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1.
Appl. cancer res ; 40: 1-13, Oct. 19, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1283485

ABSTRACT

Background: Cell culture (spheroid and 2D monolayer cultures) is an essential tool in drug discovery. Piperlongumine (PLN), a naturally occurring alkaloid present in the long pepper (Piper longum), has been implicated in the regulation of GSTP1 activity. In vitro treatment of cancer cells with PLN increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and induces cell death, but its molecular mode of action has not been entirely elucidated. Methods: In this study, we correlated the antiproliferative effects (2D and 3D cultures) of PLN (CAS 20069­09-4, Sigma-Aldrich) with morphological and molecular analyses in HepG2/C3A cell line. We performed assays for cytotoxicity (MTT), comet assays for genotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, analysis of the cell cycle phase, and analysis of the membrane integrity by flow cytometry. Relative expression of mRNA of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle control, metabolism of xenobiotics, and reticulum endoplasmic stress. Results: PLN reduced the cell proliferation by the cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Changes in the mRNA expression for CDKN1A (4.9x) and CCNA2 (0.5x) of cell cycle control genes were observed. Cell death occurred due to apoptosis, which may have been induced by increased expression of proapoptotic mRNAs (BAK1, 3.1x; BBC3, 2.4x), and by an increase in 9 and 3/7 active caspases. PLN induced cellular injury by ROS generation and DNA damage. DNA damage induced MDM2 signaling (3.0x) associated with the appearance of the monastral spindle in mitosis. Genes associated with ROS degradation also showed increased mRNA expression (GSR, 2.0x; SOD1, 2.1x). PLN induce endoplasmic reticulum stress with the increase in the mRNA expression of ERN1 (4.5x) and HSPA14 (2.2x). The xenobiotic metabolism showed increased mRNA expression for CYP1A2 (2.2x) and CYP3A4 (3.4x). In addition to 2D culture, PLN treatment also inhibited the growth of 3D culture (spheroids). Conclusion: Thus, the findings of our study show that several gene expression biomarkers (mRNAs) and monastral spindle formation indicated the many pathways of damage induced by PLN treatment that contributes to its antiproliferative effects


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dioxolanes/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression/drug effects , Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 309-320, set. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130605

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se ha determinado que los neutrófilos son células altamente versátiles y sofisticadas, cuyas funciones van mucho más allá de la eliminación de los microorganismos. En la infección con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (HIV), si bien el papel de los neutrófilos no está totalmente caracterizado, actualmente está claro que la relación entre los neutrófilos y el virus es mucho más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar en pacientes con infección asintomática, y sin tratamiento antirretroviral, el efecto de la infección por el HIV sobre la muerte celular de los neutrófilos y la expresión de receptores de superficie. En pacientes seropositivos sin tratamiento hubo un aumento de la apoptosis temprana de los neutrófilos en relación a los grupos controles. Esta apoptosis aumentada no depende de la activación de la vía extrínseca o intrínseca. En estos pacientes hubo un aumento de la expresión de TLR2 que, unido al aumento de la apoptosis temprana, podría ser indicativo de un fenotipo activado de los neutrófilos. En conclusión, este trabajo aporta información sobre aspectos relacionados con la apoptosis de los neutrófilos en estadios tempranos de la infección por HIV, contribuyendo así a una mayor comprensión acerca del efecto de este virus sobre componentes de la respuesta inmune innata.


In recent years it has been determined that neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells whose functions go far beyond the elimination of microorganisms. In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, the role of neutrophils is not fully characterized but it is now clear that the relationship between neutrophils and HIV is much more complex than previously thought. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on neutrophil cell death and the expression of surface molecules on neutrophils in patients with asymptomatic infection and without antiretroviral treatment (ART). In HIV seropositive patients without antiretroviral therapy there was an increase in the early apoptosis of neutrophils in relation to the control groups. This increased apoptosis does not depend on the activation of the extrinsic or intrinsic pathway. In these patients there was an increase in the expression of TLR2 which, together with the increase of early apoptosis, could be indicative of an activated phenotype of neutrophils. In conclusion, this study provides information on aspects related to the apoptosis of neutrophils in early stages of HIV infection and therefore contributes to a better understanding of the effect of this virus on components of the innate immune response.


