induced lipid peroxidation. In addition, we systemically analyzed the genome-wide gene expression changes affected by orlistat treatment using RNA-seq and identified FAF2, a molecule regulating the lipid droplet homeostasis, as a novel target of orlistat. Moreover, in a mouse xenograft model, orlistat significantly inhibited tumor growth and reduced the tumor volumes compared with vehicle control (P < 0.05). Our study showed a novel mechanism of the anticancer activity of orlistat and provided the rationale for repurposing this drug for the treatment of lung cancer and other types of cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Cell Line, Tumor , Ferroptosis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice , Orlistat
7.
Appl. cancer res ; 40: 1-13, Oct. 19, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1283485

ABSTRACT

Background: Cell culture (spheroid and 2D monolayer cultures) is an essential tool in drug discovery. Piperlongumine (PLN), a naturally occurring alkaloid present in the long pepper (Piper longum), has been implicated in the regulation of GSTP1 activity. In vitro treatment of cancer cells with PLN increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and induces cell death, but its molecular mode of action has not been entirely elucidated. Methods: In this study, we correlated the antiproliferative effects (2D and 3D cultures) of PLN (CAS 20069­09-4, Sigma-Aldrich) with morphological and molecular analyses in HepG2/C3A cell line. We performed assays for cytotoxicity (MTT), comet assays for genotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, analysis of the cell cycle phase, and analysis of the membrane integrity by flow cytometry. Relative expression of mRNA of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle control, metabolism of xenobiotics, and reticulum endoplasmic stress. Results: PLN reduced the cell proliferation by the cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Changes in the mRNA expression for CDKN1A (4.9x) and CCNA2 (0.5x) of cell cycle control genes were observed. Cell death occurred due to apoptosis, which may have been induced by increased expression of proapoptotic mRNAs (BAK1, 3.1x; BBC3, 2.4x), and by an increase in 9 and 3/7 active caspases. PLN induced cellular injury by ROS generation and DNA damage. DNA damage induced MDM2 signaling (3.0x) associated with the appearance of the monastral spindle in mitosis. Genes associated with ROS degradation also showed increased mRNA expression (GSR, 2.0x; SOD1, 2.1x). PLN induce endoplasmic reticulum stress with the increase in the mRNA expression of ERN1 (4.5x) and HSPA14 (2.2x). The xenobiotic metabolism showed increased mRNA expression for CYP1A2 (2.2x) and CYP3A4 (3.4x). In addition to 2D culture, PLN treatment also inhibited the growth of 3D culture (spheroids). Conclusion: Thus, the findings of our study show that several gene expression biomarkers (mRNAs) and monastral spindle formation indicated the many pathways of damage induced by PLN treatment that contributes to its antiproliferative effects


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dioxolanes/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression/drug effects , Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects
8.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 309-320, set. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130605

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se ha determinado que los neutrófilos son células altamente versátiles y sofisticadas, cuyas funciones van mucho más allá de la eliminación de los microorganismos. En la infección con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (HIV), si bien el papel de los neutrófilos no está totalmente caracterizado, actualmente está claro que la relación entre los neutrófilos y el virus es mucho más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar en pacientes con infección asintomática, y sin tratamiento antirretroviral, el efecto de la infección por el HIV sobre la muerte celular de los neutrófilos y la expresión de receptores de superficie. En pacientes seropositivos sin tratamiento hubo un aumento de la apoptosis temprana de los neutrófilos en relación a los grupos controles. Esta apoptosis aumentada no depende de la activación de la vía extrínseca o intrínseca. En estos pacientes hubo un aumento de la expresión de TLR2 que, unido al aumento de la apoptosis temprana, podría ser indicativo de un fenotipo activado de los neutrófilos. En conclusión, este trabajo aporta información sobre aspectos relacionados con la apoptosis de los neutrófilos en estadios tempranos de la infección por HIV, contribuyendo así a una mayor comprensión acerca del efecto de este virus sobre componentes de la respuesta inmune innata.


