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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 723-735, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949372

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is well known that during hepatic operative procedures, it is often critical that the irrigation is interrupted to avoid possible bleeding, blood transfusions, variable intensities, and their short and long-term consequences. It was believed in the past that the flow interruption should not exceed 20 minutes, which limited the use of this maneuver. However, it has been postulated that ischemia could be maintained for more than 60 minutes in healthy livers. The present paper review includes: 1) A brief introduction to justify the rationale of the review design; 2) Aspects of the pathophysiology of the three stages of the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury; 3) The innate and acquired immunity; 4) Oxidative stress; 5) Apoptosis and autophagy, Some essential biomarkers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, nitric oxide, metalloproteinases); and, finally; 6) Preventive ("cheating") strategies, non-pharmacological and pharmacological options to treat the liver IR injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Liver/blood supply , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 247-261, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886640

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Prosopis juliflora is a shrub that has been used to feed animals and humans. However, a synergistic action of piperidine alkaloids has been suggested to be responsible for neurotoxic damage observed in animals. We investigated the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) and autophagy on the mechanism of cell death induced by a total extract (TAE) of alkaloids and fraction (F32) from P. juliflora leaves composed majoritary of juliprosopine in a model of neuron/glial cell co-culture. We saw that TAE (30 µg/mL) and F32 (7.5 µg/mL) induced reduction in ATP levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential at 12 h exposure. Moreover, TAE and F32 induced caspase-9 activation, nuclear condensation and neuronal death at 16 h exposure. After 4 h, they induced autophagy characterized by decreases of P62 protein level, increase of LC3II expression and increase in number of GFP-LC3 cells. Interestingly, we demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin and vinblastine increased the cell death induced by TAE and autophagy induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin reduced cell death induced by F32 at 24 h. These results indicate that the mechanism neural cell death induced by these alkaloids involves PCD via caspase-9 activation and autophagy, which seems to be an important protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Piperidines/toxicity , Autophagy/physiology , Neuroglia/drug effects , Prosopis/chemistry , Alkaloids/toxicity , Piperidines/isolation & purification , Autophagy/drug effects , Time Factors , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Neuroglia/physiology , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Death/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/physiology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(4): e5106, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951668

ABSTRACT

After a traumatic injury to the central nervous system, the distal stumps of axons undergo Wallerian degeneration (WD), an event that comprises cytoskeleton and myelin breakdown, astrocytic gliosis, and overexpression of proteins that inhibit axonal regrowth. By contrast, injured neuronal cell bodies show features characteristic of attempts to initiate the regenerative process of elongating their axons. The main molecular event that leads to WD is an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration, which activates calpains, calcium-dependent proteases that degrade cytoskeleton proteins. The aim of our study was to investigate whether preventing axonal degeneration would impact the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after crushing the optic nerve. We observed that male Wistar rats (weighing 200-400 g; n=18) treated with an exogenous calpain inhibitor (20 mM) administered via direct application of the inhibitor embedded within the copolymer resin Evlax immediately following optic nerve crush showed a delay in the onset of WD. This delayed onset was characterized by a decrease in the number of degenerated fibers (P<0.05) and an increase in the number of preserved fibers (P<0.05) 4 days after injury. Additionally, most preserved fibers showed a normal G-ratio. These results indicated that calpain inhibition prevented the degeneration of optic nerve fibers, rescuing axons from the process of axonal degeneration. However, analysis of retinal ganglion cell survival demonstrated no difference between the calpain inhibitor- and vehicle-treated groups, suggesting that although the calpain inhibitor prevented axonal degeneration, it had no effect on RGC survival after optic nerve damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Polyvinyls/pharmacology , Retinal Ganglion Cells/drug effects , Axons/drug effects , Wallerian Degeneration/drug therapy , Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Optic Nerve Injuries/drug therapy , Axons/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Death/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Optic Nerve Injuries/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nerve Crush
4.
Salud colect ; 11(1): 23-34, ene.-mar. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746682