Nos últimos anos, determinou-se que os neutrófilos são células altamente versáteis e sofisticadas, cujas funções vão muito além da eliminação dos microrganismos. Na infecção pelo HIV, embora o papel dos neutrófilos não esteja totalmente caracterizado, atualmente fica bem claro que a relação entre os neutrófilos e o vírus é muito mais complexa do que se pensava anteriormente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar em pacientes com infecção assintomática, e sem tratamento antirretroviral, o efeito da infecção pelo HIV na morte celular dos neutrófilos e a expressão de receptores de superfície. Nos pacientes soropositivos sem tratamento, houve um aumento da apoptose precoce dos neutrófilos em relação aos grupos controle.Esta apoptose aumentada não depende da ativação da via extrínseca ou intrínseca. Nestes pacientes, houve um aumento da expressão de TLR2 que, juntamente com o aumento da apoptose precoce, poderia ser indicativo de um fenótipo ativado dos neutrófilos. Em conclusão, este trabalho fornece informações sobre aspectos relacionados com a apoptose dos neutrófilos em estágios precoces da infecção pelo HIV, contribuindo desse modo para uma maior compreensão sobre o efeito deste vírus nos componentes da resposta imune inata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenotype , Viruses , HIV Infections , HIV , Immunity, Innate , Neutrophils , Role , Therapeutics , HIV Antibodies/genetics , Cell Death , Apoptosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Asymptomatic Infections
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 530-535, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098283

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated autophagy, whether excessive or downregulated, has been thought to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to investigate whether 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, can modulate the effects of rotenone on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture. Cultures were prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala at gestation day 14. Four groups of cultures were treated on the 10th DIV for 48 h as follows: the first was kept as an untreated control, the second was treated with 3-methyladenine alone (1, 10, 100, 200 mM), the third was treated with 20 nM rotenone and the fourth was co-treated with 20 nM rotenone and 3-methyladenine (1, 10, 100, 200 mM). On the 12th DIV, cultured cells were stained immunohistochemically against tyrosine hydroxylase and culture media were used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase. 3methyladenine had no effects on both the survival of dopaminergic neurons and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Rotenone significantly decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons and increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture media. When cultures concomitantly treated with 3-methyladenine and rotenone, 3-methyladenine had no effect against rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell damage and lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium. In conclusion, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine could not modulate rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell damage in primary mesencephalic cell culture.


Se estima que la autofagia desregulada, ya sea excesiva o con baja regulación, está asociada con trastornos neurodegenerativos, incluyendo la enfermedad de Parkinson. En consecuencia, el se realizó este estudio para investigar si la 3metiladenina, un inhibidor de la autofagia,puede modular los efectos de la rotenona en las neuronas dopaminérgicas en el cultivo primario de células mesencefálicas. Los cultivos se prepararon a partir de mesencéfalo de ratón embrionario el día 14 de gestación. Cuatro grupos de cultivos se trataron en el 10º DIV durante 48 h de la siguiente manera: el primer grupo se mantuvo como un control no tratado, el segundo se trató con 3-metiladenina sola (1, 10, 100, 200 mM), el tercer grupo se trató con rotenona 20 nM y el cuarto se trató conjuntamente con rotenona 20 nM y 3-metiladenina (1, 10, 100, 200 mM). En el 12º DIV; las células cultivadas fueron tratadas mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica en tirosina hidroxilasa y se usaron medios de cultivo para medir los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa. La 3-metiladenina no tuvo efectos tanto en la supervivencia de las neuronas dopaminérgicas como en la liberación de lactato deshidrogenasa. La rotenona disminuyó significativamente el número de neuronas dopaminérgicas y se observó un aumento de los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa en los medios de cultivo. Cuando los cultivos tratados concomitantemente con 3-metiladenina y rotenona, la 3metiladenina no tuvo efecto contra el daño celular dopaminérgico inducido por la rotenona y la liberación de lactato deshidrogenasa en el medio de cultivo. En conclusión, el inhibidor de la autofagia 3-metiladenina no moduló el daño celular dopaminérgico inducido por la rotenona en el cultivo celular mesencefálico primario.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Parkinson Disease , Rotenone/toxicity , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Autophagy , Mesencephalon , Adenine/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Death/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis
4.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 20-26, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787278