In recent years it has been determined that neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells whose functions go far beyond the elimination of microorganisms. In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, the role of neutrophils is not fully characterized but it is now clear that the relationship between neutrophils and HIV is much more complex than previously thought. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on neutrophil cell death and the expression of surface molecules on neutrophils in patients with asymptomatic infection and without antiretroviral treatment (ART). In HIV seropositive patients without antiretroviral therapy there was an increase in the early apoptosis of neutrophils in relation to the control groups. This increased apoptosis does not depend on the activation of the extrinsic or intrinsic pathway. In these patients there was an increase in the expression of TLR2 which, together with the increase of early apoptosis, could be indicative of an activated phenotype of neutrophils. In conclusion, this study provides information on aspects related to the apoptosis of neutrophils in early stages of HIV infection and therefore contributes to a better understanding of the effect of this virus on components of the innate immune response.


Nos últimos anos, determinou-se que os neutrófilos são células altamente versáteis e sofisticadas, cujas funções vão muito além da eliminação dos microrganismos. Na infecção pelo HIV, embora o papel dos neutrófilos não esteja totalmente caracterizado, atualmente fica bem claro que a relação entre os neutrófilos e o vírus é muito mais complexa do que se pensava anteriormente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar em pacientes com infecção assintomática, e sem tratamento antirretroviral, o efeito da infecção pelo HIV na morte celular dos neutrófilos e a expressão de receptores de superfície. Nos pacientes soropositivos sem tratamento, houve um aumento da apoptose precoce dos neutrófilos em relação aos grupos controle.Esta apoptose aumentada não depende da ativação da via extrínseca ou intrínseca. Nestes pacientes, houve um aumento da expressão de TLR2 que, juntamente com o aumento da apoptose precoce, poderia ser indicativo de um fenótipo ativado dos neutrófilos. Em conclusão, este trabalho fornece informações sobre aspectos relacionados com a apoptose dos neutrófilos em estágios precoces da infecção pelo HIV, contribuindo desse modo para uma maior compreensão sobre o efeito deste vírus nos componentes da resposta imune inata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenotype , Viruses , HIV Infections , HIV , Immunity, Innate , Neutrophils , Role , Therapeutics , HIV Antibodies/genetics , Cell Death , Apoptosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Asymptomatic Infections
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 530-535, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098283

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated autophagy, whether excessive or downregulated, has been thought to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to investigate whether 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, can modulate the effects of rotenone on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture. Cultures were prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala at gestation day 14. Four groups of cultures were treated on the 10th DIV for 48 h as follows: the first was kept as an untreated control, the second was treated with 3-methyladenine alone (1, 10, 100, 200 mM), the third was treated with 20 nM rotenone and the fourth was co-treated with 20 nM rotenone and 3-methyladenine (1, 10, 100, 200 mM). On the 12th DIV, cultured cells were stained immunohistochemically against tyrosine hydroxylase and culture media were used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase. 3methyladenine had no effects on both the survival of dopaminergic neurons and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Rotenone significantly decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons and increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture media. When cultures concomitantly treated with 3-methyladenine and rotenone, 3-methyladenine had no effect against rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell damage and lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium. In conclusion, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine could not modulate rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell damage in primary mesencephalic cell culture.