ABSTRACT

Un tercio de la población mundial carece de acceso a los medicamentos y la situación es peor en los países pobres, en los que hasta un 50% de la población carece de acceso. El fracaso de los sistemas actuales de incentivos, basados en la propiedad intelectual, para ofrecer los productos farmacéuticos necesarios, especialmente en los países del sur, llama a la acción. Los problemas relacionados con el acceso a medicamentos no pueden ser resueltos tan solo a través de mejoras o adaptaciones de los modelos de incentivos existentes. El modelo del sistema de propiedad intelectual no ofrece la innovación necesaria para los países en desarrollo, se necesitan nuevos mecanismos que de forma simultánea y eficaz promuevan la innovación y el acceso a los medicamentos. Un tratado internacional vinculante sobre investigación y desarrollo, que se negocie bajo los auspicios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, puede proporcionar el marco adecuado para garantizar el establecimiento de prioridades, la coordinación y la financiación sostenible de los medicamentos a precios asequibles para los países en desarrollo.


One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Chromatin/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Chromatin/genetics , DNA Repair , Enzyme Activation , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(2): 213-222, feb. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742573

ABSTRACT

Background: The Quality of life Bipolar Disorder (QoL.BD) Questionnaire specifically measures quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder. Aim: To adapt a version translated into Spanish of the questionnaire and assess its validity in Chilean patients. Material and Methods: The QoL. BD was adapted to the Chilean population through the back-translation method and then administered to 32 adult patients with a bipolar disorder and 31 subjects without the disease, both groups with similar socioeconomic status. To confirm the diagnosis, the International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Young (YMRS) and Hamilton (HAM-D) scales were applied. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36v.2 survey. We determined internal consistency, reliability, convergent validity, the cut-off point, and the sensibility and specificity of the scale. Results: The Chilean version of the Questionnaire [QoL. BD-CL] had a high reliability (α = 0.95) and a high validity in reference to external criteria (correlation coefficients with SF-36 ranging from 0.453 and 0.819; p < 0.01). A cut-off point of 170, with sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 80% was determined. Conclusions: QoL.BD-CL has adequate psychometric properties, as well as an adequate sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between negative and positive perceptions of life quality in Chilean patients with bipolar disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Cell Death/genetics , Cell Death/physiology , DNA Damage/genetics , DNA Damage/physiology , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Genotype , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Mice, Knockout , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/deficiency , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 55-62, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742887

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Complete denervation of transplanted heart exerts protective effect against postoperative atrial fibrillation; various degrees of autonomic denervation appear also after transection of ascending aorta during surgery for aortic aneurysm. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate if the level of cardiac denervation obtained by resection of ascending aorta could exert any effect on postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical records of 67 patients submitted to graft replacement of ascending aorta (group A) and 132 with aortic valve replacement (group B); all episodes of postoperative atrial fibrillation occurred during the 1-month follow-up have been reported. Heart Rate Variability parameters were obtained from a 24-h Holter recording; clinical, echocardiographic and treatment data were also evaluated. Results: Overall, 45% of patients (group A 43%, group B 46%) presented at least one episode of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Older age (but not gender, abnormal glucose tolerance, ejection fraction, left atrial diameter) was correlated with incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Only among a subgroup of patients with aortic transection and signs of greater autonomic derangement (heart rate variability parameters below the median and mean heart rate over the 75th percentile), possibly indicating more profound autonomic denervation, a lower incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was observed (22% vs. 54%). Conclusion: Transection of ascending aorta for repair of an aortic aneurysm did not confer any significant protective effect from postoperative atrial fibrillation in comparison to patients with intact ascending aorta. It could be speculated that a limited and heterogeneous cardiac denervation was produced by the intervention, creating an eletrophysiological substrate for the high incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation observed. .