ABSTRACT

We examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on neuronal viability in mouse cortical near-pure neuronal cultures. Addition of fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanisms of fluoxetine-induced neuronal death, we investigated the effects of trolox, cycloheximide (CHX), BDNF, z-VAD-FMK, and various metal-chelators on fluoxetine-induced neuronal death. Neuronal death was assessed by MTT assay. The addition of 20 µM fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced 60–70% neuronal death, which was associated with the hallmarks of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering. Fluoxetine-induced death was significantly attenuated by CHX, BDNF, or z-VAD-FMK. Treatment with antioxidants, trolox and ascorbate, also markedly attenuated fluoxetine-induced death. Interestingly, some divalent cation chelators (EGTA, Ca-EDTA, and Zn-EDTA) also markedly attenuated the neurotoxicity. Fluoxetine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the fluorescent dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Trolox and bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCPS), a cell membrane impermeable copper ion chelator, markedly attenuated the ROS production and neuronal death. However, deferoxamine, an iron chelator, did not affect ROS generation or neurotoxicity. We examined the changes in intracellular copper concentration using a copper-selective fluorescent dye, Phen Green FL, which is quenched by free copper ions. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence in neuronal cells, and the quenching effect of fluoxetine was reversed by co-treatment with BCPS, however, not by deferoxamine. These findings demonstrate that fluoxetine could induce apoptotic and oxidative neuronal death associated with an influx of copper ions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Death , Cell Membrane , Chelating Agents , Chromatin , Copper , Cycloheximide , Deferoxamine , DNA , Fluorescence , Fluoxetine , Ions , Iron , Mice , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Serotonin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787136

ABSTRACT

Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) can be induced by an intracellular calcium increase and oxidative stress, which are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression and cellular localization of RCAN1 protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male C57BL/6 mice were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (280 mg/kg, i.p.) and allowed to develop 2 h of SE. Then the animals were given diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to stop the seizures and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 day after SE. Cresyl violet staining showed that pilocarpine-induced SE resulted in cell death in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus from 3 day after SE. RCAN1 immunoreactivity showed that RCAN1 was mainly expressed in neurons in the shammanipulated hippocampi. At 1 day after SE, RCAN1 expression became detected in hippocampal neuropils. However, RCAN1 signals were markedly enhanced in cells with stellate morphology at 3 and 7 day after SE, which were confirmed to be reactive astrocytes, but not microglia by double immunofluorescence. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction showed a significant upregulation of RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) mRNA in the SE-induced hippocampi. Finally, in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry revealed astrocytic expression of RCAN1-4 after SE. These results demonstrate astrocytic upregulation of RCAN1 and RCAN1-4 in the mouse hippocampus in the acute and subacute phases of epileptogenesis, providing foundational information for the potential role of RCAN1 in reactive astrocytes during epileptogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Calcineurin , Calcium , Cell Death , Diazepam , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Neuropil , Oxidative Stress , Pilocarpine , RNA, Messenger , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Up-Regulation , Viola
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 308-324, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827056

ABSTRACT

Gut injury continues to be the devastating and unpredictable critical illness associated with increased cell death of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The IECs, immune system and microbiome are the interrelated entities to maintain normal intestinal homeostasis and barrier integrity. In response to microbial invasion, IEC cell death occurs to maintain intestinal epithelium function and retain the continuous renewal and tissue homeostasis. But the imbalance of IEC cell death results in increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction that leads to several acute and chronic intestinal diseases, such as intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), sepsis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), etc. During the pathophysiological state, the excessive IEC apoptotic cell death leads to a chronic inflammatory condition, later switches to necroptotic cell death mechanism that induces more pathological features than apoptosis and may also induce other lytic cell death mechanisms like pyroptosis and ferroptosis to increase the pathogenesis of the intestinal diseases. But still, there remains gaps in the fundamental knowledge about the IEC cell death mechanisms in chronic intestinal diseases. Together, a deep understanding of the specific cell death mechanisms underlying chronic intestinal diseases, including sepsis, IBD, NEC, and intestinal I/R, is desperately needed to develop emerging novel promising therapeutic strategies. This review aims to show how the acute and critical illness in the gut are driven by IEC cell death mechanism, such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Death , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intestinal Mucosa , Necrosis
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 575-585, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878203

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death which is dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxides. It is obviously different from other cell death types in terms of morphology, biochemistry, genetics, etc. Also, it is related to the production of iron catalyzed lipid peroxides which is triggered by non-enzymatic or enzymatic reactions. Ferroptosis has been proved to be involved in hematological diseases, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, liver and kidney diseases. This paper will review the definition, mechanism, inducers of ferroptosis, as well as the function of ferroptosis in respiratory system. We expect to present a new concept for respiratory research and suggest potential targets for clinical prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Ferroptosis , Humans , Iron , Reactive Oxygen Species , Respiration Disorders
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190072, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132180