Se estima que la autofagia desregulada, ya sea excesiva o con baja regulación, está asociada con trastornos neurodegenerativos, incluyendo la enfermedad de Parkinson. En consecuencia, el se realizó este estudio para investigar si la 3metiladenina, un inhibidor de la autofagia,puede modular los efectos de la rotenona en las neuronas dopaminérgicas en el cultivo primario de células mesencefálicas. Los cultivos se prepararon a partir de mesencéfalo de ratón embrionario el día 14 de gestación. Cuatro grupos de cultivos se trataron en el 10º DIV durante 48 h de la siguiente manera: el primer grupo se mantuvo como un control no tratado, el segundo se trató con 3-metiladenina sola (1, 10, 100, 200 mM), el tercer grupo se trató con rotenona 20 nM y el cuarto se trató conjuntamente con rotenona 20 nM y 3-metiladenina (1, 10, 100, 200 mM). En el 12º DIV; las células cultivadas fueron tratadas mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica en tirosina hidroxilasa y se usaron medios de cultivo para medir los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa. La 3-metiladenina no tuvo efectos tanto en la supervivencia de las neuronas dopaminérgicas como en la liberación de lactato deshidrogenasa. La rotenona disminuyó significativamente el número de neuronas dopaminérgicas y se observó un aumento de los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa en los medios de cultivo. Cuando los cultivos tratados concomitantemente con 3-metiladenina y rotenona, la 3metiladenina no tuvo efecto contra el daño celular dopaminérgico inducido por la rotenona y la liberación de lactato deshidrogenasa en el medio de cultivo. En conclusión, el inhibidor de la autofagia 3-metiladenina no moduló el daño celular dopaminérgico inducido por la rotenona en el cultivo celular mesencefálico primario.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Parkinson Disease , Rotenone/toxicity , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Autophagy , Mesencephalon , Adenine/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Death/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 185 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291882

ABSTRACT

A sanguinarina é um alcaloide capaz de inibir Bcl-xL, uma proteína antiapoptótica que se encontra superexpressa em linhagens tumorais e que está frequentemente relacionada à resistência destas frente a quimioterápicos antineoplásicos. No intuito de identificar potenciais agentes antitumorais, o objetivo deste trabalho foi sintetizar três séries de análogos da sanguinarina planejados por simplificação molecular e avaliar sua atividade biológica. Dez N-benzil-naftil-aminas (3a-e; 4a-e) e dez arilisoquinolinas (6a-e; 7a-e) foram sintetizadas em duas a três etapas reacionais, utilizando-se métodos de aminação redutiva e acoplamento de Suzuki. Insucesso na etapa de reação de Heck impossibilitou a síntese da terceira série, benzofenantridínica, apesar de testadas diversas condições reacionais. Avaliação da citotoxicidade em linhagens de glioblastoma U87MG revelou que a série N-benzilnaftil-amina apresenta melhor atividade quando comparada às aril-isoquinolinas, sendo para ambas, observada atividade superior à temozolamida, principal fármaco para o tratamento de glioblastoma. Estudos em linhagem não tumorigênica MRC-5 demonstraram que os análogos foram significativamente superiores à sanguinarina em relação à seletividade. Os compostos mais mais promissores, 4a e 6e, induziram morte celular por apoptose e causaram despolarização da membrana mitocondrial, indicando morte apoptótica pela via extrínseca. Ademais, 4a interrompeu o ciclo interrompeu o ciclo celular na fase G2/M, indicando que o mesmo seria um agente ciclo celular específico. Simulações de dinâmica molecular sugerem que os compostos interagem com a proteína Bcl-xL principalmente por interações hidrofóbicas, e que o composto 4a apresentaria afinidade com o alvo semelhante à sanguinarina, embora esta tenha apresentado atividade superior em células U87. Perspectivas incluem estudos das vias de indução de morte celular, além da expansão do painel de células. Conclui-se, portanto, que os análogos da sanguinarina representam um arcabouço a ser explorado pelos químicos medicinais no desenvolvimento de potenciais antineoplásico