Introdução: Denervação completa do coração transplantado exerce efeito protetor contra a fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório; vários graus de denervação autonômica aparecem também após a transecção da aorta ascendente durante a cirurgia de aneurisma da aorta. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o nível de denervação cardíaca obtida por ressecção da aorta ascendente poderia exercer algum efeito sobre a incidência de fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários de 67 pacientes submetidos a enxerto de substituição de aorta torácica (grupo A) e 132 com a substituição da valva aórtica (grupo B). Foram relatados todos os episódios de fibrilação atrial pós-operatória ocorridos durante 1 mês de seguimento. Parâmetros de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca foram obtidos a partir de 24 h de gravação do Holter; dados clínicos, ecocardiográficos e de tratamento também foram avaliados. Resultados: No geral, 45% dos pacientes (grupo A 43%, grupo B 46%) apresentaram pelo menos um episódio de fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório. Idade mais avançada (mas não gênero, tolerância à glicose anormal, fração de ejeção, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo) foi correlacionada com a incidência de fibrilação atrial pós-operatória. Apenas em um subgrupo de pacientes com transecção aórtica e sinais de maior desarranjo autonômico (parâmetros de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca abaixo da mediana e a média de frequência cardíaca acima do percentil 75), indicando possivelmente denervação autonômica mais profunda, foi observada menor incidência de fibrilação atrial pós-operatória (22% vs. 54%). Conclusão: Transecção da aorta ascendente para correção de um aneurisma da aorta não confere qualquer efeito protetor significativo de fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório em comparação com pacientes com aorta ascendente intacta. Pode-se especular que uma denervação cardíaca limitada e heterogênea foi produzida pela ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Brain/physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/physiology , Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/antagonists & inhibitors , Stroke/physiopathology , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/physiology , Blotting, Northern , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Glutamic Acid/drug effects , Glutamic Acid/physiology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/physiology , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/drug effects
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 49-54, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742891

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective: To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results: We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion: The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. .


Introdução: O infarto do miocárdio perioperatório afeta negativamente o prognóstico dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio e seu diagnóstico esbarra em inúmeras dificuldades, pois a fisiopatologia é diferente da tradicional instabilidade aterosclerótica e o quadro clínico de difícil caracterização. Objetivo: Identificar a frequência de infarto do miocárdio perioperatório e seu desfecho em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva realizada em hospital terciário especializado em cardiologia, de 1 de maio de 2011 a 30 de abril de 2012, que incluiu todos os prontuários contendo registros de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Para confirmação diagnóstica do infarto do miocárdio perioperatório, foram utilizados os critérios da Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Resultados: Foram analisados 116 casos. Foi diagnosticado infarto do miocárdio perioperatório em 28 pacientes (24,1%). Número de enxertos e utilização e tempo de circulação extracorpórea foram fatores associados a este diagnóstico e a média de idade foi significativamente mais elevada neste grupo. O critério diagnóstico elevação de troponina I foi positivo em 99,1% dos casos, independentemente do diagnóstico de infarto do miocárdio perioperatório. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre tempo de internação hospitalar e em unidade de terapia intensiva nos grupos com e sem esta complicação, porém pacientes com infarto do miocárdio perioperatório evoluíram com pior função ventricular esquerda e mais casos de óbito. Conclusão: A frequência de infarto do miocárdio perioperatório encontrada neste trabalho foi considerada alta e como consequência do mesmo observou-se média mais elevada de troponina I, mais casos de piora da função ventricular esquerda e óbito. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Cell Death/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Neurons/physiology , Oxygen/metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , /metabolism , /metabolism , Cerebellum/cytology , Mice, Knockout , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neurons/cytology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism
9.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 30(2): 262-267, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-680993

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es un trastorno neurológico que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población mundial. Estudios realizados en humanos y animales de experimentación sugieren que mediadores de inflamación, como las citocinas, participan en la fisiopatología de la epilepsia; entre ellos, la interleucina-1beta (IL-1ß) podría participar en la susceptibilidad para generar crisis convulsivas así como en la muerte neuronal causada por las convulsiones, aunque algunos hallazgos son contradictorios. En este documento se revisa el conocimiento actual que establece una relación entre la IL-1ß, las crisis convulsivas y la muerte neuronal.


Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting almost 1% of the world population. Experimental human and animal studies suggest that inflammation mediators, like cytokines, participate in the physiopathology of epilepsy. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) could influence susceptibility for seizures, as well as neuronal death caused by seizures, although some findings are contradictory. This document reviews the current knowledge establishing a connection between IL-1ß, seizures and neuronal death.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Seizures/etiology , Cell Death/physiology
10.
Rev. salud bosque ; 2(1): 25-33, 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779425

ABSTRACT

Giardia intestinalis es considerado uno de los eucariotas más antiguos y su poca complejidad representa una valiosa oportunidad para desentrañar los misterios de procesos vitales de eucariotas más complejos. Esta característica única de G. intestinalis y el hecho de que su genoma esté completamente secuenciado y disponible, y que todo su ciclo de vida puede ser reproducido in vitro, hacen de este parásito un modelo ideal para estudiar mecanismos celulares, entre ellos, la muerte celular programada. Desde el punto de vista morfológico y molecular, la apoptosis es uno de los tipos más complejos de muerte celular programada, la cual es un proceso normal durante el desarrollo celular, y tiene un papel esencial en el control de la proliferación celular y en la respuesta a retos inmunológicos o a daños celulares. Recientemente, se ha reportado que en protozoos, entre ellos Giardia, podría ocurrir un tipo de muerte celular programada similar a la apoptosis y los resultados de nuestros laboratorios apoyan esta hipótesis; sin embargo, no se han identificado hasta el momento las moléculas relacionadas con los procesos de apoptosis en estos parásitos. La presente revisión abarca una descripción de la morfología y estructura de las formas de vida de G. intestinalis, de su ciclo biológico, de la parasitosis que causa y de las estrategias quimioterapéuticas para su tratamiento. Asimismo, se hace un repaso de lo que hasta ahora se conoce sobre apoptosis en protozoarios, y específicamente en G. intestinalis, y se describen algunos resultados de nuestro grupo que apoyan la existencia de muerte celular programada en este parásito.


Giardia intestinalis is an early-branching eukaryote and its low complexity represents a valuable opportunity to unravel the mysteries of essential processes in more complex eukaryotes. In addition, the genome of G. intestinalis is completely sequenced and its entire life cycle can be reproduced in vitro. All these characteristics make of Giardia an ideal model for studying cellular mechanisms, such as programmed cell death. Apoptosis is one of the most complex types of programmed cell death and plays an essential role during cell development, cell proliferation and immune response. Recently it has been reported that in Giardia can take place events that resemble apoptosis and although our results support this hypothesis, molecules involved in this process have not yet been identified. This review includes a description of the morphology and structure of G. intestinalis, its life cycle, the disease that causes and the strategies for its treatment. In addition, we review what is known about apoptosis in protozoa, and specifically in G. intestinalis, and describe some results from our group supporting the existence of apoptosis-like programmed cell death in this parasite.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Giardiasis/parasitology , Eukaryotic Cells/cytology , Cell Death/physiology , Trophozoites/parasitology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(11): 1088-1096, Nov. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604278

ABSTRACT

The transient receptor potential channels family (TRP channels) is a relatively new group of cation channels that modulate a large range of physiological mechanisms. In the nervous system, the functions of TRP channels have been associated with thermosensation, pain transduction, neurotransmitter release, and redox signaling, among others. However, they have also been extensively correlated with the pathogenesis of several innate and acquired diseases. On the other hand, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have also been associated with several processes that seem to counterbalance or to contribute to the function of several TRPs. In this short review, we discuss some of the remarkable new findings in this field. We also review the possible roles played by n-3 fatty acids in cell signaling that can both control or be controlled by TRP channels in neurodegenerative processes, as well as both the direct and indirect actions of n-3 fatty acids on TRP channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , /physiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Intracellular Space/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(4): 699-706, Aug. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596840

ABSTRACT

This article briefly describes the already known clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms underlying sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, namely excitoxicity, oxidative stress, protein damage, inflammation, genetic abnormalities and neuronal death. Thereafter, it puts forward the hypothesis that astrocytes may be the cells which serve as targets for the harmful action of a still unknown environmental agent, while neuronal death may be a secondary event following the initial insult to glial cells. The article also suggests that an emergent virus or a misfolded infectious protein might be potential candidates to accomplish this task.