ABSTRACT

Abstract In live organisms, there is a balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their neutralization. The increased level of these species leads to a condition called redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of isobenzofuranones in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons subjected to redox imbalance. To accomplish this, MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays were initially performed. In the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2, there was a higher number of live cells when compared to that in the untreated ones. Regarding redox imbalance, there was a significant increase in the intracellular levels of ROS. The cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones showed a reduction in ROS levels. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative damage was significantly reduced in the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2. Taken together, these data show the ability of isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 to significantly minimize cytotoxicity, cell death, intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation induced by redox imbalance. These results suggest that isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 represent a possible alternative therapy for the neurodegenerative disturbances that are triggered by ROS production increases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide , Benzofurans/chemical synthesis , Cell Death , Primary Cell Culture , Hippocampus/cytology , Neurons/metabolism
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719441

ABSTRACT

Since the approval of sorafenib for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 2007, many drugs have failed in the first and second-line setting. Fortunately, during the recent 2 years, between 2017 and 2018, four drugs (regorafenib, lenvatinib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab) were found to be effective and tolerable for patients with HCC as the first- or second-line therapy. Regorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, has a similar structure to sorafenib, and was shown to improve the survival of patients who progressed after sorafenib treatment compared to the placebo control. According to the phase III trial of regorafenib, it became the first approved systemic therapy for patients with progression after sorafenib. Lenvatinib is also a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), and in a phase III trial comparing sorafenib and lenvatinib, the primary end-point of non-inferior survival was met. Based on the trial results, lenvatinb has become another systemic therapy for treatment-naïve patients with advanced HCC. Cabozantinib is a dual inhibitor of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition factor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor2, and was shown to prolong the overall survival in patients who progressed after sorafenib compared to the placebo. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody to inhibit a single target of VEGFR2. First, this drug failed to improve the survival of patients who progressed after sorafenib failure. On the other hand, it was effective in patients with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL. In a subsequent clinical trial that enrolled only patients with AFP ≥400 ng/mL, ramucirumab was also found to improve the overall survival compared to placebo. Thus, ramucirumab became the first biomarker-driven systemic treatment. Another category of drugs that are attracting considerable interest are immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death protein (PD) 1 or anti-PD-ligand 1. This review provides a synopsis of new systemic therapies, including TKI, monoclonal antibody, and immune-oncology drugs.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Death , Endothelial Growth Factors , Hand , Humans , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719643

ABSTRACT

The apoptotic effects of shikonin (5,8-dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione) on the human colon cancer cell line SNU-407 were investigated in this study. Shikonin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against SNU-407 cells, with an estimated IC50 value of 3 µM after 48 h of treatment. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptotic body formation, sub-G1 phase cells, and DNA fragmentation. Shikonin induced apoptotic cell death by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase family members, and the apoptotic process was mediated by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the PERK/elF2α/CHOP apoptotic pathway, and mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Shikonin increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization and altered the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, with a decrease in B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein, and subsequently, increased expression of cleaved forms of caspase-9 and -3. Taken together, we suggest that these mechanisms, including MAPK signaling and the ER-and mitochondria-mediated pathways, may underlie shikonin-induced apoptosis related to its anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Fragmentation , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes , Protein Kinases
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719637