Sanguinarine is an alkaloid able to inhibit Bcl-xL, an antiapoptotic protein which is overexpressed in tumor cells and related to their resistance against antineoplastic chemotherapy. Regarding to develop potential antitumor agents, the aim of this work was the synthesis of three series of sanguinarine analogues designed by molecular simplification and their biological evaluation. Ten N-benzyl-naphtyl-amines (3a-e; 4ae) and ten aryl-isoquinolines (6a-e; 7a-e) were synthesized in two or three reaction steps through reductive amination and Suzuki coupling. Failure about Heck-type reaction had impaired the synthesis of the thirth series, benzophenanthridine, although several conditions were tested. Cytotoxicity evaluation against U87MG glioblastoma cell line showed that N-benzyl-naphtyl-amines are more active than aryl-isoquinolines and both series were superior to temozolamide, the main drug for glioblastoma treatment. Tests against non-tumorigenic cell MRC-5 indicated that the analogues were significantly superior to sanguinarine regarding selectivity. The most promising compounds, 4a e 6e, induced cell death by apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, indicating apoptotic death by extrinsic pathway. 4a provide cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, suggesting that it is a specific cell cycle agent. Molecular dynamics suggested that compounds interact with Bcl-xL mainly by hydrophobic interactions and 4a has affinity to the protein like sanguinarine, although the last showed superior activity against U87 cells. Perspectives include mechanistics studies about cell death pathway and expanding cell panel. In conclusion, sanguinarine anlogues represent a scaffold to be explored by medicinal chemists to the development of potential antitumor agent


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Glioblastoma/diagnosis , Alkaloids/pharmacokinetics , Cell Line/pathology , Cell Death , Methods , Neoplasms/classification
12.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 20-26, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787278

ABSTRACT

We examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on neuronal viability in mouse cortical near-pure neuronal cultures. Addition of fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanisms of fluoxetine-induced neuronal death, we investigated the effects of trolox, cycloheximide (CHX), BDNF, z-VAD-FMK, and various metal-chelators on fluoxetine-induced neuronal death. Neuronal death was assessed by MTT assay. The addition of 20 µM fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced 60–70% neuronal death, which was associated with the hallmarks of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering. Fluoxetine-induced death was significantly attenuated by CHX, BDNF, or z-VAD-FMK. Treatment with antioxidants, trolox and ascorbate, also markedly attenuated fluoxetine-induced death. Interestingly, some divalent cation chelators (EGTA, Ca-EDTA, and Zn-EDTA) also markedly attenuated the neurotoxicity. Fluoxetine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the fluorescent dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Trolox and bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCPS), a cell membrane impermeable copper ion chelator, markedly attenuated the ROS production and neuronal death. However, deferoxamine, an iron chelator, did not affect ROS generation or neurotoxicity. We examined the changes in intracellular copper concentration using a copper-selective fluorescent dye, Phen Green FL, which is quenched by free copper ions. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence in neuronal cells, and the quenching effect of fluoxetine was reversed by co-treatment with BCPS, however, not by deferoxamine. These findings demonstrate that fluoxetine could induce apoptotic and oxidative neuronal death associated with an influx of copper ions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Death , Cell Membrane , Chelating Agents , Chromatin , Copper , Cycloheximide , Deferoxamine , DNA , Fluorescence , Fluoxetine , Ions , Iron , Mice , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Serotonin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787136

ABSTRACT

Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) can be induced by an intracellular calcium increase and oxidative stress, which are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression and cellular localization of RCAN1 protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male C57BL/6 mice were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (280 mg/kg, i.p.) and allowed to develop 2 h of SE. Then the animals were given diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to stop the seizures and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 day after SE. Cresyl violet staining showed that pilocarpine-induced SE resulted in cell death in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus from 3 day after SE. RCAN1 immunoreactivity showed that RCAN1 was mainly expressed in neurons in the shammanipulated hippocampi. At 1 day after SE, RCAN1 expression became detected in hippocampal neuropils. However, RCAN1 signals were markedly enhanced in cells with stellate morphology at 3 and 7 day after SE, which were confirmed to be reactive astrocytes, but not microglia by double immunofluorescence. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction showed a significant upregulation of RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) mRNA in the SE-induced hippocampi. Finally, in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry revealed astrocytic expression of RCAN1-4 after SE. These results demonstrate astrocytic upregulation of RCAN1 and RCAN1-4 in the mouse hippocampus in the acute and subacute phases of epileptogenesis, providing foundational information for the potential role of RCAN1 in reactive astrocytes during epileptogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Calcineurin , Calcium , Cell Death , Diazepam , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Neuropil , Oxidative Stress , Pilocarpine , RNA, Messenger , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Up-Regulation , Viola
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 575-585, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878203