El artículo presente describe, brevemente, las características clínicas y los mecanismos patogénicos de la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica esporádica, tales como la excitotoxicidad, el stress oxidativo, el daño proteico, la inflamación, las anormalidades genéticas y la muerte neuronal. Luego de ello, sugiere la posibilidad hipotética de que los astrocitos podrían ser el blanco primario de la acción de una agente ambiental, externo, aún desconocido, y que la muerte neuronal aconteciera secundariamente a ese daño astrocitario inicial. El artículo concluye discutiendo la posibilidad de que un virus ambiental o endógeno o una proteína mal plegada, que adquiriera características de infectividad, puedan ser la causa de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/etiology , Astrocytes/pathology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/physiopathology , Cell Death/physiology , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Neurons/physiology , Neurotoxins/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135346

ABSTRACT

Ischaemic stroke is a disorder involving multiple mechanisms of injury progression including activation of glutamate receptors, release of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), free oxygen radicals and proteases. Presently, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is the only drug approved for the management of acute ischaemic stroke. This drug, however, is associated with limitations like narrow therapeutic window and increased risk of intracranial haemorrhage. A large number of therapeutic agents have been tested including N-methly-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, calcium channel blockers and antioxidants for management of stroke, but none has provided significant neuroprotection in clinical trials. Therefore, searching for other potentially effective drugs for ischaemic stroke management becomes important. Immunosuppressive agents with their wide array of mechanisms have potential as neuroprotectants. Corticosteroids, immunophilin ligands, mycophenolate mofetil and minocycline have shown protective effect on neurons by their direct actions or attenuating toxic effects of mediators of inflammation. This review focuses on the current status of corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, FK506, rapamycin, mycophenolate mofetil and minocycline in the experimental models of cerebral ischaemia.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Cell Death/physiology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nerve Degeneration/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Steroids/therapeutic use , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/pathology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 25(4): 328-331, July-Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-553238

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the proliferation and neuronal death in brain tissue heterotopia in the lung in an experimental model during both fetal and neonatal periods. METHODS: Twenty four pregnant female Swiss mice were used to induce brain tissue heterotopia on the 15th gestational day. Briefly, the brain of one fetus of each dam was extracted, disaggregated and injected into the right hemithorax of siblings. Six of these fetuses with pulmonary brain tissue implantation (PBI) were collected on the 18th gestational day (group E18) and six other on the 8th postnatal day (group P8). Immunohistochemical staining for PCNA and Bcl2 were used to assess proliferation and cell death. RESULTS: PCNA Labelling Index (LI) in heterotopic brain tissue was greater in fetal than postnatal period (E18 > P8) (p<0.05) and the immunostaining with Bcl2 antibody did not show difference. CONCLUSION: Cell proliferation is maintained in brain tissue heterotopia, although apoptosis is also observed.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a proliferação e morte neuronal na heterotopia encefálica pulmonar em modelo experimental durante o período fetal e neonatal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos Swiss fêmeas prenhes para induzir a heterotopia encefálica no pulmão. O tecido encefálico de um feto de cada fêmea prenha foi removido, picotado e injetado no pulmão dos irmãos. Seis fetos com Implantação Encefálica Pulmonar (IEP) foram coletados no 18º dia gestacional (grupo E18) e seis outros fetos no 8º dia pós-natal (grupo P8). Foi realizada a reação Imuno-histoquímica para PCNA e Bcl2 para analisar a proliferação e morte celular. RESULTADOS: O índice de marcação (IM) para PCNA era maior no período fetal quando comparado com o período pós-natal (E8 > P18) (p<0,05) e a imunomarcação para o anticorpo Bcl2 não apresentou diferença. CONCLUSÃO: A proliferação celular foi mantida no tecido heterotópico encefálico, embora a apoptose também foi observada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Pregnancy , Brain/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Cell Death/physiology , Choristoma/pathology , Fetus/pathology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Brain Tissue Transplantation , Choristoma/surgery , Disease Models, Animal
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 55(1): 75-81, 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-511069