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy and in diabetes complications, such as nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic neuropathy, which is the most frequent complications of diabetes, affect sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. This study aimed to investigate whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) protects SH-SY5Y neuronal cells against high glucose-induced toxicity. In the current study, we found that diabetic patients exhibited higher lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress than healthy subjects. 7,8-DHF exhibits superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. High glucose-induced toxicity severely damaged SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, causing mitochondrial depolarization; however, 7,8-DHF recovered mitochondrial polarization. Furthermore, 7,8-DHF effectively modulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) under high glucose, thus inhibiting the activation of caspase signaling pathways. These results indicate that 7,8-DHF has antioxidant effects and protects cells from apoptotic cell death induced by high glucose. Thus, 7,8-DHF may be developed into a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Autonomic Pathways , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cell Death , Diabetes Complications , Diabetic Neuropathies , Glucose , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydroxyl Radical , Lipid Peroxidation , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Superoxides
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the cytotoxic effect of Cimicifuga rhizoma extract is associated with cell death in the human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and human melanoma cell lines (G361). METHODS: Apoptosis induced by Cimicifuga rhizoma extract was confirmed by water-soluble tetrazolium salts-1 (WST-1) assay, immunocytochemistry, and western blot. Additionally, the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results showed that Cimicifuga rhizoma extract significantly reduced the viability of G361 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 200 µg/ml, and the apoptotic process was found to occur via the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 pathways. Besides, the release of cytochrome c and AIF was also detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that Cimicifuga rhizoma extract causes apoptosis of human melanoma cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cimicifuga , Cytochromes c , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratinocytes , Melanoma , Microscopy, Confocal
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has become one of the standard therapeutic modalities for patients with advanced melanoma. Melanoma of the female lower genital tract is a rare and aggressive disease, with poor long-term clinical outcomes. To date, no study evaluated the role of immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma of the lower genital tract. METHODS: Data of women with metastatic melanoma of the lower genital tract were prospectively collected. Survival outcomes over time was assessed using Kaplan-Meier model. RESULTS: Seven cases of metastatic melanoma of the lower genital tract (vulva [n=2], vagina [n=4], and uterine cervix [n=1]) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are reviewed. Two patients had metastatic disease at diagnosis, while 5 patients developed metastatic disease at a mean (standard deviation) time of 9.9 (±3.0) months from primary diagnosis. Four patients received an anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) (ipilimumab) and 3 received an anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) (pembrolizumab [n=2], nivolumab [n=1]) therapy. The response rate to immunotherapy was 28.5%. Patients receiving an anti-PD-1 experienced a better progression-free survival than patients treated with anti-CTLA4 (p=0.01, log-rank test). Although not reaching statistical significance, overall survival was better in patients having an anti-PD-1 therapy in comparison to anti-CTLA4 (p=0.15, log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Results from our series confirm the poor prognosis of women with metastatic melanoma of the lower genital tract, thus supporting the need of exploring new treatment modalities. Further studies are warranted to improve knowledge on the role of immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma of the lower genital tract.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cervix Uteri , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Melanoma , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Vagina
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and clinical efficacy of nivolumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, on patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer. METHODS: Every second week, 18 patients with platinum resistance ovarian cancer received nivolumab until disease progression occurred. We assessed toxicity, disease control rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Radiological response evaluation according to irRECIST was performed every 12th week, while clinical evaluation was done every second week. RESULTS: The disease control rate was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]=19–87) as 8 showed stable disease, 6 showed progressive disease and 4 died before the first radiological response evaluation. The median OS was 30 weeks (95% CI=14–42; range, 3–95), and PFS was 15 weeks (95% CI=13–17). The median follow-up time was 30 weeks (range, 3–123). The rate of grade 2–5 adverse events was 28% (5 out of 18). Two patients (11%) developed grade 2 and 3 adverse events, respectively, while no grade 4 events were observed. One patient died from intestinal perforation, believed to be caused by concomitant bevacizumab rather than nivolumab. CONCLUSION: This study shows few adverse events, and promising clinical efficacy when using nivolumab for ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Cell Death , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunotherapy , Intestinal Perforation , Ovarian Neoplasms , Platinum , Treatment Outcome
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 362-374, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The chemical structure of tubulosine has been known since the mid-1960s. However, little is known about its biological and pharmacological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the novel functions of tubulosine in cancer treatment, specifically in breast cancer. METHODS: An Unpaired (Upd)-induced Drosophila cell line and interleukin (IL)-6-stimulated human breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the biological and pharmacological activities of tubulosine in vitro. To investigate the activities of tubulosine, we performed molecular and cellular experiments such as Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, immunoprecipitation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, and immunofluorescence staining using breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Tubulosine exhibited anticancer activity in IL-6-stimulated human breast cancer cells. Moreover, tubulosine reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation level and transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein at 92E in Upd-induced Drosophila cells. Additionally, tubulosine suppressed IL-6-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling, resulting in decreased viability and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by tubulosine was associated with the blocking of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) binding. CONCLUSION: Tubulosine exhibits anticancer activity through functional inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by targeting IL-6Rα/gp130 binding in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that tubulosine may hold promise for the treatment of inflammation-associated cancers, including breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Drosophila , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Janus Kinase 2 , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Reverse Transcription , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Tyrosine