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death which is dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxides. It is obviously different from other cell death types in terms of morphology, biochemistry, genetics, etc. Also, it is related to the production of iron catalyzed lipid peroxides which is triggered by non-enzymatic or enzymatic reactions. Ferroptosis has been proved to be involved in hematological diseases, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, liver and kidney diseases. This paper will review the definition, mechanism, inducers of ferroptosis, as well as the function of ferroptosis in respiratory system. We expect to present a new concept for respiratory research and suggest potential targets for clinical prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Ferroptosis , Humans , Iron , Reactive Oxygen Species , Respiration Disorders
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 308-324, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827056

ABSTRACT

Gut injury continues to be the devastating and unpredictable critical illness associated with increased cell death of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The IECs, immune system and microbiome are the interrelated entities to maintain normal intestinal homeostasis and barrier integrity. In response to microbial invasion, IEC cell death occurs to maintain intestinal epithelium function and retain the continuous renewal and tissue homeostasis. But the imbalance of IEC cell death results in increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction that leads to several acute and chronic intestinal diseases, such as intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), sepsis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), etc. During the pathophysiological state, the excessive IEC apoptotic cell death leads to a chronic inflammatory condition, later switches to necroptotic cell death mechanism that induces more pathological features than apoptosis and may also induce other lytic cell death mechanisms like pyroptosis and ferroptosis to increase the pathogenesis of the intestinal diseases. But still, there remains gaps in the fundamental knowledge about the IEC cell death mechanisms in chronic intestinal diseases. Together, a deep understanding of the specific cell death mechanisms underlying chronic intestinal diseases, including sepsis, IBD, NEC, and intestinal I/R, is desperately needed to develop emerging novel promising therapeutic strategies. This review aims to show how the acute and critical illness in the gut are driven by IEC cell death mechanism, such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Death , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intestinal Mucosa , Necrosis
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190072, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132180

ABSTRACT

Abstract In live organisms, there is a balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their neutralization. The increased level of these species leads to a condition called redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of isobenzofuranones in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons subjected to redox imbalance. To accomplish this, MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays were initially performed. In the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2, there was a higher number of live cells when compared to that in the untreated ones. Regarding redox imbalance, there was a significant increase in the intracellular levels of ROS. The cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones showed a reduction in ROS levels. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative damage was significantly reduced in the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2. Taken together, these data show the ability of isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 to significantly minimize cytotoxicity, cell death, intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation induced by redox imbalance. These results suggest that isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 represent a possible alternative therapy for the neurodegenerative disturbances that are triggered by ROS production increases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide , Benzofurans/chemical synthesis , Cell Death , Primary Cell Culture , Hippocampus/cytology , Neurons/metabolism
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 77 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007424

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are central players in cell metabolism, responsible for the vast majority of ATP production in most cells. Although originally thought to be passive organelles focused only in keeping cellular ATP at adequate levels, complex interplay between mitochondrial function and cell signaling has been largely recognized over the last decades. Not surprisingly, given their role, changes in nutritional status promoted by chronic interventions like caloric restriction or short-term situations like fasting in animals or nutrient deprivation in cultured cells are one of the main factors that can activate those signaling mechanisms. One particular way in which this mitochondria-cell crosstalk can occur is through mitochondrial Ca2+ handling, a process in which Ca2+ signals generated by the cell are able to translate into elevations in mitochondrial matrix [Ca2+] due to the presence of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter in the organelle. While the impact of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling on cellular function has been widely studied, the conditions which can modulate the process of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling itself are still not well characterized. In this work, we sought to test the effects of different interventions linked to nutritional status on mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. We found that caloric restriction, physiological fasting and modulations of mitochondrial dynamics resulted in modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling through changes in their maximal Ca2+ retention capacity or Ca2+ uptake rates. These changes were, measured by following mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake using different strategies, employing the fluorescent Ca2+ probe Ca2+ Green 5N for experiments in isolated mitochondria and permeabilized cells and the cytosolic probe Fura2-AM in intact cells. Caloric restriction resulted in higher calcium uptake and retention in liver mitochondria, protecting against pathological conditions of Ca2+ overload during ischemia/reperfusion. On the other hand, overnight and short term fasting resulted in lower mitochondrial Ca2+ retention and oxidative phosphorylation capacity in the liver. Modulating mitochondrial morpholoy in C2C12 myoblasts showed that more fragmented mitochondria were less capable of taking up Ca2+, while more fusioned mitochondria showed the opposite phenotype. This modulation in Ca2+ handling through changes in mitochondrial morphology interfered with the process of Store-Operated Ca2+ entry in the cells, showing that these modulations can have impacts in physiological contexts as well. Overall, this work both establishes novel mechanisms of modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and demonstrates their relevance both in pathology and normal cellular physiology