ABSTRACT

O traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) é a principal causa de morte e sequela em crianças e adultos jovens nos países industrializados ocidentais. A lesão encefálica definitiva que se estabelece após o TCE é o resultado de mecanismos fisiopatológicos que se iniciam com o acidente e estendem-se por dias ou semanas. As lesões encefálicas no TCE podem ser classificadas em difusas e focais. Esses dois mecanismos costumam associar-se em um mesmo paciente, embora, geralmente exista o predomínio de um tipo. O conhecimento dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos da lesão cerebral no traumatismo cranioencefálico é fundamental para o estabelecimento de medidas terapêuticas clínicas e cirúrgicas. Neste artigo, realizamos uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre os princípios fisiopatológicos da lesão cerebral no paciente com traumatismo cranioencefálico.


Traumatic brain injury is the main cause of death and disability in children and adults in Western Countries. The definitive brain injury is a consequence of pathophysiological mechanisms that begin at the moment of an accident and may extend for days or weeks. Traumatic brain injury may be classified as diffuse or focal. These two mechanisms are commonly associated in a patient, however one is generally predominant. Therefore knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of brain injury in head trauma is important to establish the therapeutic, clinical and surgical measures. In this paper the authors present a critical review of the literature on the pathophysiological principles of traumatic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Injuries/physiopathology , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology
16.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 121(3): 28-39, sept. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518417

ABSTRACT

La criocirugía, modalidad efectiva de tratamiento médico, es una técnica quirúrgica que emplea la congelación a temperaturas criogénicas para destruir tejidos biológicos no deseados. El objetivo de la criocirugía es congelar un determinado volumen tisular (para maximizar la destrucción celular) en una región predefinida y provocar necrosis sin daño significativo del tejido sano periférico. Las bases de la criocirugía son: "una rápida congelación, una lenta y completa descongelación, y repetición de los ciclos de congelación-descongelación". Para explicar el daño en una criolesión se han propuesto muchos mecanismos de injuria inducidos por la congelación. Los mecanismos son: (a) lesión celular directa, (b) lesión vascular, (c) apoptosis y (d) lesión inmunológica. La lesión que resulta de la criocirugía es compleja; por lo tanto, para controlar el resultado de este procedimiento es necesario comprender los mecanismos de daño en criocirugía.


Cryosurgery, an effective medical treatment modality, is a surgical technique that employs freezing at cryogenic temperatures to destroy undesirable biological tissue. The goal of cryosurgery is to freeze a specified volume of tissue (to maximize cell destruction) within a predefined target region, resulting in necrosis without significant damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. Factors that facilitate this are: rapid freezing, slow and complete thawing, and repetition of the freeze-thaw cycle. To explain the injury within a cryolesion, many freezing induced injury mechanisms have been proposed. These mechanisms are 1) direct cell injury, 2) vascular injury, 3) cellular apoptosis, and 4) immunologic injury. The injury that results from cryosurgery is complex; therefore, to control the outcome of cryosurgery it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of damage in cryosurgery.


Subject(s)
Cryosurgery/adverse effects , Cryosurgery/methods , Soft Tissue Injuries/immunology , Freezing , Microcirculation/physiopathology , Cell Death/physiology , Necrosis/immunology , Necrosis/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Blood Vessels/injuries
18.
J. bras. med ; 95(1): 38-44, jul. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-530504

ABSTRACT

Após breve consideração sobre a origem da vida, os autores questionaram o porquê de se envelhecer e evoluir para o fim. A morte celular programada (apoptose) é discutida, com seu substrato bioquímico (proteases, família, BCL-2, mediadores-chaves na ativação das caspases, inibidores da apoptose). Expõem 18 teorias que procuram explicar o envelhecimento. Relatam, de forma objetiva, as conseqüências da ação do tempo sobre os diversos órgãos e sistemas. Concluem questionando a relação de causalidade entre as teorias expostas e os achados físicos observados no processo de envelhecimento.