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 196-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer has become a major public health threat in the current society. Anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used drug in breast cancer chemotherapy. We aimed to investigate the immunogenic death of breast tumor cells caused by DOX, and detect the effects of combination of DOX and a small molecule inhibitor in tumor engrafted mouse model. METHODS: We used 4T1 breast cancer cells to examine the anthracycline DOX-mediated immunogenic death of breast tumor cells by assessing the calreticulin exposure and adenosine triphosphate and high mobility group box 1 release. Using 4T1 tumor cell-engrafted mouse model, we also detected the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in tumor tissues after DOX treatment and further explored whether the specific small molecule IDO1 inhibitor NLG919 combined with DOX, can exhibit better therapeutic effects on breast cancer. RESULTS: DOX induced immunogenic cell death of murine breast cancer cells 4T1 as well as the upregulation of IDO1. We also found that treatment with NLG919 enhanced kynurenine inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. IDO1 inhibition reversed CD8+ T cell suppression mediated by IDO-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Compared to the single agent or control, combination of DOX and NLG919 significantly inhibited the tumor growth, indicating that the 2 drugs exhibit synergistic effect. The combination therapy also increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β, while lowering the expressions of interleukin-12p70 and interferon-γ. CONCLUSION: Compared to single agent therapy, combination of NLG919 with DOX demonstrated better therapeutic effects in 4T1 murine breast tumor model. IDO inhibition by NLG919 enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of DOX in breast cancer, achieving synergistic effect.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Calreticulin , Cell Death , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Kynurenine , Mice , Public Health , Therapeutic Uses , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a fatal and progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system. Until recently, its promising treatment and underlying mechanisms for neuronal death are poorly understood. This study was investigated to identify the molecular mechanism of neuronal death in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of PD. METHODS: The soluble RAGE (sRAGE) secreting Umbilical Cord Blood—derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell (UCB-MSC) was generated by gene editing method using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These cells were transplanted into Corpus Striatum of rotenone-induced PD animal models then behavioral test, morphological analysis, and immunohistochemical experiments were performed to determine the neuronal cell death and recovery of movement. RESULTS: The neuronal cell death in Corpus Striatum and Substantia Nigra was dramatically reduced and the movement was improved after sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC treatment in PD mice by inhibition of RAGE in neuronal cells. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC based therapeutic approach could be a potential treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease including PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Cell Death , Corpus Striatum , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Mice , Microglia , Models, Animal , Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Rage , Substantia Nigra , Umbilical Cord
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 430-439, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of Bifidobacterium infantis on the abnormal immune response to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Eight-week-old BALB/c mice were separated into five groups at random (control, DSS, DSS+B9 [B. infantis 1×10⁹ CFU], DSS+B8 [B. infantis 1×10⁸ CFU], and DSS+B7 [B. infantis 1×10⁷ CFU]). Colitis was induced by 5% DSS ad libitum for 7 days, at which time we assessed weight, the disease activity index (DAI) score, and the histological damage score. The nuclear transcription factor Foxp3 (a marker of Treg cells), cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and related proteins (programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1] and programmed cell death 1 [PD-1]) were detected by an immunohistochemical method and Western blot. RESULTS: B. infantis increased weight, decreased DAI scores and histological damage scores, increased the protein expression of Foxp3 (p<0.05) and cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 in mouse colon tissue (p<0.05), and increased the expression of PD-L1 in the treatment groups relative to that in the DSS group (p<0.05). The effect of B. infantis on Foxp3 and PD-L1 was dose dependent in the treatment groups (p<0.05). PD-L1 was positively correlated with Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-β1. CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of IBD, B. infantis can alleviate intestinal epithelial injury and maintain intestinal immune tolerance and thus may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of immune damage in IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bifidobacterium , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dextrans , Immune Tolerance , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Methods , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Sodium , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transcription Factors , Transforming Growth Factors
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 612-627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763785

ABSTRACT

Aldose reductase (AR) protein, a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family, reduces a wide range of aldehydes and enhances cell survival by inhibition of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known as one of the major pathological factor in ischemia. Since the precise function of AR protein in ischemic injury is fully unclear, we examined the function of AR protein in hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cells and in an animal model of ischemia in this study. Cell permeable Tat-AR protein was produced by fusion of protein transduction domain in Tat for delivery into the cells. Tat-AR protein transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly inhibited cell death and regulated the mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs), Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 under oxidative stress condition. In an ischemic animal model, Tat-AR protein transduced into the brain tissues through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drastically decreased neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 region. These results indicate that transduced Tat-AR protein has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that Tat-AR protein could be used as potential therapeutic agent in ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase , Aldehydes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ischemia , Models, Animal , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Protein Kinases
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