Mitocôndrias possuem um papel central no metabolismo das células, sendo responsáveis pela maioria da produção de ATP na maioria dos tipos celulares. Embora originalmente se pensasse nas mitocôndrias como organelas estáticas, focadas somente em manter os níveis adequados de ATP na célula, a interação entre a função mitocondrial e a sinalização celular tem sido fortemente reconhecida nas ultimas décadas. Dado este papel, não é surpreendente que mudanças no estado nutricional, tanto crônicas como na restrição calórica quanto em situações como o jejum em animais e a privação de nutrientes em cultura de células foram demonstradas como sendo um dos principais fatores que podem ativar estes mecanismos de sinalização. Uma das formas em que esta interação entre a mitocôndria e a célula ocorre é através do manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial, um processo em que sinais de Ca2+ gerados pela célula podem resultar em aumentos na [Ca2+] na matriz mitocondrial devido à presença do uniportador de Ca2+ mitocondrial na organelaEmbora o impacto do manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial na função da célula tenha sido amplamente estudado, a regulação do processo de manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial em si não é bem conhecida. Neste trabalho, nós nos propusemos a testar os efeitos de diferentes intervenções ligadas ao estado nutricional no manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial e o possível impacto destas modulações nacapacidade de retenção e na taxa de captação de Ca2+ mitochondrial. As intervenções estudadas foram a restrição calórica, jejum e mudanças na dinâmica mitocondrial, e todas elas resultando em mudanças no manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial, que foram medidos acompanhando a captação de Ca2+ em mitocôndrias isoladas ou células permeabilizadas utilizando a sonda Ca2+ Green 5N e em células intactas utilizando a sonda de Ca2+ citosólica Fura2-AM. Enquanto a restrição calórica resultou em uma maior capacidade de retenção de Ca2+ e em maiores taxas de captação, protegendo contra as condições patológicas de desregulação de Ca2+ observadas durante a isquemia/reperfusão, o jejum curto ou pela duração da noite resultou em uma diminuição na capacidade de retenção de Ca2+ e na oxidação fosforilativa mitocondriais. As mudanças observadas modulando a dinâmica mitocôndria (feitas utilizando-se mioblastos da linhagem C2C12) revelaram que mitocôndrias mais fragmentadas são menos capazes de captar Ca2+, enquanto mitocôndrias mais fusionadas possuem o fenótipo oposto. Essas mudanças no manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial interferem com o processo de Store-Operated Ca2+ entry nestas células, demonstrando que essas modulações da captação de Ca2+ mitocondrial também podem ser relevantes em contextos fisiológicos. Em resumo, este trabalho ajudou a estabelecer novos mecanismos de modulação do manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial que podem ser relevantes tanto em condições patológicas quanto na fisiologia normal das células