After some consideration on the origin of life, the authors question the reason to age and to go to an end. The programmed cellular death (apoptosis) is discussed with its biochemical substratum (proteases, BCL-2 family, key-mediators in the activation of caspases, inhibitors of apoptosis). Eighteen theories that try to explain aging are presented. The consequences of the actin of time on the variios organs and systems will be objectivelly reported. The authors conclude by questioning the relation of causality between the theories displayed and the physical findings observed in the aging process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Aging/physiology , Aging/genetics , Aging/psychology , Apoptosis/physiology , Caspases/antagonists & inhibitors , Caspases/physiology , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Cell Survival/physiology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(5): 403-410, May 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484433

ABSTRACT

Intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid (KA) induces synaptic release of neurotrophins, mainly brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which contributes to the acute neuronal excitation produced by the toxin. Two protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and K252a, were administered intracerebroventricularly, in a single dose, to attenuate neurotrophin signaling during the acute effects of KA, and their role in epileptogenesis was evaluated in adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. The latency for the first Racine stage V seizure was 90 ± 8 min in saline controls (N = 4) which increased to 369 ± 71 and 322 ± 63 min in animals receiving herbimycin A (1.74 nmol, N = 4) and K252a (10 pmol, N = 4), respectively. Behavioral alterations were accompanied by diminished duration of EEG paroxysms in herbimycin A- and K252a-treated animals. Notwithstanding the reduction in seizure severity, cell death (60-90 percent of cell loss in KA-treated animals) in limbic regions was unchanged by herbimycin A and K252a. However, aberrant mossy fiber sprouting was significantly reduced in the ipsilateral dorsal hippocampus of K252a-treated animals. In this model of temporal lobe epilepsy, both protein kinase inhibitors diminished the acute epileptic activity triggered by KA and the ensuing morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus without diminishing cell loss. Our current data indicating that K252a, but not herbimycin, has an influence over KA-induced mossy fiber sprouting further suggest that protein tyrosine kinase receptors are not the only factors which control this plasticity. Further experiments are necessary to elucidate the exact signaling systems associated with this K252a effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Indole Alkaloids/pharmacology , Kainic Acid/antagonists & inhibitors , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal/drug effects , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Analysis of Variance , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Death/physiology , Electroencephalography , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/chemically induced , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/pathology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/pharmacology , Kainic Acid/pharmacology , Limbic System/cytology , Limbic System/drug effects , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal/pathology , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal/physiopathology , Nerve Growth Factors , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Seizures/physiopathology
20.
J Biosci ; 2007 Apr; 32(3): 585-93
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110749

ABSTRACT

Heat shock response is associated with the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) which is strictly regulated by different members of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). We previously reported that a rat histiocytoma, BC-8 failed to synthesize Hsps when subjected to typical heat shock conditions (42 degrees C, 60 min). The lack of Hsp synthesis in these cells was due to a failure in HSF1 DNA binding activity. In the present study we report that BC-8 tumor cells when subjected to heat shock at higher temperature (43 degrees C, 60 min) or incubation for longer time at 42 degrees C, exhibited necrosis characteristics; however,under mild heat shock (42 degrees C, 30 min) conditions cells showed activation of autophagy. Mild heat shock treatment induced proteolysis of HSF1, and under similar conditions we observed an increase in HSF2 expression followed by its enhanced DNA binding activity. Inhibiting HSF1 proteolysis by reversible proteasome inhibition failed to inhibit heat shock induced autophagy. Compromising HSF2 expression but not HSF1 resulted in the inhibition of autophagy, suggesting HSF2 dependent activation of autophagy. We are reporting for the first time that HSF2 is heat inducible and functions in heat shock induced autophagic cell death in BC-8 tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Histiocytoma/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Rats , Transcription Factors/genetics
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