Subject(s)
Calcium/analysis , Nutritional Status , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Cell Death/immunology , Myoblasts/classification , Mitochondria/chemistry
18.
Biol. Res ; 52: 13, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a significant cancer-related cause of death in women worldwide. The most used chemotherapeutic regimen is based on carboplatin (CBDCA). However, CBDCA resistance is the main obstacle to a better prognosis. An in vitro drug-resistant cell model would help in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying this drug-resistance phenomenon. The aim of this study was to characterize cellular and molecular changes of induced CBDCA-resistant ovarian cancer cell line A2780. METHODS: The cell selection strategy used in this study was a dose-per-pulse method using a concentration of 100 µM for 2 h. Once 20 cycles of exposure to the drug were completed, the cell cultures showed a resistant phenotype. Then, the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 was grown with 100 µM of CBDCA (CBDCA-resistant cells) or without CBDCA (parental cells). After, a drug sensitivity assay, morphological analyses, cell death assays and a RNA-seq analysis were performed in CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells. RESULTS: Microscopy on both parental and CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells showed similar characteristics in morphology and F-actin distribution within cells. In cell-death assays, parental A2780 cells showed a significant increase in phosphatidylserine translocation and caspase-3/7 cleavage compared to CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively). Cell viability in parental A2780 cells was significantly decreased compared to CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells (P < 0.0005). The RNA-seq analysis showed 156 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated mainly to molecular functions. CONCLUSION: CBDCA-resistant A2780 ovarian cancer cells is a reliable model of CBDCA resistance that shows several DEGs involved in molecular functions such as transmembrane activity, protein binding to cell surface receptor and catalytic activity. Also, we found that the Wnt/3-catenin and integrin signaling pathway are the main metabolic pathway dysregulated in CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Carboplatin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Transcriptome/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phenotype , Signal Transduction , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Death/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Cell Line, Tumor , Transcriptome/genetics
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728016

ABSTRACT

Glutamate toxicity-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases as well as acute brain ischemia/stroke. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of dieckol (DEK), one of the phlorotannins isolated from the marine brown alga Ecklonia cava, against glutamate toxicity. Primary cortical neurons (100 µM, 24 h) and HT22 neurons (5 mM, 12 h) were stimulated with glutamate to induce glutamate toxic condition. The results demonstrated that DEK treatment significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (1–50 µM) and recovered morphological deterioration in glutamate-stimulated neurons. In addition, DEK strongly attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial overload of Ca²⁺ and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) disruption, adenine triphosphate depletion. DEK showed free radical scavenging activity in the cell-free system. Furthermore, DEK enhanced protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an important anti-oxidant enzyme, via the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2). Taken together, we conclude that DEK exerts neuroprotective activities against glutamate toxicity through its direct free radical scavenging property and the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway activation.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Brain , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Cell-Free System , Glutamic Acid , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 196-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer has become a major public health threat in the current society. Anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used drug in breast cancer chemotherapy. We aimed to investigate the immunogenic death of breast tumor cells caused by DOX, and detect the effects of combination of DOX and a small molecule inhibitor in tumor engrafted mouse model. METHODS: We used 4T1 breast cancer cells to examine the anthracycline DOX-mediated immunogenic death of breast tumor cells by assessing the calreticulin exposure and adenosine triphosphate and high mobility group box 1 release. Using 4T1 tumor cell-engrafted mouse model, we also detected the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in tumor tissues after DOX treatment and further explored whether the specific small molecule IDO1 inhibitor NLG919 combined with DOX, can exhibit better therapeutic effects on breast cancer. RESULTS: DOX induced immunogenic cell death of murine breast cancer cells 4T1 as well as the upregulation of IDO1. We also found that treatment with NLG919 enhanced kynurenine inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. IDO1 inhibition reversed CD8+ T cell suppression mediated by IDO-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Compared to the single agent or control, combination of DOX and NLG919 significantly inhibited the tumor growth, indicating that the 2 drugs exhibit synergistic effect. The combination therapy also increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β, while lowering the expressions of interleukin-12p70 and interferon-γ. CONCLUSION: Compared to single agent therapy, combination of NLG919 with DOX demonstrated better therapeutic effects in 4T1 murine breast tumor model. IDO inhibition by NLG919 enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of DOX in breast cancer, achieving synergistic effect.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Calreticulin , Cell Death , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Kynurenine , Mice , Public Health , Therapeutic Uses , Up-Regulation
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